National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for integrated nox so2

  1. Climate Co-benefits of Tighter SO2 and NOx Regulations in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Kyung-Min

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution has been recognized as a significant problem in China. In its Twelfth Five Year Plan (FYP), China proposes to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions significantly, and here we investigate the cost of achieving those ...

  2. Performance Model of the Fluidized Bed Copper Oxide Process for SO2/NOx Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    technology for controlling SO2 and NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. The development strategies for coal-fired power plants. Details of the IECM's copper oxide process, power plant air preheater via the power plant air preheater. The net chemical reactions occurring in the absorber are: CuO (s

  3. Simultaneous SO2, SO3 and NOx removal by the EBA Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirano, S.; Aoki, S.; Izutsu, M.; Yuki, Y.

    1999-07-01

    The system for electron beam flue gas treatment, the EBA (Electron Beam with Ammonia) Process is an innovative, dry, air pollution control technology that, by ammonia injection and electron beam irradiation, can efficiently remove sulfur oxides, (SOx, i.e., SO2 and SO3), from partially humidified flue gas. This is accompanied by simultaneous nitrogen oxides, (NOx), emission reduction in an amount that is determined, optionally, by site-specific system design. The process operation converts these pollutants as well as gasborne hydrogen chloride into a dry by-product solids consisting principally of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and ammonium chloride that can be used, worldwide, as a plant nutrient stock in large-scale agriculture. Commercial application of the Process has now been achieved, utilizing engineering data gained over many years of experience in operation of pilot plant facilities (including a process development unit that was field installed in the 1980s under sponsorship by US DOE at a coal-fired powerplant of Indianapolis Power and Light Company). With the co-operation of the Chinese government, EBARA Corporation has in 1997 completed the first commercial EBA Process installation, which is sited at the coal-fired Chengdu Power Station in China. This retrofit facility as a whole in addition to its performance in this high-sulfur bituminous coal service, including the targeted SOx removal efficiency, incidental NOx abatement and the usability of the by-product, were assessed and fully accepted contractually by a diversely structured, Examination Committee established by Chinese government authorities and assisted by an Expert Group. Criteria and considerations of the Chinese officials, in evaluating adequacy of the technology for further commercial application in China, all assessed positively, encompassed design, installation, operation, performance, reliability, environmental impact, cost effectiveness and by-product utilization/marketing. To illustrate attractive process economics for SOx removal in high-sulfur service with only incidental NOx removal, i.e. FGD (flue gas desulfurization) only, evaluation of cost-effectiveness of the Chengdu facility (at its moderate design SO2 removal efficiency) is presented.

  4. Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

  5. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  6. A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Y J; Dong, X; Feng, G Y; Fu, S; Gao, H; Hong, Y; Li, G; Li, Y X; Shang, L; Sheng, L S; Tian, Y C; Wang, X Q; Wang, Y; Wei, W; Zhang, Y W; Zhou, H J

    2001-01-01

    A Low Cost and High Efficient Facility for Removal of $\\SO_{2}$ and $\\NO_{x}$ in the Flue Gas from Coal Fire Power Plant

  7. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. and Johnson-Matthey 2004deerli.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Desulfurization Fuel Filter...

  8. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  9. Novel fluidized bed reactor for integrated NOx adsorption-reduction with hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terris T. Yang; Hsiaotao T. Bi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to avoid the negative impact of excessive oxygen in the combustion flue gases on the selectivity of most hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR) catalysts, an integrated NOx adsorption-reduction process has been proposed in this study for the treatment of flue gases under lean burn conditions by decoupling the adsorption and reduction into two different zones. The hypothesis has been validated in a novel internal circulating fluidized bed (ICFB) reactor using Fe/ZSM-5 as the catalyst and propylene as the reducing agent. Effects of propylene to the NOx molar ratio, flue gas oxygen concentration, and gas velocity on NOx conversion were studied using simulated flue gases. The results showed that increasing the ratio of HC:NO improved the reduction performance of Fe/ZSM-5 in the ICFB reactor. NOx conversion decreased with an increasing flue gas flow velocity in the annulus U{sub A} but increased with an increasing reductant gas flow velocity in the draft tube U{sub D}. The NOx adsorption ratio decreased with increasing U{sub A}. In most cases, NOx conversion was higher than the adsorption ratio due to the relatively poor adsorption performance of the catalyst. Fe/ZSM-5 showed a promising reduction performance and a strong inhibiting ability on the negative impact of excessive O{sub 2} in the ICFB reactor, proving that such an ICFB reactor possessed the ability to overcome the negative impact of excessive O{sub 2} in the flue gas using Fe/ZSM-5 as the deNOx catalyst. 22 refs., 10 figs.

  10. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  11. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  12. A Methodology for Calculating Integrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs Across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    . Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University System A METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATING INTEGRATED NOx EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROM ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND RENEWABLE ENERGY (EE/RE) PROGRAMS... reductions for municipally owned utilities and electric cooperatives reporting to SECO. INTEGRATED NOx SAVINGS Energy Systems Laboratory 2012 p. 5 IN 2005 TCEQ INITIATED A PROGRAM TO DETERMINE INTEGRATED EMISSIONS SAVINGS (from 2005 to 2020) TO REPORT...

  13. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Preliminary Report: Integrated Nox Emisions Savings From EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.S.; Yazdani, B.; Baltazar, J. C.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Do, S. L.; Zilbertshtein, G.; Claridge, D.

    2014-01-01

    -09-01 ENERGY EFFICIENCY/RENEWABLE ENERGY IMPACT IN THE TEXAS EMISSIONS REDUCTION PLAN (TERP) PRELIMINARY REPORT: INTEGRATED NOX EMISSIONS SAVINGS FROM EE/RE PROGRAMS STATEWIDE Annual Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality January... Laboratory (ESL) at the Texas Engineering Experiment Station of the Texas A&M University System is pleased to provide this preliminary report, “Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP): Integrated NOx Emissions...

  14. Procedure to Calculate NOx Reductions Using the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (E-Grid) Spreadsheet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Verdict, M.; Turner, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    In this report a detailed description of the procedure to calculate NOx reductions from energy savings due to the 2000 IECC code implementation in single family residences using the United States Environmental Protect Agency's (USEPA's) Emissions...

  15. THE SO2 ALLOWANCE TRADING SYSTEM: THE IRONIC HISTORY OF A GRAND POLICY EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    these innovations has been the European Union Emission Trading System, a carbon dioxide (CO2) cap-and-trade system. In the United States, flue gas emissions from coal-fired, electric generating plants were the primary source of SO2 emissions and a major source of NOx emissions. In response to this and other concerns, the U

  16. Flexible NOx Abatement from Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Integrated Global System Model. Through this integrated model, the Program seeks to: discover new quality management strategies for NOx emissions from electric generating units. Results from a modelFlexible NOx Abatement from Power Plants in the Eastern United States* Lin Sun, Mort Webster, Gary

  17. EA-1472: Commercial Demonstration fo the Low Nox Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Holcolm Station, Sunflower Electric Power Corporation Finnety County, Kansas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), to analyze the potential impacts of the commercial application of the Low-NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction at Sunflower’s Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station), located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The Holcomb Station would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NOx control technologies.

  18. Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Controlling Emissions of SOx and NOx from power plants By: Ben Bernardo #12;Main Control2 2 H2S + SO2 2 H2O + 3 S The elemental sulfur is then sold and the emissions of SO2 and H2S 2 CaSO3 + CO2 + H2O CaCO3 + SO2 CaSO3 + CO2 #12;Main Control Technologies for NOx Combustion

  19. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-04-23

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 January through 31 March 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s (NYSEG) Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is planned at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the second quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgement.

  20. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO2 Removal Testing", for the time period 1 April through 30 June 1997. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO2 removal efficiency. The upgrades being evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing is being conducted at the Big Bend Station. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the third quarter of calendar year 1997. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  1. Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber AT Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Enhanced High Temperature...

  2. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

  3. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2005-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  4. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  5. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP), Preliminary Report: Integrated NOx Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Degelman, L.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; McKelvey, K.; Montgomery, C.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Gilman, D.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.

    2008-08-29

    should include the cumulative savings estimates from all projects projected through 2020 for both the annual and Ozone Season Day (OSD) NOx reductions. The NOx emissions reduction from all these programs were calculated using estimated emissions factors...

  6. Update on microkinetic modeling of lean NOx trap chemistry.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Richard S.; Daw, C. Stuart (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Pihl, Josh A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Choi, Jae-Soon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Chakravarthy, V, Kalyana (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-04-01

    Our previously developed microkinetic model for lean NOx trap (LNT) storage and regeneration has been updated to address some longstanding issues, in particular the formation of N2O during the regeneration phase at low temperatures. To this finalized mechanism has been added a relatively simple (12-step) scheme that accounts semi-quantitatively for the main features observed during sulfation and desulfation experiments, namely (a) the essentially complete trapping of SO2 at normal LNT operating temperatures, (b) the plug-like sulfation of both barium oxide (NOx storage) and cerium oxide (oxygen storage) sites, (c) the degradation of NOx storage behavior arising from sulfation, (d) the evolution of H2S and SO2 during high temperature desulfation (temperature programmed reduction) under H2, and (e) the complete restoration of NOx storage capacity achievable through the chosen desulfation procedure.

  7. A thermodynamic analysis of the SO2/H2SO4 system in SO2-depolarized electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Available online 28 June 2009 Keywords: Hybrid sulfur Hydrogen SO2-depolarized Electrolyzer Aspen Plus Aspen on proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzers to take advantage of their relatively compact size and short current path. The critical component of such an SO2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) is the membrane

  8. Low NOx combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi; Hisashi (Putnam Valley, NY), Bool, III; Lawrence E. (Aurora, NY)

    2007-06-05

    Combustion of hydrocarbon liquids and solids is achieved with less formation of NOx by feeding a small amount of oxygen into the fuel stream.

  9. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Richard G. Herman

    2004-12-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 to December 30, 2004 time period.

  10. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Song Wu; Richard G. Herman

    2004-06-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the April 1 to June 30, 2004 time period.

  11. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer

    2005-09-30

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DEFC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia. This report describes the work performed during the July 1 to September 30, 2005 time period.

  12. Ceramatec NOx Sensor and NOx Catalyst Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Active Soot Filter Regeneration...

  13. High-surface-area hydrated lime for SO2 control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Moran, D.L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States). Minerals Engineering Section)

    1993-03-01

    Since 1986, the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), has been developing a process to produce high-surface-area hydrated lime (HSAHL) with more activity for adsorbing SO2 than commercially available hydrated lime. HSAHL prepared by the ISGS method as considerably higher surface area and porosity, and smaller mean particle diameter and crystallite size than commercial hydrated lime. The process has been optimized in a batch, bench-scale reactor and has been scaled-up to a 20--100 lb/hr process optimization unit (POU). Experiments have been conducted to optimize the ISGS hydration process and identify key parameters influencing hydrate properties for SO2 capture (surface area, porosity, particle size, and crystallite size). The known how is available to tailor properties of hydrated limes for specific SO2 removal applications. Pilot-scale tests conducted with the HSAHL under conditions typical of burning high-sulfur coals have achieved up to 90% SO2 capture in various DSI systems. The removal results are enough to bring most high-sulfur coals into compliance with acid rain legislation goals for the year 2000. The focus of the POU program is to generate critical engineering data necessary for the private sector to scale-up the process to a commercial level and provide estimates of the optimal cost of construction and operation of a commercial plant. ISGS is currently participating in a clean coal technology program (CCT-1) by providing 50 tons of HSAHL for a demonstration test at Illinois Power's Hennepin station in January 1993.

  14. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  15. Asia-Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (LEDS). Key Outputs Emissions estimates (CO2, SO2, NOx), total primary energy supply, electricity generation by fuel-type, sector-wise energy consumption, economic output...

  16. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing firing system technologies do not provide a means to meet current or anticipated regulations absent the use of an SCR. The DOE/ALSTOM program performed large pilot scale combustion testing in ALSTOM's Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut. During this work, the near-field combustion environment was optimized to maximize NOx reduction while minimizing the impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down under globally reducing conditions. Initially, ALSTOM utilized computational fluid dynamic modeling to evaluate a series of burner and/or near field stoichiometry controls in order to screen promising design concepts in advance of the large pilot scale testing. The third and final test, to be executed, will utilize several variants of the best nozzle tip configuration and compare performance with 3 different coals. The fuels to be tested will cover a wide range of coals commonly fired at US utilities. The completion of this work will provide sufficient data to allow ALSTOM to design, construct, and demonstrate a commercial version of an enhanced combustion low NOx pulverized coal burner. A preliminary cost/performance analysis of the developed enhanced combustion low NOx burner applied to ALSTOM's state-of-the-art TFS 2000 firing system was performed to show that the burner enhancements is a cost effective means to reduce NOx.

  17. CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals CLEERS Activities: Diesel Soot Filter Characterization & NOx Control Fundamentals 2009 DOE Hydrogen...

  18. Argus NOx/SCR report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-05-15

    This document reports on NOx units at more than 350 coal and gas-fired power plants in the USA. Formerly known as the Argus SCR Report, the data are now expanded to include other forms of NOx control, including selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), low NOx burners and overfire air.

  19. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.

  20. SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    SO2 emissions and lifetimes: Estimates from inverse modeling using in situ and global, spacebased 18 March 2011. [1] Topdown constraints on global sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions are inferred through of GEOSChem for inversion of SO2 columns to emissions. The seasonal mean SO2 lifetime calculated with the GEOS

  1. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to be the most challenging of the three coals, with the Western bituminous coal predicted to beh

  2. Uptake of SO2 to Aqueous Formaldehyde Surfaces Stephanie T. Ota and Geraldine L. Richmond*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Uptake of SO2 to Aqueous Formaldehyde Surfaces Stephanie T. Ota and Geraldine L. Richmond of the vapor/water interface during uptake of SO2 to aqueous formaldehyde solutions, elucidating the role between SO2 and formaldehyde, hydroxymethanesulfonate, shows a surface affinity that is enhanced

  3. Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation Measurement and Characterization of NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National...

  4. Interpreting Remote Sensing NOx Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    Interpreting Remote Sensing NOx Measurements Robert Slott, Consultant, Donald Stedman and Saj tailpipe emissions (HC, CO, NOx) are changing with time hUse remote sensing hMeasurements in at least 4 of the year at each location hUniform QC/QA and data reporting Paper # 2001-01-3640 #12;Remote Sensing

  5. Influence of recent Asian SO? and Asian NOx? emissions change (2001 to 2010) on particulate matter : shifts in Asian sulfate enhancement over US surface, major production pathway, and lifetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Flora

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D chemical transport model with coupled oxidant-aerosol chemistry (GEOSChem) is used to analyze the influence of recent (2001 to 2010) growth in Asian NOx and Asian SO 2 emission on transpacific transport of Asian ...

  6. New Houston NOx Rules: Implications and Solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    2002-01-01

    Rules: Implications and Solutions Impact ofNew NOx Regulations in the Houston Galveston Area (HGA) Ron Cascone - Mgr. Special Projects, Utilities &Environ. ABSTRACT New regulations drastically cut the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) allowed... monitored six key atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO), lead, nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM IO ), sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds (YOCs). Except for NOx, emissions of all have decreased significantly. NOx...

  7. Impact of Sulfation and Desulfation on NOx Reduction Using Cu-Chabazite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookshear, Daniel W; Nam, Jeong-Gil; Nguyen, Ke; Toops, Todd J; Binder, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This bench reactor study investigates the impact of gaseous sulfur on the NOx reduction activity of Cu-chabazite SCR (Cu-CHA) catalysts at SO2 concentrations representative of marine diesel engine exhaust. After two hours of 500 ppm SO2 exposure at 250 and 400 C in the simulated diesel exhaust gases, the NOx reduction activity of the sulfated Cu-CHA SCR catalysts is severely degraded at evaluation temperatures below 250 C; however, above 250 C the impact of sulfur exposure is minimal. EPMA shows that sulfur is located throughout the washcoat and along the entire length of the sulfated samples. Interestingly, BET measurements reveal that the sulfated samples have a 20% decrease in surface area. Furthermore, the sulfated samples show a decrease in NOx/nitrate absorption during NO exposure in a DRIFTS reactor which suggests that Cu sites in the catalyst are blocked by the presence of sulfur. SO2 exposure also results in an increase in NH3 storage capacity, possibly due to the formation of ammonium sulfate species in the sulfated samples. In all cases, lean thermal treatments as low as 500 C reverse the effects of sulfur exposure and restore the NOx reduction activity of the Cu-CHA catalyst to that of the fresh condition.

  8. SO2 as a proxy for volcanic ash in aviation hazard avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    SO2 as a proxy for volcanic ash in aviation hazard avoidance Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer - IASI ABSTRACT: Airborne volcanic ash poses a significant danger to aircraft but is difficult accurately. This paper looks at the reliability of using SO2 as a proxy for the location of volcanic ash

  9. CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 Eric Chassefirea,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    and maintained a global average surface temperature ~230 K. Because35 clathrates trap SO2 more favorably than CO2 as a possible greenhouse gas which worked together55 with CO2 to raise the surface temperature of early Mars1 CO2-SO2 clathrate hydrate formation on early Mars1 2 Eric Chassefičrea,b , Emmanuel Dartoisc

  10. Chemistry of Sulfur Oxides on Transition Metals. III. Oxidation of SO2 and Self-Diffusion of O, SO2, and SO3 on Pt(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xi

    , and SO3 on Pt(111) Xi Lin Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Pt SO3(g) are studied using first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The diffusion processes of O, SO2, and SO3 are investigated in detail, revealing complex and unintuitive behavior. It is found

  11. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  12. Achieving New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Emission Standards Through Integration of Low-NOx Burners with an Optimization Plan for Boiler Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Penrod

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of an Integrated Combustion Optimization System to achieve NO{sub X} emission levels in the range of 0.15 to 0.22 lb/MMBtu while simultaneously enabling increased power output. The project plan consisted of the integration of low-NO{sub X} burners and advanced overfire air technology with various process measurement and control devices on the Holcomb Station Unit 1 boiler. The plan included the use of sophisticated neural networks or other artificial intelligence technologies and complex software to optimize several operating parameters, including NO{sub X} emissions, boiler efficiency, and CO emissions. The program was set up in three phases. In Phase I, the boiler was equipped with sensors that can be used to monitor furnace conditions and coal flow to permit improvements in boiler operation. In Phase II, the boiler was equipped with burner modifications designed to reduce NO{sub X} emissions and automated coal flow dampers to permit on-line fuel balancing. In Phase III, the boiler was to be equipped with an overfire air system to permit deep reductions in NO{sub X} emissions. Integration of the overfire air system with the improvements made in Phases I and II would permit optimization of boiler performance, output, and emissions. This report summarizes the overall results from Phases I and II of the project. A significant amount of data was collected from the combustion sensors, coal flow monitoring equipment, and other existing boiler instrumentation to monitor performance of the burner modifications and the coal flow balancing equipment.

  13. Studies of proton-irradiated SO2 at low temperatures Implications for Io

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, M.H.

    1984-07-01

    The infrared absorption spectrum from 3.3 to 27 microns of SO2 ice films has been measured at 20 and 88 K before and after 1-MeV proton irradiation. The radiation flux was chosen to simulate the estimated flux of Jovian magnetospheric 1-MeV protons incident on Io. After irradiation, SO3 is identified as the dominant molecule synthesized in the SO2 ice. This is also the case after irradiation of composite samples of SO2 with sulfur or disulfites. Darkening was observed in irradiated SO2 ice and in irradiated S8 pellets. Photometric and spectral measurements of the thermoluminescence of irradiated SO2 have been made during warming. The spectrum appears as a broad band with a maximum at 4450 A. Analysis of the luminescence data suggests that at Ionian temperatures irradiated SO2 ice would not be a dominant contributor to posteclipse brightening phenomena. After warming to room temperature, a form of SO3 remains along with a sulfate and S8. Based on these experiments, it is reasonable to propose that small amounts of SO3 may exist on the surface of Io as a result of irradiation synthesis in SO2 frosts. 47 references.

  14. The SO2 Allowance Trading System: The Ironic History of a Grand Policy Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmalensee, Richard

    Two decades have passed Two decades have passed since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 launched a grand experiment in market-based environmental policy: the SO2 cap-and-trade system. That system performed well but ...

  15. Why are allowance prices so low? : an analysis of the SO2 emissions trading program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the reduction in SO2 emissions by electric utilities between 1985 and 1993. We find that emissions have been reduced for reasons largely unrelated to the emission reduction mandate ...

  16. SO2 fluorescence from vacuum ultraviolet dissociative excitation of SO3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suto, M.; Ye, C.; Ram, R.S.; Lee, L.C.

    1987-06-04

    The absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra of SO3 were measured in the 145-160-nm region with synchrotron radiation as a light source. The fluorescence spectra produced by excitation of SO3 at 147 and 157 nm were dispersed and compared with the laser-induced fluorescence spectrum of SO2, from which the emitter is identified to be the excited SO2*. The photodissociation process of SO3 is discussed in accord with the fluorescence observed.

  17. NOx adsorber and method of regenerating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL); Driscoll, James J. (Dunlap, IL)

    2007-01-30

    New technologies, such as NOx adsorber catalytic converters, are being used to meet increasingly stringent regulations on undesirable emissions, including NOx emissions. NOx adsorbers must be periodically regenerated, which requires an increased fuel consumption. The present disclosure includes a method of regenerating a NOx adsorber within a NOx adsorber catalytic converter. At least one sensor positioned downstream from the NOx adsorber senses, in the downstream exhaust, at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations a plurality of times during a regeneration phase. The sensor is in communication with an electronic control module that includes a regeneration monitoring algorithm operable to end the regeneration phase when a time rate of change of the at least one of NOx, nitrous oxide and ammonia concentrations is after an expected plateau region begins.

  18. Control of NOx by combustion process modifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ber?, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was carried out to determine lower bounds of NOx emission from staged combustion of a 0.7%N #6 fuel oil. Thermodynamic and chemical kinetic calculations have shown minimum NOx emissions ...

  19. Mitigation of Sulfur Effects on a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst by Sorbate Reapplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Lean NOx trap catalysis has demonstrated the ability to reduce NOx emissions from lean natural gas reciprocating engines by >90%. The technology operates in a cyclic fashion where NOx is trapped on the catalyst during lean operation and released and reduced to N2 under rich exhaust conditions; the rich cleansing operation of the cycle is referred to as "regeneration" since the catalyst is reactivated for more NOx trapping. Natural gas combusted over partial oxidation catalysts in the exhaust can be used to obtain the rich exhaust conditions necessary for catalyst regeneration. Thus, the lean NOx trap technology is well suited for lean natural gas engine applications. One potential limitation of the lean NOx trap technology is sulfur poisoning. Sulfur compounds directly bond to the NOx trapping sites of the catalyst and render them ineffective; over time, the sulfur poisoning leads to degradation in overall NOx reduction performance. In order to mitigate the effects of sulfur poisoning, a process has been developed to restore catalyst activity after sulfur poisoning has occurred. The process is an aqueous-based wash process that removes the poisoned sorbate component of the catalyst. A new sorbate component is reapplied after removal of the poisoned sorbate. The process is low cost and does not involve reapplication of precious metal components of the catalyst. Experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of the washing process on a lean 8.3-liter natural gas engine on a dynamometer platform. The catalyst was rapidly sulfur poisoned with bottled SO2 gas; then, the catalyst sorbate was washed and reapplied and performance was re-evaluated. Results show that the sorbate reapplication process is effective at restoring lost performance due to sulfur poisoning. Specific details relative to the implementation of the process for large stationary natural gas engines will be discussed.

  20. Near-Zero NOx Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utzinger, M.

    2008-01-01

    emissions, and conserve natural resources. Recently the company announced the development of a technology that dramatically reduces the nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentration in the exhaust gas of gas-fired steam boilers to below 1ppm (at O2=0% equivalent...

  1. Method And Apparatus For Regenerating Nox Adsorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, J. Joshua (Dunlap, IL); Endicott, Dennis L. (Peoria, IL); Faulkner, Stephen A. (Stamford, GB); Verkiel, Maarten (Metamora, IL)

    2006-03-28

    Methods and apparatuses for regenerating a NOx adsorber coupled with an exhaust of an engine. An actuator drives a throttle valve to a first position when regeneration of the NOx adsorber is desired. The first position is a position that causes the regeneration of the NOx adsorber. An actuator drives the throttle valve to a second position while regeneration of the NOx adsorber is still desired. The second position being a position that is more open than the first position and operable to regenerate a NOx adsorber.

  2. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01

    be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have an adverse effects of health and environment... NOx burners ? Flue gas recirculation ? Steam injection ? Staged combustion NOx reduction I eChnology IN U x ppm IN U x In Ibs/m m Btu L. oDventlona l.J as Burn e r lU 1?.16 Low N 0 x Burn e r 7:> ,U .1 Ultra LOw NUx Burn e r ,Z:> I U . U...

  3. THE ROLE OF SOOT PARTICLES AND NOx IN THE OXIDATION OF SO2 IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION: KINETICS, MECHANISM, AND IMPACT ON SULFATE AEROSOL FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    kinetic data for the catalytic oxidation of S02 by variousdata indicate that catalytic oxidation of S02 on carbon

  4. Sources of Emission Reductions: Evidence for US SO2 Emissions 1985-2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A Denny; Dubroeucq, Florence

    2004-06-16

    -gas-fired, combined cycle units have displaced conventional generation that would have emitted about 800,000 tons of SO2; however, the effect has not been to reduce total SO2 emissions since the 9.0 million ton cap is unchanged, but to reduce the quantity... content of the fuel used to generate electricity (either by switching or retrofitting scrubbers) or by shifting generation to lower emitting units including new units. However, Title IV did not replace the source- specific limits and technology mandates...

  5. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  6. First Observations of SO2 from the Satellite Suomi NPP OMPS: Widespread Air Pollution Events over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    First Observations of SO2 from the Satellite Suomi NPP OMPS: Widespread Air Pollution Events over;Severe smog episodes over China in January 2013 received worldwide at- tention. This air pollution. The largest sources of air pollutants in China are coal combustion and motor vehicle exhausts [He et al., 2002

  7. SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 19992002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    SO2 emissions to the atmosphere from active volcanoes in Guatemala and El Salvador, 1999 INSIVUMEH, 7a Avenida 14-57 Zona 13, Ciudad de Guatemala, Guatemala, Central America c Servicio Nacional de-based and aircraft correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements at the principal active volcanoes in Guatemala

  8. Gravity changes and passive SO2 degassing at the Masaya caldera complex, Nicaragua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams-Jones, Glyn

    Gravity changes and passive SO2 degassing at the Masaya caldera complex, Nicaragua Glyn Williams-gravity; passive degassing; persistent activity; convection 1. Introduction Located in western Nicaragua, Masaya. The main edi˘ce-building activity 0377-0273 / 03 / $ ^ see front matter ß 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All

  9. Regional climate responses to geoengineering with tropical and Arctic SO2 injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    insolation and cool Earth, has been suggested as an emergency response to geoengineer the planet in response aerosols cooling the planet, the volcano analog actually argues against geoengineering because of ozone2 into the lower stratosphere, it would produce global cooling. Tropical SO2 injection would produce

  10. The Different Impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Cho, Sung June; Peden, Charles HF

    2010-06-19

    The different impacts of SO2 and SO3 on Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts were investigated by SCR performance tests and multiple characterization techniques including temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The results indicate that a larger amount of highly dispersed CuSO4 formed in the zeolite catalysts (Z-CuSO4) upon SO3 poisoning, explaining the much more significant deactivation of the Cu/zeolite catalysts that were exposed to SO3 compared to poisoning by SO2. This paper provides the first demonstration that active sites of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts involved in the storage and removal of sulfur can react with SO2 and SO3 in very different ways. In particular, the significant differences in the extent of sulfur uptake account for the considerably different impacts of SO2 and SO3 poisoning on the performance of Cu/zeolite SCR catalysts.

  11. The effect of SO2 on mineral carbonation in batch tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, Cathy A.; Dahlin, David C.; Ochs, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    CO2 sequestration is a key element of future emission-free fossil-fueled power plants. Other constituents of flue gas must also be captured and rendered innocuous. Contemporary power plants remove SOx from exit gases, but next-generation plants may simultaneously treat CO2, SOx, and other pollutants. Pioneering tests at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center investigated the combined treatment of CO2 and SO2 in a mineral-carbonation process. SO2 was removed from the gas stream, and as a small fraction of the total volume of mineralizing gas, it did not inhibit the carbonation reaction. The results indicate that this approach to CO2 sequestration could be used to treat multiple pollutants.

  12. Catalytic Combustion for Ultra-Low NOx Hydrogen Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etemad, Shahrokh; Baird, Benjamin; Alavandi, Sandeep

    2011-06-30

    Precision Combustion, Inc., (PCI) in close collaboration with Solar Turbines, Incorporated, has developed and demonstrated a combustion system for hydrogen fueled turbines that reduces NOx to low single digit level while maintaining or improving current levels of efficiency and eliminating emissions of carbon dioxide. Full scale Rich Catalytic Hydrogen (RCH1) injector was developed and successfully tested at Solar Turbines, Incorporated high pressure test facility demonstrating low single digit NOx emissions for hydrogen fuel in the range of 2200F-2750F. This development work was based on initial subscale development for faster turnaround and reduced cost. Subscale testing provided promising results for 42% and 52% H2 with NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm with improved flame stability. In addition, catalytic reactor element testing for substrate oxidation, thermal cyclic injector testing to simulate start-stop operation in a gas turbine environment, and steady state 15 atm. operation testing were performed successfully. The testing demonstrated stable and robust catalytic element component life for gas turbine conditions. The benefit of the catalytic hydrogen combustor technology includes capability of delivering near-zero NOx without costly post-combustion controls and without requirement for added sulfur control. In addition, reduced acoustics increase gas turbine component life. These advantages advances Department of Energy (DOE’s) objectives for achievement of low single digit NOx emissions, improvement in efficiency vs. postcombustion controls, fuel flexibility, a significant net reduction in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) system net capital and operating costs, and a route to commercialization across the power generation field from micro turbines to industrial and utility turbines.

  13. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) generated by internal combustion (IC) engines are implicated in adverse environmental and health effects. Even though lean-burn natural gas engines have traditionally emitted lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions compared to their diesel counterparts, natural gas engines are being further challenged to reduce NOx emissions to 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) approach for NOx reduction involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the NOx from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By sending the desorbed NOx back into the intake and through the engine, a percentage of the NOx can be decomposed during the combustion process. SNR technology has the support of the Department of Energy (DOE), under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) program to reduce NOx emissions to under 0.1 g/bhp-hr from stationary natural gas engines by 2010. The NO decomposition phenomenon was studied using two Cummins L10G natural gas fueled spark-ignited (SI) engines in three experimental campaigns. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio ({lambda}), injected NO quantity, added exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) percentage, and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates within the engine. Chemical kinetic model predictions using the software package CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with established rate and equilibrium models. The model was used to predict NO decomposition during lean-burn, stoichiometric burn, and slightly rich-burn cases with added EGR. NOx decomposition rates were estimated from the model to be from 35 to 42% for the lean-burn cases and from 50 to 70% for the rich-burn cases. The modeling results provided an insight as to how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for the experimental engine. Results from this experiment along with chemical kinetic modeling solutions prompted the investigation of rich-burn operating conditions, with added EGR to prevent preignition. It was observed that the relative air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity, added EGR fraction, and engine operating points affected the NO decomposition rates. While operating under these modified conditions, the highest NO decomposition rate of 92% was observed. In-cylinder pressure data gathered during the experiments showed minimum deviation from peak pressure as a result of NO injections into the engine. A NOx adsorption system, from Sorbent Technologies, Inc., was integrated with the Cummins engine, comprised a NOx adsorbent chamber, heat exchanger, demister, and a hot air blower. Data were gathered to show the possibility of NOx adsorption from the engine exhaust, and desorption of NOx from the sorbent material. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a benchtop adsorption system was constructed. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while data were gathered on the characteristics of the sorbent material for development of a system model. A simplified linear driving force model was developed to predict NOx adsorption into the sorbent material as cooled exhaust passed over fresh sorbent material. A mass heat transfer analysis was conducted to analyze the possibility of using hot exhaust gas for the desorption process. It was found in the adsorption studies, and through literature review, that NO adsorption was poor when the carrier gas was nitrogen, but that NO in the presence of oxygen was adsorbed at levels exceeding 1% by mass of the sorbent. From the three experimental campaigns, chemical kinetic modeling analysis, and the scaled benchtop NOx adsorption system, an overall SNR system model was developed. An economic analysis was completed, and showed that the system was impractical in cost for small engines, but that economies of scale favored the technology.

  14. Mass Splitting of Staggered Fermion and $SO(2D)$ Clifford Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hatakeyama; H. Sawanaka; H. So

    2006-09-28

    We present a new method to introduce rotationally invariant terms in staggered fermions which is based on an $SO(2D)$ Clifford algebra formulation, where $D$ means the number of space-time dimensions. We have four candidates for improved mass terms that can split the degenerate mass of staggered fermions. Among them, we analyze three types of combinations and find only one case that can identify with the light single Dirac mode.

  15. Scattering and Bound State Green's Functions on a Plane via so(2,1) Lie Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Borges; H. Boschi-Filho; A. N. Vaidya

    2006-10-17

    We calculate the Green's functions for the particle-vortex system, for two anyons on a plane with and without a harmonic regulator and in a uniform magnetic field. These Green's functions which describe scattering or bound states (depending on the specific potential in each case) are obtained exactly using an algebraic method related to the SO(2,1) Lie group. From these Green's functions we obtain the corresponding wave functions and for the bound states we also find the energy spectra.

  16. Use of Motion Estimation Algorithms for Improved Flux Measurements Using SO 2 Cameras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Barnie, T.; Herzog, M.; Oppenheimer, C.

    2014-01-01

    SGS anisotropic turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) closure scheme, described by (Herzog et al., 2003). The mixed-phase cloud microphysics included in the model correspond to a simple prognostic bulk Kessler-type approach, predicting cloud drop- lets, rain... modifies its thms for improved flux measurements using SO2 cameras, J. Volcanol. buoyancy and disperses tracers and temperature anomalies. Subgrid- scale (SGS) turbulence is treated as eddy diffusivity and parametrised on the basis of a 1.5-order prognostic...

  17. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  18. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  19. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  20. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  1. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts...

  2. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mode Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  3. Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mode Lean DI Engines Measurement and Characterization of Lean NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Lean DI Engines Presentation from the...

  4. Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor Controlling NH3 and N2O Selectivities over a Commercial LNT Catalyst Spatiotemporal Distribution of NOx Storage: a Factor...

  5. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

  6. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  7. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company...

  8. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  9. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence...

  10. Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty Trucks Development of Remove Sensing Instrumentation for NOx and PM Emissions from Heavy Duty...

  11. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  12. Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Development...

  13. Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions Control Fuel Processor Enabled NOx Adsorber Aftertreatment System for Diesel Engine Emissions...

  14. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx...

  15. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. 2002deerslone.pdf More...

  16. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions...

  17. Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst...

  18. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on CuChabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding NOx SCR...

  19. Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl Retrofit Diesel Emissions Control System Providing 50% NOxControl 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  20. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed...

  1. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  2. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

  3. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

  4. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  5. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging...

  6. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

  7. Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Lean-NOx Catalyst Development for Diesel Engine Applications Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Control Fuel Effects on...

  8. Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Oxidation State Optimization for Maximum Efficiency of NOx Adsorber Catalysts Presentation given at the 16th...

  9. Lean NOx Traps - Microstructural Studies of Real World and Model...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Emission Control Pre-Competitive Catalysis Research: Fundamental SulfationDesulfation Studies of Lean NOx Traps Investigation of Aging Mechanisms in Lean NOx Traps...

  10. Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Rapid Aging Protocols for Diesel Aftertreatment Devices: NOx Abatement Catalysts Poster presentation at...

  11. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning...

  12. 8, 49114947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss processes B. Vogel et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions Model simulations of stratospheric ozone loss caused by enhanced on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4911 #12;ACPD 8, 4911­4947, 2008 NOx-induced ozone loss

  13. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) is available at no charge to help the petroleum refining and chemicals industries develop a cost-effective, plant-wide strategy for NOx reduction and energy efficiency improvements.

  14. Low NOx Advanced Vortex Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, R.G. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Williams, J.T. (Ramgen Power Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA); Steele, R.C. (EPRI); Straub, D.L.; Casleton, K.H.; Bining, Avtar (California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA)

    2008-05-01

    A lean-premixed advanced vortex combustor (AVC) has been developed and tested. The natural gas fueled AVC was tested at the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in Morgantown, WV. All testing was performed at elevated pressures and inlet temperatures and at lean fuel-air ratios representative of industrial gas turbines. The improved AVC design exhibited simultaneous NOx /CO/unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions of 4/4/0 ppmv (all emissions corrected to 15% O2 dry). The design also achieved less than 3 ppmv NOx with combustion efficiencies in excess of 99.5%. The design demonstrated marked acoustic dynamic stability over a wide range of operating conditions, which potentially makes this approach significantly more attractive than other lean-premixed combustion approaches. In addition, the measured 1.75% pressure drop is significantly lower than conventional gas turbine combustors, which could translate into an overall gas turbine cycle efficiency improvement. The relatively high velocities and low pressure drop achievable with this technology make the AVC approach an attractive alternative for syngas fuel applications.

  15. Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2012-09-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study investigating the reactivity between selected and morphologically important surfaces of carbonate minerals with supercritical CO2 with co-existing H2O and SO2. Trace amounts of SO2 cause formation of CaSO3 in the form of hannebachite in the initial stages of SO2 adsorption and transformation. Atomistic simulations of these initial steps indicate a somewhat catalytic activity of water, which is enhanced by the presence of Magnesium atoms in the mineral surface. Under co-sequestration conditions, traces of water are not likely to cause carbonate dissolution, however the presence of SO2 greatly stabilizes the sulfite product.

  16. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, William

    2014-08-29

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  17. (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290320 nm). NOx emission decreased

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (plexiglass) covers (negligible transmittance at 290­320 nm). NOx emission decreased from shoots, and the compensation point was estimated to be around 1 p.p.b. As ultraviolet radiation induces NOx emission from P exposure to ultraviolet light and NOx emission, and between the ambient con- centration of NOx and its

  18. Influence of Ceria on the NOx Storage/Reduction Behavior of Lean NOx Trap Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Yaying; Choi, Jae-Soon; Toops, Todd J; Crocker, Dr. Mark; Naseri, Mojghan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of La2O3-stabilized ceria incorporation on the functioning of fully formulated lean NOx trap catalysts was investigated. Monolithic catalysts were prepared, corresponding to loadings of 0, 50 and 100 g CeO2/L, together with a catalyst containing 100 g/L of ceria-zirconia (Ce0.7Zr0.3O2). Loadings of the other main components (Pt, Rh and BaO) were held constant. Catalyst evaluation was performed on a bench flow reactor under simulated diesel exhaust conditions, employing NOx storage/reduction cycles. NOx storage efficiency in the temperature range 150-350 C was observed to increase with ceria loading, resulting in higher NOx conversion levels. At 150 C, high rich phase NOx slip was observed for all of the catalysts, resulting from an imbalance in the rates of nitrate decomposition and NOx reduction. Optimal NOx conversion was obtained in the range 250-350 C for all the catalysts, while at 450 C high rich phase NOx slip from the most highly loaded ceria-containing catalyst resulted in lower NOx conversion than for the ceria-free formulation. N2O was the major NOx reduction product at 150 C over all of the catalysts, although low NOx conversion levels limited the N2O yield. At higher temperatures N2 was the main product of NOx reduction, although NH3 formation was also observed. Selectivity to NH3 decreased with increasing ceria loading, indicating that NH3 is consumed by reaction with stored oxygen in the rear of the catalyst.

  19. Effect of reductive treatments on Pt behavior and NOx storage in lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xianqin; Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Chong M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2011-10-01

    Lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts represent a promising approach to meet increasingly stringent NOx emission regulations on diesel and other lean-burn engines. Pt material properties, including dispersion and particle size, are known to be important factors in determining NOx uptake performance, since Pt provides active sites for NO oxidation to NO2 necessary for storing NOx as nitrates, and for the reduction of nitrates to N2. In this work, the physicochemical properties of Pt in Pt-BaO/Al2O3 LNT catalysts, such as the Pt accessible surface area and particle size, were investigated by using various tools, such as irreversible volumetric H2 chemisorption, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), following successive reductive treatments at elevated temperatures. NOx uptake activities were also measured to establish a relationship between the properties of Pt and NOx storage following identical high-temperature reductive treatments. We find that the reductive treatments of Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts at temperatures up to 500 şC promote a significant increase in NOx uptake explained, in part, by an induced close interaction between Pt and BaO phases in the catalyst, thus enabling facilitation of the NOx storage process.

  20. Intergrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.

    2014-01-01

    CONFERENCE FOR ENHANCED BUILDING OPERATIONS TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY – 2014 BEIJING, CHINA – SEPTEMBER 14 -17 Calculation of Integrated NOx Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas... TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY – 2014 BEIJING, CHINA – SEPTEMBER 14 -17 Savings (2002 to 2011) Electricity - $1,082 million Demand - $1,245 million Total - $2,327 million Emissions Reduction in 2011 466 tons-NOx/year, (About 158,923 cars) Demand Reduction in 2011...

  1. NOx Formation in a Premixed Syngas Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, S.L. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Givi, P. (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA); Strakey, P.; Casleton, K.

    2006-11-01

    Reduction of NOx is a subject of significant current interest in stationary gas turbines. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of turbulence on non-thermal NOx formation in a syngas flame. This is archived by a detailed parametric study via PDF simulations of a partially stirred reactor and a dumped axisymmetric premixed flame. Several different detailed and reduced kinetics schemes are considered. The simulated results demonstrate the strong dependence of combustion process on turbulence. It is shown that the amount of NOx formation is significantly influenced by the inlet conditions. That is, the turbulence intensity can be tweaked to attain optimal ultra-low NOx emissions at a given temperature.

  2. Electrochemical NOx Sensors for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A unique electrochemical sensing strategy correlating the level of NOx with an impedance-based signal shows promise for sensitivity, stability, and accuracy while incorporating single-cell structures and simple electronics into low-cost designs

  3. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Horner, Jacob A.; Owen, Antionette T.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-05-01

    Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic formations was investigated in the laboratory through the use of high pressure static experiments. Five different basalt samples were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical CO2 containing 1wt% sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 1wt% oxygen (O2) at reservoir conditions (~100 bar, 90°C) for 49 and 98 days. Gypsum (CaSO4) was a common precipitate, occurred early as elongated blades with striations, and served as substrates for other mineral products. Bimodal pulses of water released during dehydroxylation were key indicators along with X-ray diffraction for verifying the presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals. Well-developed pseudocubic jarosite crystals formed surface coatings, and in some instances mixtures of natrojarosite and natroalunite aggregated into spherically shaped structures measuring 100 ?m in diameter. Reaction products were also characterized using infrared spectroscopy, which indicated OH and Fe-O stretching modes. The presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals were found in the lower wavenumber region from 700–400 cm-1. A strong preferential incorporation of Fe(III) into natrojarosite was attributed to the oxidation potential of O2. Evidence of CO2 was detected during thermal decomposition of precipitates, suggesting the onset of mineral carbonation.

  4. Plasma-Activated Lean NOx Catalysis for Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted...

  5. The use of rice hulls for sustainable control of NOx emissions in deep space missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable Control of NOx Emissions in Deep Space Missionsfrom rice hulls to control NOx emissions for the future deepon the control of NOx emissions. The approach involves the

  6. Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis Heavy-Duty NOx Emissions Control: Reformer-Assisted vs. Plasma-Facilitated Lean NOx Catalysis...

  7. Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Perovskite-based lean NOx catalysts shown to achieve comparable NOx reduction...

  8. Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Effect of Thermal Aging on NO oxidation and NOx storage in a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap...

  9. Mechanism of Preferential Adsorption of SO2 into Two Microporous Paddle Wheel Frameworks M(bdc)(ted)(0.5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Kui; Canepa, Pieremanuele; Gong, Qihan; Liu, Jian; Johnson, Daniel H.; Dyevoich, Allison A.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Thonhauser, Timo; Li, Jing; Chabal, Y. J.

    2013-12-02

    The adsorption of a corrosive gas, SO¬2, into microporous pillared paddle-wheel frameworks M(bdc)(ted)0.5 [M = Ni, , Zn; bdc = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; ted=triethylenediamine] is studied by volumetric adsorption measurements and a combination of in-situ infrared spectroscopy and ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The uptake of SO2 in M(bdc)(ted)0.5 at room temperature is quite significant, 9.966 mol kg-1(63.8%) at room temperature/1.132 bar, which represents the highest SO2 uptake so far observed. Two different adsorption species are identified by infrared spectroscopy: one is typical physisorbed SO2 species, charac-terized by a modest red shift of S-O stretching bands (36 cm-1 for ?as and 7 cm-1 for ?s); the other characterized by adsorption bands at 1242 and 1105cm-1 and by a much higher (~150?C) temperature to completely remove. Theoretical calculations including van der Waals interactions (based on vdW-DF) indicate that the adsorption geometry of SO2 involves one molecule bonding of its sulfur atom to the oxygen atom of the paddle-wheel building unit and its two oxygen atoms to the C-H groups of the organic linkers by formation of hydrogen bonds. Such a configuration results in a large distortion of benzene rings, which is consistent with the experimentally observed shift of the ring deformation mode. The simulated frequency shift of the SO2 stretching bands by vdW-DF is in excellent agreement with spectroscopically measured value of physisorbed SO2. The IR absorptions at 1242 and 1105 cm-1 also suggest a stronger adsorption configuration, previously observed in SO4-like species involving two oxygen atoms of the paddle wheel building units. The adsorption configurations of SO2 into M(bdc)(ted)0.5 derived by infrared spectroscopy and vdW-DF calculations provide the understanding necessary to develop industrial processes for SO2 removal using microporous paddle-wheel frameworks materials.

  10. Lean NOx Trap Modeling in Vehicle Systems Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL; Conklin, Jim [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    A one-dimensional model for simulating lean NOx trap (LNT) performance is developed and validated using both steady state cycling data and transient data from FTP testing cycles. The model consists of the conservation equations for chemical species and energy in the bulk flow, energy of the solid walls, O2 storage and NOx storage (in the form of nitrites and nitrates). Nitrites and nitrates are formed by diffusion of NO and NO2, respectively, into sorbent particles (assumed to be hemi-spherical in shape) along with O2 and their formation rates are controlled by chemical kinetics as well as solid-phase diffusion rates of NOx species. The model also accounts for thermal aging and sulfation of LNTs. Empirical correlations are developed on the basis of published experimental data to capture these effects. These empirical correlations depend on total mileage for which the LNT has been in use, the mileage accumulated since the last desulfation event in addition to the freshly degreened catalyst characteristics. The model has been used in studies of vehicle systems (integration, performance etc.) including hybrid powertrain configurations. Since the engines in hybrid vehicles turn on and off multiple number of times during single drive cycles, the exhaust systems may encounter multiple cold start transients. Accurate modeling of catalyst warm-up and cooling is, therefore, very important to simulate LNT performance in such vehicles. For this purpose, the convective heat loss from the LNT to the ambient is modeled using a Nusselt number correlation that includes effects of both forced convection and natural convection (with later being important when vehicle is stationary). Using the model, the fuel penalty associated with operating LNTs on small diesel engine powered car during FTP drive cycles is estimated.

  11. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S-poisoning resistance. Further investigation is needed for unraveling the understanding, design and selection principles of this new class of nanostructure based monolithic catalysts.

  12. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

  13. Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

  14. Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: mechanisms and seasonal dependence David Stevenson aircraft NOx emissions in January, April, July and October of the 1st year. Figure 1 shows perturbations that the initial NOx anomaly mirrors the aircraft emissions distribution, with only limited transport and mixing

  15. Nitrogen Isotopes as Indicators of NOx Source Contributions to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO4 2-, or NO3 - concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U

  16. Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David

    Radiative forcing from surface NOx emissions: spatial and seasonal variations R. G. Derwent & D. S distributions of methane CH4 and ozone O3 following the emission of pulses of the oxides of nitrogen NOx. Month-long emission pulses of NOx produce deficits in CH4 mixing ratios that bring about negative radiative forcing

  17. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    This project focuses on a new technology that reduces NOx emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxygen-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace.

  18. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  19. Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, William I.

    Re-evaluation of SO2 release of the 15 June 1991 Pinatubo eruption using ultraviolet and infrared Infrared Radiation Sounder/2) sensor, whose data sets have a higher temporal resolution, are also analyzed ultraviolet and infrared satellite sensors, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 5, Q04001, doi:10.1029/ 2003GC000654

  20. Measuring Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions in October, 2010 Catastrophic Eruption from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Volcano in Java, Indonesia with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) José A. Morales-Collazo Geology This paper discusses sulfur dioxide (SO2) cloud emissions from Merapi Volcano in Java, Indonesia during, Indonesia. In October 26th , 2010, a catastrophic eruption was reported from Merapi causing nearly 386

  1. Translational energy dependence of cross sections for reactions of OH? (H2O) n with CO2 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hierl, Peter M.; Paulson, John F.

    1984-01-01

    A tandem mass spectrometer has been used to measure cross sections for reactions of the solvated negative ions OH?(H2O) n , where 0?n?3, with the neutral molecules CO2 and SO2 over the range of reactant translational energy ...

  2. AMMONIA-FREE NOx CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2006-06-01

    This report describes a novel NOx control system that has the potential to drastically reduce cost, and enhance performance, operation and safety of power plant NOx control. The new system optimizes the burner and the furnace to achieve very low NOx levels and to provide an adequate amount of CO, and uses the CO for reducing NO both in-furnace and over a downstream AFSCR (ammonia-free selective catalytic reduction) reactor. The AF-SCR combines the advantages of the highly successful SCR technology for power plants and the TWC (three-way catalytic converter) widely used on automobiles. Like the SCR, it works in oxidizing environment of combustion flue gas and uses only base metal catalysts. Like the TWC, the AF-SCR removes NO and excess CO simultaneously without using any external reagent, such as ammonia. This new process has been studied in a development program jointed funded by the US Department of Energy and Foster Wheeler. The report outlines the experimental catalyst work performed on a bench-scale reactor, including test procedure, operating conditions, and results of various catalyst formulations. Several candidate catalysts, prepared with readily available transition metal oxides and common substrate materials, have shown over 80-90% removal for both NO and CO in oxidizing gas mixtures and at elevated temperatures. A detailed combustion study of a 400 MWe coal-fired boiler, applying computational fluid dynamics techniques to model boiler and burner design, has been carried out to investigate ways to optimize the combustion process for the lowest NOx formation and optimum CO/NO ratios. Results of this boiler and burner optimization work are reported. The paper further discusses catalyst scale-up considerations and the conceptual design of a 400 MWe size AF-SCR reactor, as well as economics analysis indicating large cost savings of the ammonia-free NOx control process over the current SCR technology.

  3. MODELING POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF SO2 CO-INJECTED WITH CO2 ON THE KNOX GROUP, WESTERN KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Harris, David; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    Understanding potential long-term impacts of CO2 impurities, such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds, on deep carbon storage reservoirs is of considerable interest because co-injection of the impurities with CO2 can bring significant economic and environmental benefits. The Cambrian–Ordovician Knox Group, a thick sequence of dolostone (Beekmantown Dolomite) with minor dolomitic sandstone (Gunter Sandstone), in western Kentucky, USA, has been evaluated as a prospective CO2 sequestration target. In this study, TOUGHREACT was used to build 1-D radial models to simulate the potential impacts of co-injected CO2 and SO2 on minerals, pore fluids, and porosity and permeability in the Beekmantown Dolomite and the Gunter Sandstone. Co-injection of a mass ratio of 2.5 percent SO2 and 97.5 percent CO2, representative of flue gas from coal-fired plants, was simulated and the co-injection simulations were compared to models with CO2 only injections. The model results suggest that the major impacts of added SO2 for both the Beekmantown and the Gunter rocks were significant enhancement of dissolution of dolomite and precipitation of anhydrite, leading to noticeable increases in porosity and permeability. The Gunter Sandstone appeared to be more active with SO2 than the Beekmantown Dolomite. More dolomite was dissolved in the Gunter than in the Beekmantown with the same SO2 impurity. Consequently, porosity was raised more in the Gunter than in the Beekmantown. On the other hand, the impacts on aluminosilicate minerals appeared to be insignificant in both reservoirs, slightly changing the rates of precipitation/dissolution but the overall reaction paths remained the same.

  4. NOx Reduction with Natural Gas for Lean Large-Bore Engine Applications Using Lean NOx Trap Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, JE

    2005-02-11

    Large-bore natural gas engines are used for distributed energy and gas compression since natural gas fuel offers a convenient and reliable fuel source via the natural gas pipeline and distribution infrastructure. Lean engines enable better fuel efficiency and lower operating costs; however, NOx emissions from lean engines are difficult to control. Technologies that reduce NOx in lean exhaust are desired to enable broader use of efficient lean engines. Lean NOx trap catalysts have demonstrated greater than 90% NOx reduction in lean exhaust from engines operating with gasoline, diesel, and natural gas fuels. In addition to the clean nature of the technology, lean NOx traps reduce NOx with the fuel source of the engine thereby eliminating the requirement for storage and handling of secondary fuels or reducing agents. A study of lean NOx trap catalysts for lean natural gas engines is presented here. Testing was performed on a Cummins C8.3G (CG-280) engine on a motor dynamometer. Lean NOx trap catalysts were tested for NOx reduction performance under various engine operating conditions, and the utilization of natural gas as the reductant fuel source was characterized. Engine test results show that temperature greatly affects the catalytic processes involved, specifically methane oxidation and NOx storage on the lean NOx trap. Additional studies on a bench flow reactor demonstrate the effect of precious metal loading (a primary cost factor) on lean NOx trap performance at different temperatures. Results and issues related to the potential of the lean NOx trap technology for large-bore engine applications will be discussed.

  5. Catalytic effects of minerals on NOx emission from coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, M.Y.; Che, D.F.

    2007-07-01

    The catalytic effects of inherent mineral matters on NOx emissions from coal combustion have been investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) equipped with a gas analyzer. The effect of demineralization and the individual effect of Na, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe on the formation of NOx are studied as well as the combined catalytic effects of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti. Demineralization causes more Fuel-N to retain in the char, and reduction of NOx mostly. But the mechanistic effect on NOx formation varies from coal to coal. Ca and Mg promote NOx emission. Na, K, Fe suppress NOx formation to different extents. The effect of transition element Fe is the most obvious. The combination of Ca + Na and Ca + Ti can realize the simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions.

  6. Cummins/ORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CumminsORNL-FEERC CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cummins-ORNLFEERC Emissions CRADA:...

  7. NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation NOx Adsorbers for Heavy Duty Truck Engines - Testing and Simulation This report provides the results of an...

  8. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  9. Impact of Sulfur Dioxide on Lean NOx Trap Catalysts | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis...

  10. Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Advanced Technology Light Duty Diesel Aftertreatment...

  11. Development of Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials Analysis Tools for Studying NOx Adsorber Catalysts A cooperative research and development agreement with Cummins Engine Company Development of Materials Analysis Tools...

  12. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase...

  13. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide...

  14. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  15. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx...

  16. Passive Catalytic Approach to Low Temperature NOx Emission Abatement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Numerically evaluated and optimized proposed state-of-the-art passive catalytic technology designed to reduce NOx released during vehicle cold start portion of the FTP-75 cycle

  17. Effect of Biodiesel Blends on NOx Emissions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Using Ethanol-Diesel Blends Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder Regeneration Strategies Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN)...

  18. Selective ammonia slip catalyst enabling highly efficient NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enabling highly efficient NOx removal requirements of the future A low precious metal loading ammonia-slip catalyst was developed that is able to oxidize the ammonia that...

  19. Aminoguanidine inhibits aortic hydrogen peroxide production, VSMC NOX activity and hypercontractility in diabetic mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak, Jeong-Ho; Youn, Ji-Youn; Cai, Hua

    2009-01-01

    likely via a reduction in NOX-linked hypercontractility.signif- icant reduction in VSMC NOX activity remains to beNOX-derived O 2•- in diabetic VSMC might underlie AG reduction

  20. Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Propane-Diesel Dual Fuel for CO2 and Nox Reduction Test results show significant CO2 and NOx emission reductions, fuel economy...

  1. Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields Progress Toward Targets of Efficient NOx Control for Diesels Combining Low-Temperature Combustion with Lean-NOx Trap Yields...

  2. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

  3. APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  4. APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project...

  5. Status of APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Projects | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    APBF-DEC Light-duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Project: SUVPick-Up Platform APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study...

  6. Lean NOx Trap Formulation Effect on Performance with In-Cylinder...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Desulfation and Controlling NOx from Multi-mode Lean DI Engines Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model...

  7. A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration and Desulfation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  8. Transient Dynamometer Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing of a Single-Leg NOX Adsorber Combined with a Fuel Processor for Enhanced NOx Control 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and...

  9. High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  10. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 41- Nox Budget Trading Program (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish a budget trading program for nitrogen oxide emissions, setting NOx budget units for generators and an NOx Allowance Tracking System to account for emissions. These...

  11. Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Synergies of High-Efficiency Clean Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysts investigation of potential...

  12. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  13. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, G; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  14. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  15. Effect of Water on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Gas-Phase SO2 in a PEM Electrolyzer for H2 Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidner, John W.

    Effect of Water on the Electrochemical Oxidation of Gas-Phase SO2 in a PEM Electrolyzer for H2 of SO2 in a proton exchange membrane PEM electrolyzer. Not only is water needed to keep the membrane from water is very energy intensive. For ex- ample, electrolyzers can achieve electrical efficiencies

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  17. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO Oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2011-04-20

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data. Such inhibition models will improve the accuracy of model based control design for integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment systems.

  18. Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    1 Quantification of Variability and Uncertainty in Hourly NOx Emissions from Coal-Fired Power to quantify variability and uncertainty for NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants. Data for hourly NOx Uncertainty, Variability, Emission Factors, Coal-Fired Power Plants, NOx emissions, Regression Models

  19. Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using combinatorial methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    Systematic evaluation of monometallic catalytic materials for lean-burn NOx reduction using the commercialization of such engines [1]. In principle, NOx reduction could be achieved by either decomposition of NOx for NOx reduction. These efforts were spurred by the discoveries that NO can selectively be reduced over

  20. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions- Fact Sheet, 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utilizing Supplemental Ultra-Low-NOx Burner Technology to Meet Emissions Standards and Improve System Efficiency

  1. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ace026peden2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Sulfur Poisoning of NOx Adsorber (LNT) Materials...

  2. Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry During Lean NOx Trap Regeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jae-Soon; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Partridge Jr, William P; Parks, II, James E; Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; Chambon, Paul H; Thomas, John F

    2010-01-01

    Lean NOx Trap (LNT) catalysts can effectively reduce NOx from lean engine exhaust. Significant research for LNTs in diesel engine applications has been performed and has led to commercialization of the technology. For lean gasoline engine applications, advanced direct injection engines have led to a renewed interest in the potential for lean gasoline vehicles and, thereby, a renewed demand for lean NOx control. To understand the gasoline-based reductant chemistry during regeneration, a BMW lean gasoline vehicle has been studied on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed for key reductant species such as H2, CO, NH3, and hydrocarbons during transient drive cycles. The relation of the reductant species to LNT performance will be discussed. Furthermore, the challenges of NOx storage in the lean gasoline application are reviewed.

  3. Ultra-Low NOx Premixed Industrial Burner | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology licensed to Maxon Corporation and sold as the M-PAKT burner. Over 1408 burners estimated to reduce NOx by over 1.550 million pounds in 2011. Applications Can be...

  4. A Systematic Investigation of Parameters Affecting Diesel NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dephi Corporation 2002deerdou.pdf More Documents & Publications Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Use of a Diesel Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient...

  5. Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st...

  6. Novel Catalysts for Nox Reduction with Reductants Produced in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ID:9130) Project ID:18519 Development of NOx Adsorber System for Dodge Ram 2007 Heavy duty Pickup Truck Progress on Acidic Zirconia Mixed Oxides for Efficient NH3-SCR Catalysis...

  7. NOx reduction aftertreatment system using nitrogen nonthermal plasma desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okubo, M.; Inoue, M.; Kuroki, T.; Yamamoto, T.

    2005-08-01

    In the flue emission from an internal combustion system using diffusing combustion such as coal or oil fuel boiler, incinerator, or diesel engine, around 10% oxygen is usually included. It is difficult to reduce the NOx in the emission completely using catalysts or plasma alone because part of the NO is oxidized under an O{sub 2}-rich environment. In order to overcome these difficulties, we propose a new aftertreatment system of NOx included in the exhaust gas of the combustion system using nonthermal plasma (NTP) desorption and reduction. In this system, exchangeable adsorbent columns are equipped. As an initial step to realize such kind of aftertreatment system, the basic characteristics of the N{sub 2} NTP desorption and NOx reduction were examined experimentally using a pulse corona NTP reactor. After several adsorption/desorption processes, the amount of NOx adsorbed becomes equal to that of the NOx desorbed, that is, all the NO, was desorbed in a single desorption process. It is confirmed that the NOx complete reduction using N{sub 2} NTP desorption is possible not only for a simulated exhaust gas but for a real diesel engine gas. The effective specific energy density can be decreased down to 22 Wh/m{sup 3}.

  8. Modeling The NOx Emissions In A Low NOx Burner While Fired With Pulverized Coal And Dairy Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uggini, Hari

    2012-07-16

    by themselves already require cleanup technology; newer regulations will require development of new and economical technologies. Using a blend of traditional fuels & biomass is a promising technology to reduce NOX emissions. Experiments conducted previously...

  9. Chemical Consequences of Heme Distortion and the Role of Heme Distortion in Signal Transduction of H-NOX Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olea, Jr., Charles

    2010-01-01

    T. tengcongensis (Tt H-NOX), the reduction potential wasdesign of Tt H-NOX to broaden the reduction potential rangewith Tt H-NOX show that the reduction potential is

  10. NO[x] production by lightning in the continental U.S. and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bond, Donald William

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. High tropospheric NOx concentrations increase ozone (O?) levels via photochemical cycling of NO to NO?, whereas low NOx concentrations result in the ...

  11. What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California’s NOx Trading Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fowlie, Meredith; Holland, Stephen P.; Mansur, Erin T

    2009-01-01

    RECLAIM Figure 3: Total NOx Emissions in RECLAIM and in theof California. Change in NOx Emissions from Period 1 (tons)Summary Statistics of NOx Emissions. Period Period 1 Period

  12. An Analysis of the health impacts from PM and NOx emissions resulting from train operations in the Alameda Corridor, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangkapichai, Mana; Saphores, Jean-Daniel M; Ogunseitan, Oladele; Ritchie, Stephen G.; You, Soyoung Iris; Lee, Gunwoo

    2010-01-01

    health impacts of PM and NOx emissions resulting from trainhealth impacts of PM and NOx emissions from train operationsreduce locomotive PM and NOx emissions by as much as 90% and

  13. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions - Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions -...

  14. Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Engine and Reactor Evaluations of HC-SCR for Diesel NOx Reduction Focus is the heavy duty, US dynamometer...

  15. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand...

  16. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost

  17. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps Research to identify most promising...

  18. Climate impact of aviation NOx? emissions : radiative forcing, temperature, and temporal heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Lawrence Man Kit

    2014-01-01

    Aviation NOx emissions are byproducts of combustion in the presence of molecular nitrogen. In the upper troposphere, NOx emissions result in the formation of O? but also reduce the lifetime of CH4 , causing an indirect ...

  19. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV/Pick-Up Platform | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Status of APBF-DEC NOx AdsorberDPF Projects Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car...

  20. A Novel Technology for the Reduction of NOx on Char by Microwaves 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buenger, C.; Peterson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The emphasis on reduction of NOx as a precursor to street level ozone has increased the need for technologies capable of reducing NOx (>95%) to very low levels in major metropolitan areas from a wide variety of sources. Technology offerings...

  1. Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel...

  2. NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures Jeffrey M-NOx reactions is used to estimate maximum attainable formaldehyde (and methanol) yields

  3. Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Intra-catalyst Reductant Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps: A Study on Sulfur Effects Presentation given...

  4. Safe and compact ammonia storage/delivery systems for SCR-DeNOX...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Safe and compact ammonia storagedelivery systems for SCR-DeNOX in automotive units Presentation...

  5. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines Stand-alone urea...

  6. APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Catalyst Aging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study APBF- DEC Heavy-Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Catalyst Aging Study 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  7. Simulation of the Impact of the SO2 Emissions from the Proposed Sithe Power Plant on the Grand Canyon and other Class I Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    . Rodriguez Abstract A 1500 MW coal-fired power plant is proposed to be built by Sithe Energies IncSimulation of the Impact of the SO2 Emissions from the Proposed Sithe Power Plant on the Grand. in the Four Corners basin near the existing Four Corners and San Juan power plants. Four Corners is located

  8. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 37 (2002) 2735 NOx reduction by urea under lean conditions over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    2002-01-01

    Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 37 (2002) 27­35 NOx reduction by urea under lean conditions over using a single step sol­gel process (designated as 2% Pt-SG) and tested its activity for NOx reduction and hydrothermally stable in the range of 150­500 C in the reduction of NOx by hy- drocarbons or oxygenated

  9. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000006 The Role of Surface Oxides in NOx Storage Reduction Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201000006 The Role of Surface Oxides in NOx Storage Reduction Catalysts Jelena which a reductant is injected into the exhaust stream and reacts with the stored NOx, possi- bly catalyst is that the catalyst must be active for both NO oxidation and NOx reduction. In recent years

  10. Traffic restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    Traffic restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space restrictions associated with the Sino-African summit: Reductions of NOx detected from space, Geophys. Res. Lett show in what follows that a reduction in NOx emissions was in fact observed by the Ozone Monitoring

  11. Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods , F. Leipold1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduction of NOx by plasma-assisted methods A. Fateev1 , F. Leipold1 , Y. Kusano1 , B. Stenum1 , H acid rain and ozone production when it is released into the air. Reduction of NOx in the exhaust gas-assisted techniques for NOx-reduction: direct treatment of exhaust gases by plasma, injection of N atoms and injection

  12. REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 0121 NOx(g/gal) Truck Number Highway Arterial Comparison of Trucks: Fuel-Based NO Emission Rates NOx emissions are substantially lower than Truck 5715. 1999 2005 2007 2009 2010 Fuel-Based Emission

  13. Dual nitrate isotopes in dry deposition: Utility for partitioning NOx source contributions to landscape nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    NOx emission sources. d15 N values in dry and wet fractions are highest at the westernmost sites and lowest at the easternmost sites, and stationary source NOx emissions (e.g., power plants and incinerators values in winter than summer. Seasonal variations in stationary source NOx emissions appear

  14. Constraints on surface NOx emissions by assimilating satellite observations of multiple species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constraints on surface NOx emissions by assimilating satellite observations of multiple species; published 6 September 2013. [1] Surface NOx emissions are estimated by a combined assimilation of satellite for species other than NO2 provides additional constraints on the NOx emissions by adjusting

  15. The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow CH CH4/air premixed flames on the extinction limits and the characteristics of NOx emission and NOx emission characteristics in ultra-lean pre- mixed flames. The extinction characteristics

  16. NOx emissions in n-heptane/air partially premixed flames Hongshe Xue, Suresh K. Aggarwal*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    NOx emissions in n-heptane/air partially premixed flames Hongshe Xue, Suresh K. Aggarwal; accepted 6 November 2002 Abstract NOx emissions in n-heptane/air partially premixed flames (PPFs) and equivalence ratio ( ) on NOx emissions are characterized for conditions in which the flame contains two

  17. Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Paul

    Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data Yuxuan X. Wang to constrain estimates of Asian emissions of CO and NOx. A priori emissions are based on a detailed bottom emissions of CO and NOx, respectively, distributed heterogeneously, with the largest adjustments required

  18. Intercontinental influence of NOx and CO emissions on particulate matter air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mickley, Loretta J.

    Intercontinental influence of NOx and CO emissions on particulate matter air quality Eric M emissions and hence already high levels of PM. US NOx and CO emissions increase annual mean PM in northern in China it is mostly as nitrate. East Asian NOx and CO emissions have a weaker intercontinental influence

  19. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI

  20. Effect of propene on the remediation of NOx from engine exhausts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    exhausts has been investigated in recent years due to its potential for remediating NOx in emissions. INTRODUCTION Increasingly stringent regulations on the emission levels of NOx in automotive exhausts has led99FL-472 Effect of propene on the remediation of NOx from engine exhausts Rajesh Dorai Department

  1. Late summer changes in burning conditions in the boreal regions and their implications for NOx and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honrath, Richard E.

    in August-September (2.8 Â 10Ŕ3 mol molŔ1 ), indicating that NOx/CO emission ratios declined significantly. Emissions of CO and NOx from North American boreal fires were estimated using the Boreal Wildland Fire in the boreal regions and their implications for NOx and CO emissions from boreal fires, J. Geophys. Res., 113

  2. Hydrogen peroxide-producing NADH oxidase (nox-1) from Lactococcus lactis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen peroxide-producing NADH oxidase (nox-1) from Lactococcus lactis Rongrong Jiang and Andreas applied the sequence comparison-based approach to develop a novel hydrogen peroxide-forming NADH oxidase (nox-1) from Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that reduces oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The nox-1 gene

  3. Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldajani, Mansour A.

    Influence of combustion parameters on NOx production in an industrial boiler M.A. Habib a,*, M; accepted 14 April 2007 Available online 24 June 2007 Abstract NOx formation during the combustion process occurs mainly through the oxidation of nitrogen in the combustion air (thermal NOx) and through oxidation

  4. Manganese oxide/titania materials for removal of NOx and elemental mercury from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei Ji; Pavani M. Sreekanth; Panagiotis G. Smirniotis; Stephen W. Thiel; Neville G. Pinto [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering

    2008-07-15

    A novel catalyst for low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) using CO as reductant, MnOx supported on titania, has been shown to be effective for both elemental mercury capture and low temperature SCR. In low temperature (200{sup o}C) SCR trials using an industrially relevant space velocity (50 000 h{sup -1}) and oxygen concentration (2 vol %), nearly quantitative reduction of NOx was obtained using CO as the reductant. Fresh catalyst used as an adsorbent for elemental mercury from an inert atmosphere showed remarkable mercury capture capacity, as high as 17.4 mg/g at 200{sup o}C. The catalyst effectively captured elemental mercury after use in NOx reduction. Mercury capture efficiency was not affected by the presence of water vapor. Mercury capacity was reduced in the presence of SO{sub 2}. Manganese loading and bed temperature, which influence surface oxide composition, were found to be important factors for mercury capture. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal that the mercury is present in its oxidized form (HgO) in spent catalyst, indicating the participation of lattice oxygen of the catalyst in the reaction. These results suggest that a single-step process integrating low temperature SCR and mercury capture from flue gas might be feasible. 42 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Electrochemical NOx Sensor for Monitoring Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2008-11-14

    Increasingly stringent emissions regulations will require the development of advanced gas sensors for a variety of applications. For example, compact, inexpensive sensors are needed for detection of regulated pollutants, including hydrocarbons (HCs), CO, and NO{sub x}, in automotive exhaust. Of particular importance will be a sensor for NO{sub x} to ensure the proper operation of the catalyst system in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles. Because many emerging applications, particularly monitoring of automotive exhaust, involve operation in harsh, high-temperature environments, robust ceramic-oxide-based electrochemical sensors are a promising technology. Sensors using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen-ion-conducting electrolyte have been widely reported for both amperometric and potentiometric modes of operation. These include the well-known exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. More recently, ac impedance-based (i.e., impedance-metric) sensing techniques using YSZ have been reported for sensing water vapor, hydrocarbons, CO, and NO{sub x}. Typically small-amplitude alternating signal is applied, and the sensor response is measured at a specified frequency. Most impedance-metric techniques have used the modulus (or magnitude) at low frequencies (< 1 Hz) as the sensing signal and attribute the measured response to interfacial phenomena. Work by our group has also investigated using phase angle as the sensing signal at somewhat higher frequencies (10 Hz). The higher frequency measurements would potentially allow for reduced sampling times during sensor operation. Another potential advantage of impedance-metric NO{sub x} sensing is the similarity in response to NO and NO{sub 2} (i.e., total-NO{sub x} sensing). Potentiometric NO{sub x} sensors typically show higher sensitivity to NO2 than NO, and responses that are opposite in sign. However, NO is more stable than NO{sub 2} at temperatures > 600 C, and thermodynamic calculations predict {approx}90% NO, balance NO{sub 2}. Since automotive exhaust sensors will probably be required to operate at temperatures > 600 C, NO is the dominant component in thermodynamic equilibrium and the target NOx species. Also, the use of upstream catalysts could further promote the conversion of NO{sub x} species to NO. Therefore, the focus of current work is to investigate the response to NO. Nevertheless, minimizing the sensitivity to a variety of competing species is important in order to obtain the accuracy necessary for achieving the emission limits. Mitigating the effect of interfering gases (e.g., O{sub 2}, water vapor, HCs, etc.) is an area of current study. For impedance metric NO{sub x} sensors, our previous work has demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity to O{sub 2} may be accounted for by comparing measurements at multiple frequencies. Other strategies for compensation are also being explored, including calibration using data from existing sensors located nearby. Our current work has made significant advances in terms of developing prototype sensors more suitable for commercialization. Also, dynamometer testing has provided real-world sensor performance data that will be useful in approaching potential suppliers to whom we can transfer the technology for commercialization. The advances are a direct result of understanding the sensing mechanisms responsible for impedance-based NO{sub x} sensing and the effect of materials choice and sensor design/geometry.

  6. The Chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx Process: A Review of the Technology's Possible Application to control of NOx from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Richard

    2001-08-05

    This paper presents a review of the Thermal DeNOx process with respect to its application to control of NOx emissions from diesel engines. The chemistry of the process is discussed first in empirical and then theoretical terms. Based on this discussion the possibilities of applying the process to controlling NOx emissions from diesel engines is considered. Two options are examined, modifying the requirements of the chemistry of the Thermal DeNOx process to suit the conditions provided by diesel engines and modifying the engines to provide the conditions required by the process chemistry. While the former examination did not reveal any promising opportunities, the latter did. Turbocharged diesel engine systems in which the turbocharger is a net producer of power seem capable of providing the conditions necessary for NOx reduction via the Thermal DeNOx reaction.

  7. The development of Comprehensive Community NOx Emissions Reduction Toolkit (CCNERT) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Yong Hoon

    2004-11-15

    -17 Residential Sector?s Total Energy............................................................................. 131 Table 5-18 Comparison of Annual Electric Sales vs. Estimated Electricity Use........................ 133 Table 5-19 2001 College Station... successfully reduce the production of NOx emissions by adopting electricity efficiency programs in its buildings, another community might be equally successful by changing the mix of fuel sources used to generate electricity, which is consumed...

  8. Modeling of NOx formation in circular laminar jet flames 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siwatch, Vivek

    2007-04-25

    of air entrainment by jet depends upon the Sc number of fuel. The higher the Sc number, the higher is the air entrained which lowers the flame temperature and hence NOx formation. With increasing Sc number, flame volume increases which leads...

  9. NOx, SOx & CO{sub 2} mitigation using blended coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbe, D.

    2009-11-15

    Estimates of potential CO{sub 2} reduction achievable through the use of a mixture of bituminous and subbituminous (PRB) coals, whilst attaining NOx and SOx compliance are presented. The optimization considerations to provide satisfactory furnace, boiler and unit performance with blended coal supplies to make such operation feasible are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Catalyst Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Luo, Jinyong; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Kumar, Ashok; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Castagnola, Mario; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard ..

    2012-12-31

    Two primary NOx after-treatment technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringent NOx emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) 2007/2010 mandated limits, NOx Storage Reduction (NSR) and NH3 selective catalytic reduction (SCR); both are, in fact being commercialized for this application. However, in looking forward to 2015 and beyond with expected more stringent regulations, the continued viability of the NSR technology for controlling NOx emissions from lean-burn engines such as diesels will require at least two specific, significant and inter-related improvements. First, it is important to reduce system costs by, for example, minimizing the precious metal content while maintaining, even improving, performance and long-term stability. A second critical need for future NSR systems, as well as for NH3 SCR, will be significantly improved higher and lower temperature performance and stability. Furthermore, these critically needed improvements will contribute significantly to minimizing the impacts to fuel economy of incorporating these after-treatment technologies on lean-burn vehicles. To meet these objectives will require, at a minimum an improved scientific understanding of the following things: i) the various roles for the precious and coinage metals used in these catalysts; ii) the mechanisms for these various roles; iii) the effects of high temperatures on the active metal performance in their various roles; iv) mechanisms for higher temperature NOx storage performance for modified and/or alternative storage materials; v) the interactions between the precious metals and the storage materials in both optimum NOx storage performance and long term stability; vi) the sulfur adsorption and regeneration mechanisms for NOx reduction materials; vii) materials degradation mechanisms in CHA-based NH3 SCR catalysts. The objective of this CRADA project between PNNL and Cummins, Inc. is to develop a fundamental understanding of the above-listed issues. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of more realistic high temperature NSR catalysts, supplied by JM, are being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature. For this short summary, we will primarily highlight representative results from our recent studies of the stability of candidate high temperature NSR materials.

  11. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  12. Reversible uptake of COS, CS2 and SO2; Ionic liquids with O-alkylxanthate, O-alkylthiocarbonate, and O-alkylsulfite anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Yonker, Clement R.; Jessop, Philip G.; Phan, Lam

    2009-08-14

    Further development of CO2 binding organic liquids to capture and release carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide and sulfur dioxide. This paper investigates a brand new class of ionic liquids which have potential as chemical sensors for acid gas capture. Applications to flue gas scrubbing are discussed with an emphasis on capture and release of COS, CS2 and SO2 with amidine and guanidine bases with alcohols. Formal spectroscopic characterization is presented.

  13. Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Qiang Wang,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    Sulfur Poisoning and Regeneration of NOx Storage-Reduction Cu/K2Ti2O5 Catalyst Qiang Wang,*, Jiahua NOx through the NOx storage-reduction (NSR) process. However, its NSR performance in the presence of sulfur has not been investigated. In this article, the sulfur poisoning of the NOx storage-reduction

  14. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NOx sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NOx from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5 - $10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NOx. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650 - 700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NOx sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NOx sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NOx and oxygen sensors yields the NOx content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  15. Low NOx system for gas turbines in cogen being developed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-19

    A catalytic combustion system that reduces NOx emissions from natural-gas turbines used to generate electricity is being developed for cogeneration systems built by AES Manufacturing Services Inc., Broken Arrow, OK. Each compact unit is mounted on an enclosed semi-trailer and contains two Kawasaki turbines with shaft-driven generators and a single heat-recovery boiler. Its net output is 3 MW of electricity and more than 28,000 lb/hr of high-pressure steam. At an industrial or commercial site where electrical capacity needs exceed 3 MW, several units may be installed in parallel. Currently, AES units can control NOx to about 25 ppm with traditional steam-injection technology. The paper describes conventional firing, testing that is under way, and the companies involved.

  16. Group effects on fuel NOx emissisons from coal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadakkath, Anand Anakkara

    1991-01-01

    are significant, especially in the context of a steadily increasing energy consumption. Such explosive growth brings fresh urgency to the search for clean coal technologies that could help resolve the historical conflict between the environmental protection... coal: The control of NOx using low nitrogen fuels does not seem to be the right solution to the problem in the context of the vast amounts of coal reserves available. But methods like coal clean-up are fast developing as viable alternatives. New...

  17. ULTRA LOW NOx CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FOR IGCC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance L. Smith

    2004-03-01

    Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using PCI's two-stage (catalytic / gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage is a Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{trademark}) catalytic reactor, wherein a fuel-rich mixture contacts the catalyst and reacts while final and excess combustion air cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, wherein the catalyst cooling air mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During the reporting period, PCI successfully achieved NOx = 0.011 lbs/MMBtu at 10 atm pressure (corresponding to 2.0 ppm NOx corrected to 15% O{sub 2} dry) with near-zero CO emissions, surpassing the project goal of < 0.03 lbs/MMBtu NOx. These emissions levels were achieved at scaled (10 atm, sub-scale) baseload conditions corresponding to Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station operation on 100% syngas (no co-firing of natural gas).

  18. Ultra Low NOx Catalytic Combustion for IGCC Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrokh Etemad; Benjamin Baird; Sandeep Alavandi; William Pfefferle

    2008-03-31

    In order to meet DOE's goals of developing low-emissions coal-based power systems, PCI has further developed and adapted it's Rich-Catalytic Lean-burn (RCL{reg_sign}) catalytic reactor to a combustion system operating on syngas as a fuel. The technology offers ultra-low emissions without the cost of exhaust after-treatment, with high efficiency (avoidance of after-treatment losses and reduced diluent requirements), and with catalytically stabilized combustion which extends the lower Btu limit for syngas operation. Tests were performed in PCI's sub-scale high-pressure (10 atm) test rig, using a two-stage (catalytic then gas-phase) combustion process for syngas fuel. In this process, the first stage consists of a fuel-rich mixture reacting on a catalyst with final and excess combustion air used to cool the catalyst. The second stage is a gas-phase combustor, where the air used for cooling the catalyst mixes with the catalytic reactor effluent to provide for final gas-phase burnout and dilution to fuel-lean combustion products. During testing, operating with a simulated Tampa Electric's Polk Power Station syngas, the NOx emissions program goal of less than 0.03 lbs/MMBtu (6 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) was met. NOx emissions were generally near 0.01 lbs/MMBtu (2 ppm at 15% O{sub 2}) (PCI's target) over a range on engine firing temperatures. In addition, low emissions were shown for alternative fuels including high hydrogen content refinery fuel gas and low BTU content Blast Furnace Gas (BFG). For the refinery fuel gas increased resistance to combustor flashback was achieved through preferential consumption of hydrogen in the catalytic bed. In the case of BFG, stable combustion for fuels as low as 88 BTU/ft{sup 3} was established and maintained without the need for using co-firing. This was achieved based on the upstream catalytic reaction delivering a hotter (and thus more reactive) product to the flame zone. The PCI catalytic reactor was also shown to be active in ammonia reduction in fuel allowing potential reductions in the burner NOx production. These reductions of NOx emissions and expanded alternative fuel capability make the rich catalytic combustor uniquely situated to provide reductions in capital costs through elimination of requirements for SCR, operating costs through reduction in need for NOx abating dilution, SCR operating costs, and need for co-firing fuels allowing use of lower value but more available fuels, and efficiency of an engine through reduction in dilution flows.

  19. Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Lean Natural Gas Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Storey, John Morse; Theiss, Timothy J; Ponnusamy, Senthil; Ferguson, Harley Douglas; Williams, Aaron M; Tassitano, James B

    2007-09-01

    Distributed energy is an approach for meeting energy needs that has several advantages. Distributed energy improves energy security during natural disasters or terrorist actions, improves transmission grid reliability by reducing grid load, and enhances power quality through voltage support and reactive power. In addition, distributed energy can be efficient since transmission losses are minimized. One prime mover for distributed energy is the natural gas reciprocating engine generator set. Natural gas reciprocating engines are flexible and scalable solutions for many distributed energy needs. The engines can be run continuously or occasionally as peak demand requires, and their operation and maintenance is straightforward. Furthermore, system efficiencies can be maximized when natural gas reciprocating engines are combined with thermal energy recovery for cooling, heating, and power applications. Expansion of natural gas reciprocating engines for distributed energy is dependent on several factors, but two prominent factors are efficiency and emissions. Efficiencies must be high enough to enable low operating costs, and emissions must be low enough to permit significant operation hours, especially in non-attainment areas where emissions are stringently regulated. To address these issues the U.S. Department of Energy and the California Energy Commission launched research and development programs called Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) and Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (ARICE), respectively. Fuel efficiency and low emissions are two primary goals of these programs. The work presented here was funded by the ARES program and, thus, addresses the ARES 2010 goals of 50% thermal efficiency (fuel efficiency) and <0.1 g/bhp-hr emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx). A summary of the goals for the ARES program is given in Table 1-1. ARICE 2007 goals are 45% thermal efficiency and <0.015 g/bhp-hr NOx. Several approaches for improving the efficiency and emissions of natural gas reciprocating engines are being pursued. Approaches include: stoichiometric engine operation with exhaust gas recirculation and three-way catalysis, advanced combustion modes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, and extension of the lean combustion limit with advanced ignition concepts and/or hydrogen mixing. The research presented here addresses the technical approach of combining efficient lean spark-ignited natural gas combustion with low emissions obtained from a lean NOx trap catalyst aftertreatment system. This approach can be applied to current lean engine technology or advanced lean engines that may result from related efforts in lean limit extension. Furthermore, the lean NOx trap technology has synergy with hydrogen-assisted lean limit extension since hydrogen is produced from natural gas during the lean NOx trap catalyst system process. The approach is also applicable to other lean engines such as diesel engines, natural gas turbines, and lean gasoline engines; other research activities have focused on those applications. Some commercialization of the technology has occurred for automotive applications (both diesel and lean gasoline engine vehicles) and natural gas turbines for stationary power. The research here specifically addresses barriers to commercialization of the technology for large lean natural gas reciprocating engines for stationary power. The report presented here is a comprehensive collection of research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on lean NOx trap catalysis for lean natural gas reciprocating engines. The research was performed in the Department of Energy's ARES program from 2003 to 2007 and covers several aspects of the technology. All studies were conducted at ORNL on a Cummins C8.3G+ natural gas engine chosen based on industry input to simulate large lean natural gas engines. Specific technical areas addressed by the research include: NOx reduction efficiency, partial oxidation and reforming chemistry, and the effects of sulfur poisons on the partial oxidation

  20. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribeiro, Fabio; Delgass, Nick; Gounder, Rajmani; Schneider, William F.; Miller, Jeff; Yezerets, Aleksey; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken

    2014-12-09

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compounds contribute to acid rain and photochemical smog and have been linked to respiratory ailments. NOx emissions regulations continue to tighten, driving the need for high performance, robust control strategies. The goal of this project is to develop a deep, molecular level understanding of the function of Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34 materials that catalyze the SCR of NOx with NH3.

  1. Deactivation mechanisms of NOx storage materials arising from thermal aging and sulfur poisoning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presents the reliationship between Pt particle size and NOx storage performance over model catalysts. Novel reaction protocol designed to decouple effects of thermal deactivation and incomplete desulfation.

  2. NOx Uptake Mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szailer, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-11-01

    The NOx adsorption mechanism on Pt/BaO/Al2O3 catalysts was investigated by performing NOx storage/reduction cycles, NO2 adsorption and NO + O2 adsorption on 2%Pt/(x)BaO/Al2O3 (x = 2, 8 and 20 wt%) catalysts. NOx uptake profiles on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 at 523 K show complete uptake behavior for almost 5 min, and then the NOx level starts gradually increasing with time and it reaches 75% of the inlet NOx concentration after 30 min time-on-stream. Although this catalyst shows fairly high NOx conversion at 523 K, only ~ 2.4 wt% out of 20 wt% BaO is converted to Ba(NO3)2. Adsorption studies by using NO2 and NO + O2 suggest two different NOx adsorption mechanisms. The NO2 uptake profile on 2%Pt/20%BaO/Al2O3 shows the absence of a complete NOx uptake period at the beginning of adsorption and the overall NOx uptake is controlled by the gas-solid equilibrium between NO2 and BaO/Ba(NO3)2 phase. When we use NO + O2, complete initial NOx uptake occurs and the time it takes to convert ~ 4 % of BaO to Ba(NO3)2 is independent of the NO concentration. These NOx uptake characteristics suggest that the NO + O2 reaction on the surface of Pt particles produces NO2 that is subsequently transferred to the neighboring BaO phase by spill over. At the beginning of the NOx uptake, this spill-over process is very fast and so it is able to provide complete NOx storage. However, the NOx uptake by this mechanism slows down as BaO in the vicinity of Pt particles are converted to Ba(NO3)2. The formation of Ba(NO3)2 around the Pt particles results in the development of a diffusion barrier for NO2, and increases the probability of NO2 desorption and consequently, the beginning of NOx slip. As NOx uptake by NO2 spill-over mechanism slows down due to the diffusion barrier formation, the rate and extent of NO2 uptake are determined by the diffusion rate of nitrate ions into the BaO bulk, which, in turn, is determined by the gas phase NO2 concentration.

  3. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  4. Reduce NOx and Improve Energy Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program NOx and Energy Assessment Tool (NxEAT) can help petroleum refining and chemical plants improve energy efficiency.

  5. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deer08ardanese.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low...

  6. Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock, and with Ultra-Low NOX Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced engines using HCCI or HCCI-like combustion can provide both high efficiencies and very low emissions of NOX and PM

  7. Impact of Lubricant Formulation on the Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitacre, S. D.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the impact of lubricant formulation on the performance of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Adsorber Catalysts, including background/motivation for study, experimental design, and results.

  8. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

  9. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina: Part 1. Plasma assisted NOx reduction over NaY and Al2O3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Ilsop S.; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    The role of plasma processing on NOx reduction over gammma-alumina and a basic zeolite, NaY was examined. During the plasma treatment NO is oxidized to NO2 and propylene is partially oxidized to CO, CO2, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum NOx conversion was 70% between 180 and 230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. For both catalysts a simultaneous decrease in NOx and aldehydes concentrations was observed, which suggests that aldehyde may be important components for NOx reduction in plasma-treated exhaust.

  10. Controlling NOx to Obtain Offsets or Meet Compliance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mincy, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    )( /' ppm NO x"0 > 60 2: 60 o )( 20 z ::'! / o 400 z / 0- )( 40 10 @; "--- 20 /0 z o-f'---.,...--.,...--,...---,....--+ o20 o 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR) 0t---"T""'---,----,.---..,--"'"""'" Normalized... z 20 50 O~--...,..---.,......--.....,...---.f_ o o 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR) Figures (, and 7 Excellent NO x reduction was achlcvcd in petrochemical wastc incinerator under many conditions When NOxOUT was applied...

  11. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  12. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-01-01

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  13. SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Baltimore, MD); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1993-01-19

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  14. SOX/NOX sorbent and process of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

    1995-05-09

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths. 3 figs.

  15. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Coraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1996-12-17

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  16. Sox/Nox Sorbent And Process Of Use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziebarth, Michael S. (Columbia, MD); Hager, Michael J. (Caraopolis, PA); Beeckman, Jean W. (Columbia, MD); Plecha, Stanislaw (Baltimore, MD)

    1995-06-27

    An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 650.degree. C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and spray dried to form the stabilized spheroidal alumina particles having a particle size of less than 500 microns. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

  17. Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|Programs |ChartPresentations:UlJmately , the1 DOE Hydrogen andO2/NOx

  18. Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Emily M.

    burners limit the availability of oxygen to nitrogen in the fuel and have been employed in many EGU boilers. However, low NOx burners do not necessarily reduce NOx emissions sufficiently to meet stringent

  19. Development of a Low NOx Burner System for Coal Fired Power Plants Using Coal and Biomass Blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Patsky O.

    2010-01-16

    The low NOx burner (LNB) is the most cost effective technology used in coal-fired power plants to reduce NOx. Conventional (unstaged) burners use primary air for transporting particles and swirling secondary air to create recirculation of hot gases...

  20. Experimental and numerical analysis of isothermal turbulent flows in interacting low NOx burners in coal-fired furnaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cvoro, Valentina

    Coal firing power stations represent the second largest source of global NOx emissions. The current practice of predicting likely exit NOx levels from multi-burner furnaces on the basis of single burner test rig data has ...

  1. Water-induced morphology changes in BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Wang, Xianqin; Hanson, Jonathan; Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Peden, Charles HF

    2007-03-07

    Exposure of NO2-saturated BaO/?-Al2O3 NOx storage materials to H2O vapour results in the conversion of surface nitrates to Ba(NO3)2 crystallites, causing dramatic morphological changes in the Ba-containing phase, demonstrating a role for water in affecting the NOx storage/reduction properties of these materials.

  2. Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benz, R,; Staedter, M.

    2008-01-01

    -1 Low Carbon Footprint and Ultra Low NOx Boilers through Efficiency Gain Robert Benz Marcel Staedter President Project Manager... / Low Carbon, Ultra Low NOx through Efficiency Gain where y denotes the mole fraction of excess oxygen. The presence of nitrogen and excess oxygen radicals in this hot combustion environment promotes the formation...

  3. IV CESPC, August 21 -25, 2011, Zlatibor, Serbia LIMITATIONS OF NOX REMOVAL BY PULSED CORONA REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebert, Ute

    ]. Together with other design rules this ensures proper EMC (electro-magnetic compatibility) [4]. The NOx]) concentration can be reduced to a few ppm. Nitric acids are formed as main oxidation products. To reduce, NOx production and removal at a low level of NO concentration in air in a pulsed corona reactor

  4. Inversion of surface NOx anthropogenic emission fluxes in the Paris area during the ESQUIF campaign.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    1 Inversion of surface NOx anthropogenic emission fluxes in the Paris area during the ESQUIF OF SURFACE EMISSIONS #12;2 Abstract. An inverse modeling approach has been developed to optimize urban NOx emission fluxes. Based on the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE and its adjoint, the new methodology

  5. Numerical Study of NOx Emissions from n-Heptane and 1-Heptene Counterflow Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Numerical Study of NOx Emissions from n-Heptane and 1-Heptene Counterflow Flames Xiao Fu, Stephen that the emissions of CO, NOx, and particulate matter are measurably reduced from biodiesel combustion compared and process used to make the fuel. Consequently, their atomization, combustion, and emission characteristics

  6. Development of Compact Gaseous Sensors with Internal Reference for Monitoring O2 and NOx in Combustion Environments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Compact sensors have been developed to allow for real-time monitoring of O2 and NOx during combustion.

  7. Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Stand-alone urea SCR system was developed for marine diesel engines and showed a 50-percent reduction in NOx.

  8. Modeling of NOx Destruction Options for INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste Vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Arthur

    2001-09-01

    Off-gas NOx concentrations in the range of 1-5 mol% are expected as a result of the proposed vitrification of sodium-bearing waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An existing kinetic model for staged combustion (originally developed for NOx abatement from the calcination process) was updated for application to vitrification offgas. In addition, two new kinetic models were developed to assess the feasibility of using selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) or high-temperature alone for NOx abatement. Each of the models was developed using the Chemkin code. Results indicate that SNCR is a viable option, reducing NOx levels to below 1000 ppmv. In addition, SNCR may be capable of simultaneously reducing CO emissions to below 100 ppmv. Results for using high-temperature alone were not as promising, indicating that a minimum NOx concentration of 3950 ppmv is achievable at 3344°F.

  9. Advances in potassium catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.; Linares-Solano, A.; de Lecea, C.S.M. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    The research work conducted in our group concerning the study of the potassium-catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials is presented. The importance of the different variables affecting the NOx-carbon reactions is discussed, e.g. carbon porosity, coal rank, potassium loading, influence of the binder used, and effect of the gas composition. The catalyst loading is the main feature affecting the selectivity for NOx reduction against O{sub 2} combustion. The NOx reduction without important combustion in O{sub 2} occurs between 350 and 475{sup o}C in the presence of the catalyst. The presence of H{sub 2}O in the gas mixture enhances NOx reduction at low carbon conversions, but as the reaction proceeds, it decreases as the selectivity does. The presence of CO{sub 2} diminishes the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. SO{sub 2} completely inhibits the catalytic activity of potassium due to sulfate formation.

  10. Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , coming into force in September 2014, set a 56 % reduction of NOx emissions compared to Euro stage V (80 trap technology, also called NOx Storage and Reduction (NSR), was first developed by Toyota in 199411 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration

  11. Multi-component Zirconia-Titania Mixed Oxides: Catalytic Materials with Unprecedented Performance in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx with NH3 after harsh hydrothermal ageing. Nathalie MARCOTTE1#, Bernard catalytic reduction. 1. Introduction. The abatement of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM% H2O, ~ 1050 K) is a prerequisite for deNOx catalysts of tomorrow in Diesel exhaust gas treatment

  12. Non-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffre, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) processes can be improved for NOx reduction by a Non- Thermal Plasma. European norm (standard specification) EURO 6 im- poses a reduction of 50% on automotive NOx emissionsNon-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffr´e, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual Ecole Centrale de

  13. Ozone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3 to a wide span of NOx and VOC emission changes. Properly constrained and well-evaluated modelsOzone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating O3-NOx-VOC sensitivity Rahul A. Zaveri,1 Carl M. Berkowitz,1

  14. Anthropogenic NOx emissions alter the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) for Quercus cerris stands under Mediterranean climate conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    Anthropogenic NOx emissions alter the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) for Quercus cerris Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, United Kingdom NOx emissions enhance WUEi for a Mediterranean tree species rings for assessing changes in WUEi; while the influence of climate and NOx emission was explored

  15. Inverse modeling of NOx emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation of the second-order

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallet, Vivien

    Inverse modeling of NOx emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation time distribution of NOx emissions is robust. Citation: Que´lo, D., V. Mallet, and B. Sportisse (2005), Inverse modeling of NOx emissions at regional scale over northern France: Preliminary investigation

  16. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  17. Effect of K loadings on nitrate formation/decomposition and on NOx storage performance of K-based NOx storage-reduction catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Haiyang; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-10-25

    We have investigated nitrate formation and decomposition processes, and measured NOx storage performance on Pt-K2O/Al2O3 catalysts as a function of potassium loading. After NO2 adsorption at room temperature, ionic and bidentate nitrates were observed by fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The ratio of the former to the latter species increased with increasing potassium loading up to 10 wt%, and then stayed almost constant with additional K, demonstrating a clear dependence of loading on the morphology of the K species. Although both K2O(10)/Al2O3 and K2O(20)/Al2O3 samples have similar nitrate species after NO2 adsorption, the latter has more thermally stable nitrate species as evidenced by FTIR and NO2 temperature programmed desorption (TPD) results. With regard to NOx storage performance, the temperature of maximum NOx uptake (Tmax) is 573 K up to a potassium loading of 10 wt%. As the potassium loading increases from 10 wt% to 20 wt%, Tmax shifted from 573 K to 723 K. Moreover, the amount of NO uptake (38 cm3 NOx/g catal) at Tmax increased more than three times, indicating that efficiency of K in storing NOx is enhanced significantly at higher temperature, in good agreement with the NO2 TPD and FTIR results. Thus, a combination of characterization and NOx storage performance results demonstrates an unexpected effect of potassium loading on nitrate formation and decomposition processes; results important for developing Pt-K2O/Al2O3 for potential applications as high temperature NOx storage-reduction catalysts.

  18. SELECTIVE NOx RECIRCULATION FOR STATIONARY LEAN-BURN NATURAL GAS ENGINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Chamila Tissera; Matt Swartz; Emre Tatli; Ramprabhu Vellaisamy

    2005-01-01

    The research program conducted at the West Virginia University Engine and Emissions Research Laboratory (EERL) is working towards the verification and optimization of an approach to remove nitric oxides from the exhaust gas of lean burn natural gas engines. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under contract number: DE-FC26-02NT41608. Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves three main steps. First, NOx is adsorbed from the exhaust stream, followed by periodic desorption from the aftertreatment medium. Finally the desorbed NOx is passed back into the intake air stream and fed into the engine, where a percentage of the NOx is decomposed. This reporting period focuses on the NOx decomposition capability in the combustion process. Although researchers have demonstrated NOx reduction with SNR in other contexts, the proposed program is needed to further understand the process as it applies to lean burn natural gas engines. SNR is in support of the Department of Energy goal of enabling future use of environmentally acceptable reciprocating natural gas engines through NOx reduction under 0.1 g/bhp-hr. The study of decomposition of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) during combustion in the cylinder was conducted on a 1993 Cummins L10G 240 hp lean burn natural gas engine. The engine was operated at different air/fuel ratios, and at a speed of 800 rpm to mimic a larger bore engine. A full scale dilution tunnel and analyzers capable of measuring NOx, CO{sub 2}, CO, HC concentrations were used to characterize the exhaust gas. Commercially available nitric oxide (NO) was used to mimic the NOx stream from the desorption process through a mass flow controller and an injection nozzle. The same quantity of NOx was injected into the intake and exhaust line of the engine for 20 seconds at various steady state engine operating points. NOx decomposition rates were obtained by averaging the peak values at each set point minus the baseline and finding the ratio between the injected NO amounts. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO quantity and engine operating points affected the NOx decomposition rates of the natural gas engine. A highest NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine. A separate exploratory tests conducted with a gasoline engine with a low air/fuel ratio yielded results that suggested, that high NOx decomposition rates may be possible if a normally lean burn engine were operated at conditions closer to stoichiometric, with high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for a brief period of time during the NOx decomposition phase and with a wider range of air/fuel ratios. Chemical kinetic model predictions using CHEMKIN were performed to relate the experimental data with the established rate and equilibrium models. NOx decomposition rates from 35% to 42% were estimated using the CHEMKIN software. This provided insight on how to maximize NOx decomposition rates for a large bore engine. In the future, the modeling will be used to examine the effect of higher NO{sub 2}/NO ratios that are associated with lower speed and larger bore lean burn operation.

  19. Effects of Coaxial Air on Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Diffusion Flame Length and NOx Emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Chen, R.-H.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-10-01

    Turbulent nitrogen-diluted hydrogen jet diffusion flames with high velocity coaxial air flows are investigated for their NOx emission levels. This study is motivated by the DOE turbine program’s goal of achieving 2 ppm dry low NOx from turbine combustors running on nitrogen-diluted high-hydrogen fuels. In this study, effects of coaxial air velocity and momentum are varied while maintaining low overall equivalence ratios to eliminate the effects of recirculation of combustion products on flame lengths, flame temperatures, and resulting NOx emission levels. The nature of flame length and NOx emission scaling relationships are found to vary, depending on whether the combined fuel and coaxial air jet is fuel-rich or fuel-lean. In the absence of differential diffusion effects, flame lengths agree well with predicted trends, and NOx emissions levels are shown to decrease with increasing coaxial air velocity, as expected. Normalizing the NOx emission index with a flame residence time reveals some interesting trends, and indicates that a global flame strain based on the difference between the fuel and coaxial air velocities, as is traditionally used, is not a viable parameter for scaling the normalized NOx emissions of coaxial air jet diffusion flames.

  20. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  1. Global NOx Measurements in Turbulent Nitrogen-Diluted Hydrogen Jet Flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiland, N.T.; Strakey, P.A.

    2007-03-01

    Turbulent hydrogen diffusion flames diluted with nitrogen are currently being studied to assess their ability to achieve the DOE Turbine Program’s aggressive emissions goal of 2 ppm NOx in a hydrogen-fueled IGCC gas turbine combustor. Since the unstrained adiabatic flame temperatures of these diluted flames are not low enough to eliminate thermal NOx formation the focus of the current work is to study how the effects of flame residence time and global flame strain can be used to help achieve the stated NOx emissions goal. Dry NOx measurements are presented as a function of jet diameter nitrogen dilution and jet velocity for a turbulent hydrogen/nitrogen jet issuing from a thin-lipped tube in an atmospheric pressure combustor. The NOx emission indices from these experiments are normalized by the flame residence time to ascertain the effects of global flame strain and fuel Lewis Number on the NOx emissions. In addition dilute hydrogen diffusion flame experiments were performed in a high-pressure combustor at 2 4 and 8 atm. The NOx emission data from these experiments are discussed as well as the results from a Computational Fluid Dynamics modeling effort currently underway to help explain the experimental data.

  2. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  3. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-06-30

    The primary focus for the project during the quarter was shakedown testing of the large-scale coal preheater prototype in the CBTF with non-caking PRB coal. Additional pilot-scale tests were conducted in the PSCF in support of developing a preheating system design suitable for use with caking coals. Thirty-two additional pilot tests were conducted during the quarter with caking coal. These tests further evaluated the use of the air-bleed and indirect air-cooled liner designs to reduce or eliminate combustor plugging with caking coal. The air-bleed configurations tested used air injection holes perpendicular to the liner's longitudinal axis with the number, size and air flow though the air-bleed holes varied to determine the effect on combustor plugging. The indirect cooling configurations tested included a stainless steel liner with spiral fins in the annular space between the liner and the combustor wall, and a silicon carbide liner without fins. Continuous pilot operation was maintained for up to 30 minutes at a coal feed rate of 50 lb/h with the air-bleed liner. The best result achieved was for the stainless steel indirect air-cooled liner with 20 minutes of continuous operation at 126 lb/h of coal followed by an additional 20 minutes at 150 lb/h. The NOx results from these continue to indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with caking coal than with the PRB coal tested. The installation of the large-scale prototype coal preheater for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and shakedown testing with natural gas and PRB coal started during the quarter. Stable operation of the coal system, combustor and burner were achieved at coal feed rates up to 6000 lb/h (50 MMBtu/h).

  4. Reactivity of Pt/BaO/Al?O? for NOx Storage/Reduction: Effects of Pt and Ba Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Szailer, Tamas; Peden, Charles HF

    2005-02-01

    The control of NOx (NO and NO?) emissions from combustion processes, including vehicle engines, remains a challenge particularly for systems operating at high air-to-fuel ratios (so-called ‘lean’ combustion). The current “3-way”, precious metal-based catalytic converters are unable to selectively reduce NOx with reductants (e.g., CO and residual unburned hydrocarbon) in the presence of excess O?. In the last few years, worldwide environmental regulations regarding NOx emissions from diesel engines (inherently operated ‘lean’) have become significantly more stringent resulting in considerable research efforts to reduce NOx under the highly oxidizing engine operation conditions. Urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction have been explored as possible technologies. In recent years, alkaline and alkaline earth oxide-based NOx storage/reduction catalysts (especially BaO/Al?O?) have been developed, and have shown promising activities for lean-NOx reduction [1,2].

  5. GMMA 106 20142015 1 / 27 Emission de NOx lors la combustion d'un moteur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribatet, Mathieu

    GMMA 106 2014­2015 ­ 1 / 27 ´Emission de NOx lors la combustion d'un moteur (r´egression semi air/ethanol ConcentrationdeNOx Figure 1: ´Emission d'oxide nitrique (NO) et de dioxide de nitrog NOx C E 1 3.741 12.0 0.907 2 2.295 12.0 0.761 3 1.498 12.0 1.108 . . 86 0.370 15.0 0.562 87 0.530 18

  6. NOx reduction technology for natural-gas-industry prime movers. Special report, August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, C.

    1990-08-01

    The applicability, performance, and costs are summarized for state-of-the-art NOx emission controls for prime movers used by the natural gas industry to drive pipeline compressors. Nearly 7700 prime movers of 300 hp or greater are in operation at compressor stations. NOx control technologies for application to reciprocating engines are catalytic reduction, engine modification, exhaust gas recirculation, and pre-stratified charge. Technologies discussed for application to gas turbines are catalytic reduction, water or steam injection, and low-NOx combustors.

  7. Economics of pollution trading for SO{sub 2} and NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans; Alan Krupnick; Karen Palmer; Russell Toth

    2005-03-15

    For years economists have urged policymakers to use market-based approaches such as cap-and-trade programs or emission taxes to control pollution. The sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) allowance market created by Title IV of the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments represents the first real test of the wisdom of economists' advice. Subsequent urban and regional applications of NOx emission allowance trading took shape in the 1990s in the United States, culminating in a second large experiment in emission trading in the eastern United States that began in 2003. This paper provides an overview of the economic rationale for emission trading and a description of the major US programs for SO{sub 2} and nitrogen oxides. These programs are evaluated along measures of performance including cost savings, environmental integrity, and incentives for technological innovation. The authors offer lessons for the design of future programs including, most importantly, those reducing carbon dioxide. 128 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Time and location differentiated NOX control in competitive electricity markets using cap-and-trade mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Due to variations in weather and atmospheric chemistry, the timing and location of nitrogen oxide (NOX) reductions determine their effectiveness in reducing ground-level ozone, which adversely impacts human health. Electric ...

  9. Calculation of NOx Emissions Reductions From Energy Efficient Residential Building Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.

    2006-05-23

    . These areas face severe sanctions if attainment is not reached by 2007. This paper provides an overview of the procedures that have been developed and used to calculate the electricity savings and NOx reductions from code-compliant residential construction...

  10. Demonstration of a Low-NOx Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-02-01

    Results of a Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle engine research project: A Caterpillar C-12 natural gas engine with Clean Air Power Dual-Fuel technology and exhaust gas recirculation demonstrated low NOx and PM emissions.

  11. A design strategy applied to sulfur resistant lean NOxĚł automotive catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Hairong

    2005-01-01

    Catalyst poisoning due to sulfur compounds derived from fuel sulfur presents a major challenge, intractable thus far, to development of many advanced technologies for automotive catalysts such as the lean NOx, trap. Under ...

  12. NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx Traps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Research to identify most promising catalytic formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx

  13. Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-ŤOBC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for Retrofit of In-Use Trucks Diesel NOx-PM Reduction with Fuel Economy Increase by IMET-OBC-DPF + Hydrated-EGR System for...

  14. Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    Consequences of propene and propane on plasma remediation of NOx Rajesh Doraia) Department exhausts with hydrocarbons propane (C3H8) and propene (C3H6) has been investigated. In general

  15. Reduction of NOx Emissions in Alamo Area Council of Government Projects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Zhu, Y.; Im, P.

    2004-01-01

    This reports summarizes the electricity, natural gas and NOx emissions reductions from retrofit measures reported as part of the AACOG emissions reduction effort. The electricity and natural gas savings were collected by ...

  16. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-09-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx results with caking coal are promising, with NOx as low as 150 ppmv at exit oxygen levels of 4% and higher. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design is nearing completion. Design of the caking coal version of the unit continues with additional pilot testing in support of this design expected. GTI and RPI are expediting the fabrication of the 100 MMBtu/h PRB unit in order to start testing in early- to mid-December. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) is nearing completion. As of mid-September, this activity was 95% complete.

  17. Mechanism of Na2SO4-induced corrosion of molybdenum containing nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. I. Corrosion in atmospheres containing O2 only. II. Corrosion in O2 + SO2 atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, A.K.

    1986-05-01

    Kinetics of the Na2SO4-induced corrosion of the molybdenum-containing nickel-base superalloys, B-1900 and Udimet 700, coated with Na2MoO4, has been studied in oxygen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from 750 to 950 C. Because the gas turbine atmosphere always contains some SO2 and SO3, the effect of atmospheric SO2 content on corrosion of Udimet-700 has also been studied. It was found that in the O2 atmosphere the melt in the catastrophic corrosion phase consists of Na2MoO4 plus MoO3, with the onset of the catastrophic corrosion coinciding with the appearance of MoO3. In the presence of low levels of atmospheric SO2 (below 0.24 percent), the melt during catastrophic corrosion contains, in addition to Na2MoO4 and MoO3, some quantities of Na2SO4. At the levels of SO2 above 1 percent, no catastrophic corrosion was observed. At these SO2 levels, internal sulfidation appears to be the primary mode of degradation. 40 references.

  18. Method of preparing doped oxide catalysts for lean NOx exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-09

    The lean NOx catalyst includes a substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina deposited on the substrate and a metal or metal oxide promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium cerium, and vanadium, and oxides thereof, and any combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between 80 and 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to about 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  19. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  20. Discovery of New NOx Reduction Catalysts for CIDI Engines Using Combinatorial Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blint, Richard J

    2005-08-15

    This project for the discovery of new lean reduction NOx catalysts was initiated on August 16th, 2002 and is now into its fourth year. Several materials have already been identified as NOx reduction catalysts for possible future application. NOx reduction catalysts are a critical need in the North American vehicle market since these catalysts are needed to enable both diesels and lean gasoline engines to meet the 2007-2010 emission standards. Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a preferred technology since it requires no infrastructure changes (as may be expected for urea SCR) and most likely has the simplest engine control strategy of the three proposed NOx reduction approaches. The use of fast throughput techniques and informatics greatly enhances the possibility of discovering new NOx reduction catalysts. Using fast throughput techniques this project has already screened over 3000 new materials and evaluates hundreds of new materials a month. Evaluating such a high number of new materials puts this approach into a very different paradigm than previous discovery approaches for new NOx reduction catalysts. With so much data on materials it is necessary to use statistical techniques to identify the potential catalysts and these statistical techniques are needed to optimize compositions of the multi-component materials that are identified under the program as possible new lean NOx catalysts. Several new materials have conversions in excess of 80% at temperatures above 300 C. That is more than twice the activity of previous HC SCR materials. These materials are candidates for emission control on heavy-duty systems (i.e.; over 8500 pounds gross weight). Tests of one of the downselected materials on an engine dynamometer show NOx reductions greater than 80% under some conditions even though the net NOx reductions on the HWFET and the US06 cycles were relatively low. The program is scheduled to continue until the end of the 2006 calendar year. Work in the final year will focus on continued discovery and identity of candidate materials, and also on refining the engine operating strategies to increase NOx reduction over a full engine cycle.

  1. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  2. Selective NOx Recirculation for Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigel Clark; Gregory Thompson; Richard Atkinson; Richard Turton; Chamila Tissera; Emre Tatli; Andy Zimmerman

    2005-12-28

    Selective NOx Recirculation (SNR) involves cooling the engine exhaust gas and then adsorbing the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from the exhaust stream, followed by the periodic desorption of NOx. By returning the desorbed, concentrated NOx into the engine intake and through the combustion chamber, a percentage of the NOx is decomposed during the combustion process. An initial study of NOx decomposition during lean-burn combustion was concluded in 2004 using a 1993 Cummins L10G 240hp natural gas engine. It was observed that the air/fuel ratio, injected NO (nitric oxide) quantity and engine operating points affected NOx decomposition rates of the engine. Chemical kinetic modeling results were also used to determine optimum NOx decomposition operating points and were published in the 2004 annual report. A NOx decomposition rate of 27% was measured from this engine under lean-burn conditions while the software model predicted between 35-42% NOx decomposition for similar conditions. A later technology 1998 Cummins L10G 280hp natural gas engine was procured with the assistance of Cummins Inc. to replace the previous engine used for 2005 experimental research. The new engine was equipped with an electronic fuel management system with closed-loop control that provided a more stable air/fuel ratio control and improved the repeatability of the tests. The engine was instrumented with an in-cylinder pressure measurement system and electronic controls, and was adapted to operate over a range of air/fuel ratios. The engine was connected to a newly commissioned 300hp alternating current (AC) motoring dynamometer. The second experimental campaign was performed to acquire both stoichiometric and slightly rich (0.97 lambda ratio) burn NOx decomposition rates. Effects of engine load and speed on decomposition were quantified, but Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) was not varied independently. Decomposition rates of up to 92% were demonstrated. Following recommendations at the 2004 ARES peer review meeting at Argonne National Laboratories, in-cylinder pressure was measured to calculate engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) changes due to NOx injections and EGR variations, and to observe conditions in the cylinder. The third experimental campaign gathered NOx decomposition data at 800, 1200 and 1800 rpm. EGR was added via an external loop, with EGR ranging from zero to the point of misfire. The air/fuel ratio was set at both stoichiometric and slightly rich conditions, and NOx decomposition rates were calculated for each set of runs. Modifications were made to the engine exhaust manifold to record individual exhaust temperatures. The three experimental campaigns have provided the data needed for a comprehensive model of NOx decomposition during the combustion process, and data have confirmed that there was no significant impact of injected NO on in-cylinder pressure. The NOx adsorption system provided by Sorbent Technologies Corp. (Twinsburg, OH), comprised a NOx adsorber, heat exchanger and a demister. These components were connected to the engine, and data were gathered to show both the adsorption of NOx from the engine, and desorption of NOx from the carbon-based sorbent material back into the engine intake, using a heated air stream. In order to quantify the NOx adsorption/desorption characteristics of the sorbent material, a bench top adsorption system was constructed and instrumented with thermocouples and the system output was fed into a NOx analyzer. The temperature of this apparatus was controlled while gathering data on the characteristics of the sorbent material. These data were required for development of a system model. Preliminary data were gathered in 2005, and will continue in early 2006. To assess the economic benefits of the proposed SNR technology the WVU research team has been joined in the last quarter by Dr Richard Turton (WVU-Chemical Engineering), who is modeling, sizing and costing the major components. The tasks will address modeling and preliminary design of the heat exchanger, demister and NOx sorbent chamber s

  3. Cyclone Boiler Field Testing of Advanced Layered NOx Control Technology in Sioux Unit 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marc A. Cremer; Bradley R. Adams

    2006-06-30

    A four week testing program was completed during this project to assess the ability of the combination of deep staging, Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) to reduce NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MBtu in a cyclone fired boiler. The host site for the tests was AmerenUE's Sioux Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone fired boiler located near St. Louis, MO. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team including AmerenUE, FuelTech Inc., and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). This layered approach to NOx reduction is termed the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA). Installed RRI and SNCR port locations were guided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based modeling conducted by REI. During the parametric testing, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were achieved consistently from overfire air (OFA)-only baseline NOx emissions of 0.25 lb/MBtu or less, when firing the typical 80/20 fuel blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Illinois No.6 coals. From OFA-only baseline levels of 0.20 lb/MBtu, NOx emissions of 0.12 lb/MBtu were also achieved, but at significantly reduced urea flow rates. Under the deeply staged conditions that were tested, RRI performance was observed to degrade as higher blends of Illinois No.6 were used. NOx emissions achieved with ALTA while firing a 60/40 blend were approximately 0.15 lb/MBtu. NOx emissions while firing 100% Illinois No.6 were approximately 0.165 lb/MBtu. Based on the performance results of these tests, economics analyses of the application of ALTA to a nominal 500 MW cyclone unit show that the levelized cost to achieve 0.15 lb/MBtu is well below 75% of the cost of a state of the art SCR.

  4. Nitrogen isotopes as indicators of NOx source contributions to atmospheric nitrate deposition across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.M. Elliott; C. Kendall; S.D. Wanke; D.A. Burns; E.W. Boyer; K. Harlin; D.J. Bain; T.J. Butler

    2007-11-15

    Global inputs of NOx are dominated by fossil fuel combustion from both stationary and vehicular sources and far exceed natural NOx sources. However, elucidating NOx sources to any given location remains a difficult challenge, despite the need for this information to develop sound regulatory and mitigation strategies. We present results from a regional-scale study of nitrogen isotopes (15N) in wet nitrate deposition across 33 sites in the midwestern and northeastern U.S. We demonstrate that spatial variations in 15N are strongly correlated with NOx emissions from surrounding stationary sources and additionally that 15N is more strongly correlated with surrounding stationary source NOx emissions than pH, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, or NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentrations. Although emission inventories indicate that vehicle emissions are the dominant NOx source in the eastern U.S., our results suggest that wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition at sites in this study is strongly associated with NOx emissions from power plants. This suggests that large areas of the landscape potentially receive atmospheric NOy deposition inputs in excess of what one would infer from existing monitoring data alone. Moreover, we determined that spatial patterns in 15N values are a robust indicator of stationary NOx contributions to wet NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition and hence a valuable complement to existing tools for assessing relationships between NO{sub 3}{sup -} deposition, regional emission inventories, and for evaluating progress toward NOx reduction goals. 44 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Laboratory and Vehicle Demonstration of a "2nd-Generation" LNT+in-situ SCR Diesel NOx Emission Control Concept

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Experimental results show low-emissions potential - possibly T2/B2 (SULEV) NOx with low-emitting engines and system optimization.

  6. Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature Aerosol Deposition for Potential Marine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents preparation of SCR catalyst coatings on cost effective metallic substrates using aerosol deposition technique and their catalytic De-NOx performance

  7. Thermal Deactivation Mechanisms of Fully-Formed Lean NOx Trap Catalysts Aged by Lean/Rich Cycling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Catalysts in fully formulated lean NOx traps are aged and evaluated in a bench-flow reactor using simulated diesel engine exhaust.

  8. Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines.

  9. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  10. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  11. Demonstration of integrated optimization software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-01-01

    NeuCO has designed and demonstrated the integration of five system control modules using its proprietary ProcessLink{reg_sign} technology of neural networks, advanced algorithms and fuzzy logic to maximize performance of coal-fired plants. The separate modules control cyclone combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, performance and equipment maintenance. ProcessLink{reg_sign} provides overall plant-level integration of controls responsive to plant operator and corporate criteria. Benefits of an integrated approach include NOx reduction improvement in heat rate, availability, efficiency and reliability; extension of SCR catalyst life; and reduced consumption of ammonia. All translate into cost savings. As plant complexity increases through retrofit, repowering or other plant modifications, this integrated process optimization approach will be an important tool for plant operators. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  12. Qualitative Aspects of the Solutions of a Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Analysis of the Reversible Chemical Reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)SO3(g) in a Catalytic Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angulo Wilfredo; Contreras Joyne

    2014-12-19

    We present some qualitative aspects concerning the solution to the mathematical model describing the dynamical behavior of the reversible chemical reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)SO3(g) carried out in a catalytic reactor used in the process of sulfuric acid production.

  13. Qualitative Aspects of the Solutions of a Mathematical Model for the Dynamic Analysis of the Reversible Chemical Reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)SO3(g) in a Catalytic Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilfredo, Angulo

    2014-01-01

    We present some qualitative aspects concerning the solution to the mathematical model describing the dynamical behavior of the reversible chemical reaction SO2(g)+1/2O2(g)SO3(g) carried out in a catalytic reactor used in the process of sulfuric acid production.

  14. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankat; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Camou, Alejandro; Aul, Christopher

    2013-09-30

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  15. Synergies of PCCI-Type Combustion and Lean NOx Trap Catalysis for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, II, James E; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that future NOx and PM emission targets for diesel engines cannot be met solely via advanced combustion over the full engine drive cycle. Therefore some combination of advanced combustion methodology with an aftertreatment technology will be required. In this study, NOx reduction, fuel efficiency, and regeneration performance of lean NOx trap (LNT) were evaluated for four operating conditions. The combustion approaches included baseline engine operation with and without EGR, two exhaust enrichment methods (post injection and delayed injection), and one advanced combustion mode to enable high efficiency clean combustion (HECC). A 1.7 liter 4-cylinder diesel engine was operated under five conditions, which represent key interest points for light-duty diesel operation. At the low load setting the exhaust temperature was too low to enable LNT regeneration and oxidation; however, HECC (low NOx) was achievable. HECC was also reached under more moderate loads and the exhaust temperatures were high enough to enable even further NOx reductions by the LNT. At high loads HECC becomes difficult but the LNT performance improves and acceptable regeneration can be met with enrichment methodologies.

  16. Simulation of NOx emission in circulating fluidized beds burning low-grade fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afsin Gungor

    2009-05-15

    Nitrogen oxides are a major environmental pollutant resulting from combustion. This paper presents a modeling study of pollutant NOx emission resulting from low-grade fuel combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. The simulation model accounts for the axial and radial distribution of NOx emission in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The model results are compared with and validated against experimental data both for small-size and industrial-size CFBs that use different types of low-grade fuels given in the literature. The present study proves that CFB combustion demonstrated by both experimental data and model predictions produces low and acceptable levels of NOx emissions resulting from the combustion of low-grade fuels. Developed model can also investigate the effects of different operational parameters on overall NOx emission. As a result of this investigation, both experimental data and model predictions show that NOx emission increases with the bed temperature but decreases with excess air if other parameters are kept unchanged. 37 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Energy Efficiency and Emerging Markets for Greenhouse Gas Trading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, M.

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry is evolving into a competitive and globally integrated commodity market. The development of the Ozone Transport Commission NOx market has closely followed that of the SO2 market. The cost of these commodities has become...

  18. bectcom-intdry | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1991) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Integrated Dry NOxSO2 Emission Control System PDF-1.8MB (Jan...

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non-catalytic reduction. The FIR burner was previously demonstrated on firetube and watertube boilers, and these units are still operating at several industrial and commercial boiler sites in sizes ranging from 2.5 to 60 million Btu/h. This report covers the development of an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas or coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The prototype FIR burner was evaluated on a 20 million Btu/h watertube boiler. Acceptable burner performance was obtained when firing natural gas and simulated coke-oven gas doped with ammonia. The laboratory data reveals a direct relationship between NOx formation and the ammonia concentration in the fuel. In addition, NOx formation increases as the primary stoichiometric ratio (PSR) increases. Representative ammonia concentrations, as documented in the steel industry, ranged from 200 to 500 vppm. When the laboratory burner/boiler was operated with 500 vppm ammonia in the fuel, NOx emissions ranged from 50 to 75 vppm. This, conservatively, is 75% less than state-of-the-art burner performance. When the burner is operated with 200 vppm ammonia in the fuel, the corresponding NOx emissions would range from 30 to 45 vppm, 84% less than present burner technology. During field evaluation on a 174 million Btu/h industrial prototype burner both natural gas and actual COG from on-site generation were tested. Despite the elevated hydrogen cyanide and ammonia content in the COG throughout the test program, the FIR burner showed an improvement over baseline emissions. At full load; 167 million Btu/h, NOx emissions were relatively low at 169 vppm. This represents a 30% reduction compared to baseline emissions not accounting for the higher hydrogen cyanide content in the COG. CO emissions remained below 20 vppm and were stable across the firing range. This represents a 68% reduction compared to baseline CO emissions. When firing natural gas, emissions were stable as firing rate increased over the range. At low fire; 45 million Btu/h, NOx emissions where 33 vppm and increased at full load; 144 million Btu

  20. ADVANCED COMPRESSOR ENGINE CONTROLS TO ENHANCE OPERATION, RELIABILITY AND INTEGRITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Bourn; Jess W. Gingrich; Jack A. Smith

    2004-03-01

    This document is the final report for the ''Advanced Compressor Engine Controls to Enhance Operation, Reliability, and Integrity'' project. SwRI conducted this project for DOE in conjunction with Cooper Compression, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-03NT41859. This report addresses an investigation of engine controls for integral compressor engines and the development of control strategies that implement closed-loop NOX emissions feedback.

  1. Closed-loop control of a SCR system using a NOx sensor cross-sensitive to NH3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for an automotive selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, for which the feedback is based on a NOx sensor illustrate the performance of the proposed approach. Keywords: Automotive emissions; Diesel engines; NOx, a mechanism is introduced to prevent large NH3-slip that could result from misinterpretation of data produced

  2. Effect of Unsaturated Bond on NOx and PAH Formation in nHeptane and 1Heptene Triple Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Effect of Unsaturated Bond on NOx and PAH Formation in nHeptane and 1Heptene Triple Flames X. Han of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607, United States ABSTRACT: Various engine and shock tube studies flames. NOx formation in the rich premixed zone is primarily due to the prompt NO

  3. High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 , Linda Hembeck1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    1 High ozone concentrations on hot days: The role of electric power demand and NOx1 emissions2 3;2 hot summer days due to high electricity demand. Between 1997 and 2011, power23 plant emissions of NOx greater59 electricity demand for air conditioning. Singh and Sloan [2005] reported that60

  4. USE OF A DIESEL FUEL PROCESSOR FOR RAPID AND EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF SINGLE LEG NOX ADSORBER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betta, R; Cizeron, J; Sheridan, D; Davis, T

    2003-08-24

    Lean NOx adsorber systems are one of the primary candidate technologies for the control of NOx from diesel engines to meet the 2007-2010 US emissions regulations, which require a 90% reduction of NOx from the 2004 regulations. Several of the technical challenges facing this technology are regeneration at low exhaust temperatures and the efficient use of diesel fuel to minimize fuel penalty. A diesel processor system has been developed and tested in a single leg NOx adsorber configuration on a diesel engine test stand. During NOx adsorber regeneration, this fuel processor system performs reduces the exhaust O2 level to zero and efficiently processes the diesel fuel to H2 and CO. Combined with a Nox adsorber catalyst, this system has demonstrated NOx reduction above 90%, regeneration of the NOx adsorber H2/CO pulses as short as 1 second and fuel penalties in the 3 to 4% range at 50% load. This fuel processor system can also be used to provide the desulfation cycle required with sulfur containing fuels as well as providing thermal management for PM filter regeneration.

  5. NH3 formation and utilization in regenerationof Pt/Ba/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalyst with H2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Choi, Jae-Soon [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The nature of H2 regeneration of a model Pt/Ba/Al2O3 LNT catalyst was investigated with specific focus on intra-catalyst formation and utilization of NH3 and its role in catalyst regeneration. In-situ measurements of the transient intra-catalyst species (H2, NH3, N2, NOx) distributions at different temperatures were used to detail the reaction evolution along the catalyst axis. Comparison of the species transients identifies unique individual natures for the reductant (H2), inert product (N2) and intermediate-reductant product (NH3) which readily explain the conventional effluent species sequence as an integral effect. The data demonstrates that NH3 is created on similar timescales as the N2 product inside the catalyst, but consumed as aggressively as H2 reductant along the catalyst. This spatiotemporal NH3 behavior experimentally confirms that Intermediate-NH3 regeneration pathway is active. Analysis at 200 and 325 C indicates equivalent local NOx storage, H2 consumption and regeneration effectiveness, but differing NH3/N2 ratio, suggesting a temperature-dependence of partitioning between Direct-H2 and Intermediate-NH3 regeneration pathways. Further experimental and numerical work is needed to more clearly understand the partitioning between the possible regeneration pathways. Nevertheless, the experimental data show that intermediate NH3 plays a significant role in LNT catalyst regeneration.

  6. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Lawless; C. Clark

    2008-09-01

    It has been successfully demonstrated in this program that a zirconia multilayer structure with rhodium-based porous electrodes performs well as an amperometric NO{sub x} sensor. The sensitivity of the sensor bodies operating at 650 to 700 C is large, with demonstrated current outputs of 14 mA at 500 ppm NO{sub x} from sensors with 30 layers. The sensor bodies are small (4.5 x 4.2 x 3.1 mm), rugged, and inexpensive. It is projected the sensor bodies will cost $5-$10 in production. This program has built on another successful development program for an oxygen sensor based on the same principles and sponsored by DOE. This oxygen sensor is not sensitive to NO{sub x}. A significant technical hurdle has been identified and solved. It was found that the 100% Rh electrodes oxidize rapidly at the preferred operating temperatures of 650-700 C, and this oxidation is accompanied by a volume change which delaminates the sensors. The problem was solved by using alloys of Rh and Pt. It was found that a 10%/90% Rh/Pt alloy dropped the oxidation rate of the electrodes by orders of magnitude without degrading the NO{sub x} sensitivity of the sensors, allowing long-term stable operation at the preferred operating temperatures. Degradation in the sensor output caused by temperature cycling was identified as a change in resistance at the junction between the sensor body and the external leads attached to the sensor body. The degradation was eliminated by providing strong mechanical anchors for the wire and processing the junctions to obtain good electrical bonds. The NO{sub x} sensors also detect oxygen and therefore the fully-packaged sensor needs to be enclosed with an oxygen sensor in a small, heated zirconia chamber exposed to test gas through a diffusion plug which limits the flow of gas from the outside. Oxygen is pumped from the interior of the chamber to lower the oxygen content and the combination of measurements from the NO{sub x} and oxygen sensors yields the NO{sub x} content of the gas. Two types of electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  7. Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Imke

    Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Nitrite Reductase: 1204 2. Copper Nitrite Reductases 1206 B. Nitric Oxide Reductase 1208 1. Structure 1208 Nitric Oxide Sensors, Scavengers, and Delivery Agents 1227 IV. Concluding Remarks 1229 V. Acknowledgments

  8. Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Y. A.

    Use of Simulation To Optimize NOx Abatement by Absorption and Selective Catalytic Reduction Andrew involving both absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The model helps identify operator The system under analysis involves two key pro- cesses: absorption and selective catalytic reduction (SCR

  9. tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    tive emissions from EVs (e.g., power plant NOx) and GPVs (tailpipe and associated NO.,. emissions) and found them comparable. Stricter controls on power plants were as- sumed than are currently in place Analy- sis article on battery-powered vehicles (Sept. 1996, p. 402A) serves as a useful reminder

  10. Active NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Doug

    to as Combustion Turbine Generators (CTGs). Each unit is connected to a Rentech Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) which captures waste heat from combustion turbine exhaust to produce steam for the campus's heatingActive NOX Control of Cogen Gas Turbine Exhaust using a Nonlinear Feed Forward with Cascade

  11. Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    Global impact of fossil fuel combustion on atmospheric NOx Larry W. Horowitz Advanced Study Program, MA 02138 (email djj@io.harvard.edu) #12;Abstract. Fossil fuel combustion is the largest global source-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry and transport to study the impact of fossil fuel combustion

  12. A Numerical Investigation into the Anomalous Slight NOx Increase when Burning Biodiesel: A New (Old) Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, G A; Chen, J Y; Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W

    2007-01-30

    Biodiesel is a notable alternative to petroleum derived diesel fuel because it comes from natural domestic sources and thus reduces dependence on diminishing petroleum fuel from foreign sources, it likely lowers lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, and it lowers an engine's emission of most pollutants as compared to petroleum derived diesel. However, the use of biodiesel often slightly increases a diesel engine's emission of smog forming nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) relative to petroleum diesel. In this paper, previously proposed theories for this slight NOx increase are reviewed, including theories based on biodiesel's cetane number, which leads to differing amounts of charge preheating, and theories based on the fuel's bulk modulus, which affects injection timing. This paper proposes an additional theory for the slight NO{sub x} increase of biodiesel. Biodiesel typically contains more double bonded molecules than petroleum derived diesel. These double bonded molecules have a slightly higher adiabatic flame temperature, which leads to the increase in NOx production for biodiesel. Our theory was verified using numerical simulations to show a NOx increase, due to the double bonded molecules, that is consistent with observation. Further, the details of these numerical simulations show that NOx is predominantly due to the Zeldovich mechanism.

  13. Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon 1. Model formulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    for NOx (21 Tg N yr-1 from fossil fuel combustion, 12 Tg N yr-1 from biomass burning, 6 Tg N yr-1 from yr-1 from biomass burning, 15 Tg C yr-1 from vegetation, and 12 Tg C yr-1 from oxidation of propane

  14. NOx reduction with the use of feedlot biomass as a reburn fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goughnour, Paul Gordon

    2009-05-15

    composted FB (LA PC FB) with equivalence ratio ranging from 1 to 1.15. The results of these experiments show that NOx levels can be reduced by as much as 90% - 95 % when firing pure LA PC FB and results are almost independent of. The reburn fuel was injected...

  15. Strategies for total NOx measurement with minimal CO interference utilizing a microporous zeolitic catalytic filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    environments. Two of the most common solid-state sensors for NOx detection are the solid electrolyte. An electrochemical sensor using the reaction of Ba2ţ with NO or NO2 to form Ba(NO3)2 provided emf signals that were

  16. Effects of Rapid High Temperature Cyclic Aging on a Fully-Formulated Lean NOx Trap Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ottinger, Nathan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Howe, Janet E [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In this study, high-temperature deactivation of a fully-formulated lean NOx trap (LNT) is investigated with an accelerated aging protocol where accelerated aging is accomplished by rapid temperature cycling and by higher temperatures. Thermal aging is carried out in a bench-flow reactor at nominal temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C using an aging cycle consisting of a 130s lean-phase and a 50s rich-phase. After a prescribed number of lean/rich aging cycles, the NOx conversion of the aged LNT is evaluated at 200, 300, and 400 C. The NOx performance is obtained at a GHSV of 30,000 h-1 using an evaluation cycle consisting of a 60s lean-phase and 5s rich-phase. The effects of aging on the LNT washcoat are determined with EPMA, XRD, STEM/EDS, and BET. Aging at 700 and 800 C has a minimal effect on LNT performance and material properties. However, at aging temperatures of 900 and 1000 C reduction in surface area and sintering of PGM particles are observed and result in a drastic reduction in NOx conversion. Additionally, after aging at 900 C and 1000 C the NOx storage medium, BaCO3, is no longer visible in the XRD patterns, even though a Ba-phase identified by EPMA still exists in all aged samples. BaAl2O4 is not identified at any aging temperatures; possibly due to stabilization effects provided by washcoat additives present in this particular LNT.

  17. Characteristics of Pt-K/MgAl2O4 lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Zhu, Haiyang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-04-30

    We report the various characteristics of Pt-K/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts including the effect of K loading on nitrate formation/decomposition, NOx storage activity and durability. Upon the adsorption of NO{sub 2} on K/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} samples, potassium nitrates formed on Mg-related sites in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} support are observed, in addition to the typical two potassium nitrates (ionic and bidentate) formed also on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported sample. Based on NO{sub 2} TPD and FTIR results, the Mg-bound KNO{sub 3} thermally decompose at higher temperature than Al-bound KNO{sub 3}, implying its superior thermal stability. At a potassium loading of 5wt%, the temperature of maximum NOx uptake (T{sub max}) is 300 C. Increasing the potassium loading from 5wt% to 10 wt%, the T{sub max} gradually shifted from 300 C to 450 C, indicating the dependence of T{sub max} on the potassium loading. However, increase in potassium loading above 10 wt% only gives rise to the reduction in the overall NOx storage capacity. This work also underlines the obstacles these materials have prior to their practical application (e.g., durability and sulfur poisoning/ removal). This work provides fundamental understanding of Pt-K/MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}-based lean NOx trap catalysts, which could be good candidates for high temperature LNT applications.

  18. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  19. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  20. High SO2 Removal Efficiency Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe

    1997-02-12

    This document provides a discussion of the technical progress on DOE/PETC project number DE-AC22-92PC91338, "High Efficiency SO Removal Testing," for 2 the time period 1 October through 31 December 1996. The project involves testing at six full-scale utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, to evaluate low capital cost upgrades that may allow these systems to achieve up to 98% SO removal efficiency. The upgrades being 2 evaluated mostly involve using performance additives in the FGD systems. The "base" project involved testing at the Tampa Electric Company?s Big Bend Station. All five potential options to the base program have been exercised by DOE, involving testing at Hoosier Energy?s Merom Station (Option I), Southwestern Electric Power Company?s Pirkey Station (Option II), PSI Energy?s Gibson Station (Option III), Duquesne Light?s Elrama Station (Option IV), and New York State Electric and Gas Corporation?s Kintigh Station (Option V). The originally planned testing has been completed for all six sites. However, additional testing has been planned at the Big Bend Station, and that testing commenced during the current quarter. The remainder of this document is divided into four sections. Section 2, Project Summary, provides a brief overview of the status of technical efforts on this project. Section 3, Results, summarizes the outcome from technical efforts during the quarter, or results from prior quarters that have not been previously reported. In Section 4, Plans for the Next Reporting Period, an overview is provided of the technical efforts that are anticipated for the first quarter of calendar year 1996. Section 5 contains a brief acknowledgment.

  1. HIGH SO2 REMOVAL EFFICIENCY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe; James L. Phillips

    1997-10-15

    This final report describes the results of performance tests at six full-scale wet lime- and limestone-reagent flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The objective of these tests was to evaluate the effectiveness of low capital cost sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal upgrades for existing FGD systems as an option for complying with the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The upgrade options tested at the limestone-reagent systems included the use of organic acid additives (dibasic acid (DBA) and/or sodium formate) as well as increased reagent ratio (higher excess limestone levels in the recirculating slurry solids) and absorber liquid-to-gas ratio. One system also tested operating at higher flue gas velocities to allow the existing FGD system to treat flue gas from an adjacent, unscrubbed unit. Upgrade options for the one lime-based system tested included increased absorber venturi pressure drop and increased sulfite concentration in the recirculating slurry liquor.

  2. High SO(2) Removal Efficiency Testing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blythe, G.

    1997-10-22

    On the base program, testing was completed at the Tampa Electric Company`s (TECo`s) Big Bend Station in November 1992. The upgrade option tested was DBA additive. Additional testing was conducted at this site during the previous quarter (April through June 1997). Results from that testing were presented in the Technical Progress Report dated July 1997. For Option I, at the Hoosier Energy Merom Station, results from another program co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association have been combined with results from DOE-funded testing. Three upgrade options have been tested: DBA additive, sodium formate additive, and high pH set-point operation. All testing was completed by November 1992. There were no activities for this site during the current quarter. Option II involved testing at the Southwestern Electric Power Company Pirkey Station. Both sodium formate and DBA additives were tested as potential upgrade options. All of the testing at this site was completed by May 1993. On Option III, for testing at the PSI Energy Gibson Station, testing with sodium formate additive was completed in early October 1993, and a DBA additive performance and consumption test was completed in March of 1994. There were no efforts for this site during the current quarter. Option IV is for testing at the Duquesne Light Elrama Station. The FGD system employs magnesium-enhanced lime reagent and venturi absorber modules. An EPRI-funded model evaluation of potential upgrade options for this FGD system, along with a preliminary economic evaluation, determined that the most attractive upgrade options for this site were to increase thiosulfate ion concentrations in the FGD system liquor to lower oxidation percentages.

  3. Effect of sulfur loading on the desulfation chemistry of a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Yezerets, Aleksey; Li, Junhui; Currier, Neal; Chen, Haiying; Hess, Howard .; Engelhard, Mark H.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF

    2012-12-15

    We investigate the effects of initial sulfur loadings on the desulfation chemistry and the subsequent final activity of a commercial LNT catalyst. Identical total amounts of SO2 are applied to the samples, albeit with the frequency of desulfation varied. The results indicate that performance is better with less frequent desulfations. The greater the amount of sulfur deposited before desulfation, the more amount of SO2 evolution before H2S is observed during desulfation, which can be explained by two sequential reactions; initial conversion of sulfate to SO2, followed by the reduction of SO2 to H2S. After completing all sulfation/desulfation steps, the sample with only a single desulfation results in a fairly uniform sulfur distribution along the z-axis inside of the monolith. We expect that the results obtained in this study will provide useful information for optimizing regeneration strategies in vehicles that utilize the LNT technology.

  4. Electrochemical cell and membrane for continuous NOx removal from natural gas-combustion exhaust gases. Final report, October 1, 1990-September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, J.H.; Burt, J.; Cook, R.L.; Sammells, A.F.

    1991-01-01

    This program investigated the utility of electrochemically promoted NOx decomposition under conditions appropriate to those found in natural gas prime mover exhaust. In addition, the utility of mixed ionic and electronic conducting membranes for the spontaneous decomposition of NOx were investigated using catalytic sites identified during the electrochemical study. The program was conducted by initially evaluating perovskite related cathode electrocatalysts using high NOx concentrations. This was followed by investigations at NOx concentrations consistent with those encountered in natural gas prime mover exhausts. Preferred electrocatalysts were then incorporated into mixed conducting membranes for promoting NOx decomposition. Work showed that cobalt based electrocatalysts were active towards promoting NOx decomposition at high concentrations. At lower NOx concentrations initial activation, by passage of a large cathodic current, was required which probably resulted in producing a distinct population of surface oxygen vacancies before the subject decomposition reaction could proceed. This study showed that electrochemically promoted decomposition is feasible under conditions appropriate to those found in prime mover exhausts.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions trading in U.S. States: observations and lessons from the OTC NOx Budget Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Aulisi; Alexander E. Farrell; Jonathan Pershing; Stacy VanDeveer

    2005-07-01

    A number of U.S. states are considering market-based policies to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The experience gained from emissions trading for sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) offers a useful body of information and data to draw on to design a GHG emissions trading system. This report examines NOx trading under the Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) NOx Budget Program, which resulted principally from the leadership, decisions, and actions by a group of states, ultimately becoming the first multilateral cap-and-trade system for emissions of air pollutants. 72 refs.

  6. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury capture. During July, August, and September 2007, BES designed, procured, installed, and tested the slurry injection system at Beaver Valley. Slurry production was performed by Penn State University using equipment that was moved from campus to the Beaver Valley site. Waste coal fines were procured from Headwaters Inc. and transported to the site in Super Sacks. In addition, bituminous coal was pulverized at Penn State and trucked to the site in 55-gallon drums. This system was operated for three weeks during August and September 2007. NO{sub x} emission data were obtained using the plant CEM system. Hg measurements were taken using EPA Method 30B (Sorbent Trap method) both downstream of the electrostatic precipitator and in the stack. Ohio Lumex Company was on site to provide rapid Hg analysis on the sorbent traps during the tests. Key results from these tests are: (1) Coal Fines reburn alone reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 0-10% with up to 4% heat input from the CWS. However, the NO{sub x} reduction was accompanied by higher CO emissions. The higher CO limited our ability to try higher reburn rates for further NO{sub x} reduction. (2) Coal Fines reburn with Urea (Carbon enhanced SNCR) decreased NO{sub x} emissions by an additional 30% compared to Urea injection only. (3) Coal slurry injection did not change Hg capture across the ESP at full load with an inlet temperature of 400-430 F. The Hg capture in the ESP averaged 40%, with or without slurry injection; low mercury particulate capture is normally expected across a higher temperature ESP because any oxidized mercury is thought to desorb from the particulate at ESP temperatures above 250 F. (4) Coal slurry injection with halogen salts added to the mixing tank increased the Hg capture in the ESP to 60%. This significant incremental mercury reduction is important to improved mercury capture with hot-side ESP operation and wherever hindrance from sulfur oxides limit mercury reduction, because the higher temperature is above sulfur oxide dew point interference.

  7. An examination of the role of plasma treatment for lean NOx reduction over sodium zeolite Y and gamma alumina Part 2. Formation of nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Steven; Panov, Alexander G.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ebeling, Ana C.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, Mari Lou

    2002-03-15

    NOx reduction with NO2 as the NOx gas in the absence of plasma was compared to plasma treated lean NOx exhaust where NO is converted to NO2 in the plasma. Product nitrogen was measured to prove true chemical reduction of NOx to N2. With plasma treatment, NO as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, the maximum conversion to nitrogen was 50% between 180-230?C. The activity decreased at higher and lower temperatures. At 130?C a complete nitrogen balance could be obtained, however between 164-227?C less than 20% of the NOx is converted to a nitrogen-containing compound or compounds not readily detected by GC or FTIR analysis. With plasma treatment, NO2 as the NOx gas, and a NaY catalyst, a complete nitrogen balance is obtained with a maximum conversion to nitrogen of 55% at 225?C. For gamma alumina, with plasma treatment and NO2 as the NOx gas, 59% of the NOx is converted to nitrogen at 340?C. A complete nitrogen balance was obtained at these conditions. As high as 80% NOx removal over gamma alumina was measured by a chemiluminescent NOx meter with plasma treatment and NO as the NOx gas. When NO is replaced with NO2 and the simulated exhaust gases are not plasma treated, the maximum NOx reduction activity of NaY and gamma alumina decreases to 26% and 10%, respectively. This is a large reduction in activity compared to similar conditions where the simulated exhaust was plasma treated. Therefore, in addition to NO2, other plasma-generated species are required to maximize NOx reduction.

  8. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

    2003-08-24

    Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

  9. Excellent activity and selectivity of Cu-SSZ-13 in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2010-10-21

    Superior activity and selectivity of a Cu ion-exchanged SSZ-13 zeolite in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3 were observed, in comparison to Cu-beta and Cu-ZSM-5 zeolites. Cu-SSZ-13 was not only more active in the NOx SCR reaction over the entire temperature range studied (up to 550 °C), but also more selective toward nitrogen formation, resulting in significantly lower amounts of NOx by-products (i.e., NO2 and N2O) than the other two zeolites. In addition, Cu-SSZ-13 demonstrated the highest activity and N2 formation selectivity in the oxidation of NH3. The results of this study strongly suggest that Cu-SSZ-13 is a promising candidate as a catalyst for NOx SCR with great potential in after-treatment systems for either mobile or stationary sources.

  10. Heavy-duty diesel vehicle Nox? aftertreatment in 2010 : the infrastructure and compliance challenges of urea-SCR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodek, Kristian M

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly stringent heavy-duty vehicle emission regulations are prompting the use of PM and NOx aftertreatment systems in the US, the EU and Japan. In the US, the EPA Highway Diesel Rule, which will be fully implemented ...

  11. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during cold-start of HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles

  12. Development of the High-Pressure Direct-Injected, Ultra Low-NOx Natural Gas Engine: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duggal, V. K.; Lyford-Pike, E. J.; Wright, J. F.; Dunn, M.; Goudie, D.; Munshi, S.

    2004-05-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by Cummins and Westport Innovations to develop a heavy-duty, low-NOx, high-pressure direct-injection natural gas engine for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle activity.

  13. Methodology to Calculate NOx Emissions Reductions from the Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.

    2004-01-01

    (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions in energy...

  14. NOx Emissions Reductions from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code to Residential Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Im, P.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction Plan (TERP), to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state. An important part of this legislation is the State's energy efficiency program, which includes reductions...

  15. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of a reactive baffle approach to NOx control. Final technical report, February-April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.; Van Stone, D.A.; Little, R.C.; Peterson, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    Vermiculite, vermiculite coated with magnesia, and activated carbon sorbents have successfully removed NOx (and carbon monoxide and particles) from combustion exhausts in a subscale drone jet engine test cell (JETC), but back pressure so generated elevated the temperature of the JETC and of the engine. The objective of this effort was to explore the feasibility of locating the sorbents in the face of the duct or of baffles parallel to the direction of flow within the ducts. Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are stationary sources of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), soot, and unburned or partially oxidized carbon compounds that form as byproducts of imperfect combustion. Regulation of NOx emissions is being considered for implementation under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Several principles have been examined as candidate methods to control NOx emissions from JETCs.

  17. Closed loop engine control for regulating NOx emissions, using a two-dimensional fuel-air curve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourn, Gary D.; Smith, Jack A.; Gingrich, Jess W.

    2007-01-30

    An engine control strategy that ensures that NOx emissions from the engine will be maintained at an acceptable level. The control strategy is based on a two-dimensional fuel-air curve, in which air manifold pressure (AMP) is a function of fuel header pressure and engine speed. The control strategy provides for closed loop NOx adjustment to a base AMP value derived from the fuel-air curve.

  18. Simulation of catalytic oxidation and selective catalytic NOx reduction in lean-exhaust hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Chakravarthy, Veerathu K

    2012-01-01

    We utilize physically-based models for diesel exhaust catalytic oxidation and urea-based selective catalytic NOx reduction to study their impact on drive cycle performance of hypothetical light-duty diesel powered hybrid vehicles. The models have been implemented as highly flexible SIMULINK block modules that can be used to study multiple engine-aftertreatment system configurations. The parameters of the NOx reduction model have been adjusted to reflect the characteristics of Cu-zeolite catalysts, which are of widespread current interest. We demonstrate application of these models using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software for vehicle simulations, along with a previously published methodology that accounts for emissions and temperature transients in the engine exhaust. Our results illustrate the potential impact of DOC and SCR interactions for lean hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  19. Nox control technology data base for gas-fueled prime movers: Phase 1. Topical report, March 1985-September 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thring, R.H.; Hull, R.W.; Ingalls, M.; Urban, C.; Ariga, S.

    1988-04-01

    Phase 1 of a study to expand the performance and life-cycle cost data base for NOx control of gas-fueled prime movers has been accomplished through experimental evaluations of fuel effects, technical literature reviews of Japanese and domestic approaches to NOx control and through direct contacts with manufacturers and users in the United States and Japan. Engine tests confirm literature findings that natural gas and methanol provide an advantage over petroleum fuels in limiting NOx formation. For lean-burn engines (e.g., two-cycle and gas turbine engines), selective catalytic reduction offers the greatest amount of NOx control. Installation, operating and maintenance costs are very high; the method has received moderate acceptance in Japan but limited use in the United States. For rich-burn engines, nonselective catalytic reduction is gaining acceptance for NOx control. This method is basically the adaption of automotive three-way catalyst technology. Further RandD is recommended for alternative methods of NOx control which include combustion-cycle modifications and noncatalytic exhaust aftertreatment.

  20. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan L. Szymanski; R. Glickert

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  1. Calculation of Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficient Residential Building Construction in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Gilman, D.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Yazdani, B.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Muns, S.; Verdict, M.

    2004-01-01

    severe sanctions if attainment is not reached by 2007. This paper provides an overview of the procedures that have been developed and used to calculate the electricity savings and NOx reductions from code-compliant residential construction in non...,000 ft2 single-family residence. ESL Code Traceable DOE-2 Simulation (Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Renewables) County-wide Electricity Use (w/ and w/o code) E-GRID Database Model For ERCOT, SERC, SPP, and WSCC Regions 1999 Building...

  2. NOx reduction in combustion with concentrated coal streams and oxygen injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Snyder, William J.

    2004-03-02

    NOx formation in the combustion of solid hydrocarbonaceous fuel such as coal is reduced by obtaining, from the incoming feed stream of fuel solids and air, a stream having a ratio of fuel solids to air that is higher than that of the feed steam, and injecting the thus obtained stream and a small amount of oxygen to a burner where the fuel solids are combusted.

  3. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Kwak, Ja Hun; Wang, Xianqin; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2008-07-15

    We describe a new method that minimizes irreversible Pt sintering during the desulfation of sulfated Pt/BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts. While it is known that the addition of H2O to H2 promotes desulfation, we find that the significant and irreversible Pt sintering arising from the presence of water is unavoidable. Control of precious metal sintering is considered to be one of the critical issues in the development of durable LNT catalysts. The new method described here is a sequential desulfation process: the first step is to reduce the sulfates with hydrogen only at higher temperatures to form BaS, followed by a treatment of the thus reduced sample with water at low to moderate temperatures to convert BaS to BaO and H2S. The data showed that Pt sintering was significantly inhibited due to the absence of H2O during the desulfation at high temperatures, and also demonstrates the similar NOx uptake with the desulfated sample cooperatively with H2 and H2O. Therefore, the sequential desulfation process may find applications in realistic systems to inhibit the irreversible sintering of the Pt in the lean NOx trap catalyst, leading to a longer catalyst life.

  4. MODELING COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION IN UREA-SCR CATALYSTS FOR EFFECTIVE LOW TEMPERATURE NOX CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-17

    Although the SCR technology exhibits higher NOx reduction efficiency over a wider range of temperatures among the lean NOx reduction technologies, further improvement in low-temperature performance is required to meet the future emission standards and to lower the system cost. In order to improve the catalyst technologies and optimize the system performance, it is critical to understand the reaction mechanisms and catalyst behaviors with respect to operating conditions. For example, it is well known that the ammonia coverage on catalyst surface is critical for NOx reduction efficiency. However, the level of ammonia storage is influenced by competitive adsorption by other species, such as H2O and NO2. Moreover, hydrocarbon species that slip through the upstream DOC during the cold-start period can also inhibit the SCR performance, especially at low temperatures. Therefore, a one-dimensional detailed kinetic model that can account for the effects of such competitive adsorption has been developed based on steady state surface isotherm tests on a commercial Fe-zeolite catalyst. The model is developed as a C language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. Rate kinetics of adsorption and desorption of each of the adsorbents are determined from individual adsorption tests and validated for a set of test conditions that had all the adsorbents in the feed gas.

  5. Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with a Passive Hydrocarbon and NOx Adsorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Kim, Miyoung; Choi, Jae-Soon; Daw, C Stuart; Parks, II, James E; Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    We presents a study of the potential for using low-cost sorbent materials (i.e. Ag-Beta-zeolite and Fe-Mn-Zr transition metal oxides) to temporally trap hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions during cold-start periods in HEVs and PHEVs over transient driving cycles. The adsorption behavior of the candidate sorbent materials was characterized in our laboratory flow reactor experiments. The parameters were then used to develop a one-dimensional, transient device model which has been implemented in the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to simulate a passive HC and NOx absorber device. The results show that such an absorber can substantially reduce HC and NOx emissions by storing them when the 3-way catalyst is too cool to function and re-releasing them when the exhaust temperature rises. These improved emission controls do not involve any penalty in fuel consumption or require any change in engine operation. The cost of these sorbent materials is also much less than conventional 3-way catalysts.

  6. Modeling Species Inhibition of NO oxidation in Urea-SCR Catalysts for Diesel Engine NOx Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Tran, Diana N.; Lee, Jong H.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-09-15

    Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are regarded as the leading NOx aftertreatment technology to meet the 2010 NOx emission standards for on-highway vehicles running on heavy-duty diesel engines. However, issues such as low NOx conversion at low temperature conditions still exist due to various factors, including incomplete urea thermolysis, inhibition of SCR reactions by hydrocarbons and H2O. We have observed a noticeable reduction in the standard SCR reaction efficiency at low temperature with increasing water content. We observed a similar effect when hydrocarbons are present in the stream. This effect is absent under fast SCR conditions where NO ~ NO2 in the feed gas. As a first step in understanding the effects of such inhibition on SCR reaction steps, kinetic models that predict the inhibition behavior of H2O and hydrocarbons on NO oxidation are presented in the paper. A one-dimensional SCR model was developed based on conservation of species equations and was coded as a C-language S-function and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. NO oxidation and NO2 dissociation kinetics were defined as a function of the respective adsorbate’s storage in the SCR catalyst. The corresponding kinetic models were then validated on temperature ramp tests that showed good match with the test data.

  7. Ammonia Generation over TWC for Passive SCR NOX Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Pihl, Josh A; Toops, Todd J

    2014-01-01

    A commercial three-way catalyst (TWC) was evaluated for ammonia (NH3) generation on a 2.0-liter BMW lean burn gasoline direct injection engine as a component in a passive ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The passive NH3 SCR system is a potential low cost approach for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions from lean burn gasoline engines. In this system, NH3 is generated over a close-coupled TWC during periodic slightly rich engine operation and subsequently stored on an underfloor SCR catalyst. Upon switching to lean, NOX passes through the TWC and is reduced by the stored NH3 on the SCR catalyst. NH3 generation was evaluated at different air-fuel equivalence ratios at multiple engine speed and load conditions. Near complete conversion of NOX to NH3 was achieved at =0.96 for nearly all conditions studied. At the =0.96 condition, HC emissions were relatively minimal, but CO emissions were significant. Operation at AFRs richer than =0.96 did not provide more NH3 yield and led to higher HC and CO emissions. Results of the reductant conversion and consumption processes were used to calculate a representative fuel consumption of the engine operating with an ideal passive SCR system. The results show a 1-7% fuel economy benefit at various steady-state engine speed and load points relative to a stoichiometric engine operation.

  8. Ofloxacin induces apoptosis via ?1 integrin-EGFR-Rac1-Nox2 pathway in microencapsulated chondrocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo; Huang, Wei; Liu, Yu-Xiang; Yuan, Ye; Zhu, Ben-Zhan

    2013-02-15

    Quinolones (QNs)-induced arthropathy is an important toxic side-effect in immature animals leading to the restriction of their therapeutic use in pediatrics. Ofloxacin, a typical QN, was found to induce the chondrocytes apoptosis in the early phase (12–48 h) of arthropathy in our previous study. However, the exact mechanism(s) is unclear. Microencapsulated juvenile rabbit joint chondrocytes, a three-dimensional culture system, is utilized to perform the present study. Ofloxacin, at a therapeutically relevant concentration (10 ?g/ml), disturbs the interaction between ?1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins at 12 h, which is inhibited when supplementing Mg{sup 2+}. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly increases in a time-dependent manner after exposure to ofloxacin for 12–48 h. Furthermore, ofloxacin markedly enhances the level of activated Rac1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation, and its inhibition in turn reduces the ROS production, apoptosis and Rac1 activation. Silencing Nox2, Rac1 or supplementing Mg{sup 2+} inhibits ROS accumulation, apoptosis occurrence and EGFR phosphorylation induced by ofloxacin. However, depletion of Nox2, Rac1 and inhibition of EGFR do not affect ofloxacin-mediated loss of interaction between ?1 integrin and activated intracellular signaling proteins. In addition, ofloxacin also induces Vav2 phosphorylation, which is markedly suppressed after inactivating EGFR or supplementing Mg{sup 2+}. These results suggest that ofloxacin causes Nox2-mediated intracellular ROS production by disrupting the ?1 integrin function and then activating the EGFR-Vav2-Rac1 pathway, finally resulting in apoptosis within 12–48 h exposure. The present study provides a novel insight regarding the potential role of Nox-driven ROS in QNs-induced arthropathy. - Highlights: ? Ofloxacin induces Nox2-driven ROS in encapsulated chondrocyte at 12–48 h. ? Ofloxacin stimulates ROS production via the ?1 integrin-EGFR-Vav2-Rac1 pathway. ? Ofloxacin induces ROS-dependent apoptosis in encapsulated chondrocyte at 12–48 h.

  9. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu (Oak Ridge, TN); Li, Rongfu (Zhejiang, CH)

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  10. Non-thermal Plasma-Assisted Catalytic NOx Reduction over Ba-Y,FAU: The Effect of Catalyst Preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2003-12-10

    The effects of catalyst preparation on the NOx reduction activity of a series of Ba-Y,FAU zeolites were investigated using a simulated exhaust gas mixture. The introduction of Ba˛?ions into Na-Y,FAU results in a large increase in their non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction activity. The NOx reduction activities of Ba-Y,FAU catalysts were found to increase with increasing Ba˛? concentration in the aqueous ion exchange solutions, which translated into increased Ba˛?/Na˛ ratios in the resulting materials. Consecutive ion exchange procedures at a given Ba˛?concentration in the aqueous solution, however, did not improve the NOx reduction activities of Ba-Y,FAU catalysts, i.e. the activity of the four times ion exchanged material was the same as that of the one that was ion exchanged only once. The reaction profiles for all of these Ba-Y,FAU catalysts were the same. In contrast, a significant increase in NOx reduction activity was observed when a 773K calcination step was implemented after each solution ion exchange. The reaction profile was also altered as a result of the ion exchange/calcination cycles. Calcination that followed each ion exchange step seems to further increase the Ba˛?/Na? ratio in the zeolite, and in turn increases the NOx reduction activities of the catalysts prepared this way. Key differences in Na-, and Ba-Y catalysts were found in NO? adsorption and TPD experiments. The amount of chemisorbed NO? is about twice as high in Ba-Y than in Na-Y, and Ba-Y holds NOx much stronger than Na-Y.

  11. Comparison of Methods for Estimating the NOx Emission Impacts of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Projects: Shreveport, Louisiana Case Study (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, A.; Kline, D. M.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Diem, A.; Dismukes, D.; Mesyanzhinov, D.

    2005-07-01

    This is a case study comparing methods of estimating the NOx emission impacts of energy efficiency and renewable energy projects in Shreveport, Louisiana.

  12. Kinetic and Performance Studies of the Regeneration Phase of Model Pt/Ba/Rh NOx Traps for Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Harold; Vemuri Balakotaiah

    2010-05-31

    In this project a combined experimental and theoretical approach was taken to advance our understanding of lean NOx trap (LNT) technology. Fundamental kinetics studies were carried out of model LNT catalysts containing variable loadings of precious metals (Pt, Rh), and storage components (BaO, CeO{sub 2}). The Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP) reactor provided transient data under well-characterized conditions for both powder and monolith catalysts, enabling the identification of key reaction pathways and estimation of the corresponding kinetic parameters. The performance of model NOx storage and reduction (NSR) monolith catalysts were evaluated in a bench scale NOx trap using synthetic exhaust, with attention placed on the effect of the pulse timing and composition on the instantaneous and cycle-averaged product distributions. From these experiments we formulated a global model that predicts the main spatio-temporal features of the LNT and a mechanistic-based microkinetic models that incorporates a detailed understanding of the chemistry and predicts more detailed selectivity features of the LNT. The NOx trap models were used to determine its ability to simulate bench-scale data and ultimately to evaluate alternative LNT designs and operating strategies. The four-year project led to the training of several doctoral students and the dissemination of the findings as 47 presentations in conferences, catalysis societies, and academic departments as well 23 manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals. A condensed review of NOx storage and reduction was published in an encyclopedia of technology.

  13. UTILIZING WATER EMULSIFICATION TO REDUCE NOX AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BIODIESEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Lee, Doh-Won [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Swartz, Matthew M [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    A key barrier limiting extended utilization of biodiesel is higher NOx emissions compared to petrodiesel fuels. The reason for this effect is unclear, but various researchers have attributed this phenomena to the higher liquid bulk modulus associated with biodiesel and the additional heat released during the breaking of C-C double bonds in the methyl ester groups. In this study water was incorporated into neat biodiesel (B100) as an emulsion in an attempt to lower NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions. A biodiesel emulsion containing 10wt% water was formulated and evaluated against an ultra-low sulfur petroleum diesel (ULSD) and neat biodiesel (B100) in a light-duty diesel engine operated at 1500RPM and at loads of 68Nm (50ft-lbs) and 102Nm (75ft-lbs). The influence of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was also examined. The incorporation of water was found to significantly lower the NOx emissions of B100, while maintaining fuel efficiency when operating at 0 and 27% EGR. The soot fraction of the particulates (as determined using an opacity meter) was much lower for the B100 and B100-water emulsion compared ULSD. In contrast, total PM mass (for the three fuel types) was unchanged for the 0% EGR condition but was significantly lower for the B100 and B100-emulsion during the 27% EGR condition compared to the ULSD fuel. Analysis of the emissions and heat release data indicate that water enhances air-fuel premixing to maintain fuel economy and lower soot formation. The exhaust chemistry of the biodiesel base fuels (B100 and water-emulsified B100) was found to be unique in that they contained measurable levels of methyl alkenoates, which were not found for the ULSD. These compounds were formed by the partial cracking of the methyl ester groups during combustion.

  14. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction (NSR) Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Do Heui; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Currier, Neal; Li, Junhui; Stafford, Randy; Yezerets, Aleksey; Chen, Hai Ying; Hess, Howard .

    2012-02-08

    This annual report describes progress on a CRADA project aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of candidate next generation NSR materials for NOx after-treatment for light-duty lean-burn (including diesel) engines. Model catalysts that are based on literature formulations are the focus of the work being carried out at PNNL. In addition, the performance and stability of a realistic high temperature NSR catalyst, supplied by JM, is being studied in order to provide baseline data for the model catalysts that are, again, based on formulations described in the open literature.

  15. SO{sub 2} and NOx trading markets: providing flexibility and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sam Napolitano; Melanie LaCount; Daniel Chartier

    2007-06-15

    Experience with the Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trading Programs demonstrates that cap-and-trade programs are an effective means of achieving broad improvements in air quality. Results demonstrate that the combination of mandatory emissions caps, a viable allowance trading market, rigorous emissions monitoring and reporting protocols, and automatic enforcement provide accountability and ensure results in a cost-effective manner. The market developments discussed in this article demonstrate a successful environmental partnership. With a government focused on results and a private sector motivated to innovate, cap-and trade systems deliver environmental results as efficiently and effectively as possible. 3 refs., 4 figs,

  16. Large-Eddy Simulation of Pulverized Coal Jet Flame -Effect of Oxygen Concentration on NOx formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Kurose, Ryoichi; Komori, Satoru; Balusamy, Saravanan; Hochgreb, Simone

    2014-11-13

    . The results are much more abundant than those of other fossil fuels and widely distributed all over the world. However, the emission inten- sities of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulfur oxide (SOx) by using coal are generally larger than... those by using other fossil fuels [1]. It is therefore important to develop clean coal technology for pulverized coal fired power plants, in order to con- trol such emissions and to reduce the environmental impact. ct of CO2, carbon a key technology, l...

  17. Cyclone Boiler Reburn NOx Control Improvements via Cyclone Design Improvements and Advanced Air Staging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morabito, B.; Nee, B.; Goff, V.; Maringo, G.

    2008-01-01

    is the practice of reducing the stoichiometry in the burner zone to near or less than 1.0 and adding the remaining air needed to complete combustion through Over Fire Air (OFA) ports above the burners. Limiting the oxygen available to the fuel as it begins... of the combustion air allowing for equal or better operation with less excess air would in theory, reduce NOx and decrease the natural gas required for control. Babcock & Wilcox Burnout Zone Cyclone Burners Reburn Zone Main Combustion Zone Reburn...

  18. Integrable Supersymmetric Fluid Mechanics from Superstrings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Bergner; R. Jackiw

    2001-05-03

    Following the construction of a model for the planar supersymmetric Chaplygin gas, supersymmetric fluid mechanics in (1+1)-dimensions is obtained from the light-cone parametrized Nambu-Goto superstring in (2+1)-dimensions. The lineal model is completely integrable and can be formulated neatly using Riemann coordinates. Infinite towers of conserved charges and supercharges are exhibited. They form irreducible representations of a dynamical (hidden) SO(2,1) symmetry group.

  19. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  20. Anthropogenic emissions of NOx over China: Reconciling the difference of inverse modeling results using GOME-2 and OMI measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Dasa; Wang, Yuhang; Smeltzer, Charles; Boersma, K. Folkert

    2014-06-27

    Inverse modeling using satellite observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns has been extensively used to estimate nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions in China. Recently, the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) provide independent global NO2 column measurements on a nearly daily basis at around 9:30 and 13:30 local time across the equator, respectively. Anthropogenic NOx emission estimates by applying previously developed monthly inversion (MI) or daily inversion (DI) methods to these two sets of measurements show substantial differences. We improve the DI method by conducting model simulation, satellite retrieval, and inverse modeling sequentially on a daily basis. After each inversion, we update anthropogenic NOx emissions in the model simulation with the newly obtained a posteriori results. Consequently, the inversion-optimized emissions are used to compute the a priori NO2 profiles for satellite retrievals. As such, the a priori profiles used in satellite retrievals are now coupled to inverse modeling results. The improved procedure was applied to GOME-2 and OMI NO2 measurements in 2011. The new daily retrieval-inversion (DRI) method estimates an average NOx emission of 6.9 Tg N/yr over China, and the difference between using GOME-2 and OMI measurements is 0.4 Tg N/yr, which is significantly smaller than the difference of 1.3 Tg N/yr using the previous DI method. Using the more consistent DRI inversion results, we find that anthropogenic NOx emissions tend to be higher in winter and summer than spring (and possibly fall) and the weekday-to-weekend emission ratio tends to increase with NOx emission in China.

  1. NOx control technology requirements under the United States 1990 Clean Air Act amendments compared to those in selected pacific rim countries. Report for September 1993-September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.A.; Hall, R.E.; Stern, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The paper compares nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology requirements under the U.S. 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) with those in selected Pacific Rim countries. The CAAAs require reduction of NOx emissions under Titles I (requiring control of NOx from all source types for the purpose of attaining ambient air quality standards for NOx and ozone) and IV (requiring control of NOx from coal-fired utility boilers for the reduction of acid rain precursors). Title IV sets national emission standards for dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired boilers based on low NOx burner technology, defined by EPA to include separated overfire air. Emission standards for other boiler types are to be promulgated by 1997. Title I controls, based on reductions necessary to reduce local and regional ambient levels of NOx and ozone, involve Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) as defined by EPA`s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards; however, emission levels are set by the states according to local conditions. Technologies defined as RACT include low NOx burner technology, selective non-catalytic modifications, and selective catalytic reduction. These and other combustion modifications and flue gas treatment technologies are described.

  2. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  3. Calculation of NOx Emission Reduction from Implementation of the 2000 IECC/IRC Conservation Code in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, W. D.; Yazdani, B.; Im, P.; Verdict, M.; Bryant, J.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.

    2003-01-01

    OF NOx EMISSIONS REDUCTION FROM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE 2000 IECC/IRC CONSERVATION CODE IN TEXAS Jeff S. Haberl Ph.D., P.E Professor/ Assc. Director Charles Culp Ph.D., P.E. Assc. Director Bahman Yazdani P.E. Assc. Director Tom Fitzpatrick... and passed Senate Bill 5 to reduce ozone levels by encouraging the reduction of emissions of NOx by sources that are currently not regulated by the state2. An important part of this legislation is the State?s energy efficiency program, which includes...

  4. Method for control of NOx emission from combustors using fuel dilution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schefer, Robert W. (Alamo, CA); Keller, Jay O (Oakland, CA)

    2007-01-16

    A method of controlling NOx emission from combustors. The method involves the controlled addition of a diluent such as nitrogen or water vapor, to a base fuel to reduce the flame temperature, thereby reducing NOx production. At the same time, a gas capable of enhancing flame stability and improving low temperature combustion characteristics, such as hydrogen, is added to the fuel mixture. The base fuel can be natural gas for use in industrial and power generation gas turbines and other burners. However, the method described herein is equally applicable to other common fuels such as coal gas, biomass-derived fuels and other common hydrocarbon fuels. The unique combustion characteristics associated with the use of hydrogen, particularly faster flame speed, higher reaction rates, and increased resistance to fluid-mechanical strain, alter the burner combustion characteristics sufficiently to allow operation at the desired lower temperature conditions resulting from diluent addition, without the onset of unstable combustion that can arise at lower combustor operating temperatures.

  5. Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Rodney

    2007-08-08

    The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

  6. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  7. Effects of NOx on the volatility of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene photooxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Lu; Kollman, Matthew S.; Song, Chen; Shilling, John E.; Ng, L. N.

    2014-01-28

    The effects of NOx on the volatility of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from isoprene photooxidation are investigated in environmental chamber experiments. Two types of experiments are performed. In HO2-dominant experiments, organic peroxy radicals (RO2) primarily react with HO2. In mixed experiments, RO2 reacts through multiple pathways. The volatility and oxidation state of isoprene SOA is sensitive to and displays a non-linear dependence on NOx levels. When initial NO/isoprene ratio is approximately 3 (ppbv:ppbv), SOA are shown to be most oxidized and least volatile, associated with the highest SOA yield. A High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) is applied to characterize the key chemical properties of aerosols. While the composition of SOA in mixed experiments does not change substantially over time, SOA become less volatile and more oxidized as oxidation progresses in HO2-dominant experiments. Analysis of the SOA composition suggests that the further reactions of organic peroxides and alcohols may produce carboxylic acids, which might play a strong role in SOA aging.

  8. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: Light-Duty Passenger Car Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomazic, D; Tatur, M; Thornton, M

    2003-08-24

    A 1.9L turbo direct injection (TDI) diesel engine was modified to achieve the upcoming Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standard in combination with a NOx adsorber catalyst (NAC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary objective for developing this test bed is to investigating the effects of different fuel sulfur contents on the performance of an advanced emission control system (ECS) in a light-duty application. During the development process, the engine-out emissions were minimized by applying a state-of-the-art combustion system in combination with cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The subsequent calibration effort resulted in emission levels requiring 80-90 percent nitrogen-oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) conversion rates by the corresponding ECS. The strategy development included ean/rich modulation for NAC regeneration, as well as, the desulfurization of the NAC and the regeneration of the DPF. Two slightly different ECS were investigated and calibrated. The initial vehicle results in an Audi A4 station wagon over the federal test procedure (FTP), US 06, and the highway fuel economy test (HFET) cycle indicate the potential of these configuration to meet the future Tier 2 emission standard.

  9. Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ancillary reduction the ancillary reduction in NOx and SO2 to compute NOx,CO2 and SO2,CO2 . For CO2,NOx and CO2,SO2 we find low in CO2 to calculate the percentage change in CO2 divided by the percentage change in NOx (SO2) denoted

  10. Final Report for project titled "New fluoroionomer electrolytes with high conductivity and low SO2 crossover for use in electrolyzers being developed for hydrogen production from nuclear power plants"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Smith; Stephen Creager

    2012-09-13

    Thermochemical water splitting cycles, using the heat of nuclear power plants, offer an alternate highly efficient route for the production of hydrogen. Among the many possible thermochemical cycles for the hydrogen production, the sulfur-based cycles lead the competition in overall energy efficiency. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce hydrogen. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) selected the fuel cell MEA design concept for the SDE in the HyS process since the MEA concept provides a much smaller cell footprint than conventional parallel plate technology. The electrolyzer oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid at the anode and reduces protons to form hydrogen at the cathode. The overall electrochemical cell reaction consists of the production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. There is a significant need to provide the membrane materials that exhibit reduced sulfur dioxide transport characteristics without sacrificing other important properties such as high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical stability in highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions saturated with sulfur dioxide. As an alternative membrane, sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether polymer (sPFCB) were expected to posses low SO2 permeability due to their stiff backbones as well as high proton conductivity, improved mechanical properties. The major accomplishments of this project were the synthesis, characterizations, and optimizations of suitable electrolyzers for good SDE performance and higher chemical stability against sulfuric acid. SDE performance results of developed sPFCB polyelectrolytes have shown that these membranes exhibit good chemical stability against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  11. SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmén, Britt A.

    SURFACE OXIDATION OF DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER IN PRESENCE OF O3 +NOX: NEW TD/GC/MS ANALYSIS METHOD+08 2.6e+08 2.8e+08 3e+08 Time--> Abundance TIC: 0914S4.D INTRODUCTION Diesel exhaust is one into the atmosphere diesel particles can be transformed through physical and chemical processes resulting

  12. Seasonal variability of NOx emissions over east China constrained by satellite observations: Implications for combustion and microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    from biomass burning, fuel combustion, and microbial activity (or soil emissions). Emission of NOx from variations of combustion and microbial processes, the a posteriori inventory is partitioned among emissions in the troposphere include combustion of fossil and biofuels, biomass burning, lightning, and bacte- rially mediated

  13. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions- Presentation by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation on Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions, given by David Cygan of the Gas Technology Institute, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  14. High Efficiency, Ultra-Low Emission, Integrated Process Heater System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Howard; Boral, Anindya; Chhotray, San; Martin, Matthew

    2006-06-19

    The team of TIAX LLC, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, and Callidus Technologies, LLC conducted a six-year program to develop an ultra-low emission process heater burner and an advanced high efficiency heater design. This project addresses the critical need of process heater operators for reliable, economical emission reduction technologies to comply with stringent emission regulations, and for heater design alternatives that reduce process heater energy requirements without significant cost increase. The key project targets were NOx emissions of 10 ppm (@ 3% O2), and a heater thermal efficiency of 95 percent. The ultra low NOx burner was developed through a series of pilot-scale and field tests combined with computational fluid dynamic modeling to arrive at simultaneous low emissions and suitable flame shape and stability. Pilot scale tests were run at TIAX, at the 2 MMBtu/hr scale, and at Callidus at 8 MMBtu/hr. The full scale burner was installed on a 14 burner atmospheric pipestill furnace at an ExxonMobil refinery. A variety of burner configurations, gas tips and flame stabilizers were tested to determine the lowest emissions with acceptable flame shape and stability. The resulting NOx emissions were 22 ppm on average. Starting in 2001, Callidus commercialized the original ultra low NOx burner and made subsequent design improvements in a series of commercial burners evolving from the original concept and/or development. Emissions in the field with the ultra low-NOx burner over a broad spectrum of heater applications have varied from 5 ppm to 30 ppm depending on heater geometry, heater service, fuel and firing capacity. To date, 1550 of the original burners, and 2500 of subsequent generation burners have been sold by Callidus. The advanced heater design was developed by parametric evaluations of a variety of furnace and combustion air preheater configurations and technologies for enhancing convective and radiative heat transfer. The design evolution relied heavily on computational fluid dynamic predictions of design alternatives. The final design features modular separate radiant cells, each with one and two-side fired vertical tubes. The convection section configuration is vertical tube banks enclosed in the radiant channels. Commercial modular plate air preheaters are used. The predicted performance for the integrated advanced heater and Callidus burner is 95 percent efficiency with 9 ppm NOx emissions firing natural gas, and 12 ppm firing refinery gas. The total erected cost is less than a conventional heater with combustion air preheat.

  15. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of the boiler. When combined with SNCR, a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.12-0.14 lb/MBtu can be expected when implementing a full ALTA system on this unit. Cost effectiveness of the full ALTA system was estimated at $2,152/ton NO{sub x} removed; this was less than 75% of the cost estimated for an SCR system on a unit of this size.

  16. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

  17. Influence of calcium content of biomass-based materials on simultaneous NOx and SO{sub 2} reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma V. Pisupati; Sumeet Bhalla [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy and Mineral Engineering Department

    2008-04-01

    Pyrolysis products of biomass (bio-oils) have been shown to cause a reduction in NOx emissions when used as reburn fuels in combustion systems. When these bio-oils are processed with lime, calcium is ion-exchanged and the product is called BioLime. BioLime, when introduced into a combustion chamber, pyrolyzes and produces volatile products that reduce NOx emissions through reburn mechanisms. Simultaneously, calcium reacts with SO{sub 2} to form calcium sulfate and thus reduces SO{sub 2} emissions. This paper reports the characterization of composition and pyrolysis behavior of two BioLime products and the influence of feedstock on pyrolysis products. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and {sup 13}C-CP/MAS NMR techniques were used to study the composition of two biomass-based materials. The composition of the pyrolysis products of BioLime was determined in a laboratory scale flow reactor. The effect of BioLime composition on NOx and SO{sub 2} reduction performance was evaluated in a 146.5 kW pilot-scale, down fired combustor (DFC). The effect of pyrolysis gas composition on NOx reduction is discussed. The TGA weight loss curves of BioLime samples in an inert atmosphere showed two distinct peaks corresponding to the decomposition of light and heavy components of the BioLime and a third distinct peak corresponding to secondary thermal decomposition of char. The study also showed that BioLime sample with lower content of residual lignin derivatives and lower calcium content produced more volatile compounds upon pyrolysis in the combustor and achieved higher NOx reduction (15%). Higher yields of pyrolysis gases increased the NO reduction potential of BioLime through homogeneous gas phase reactions. Calcium in BioLime samples effectively reduced SO{sub 2} emissions (60-85%). 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Reduction of Stored NOx on Pt/Al?O? and Pt/BaO/Al?O? Catalysts with H? and CO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szailer, Tamas; Kwak, Ja Hun; Kim, Do Heui; Hanson, Jonathan; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-04-01

    In situ FTIR spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometry, and time resolved X-ray diffraction were used to study the efficiency of nitrate reduction with CO and H? on Pt/Al?O? and Pt/BaO/Al?O? NOx storage-reduction (NSR) catalysts. Surface nitrates were generated by NO? adsorption and their reduction efficiencies were examined on the catalysts together with the analysis of the gas phase composition in the presence of the two different reductants. H? was found to be a more effective reducing agent than CO. In particular, the reduction of surface nitrates proceeds very efficiently with H? even at low temperatures (~420 K). During reduction with CO, isocyanates were observed to form on every catalyst component. These surface isocyanates, however, readily react with water to form CO? and ammonia. The thus formed NH?, in turn, reacts with stored NOx at higher temperatures (>473K) to produce N?. In the absence of H?O, the NCO species are stable to high temperatures, and removed only from the catalyst when they react with NOx thermal decomposition products to form N? and CO?. The results of this study point to a complex reaction mechanism that involves the removal of surface oxygen atoms from the Pt particles by either H? or CO, the direct reduction of stored NOx with H? (low temperature NOx reduction), the formation and the subsequent hydrolysis of NCO species, as well as the direct reaction of NCO with decomposing NOx (high temperature NOx reduction).

  19. Effect of B20 and Low Aromatic Diesel on Transit Bus NOx Emissions Over Driving Cycles with a Range of Kinetic Intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; McCormick, R. L.; Sindler, P.; Williams, A.

    2012-10-01

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions for transit buses for up to five different fuels and three standard transit duty cycles were compared to establish whether there is a real-world biodiesel NOx increase for transit bus duty cycles and engine calibrations. Six buses representing the majority of the current national transit fleet and including hybrid and selective catalyst reduction systems were tested on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer with certification diesel, certification B20 blend, low aromatic (California Air Resources Board) diesel, low aromatic B20 blend, and B100 fuels over the Manhattan, Orange County and UDDS test cycles. Engine emissions certification level had the dominant effect on NOx; kinetic intensity was the secondary driving factor. The biodiesel effect on NOx emissions was not statistically significant for most buses and duty cycles for blends with certification diesel, except for a 2008 model year bus. CARB fuel had many more instances of a statistically significant effect of reducing NOx. SCR systems proved effective at reducing NOx to near the detection limit on all duty cycles and fuels, including B100. While offering a fuel economy benefit, a hybrid system significantly increased NOx emissions over a same year bus with a conventional drivetrain and the same engine.

  20. Vortex combustor for low NOx emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C. (Woodinville, WA); Edmonds, Ryan G. (Renton, WA); Williams, Joseph T. (Kirkland, WA); Baldwin, Stephen P. (Winchester, MA)

    2009-10-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  1. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Parasher, Sukesh (Lawrenceville, NJ); Hare, Jeffrey J. (Provo, UT); Harding, N. Stanley (North Salt Lake, UT); Black, Stephanie E. (Sandy, UT); Johnson, Kenneth R. (Highland, UT)

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  2. Vortex combustor for low NOX emissions when burning lean premixed high hydrogen content fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steele, Robert C; Edmonds, Ryan G; Williams, Joseph T; Baldwin, Stephen P

    2012-11-20

    A trapped vortex combustor. The trapped vortex combustor is configured for receiving a lean premixed gaseous fuel and oxidant stream, where the fuel includes hydrogen gas. The trapped vortex combustor is configured to receive the lean premixed fuel and oxidant stream at a velocity which significantly exceeds combustion flame speed in a selected lean premixed fuel and oxidant mixture. The combustor is configured to operate at relatively high bulk fluid velocities while maintaining stable combustion, and low NOx emissions. The combustor is useful in gas turbines in a process of burning synfuels, as it offers the opportunity to avoid use of diluent gas to reduce combustion temperatures. The combustor also offers the possibility of avoiding the use of selected catalytic reaction units for removal of oxides of nitrogen from combustion gases exiting a gas turbine.

  3. Formation of NOx precursors during Chinese pulverized coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei-ren Bao; Jin-cao Zhang; Fan Li; Li-ping Chang

    2007-08-15

    The formation of NOx precursors (HCN and NH{sub 3}) from the pyrolysis of several Chinese pulverized coals in an arc plasma jet was investigated through both thermodynamic analysis of the C-H-O-N system and experiments. Results of thermodynamic analysis show that the dominant N-containing gaseous species is HCN together with a small amount of ammonia above the temperature of 2000 K. The increase of H content advances the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3}, but the yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are decreased with a high concentration of O in the system. These results are accordant with the experimental data. The increasing of input power promotes the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} from coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet. Tar-N is not formed during the process. The yield of HCN changes insignificantly with the changing of the residence time of coal particles in the reactor, but that of NH{sub 3} decreases as residence times increase because of the relative instability at high temperature. Adsorption and gasification of CO{sub 2} on the coal surface also can restrain the formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} compare to the results in an Ar plasma jet. Yields of HCN and NH{sub 3} are sensitive to the coal feeding rate, indicating that NOx precursors could interact with the nascent char to form other N-containing species. The formation of HCN and NH{sub 3} during coal pyrolysis in a H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet are not dependent on coal rank. The N-containing gaseous species is released faster than others in the volatiles during coal pyrolysis in an arc plasma jet, and the final nitrogen content in the char is lower than that in the parent coal, which it is independent of coal type. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Demontration of Integrated Optimization Software at the Baldwin Energy Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob James; John McDermott; Sanjay Patnaik; Steve Piche`

    2009-01-07

    This project encompassed the design, development, and demonstration of integrated online optimization systems at Dynegy Midwest Generation's Baldwin Energy Complex (BEC) located in Baldwin, Illinois. The overall project objective was to improve coal-based generation's emission profile, efficiency, maintenance requirements and plant asset life in order to enhance the long-term viability of the United States abundant coal resources. Five separate but integrated optimization products were developed, addressing combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, overall unit thermal performance, and plant-wide availability optimization. Optimization results are inherently unit-specific and cannot be known for a particular generating unit in advance. However, NeuCo believed that the following were reasonable targets for the completed, integrated set of products: Furnace NOx reduction improvement by 5%, Heat rate improvement by 1.5%, Increase of annual Available MWh by 1.5%, Commensurate reductions in greenhouse gases, mercury, and particulates; and Commensurate increases in profitability from lower costs, improved reliability, and greater commercial availability. The goal during Phase I was to establish each system and demonstrate their integration in unified plant optimization. Efforts during Phase I focused on: (1) developing, deploying, integrating, and testing prototypes for each of the five products; (2) identifying and addressing issues required for the products to integrate with plant operations; and (3) systematically collecting and assimilating feedback to improve subsequent product releases. As described in the Phase II continuation application NeuCo successfully achieved the goal for Phase I. The goal of Phase II was to improve upon the products installed and tested in Phase I and to quantify the benefits of the integrated system. As this report documents, NeuCo has also successfully achieved the goal for Phase II. The overall results of the project, compared with the project goals, are: (1) NOx Reduction: The 5% target for NOx reduction was exceeded with average CEMS and SCR Inlet (furnace) NOx reduction of between 12% and 14%. (2) Heat Rate Improvement: The optimization systems delivered an average heat rate improvement of between 0.67% and 0.7%. This falls short of the 1.5% heat rate improvement target largely because Cyclone Stability (availability) and CEMS and SCR Inlet NOx were prioritized over heat rate in the event they needed to be traded-off with one another. A different prioritization of objectives could have driven a different balance, thereby meeting the target of 1.5% improvement. There were also several factors that could have been masking greater heat rate improvements such as the decrease in fuel density over the course of the project and the impact of actions taken as a result of advice provided by the optimizers that are difficult to quantify. (3) Increased Annual Available MWh: Although difficult to measure precisely, the target of increasing available MWh's by 1.5% was met by providing prioritized alerts and knowledge-based diagnostics for a wide array of plant equipment and process anomalies; helping the plant to move from high sulfur, high Btu Illinois coal to PRB and run that fuel at low stoichiometries without derates; and improved management of cyclone flame quality as well as improved vigilance with respect to cyclone conditions which avoided some degree of temporary de-rate due to cyclone slag build up. (4) Commensurate Reductions in Greenhouse Gases, Mercury, and Particulates: Reductions in all three of these indices can be associated directly with the optimization leverage observed in the heat rate and NOx reductions. (5) Commensurate Increases in Profitability from Lower Costs, Improved Reliability, and Greater Commercial Availability: Commensurate improvements in costs, reliability and availability resulted from the previously described benefits. Also playing a role were the sustained operation of the cyclones while using more available, less expensive but off-design fuel; more effective catal

  5. Calculation of Integrated Nox Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Baltazar, J. C.; Kim, H.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Zilbershtein, G.; Ellis, S.; Parker, P.

    2013-01-01

    -complaint construction, the Texas Public Utility Commission (PUC), the energy efficiency programs managed by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO), electricity generated from wind power in the state, and several additional statewide measures, including SEER...

  6. Durability Evaluation of an Integrated Diesel NOx Adsorber A/T Subsystem at Light-Duty Operation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Cummins Inc. and Johnson-Matthey

  7. Box Integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Box integrals D.H. Bailey ? J.M. Borwein † April 3,Abstract. By a “box integral” we mean here an expectation |r· dr n . The study of box integrals leads one naturally into

  8. TRIPLE INTEGRALS Studying triple integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knopf, Dan

    TRIPLE INTEGRALS Studying triple integrals of functions of three variables is a natural step up from the two variable case. It's a very important one for applications. Now the domain of integration in 3- space as double integrals, which in turn were expressed as repeated integrals. As a result

  9. Sulfation of K-based Lean NOx Trap while Cycling Between Lean and Rich Conditions: I. Microreactor Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Exposure of Pt/K/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to 15 ppm SO{sub 2} reduces the NOx activity at 200, 300, and 400 C at significantly different rates--1.5, 8.5, and 18.0 {micro}mol NOx/(h g{sub cat}), respectively. During the initial sulfation, NOx conversion is directly linked to lean phase storage capacity, and sulfation does not impact the reduction kinetics since the amount of unconverted NOx was constant or decreased with increasing sulfation time. A portion of sulfur stored at 200 C desorbs upon mild heating to 400 C while cycling between lean and rich conditions. This apparently is a result of sulfur being released from Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; however, performance is not significantly recovered as much of the sulfur is re-adsorbed on the K-phase. This is apparent from analysis of the NOx storage and release profiles. Additional analysis of these profiles suggests that SO{sub 2} initially adsorbs near Pt before interacting with other sites further away from Pt at 300 C. At 400 C, it appears that SO{sub 2} either preferentially adsorbs near Pt and then quickly diffuses along the surface to other less proximal sites, or it directly adsorbs on sites further away from Pt. De-sulfurization up to 800 C using a temperature programmed reduction (TPR) procedure and rich conditions with both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O restored 73=94% of the LNT performance at 300 and 400 C. However, the recovered performance measured at 200 C was only 34-49% of the original NOx reduction activity. H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} were the primary de-sulfurization products with H{sub 2}S having a maximum release between 690 and 755 C, while SO{sub 2} had a peak release between 770 and 785 C. The sulfation temperature does not have a significant impact on the recovered performance, the de-sulfurization products or the sulfur release temperature.

  10. An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optical engine experiments suggest that near stoichiometric charge-gas mixtures in the standing premixed autoignition zone near flame lift-off length explains biodiesel NOx increase under all conditions

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative ozone control strategies : flexible nitrogen oxide (NOx) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Lin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Ozone formation is a complex, non-linear process that depends on the atmospheric concentrations of its precursors, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), as well as on temperature and the available ...

  12. Eddy Covariance Fluxes of Nitrogen Oxides at Harvard Forest NOx deposition is important to both the biosphere and the atmosphere: the form of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cycling of NO-NO2, and does not contribute to net NOx flux. Net deposition velocity of NOx [Aneja et al., 2001]. NO is rapidly converted to NO2 via reaction with O3 (Reaction 3.1), with typical.2), regenerating O3 by the reaction of O(3 P) with molecular oxygen (R3.3): NO + O3 NO2 + O2 (R3.1) NO2 + h NO + O

  13. APBF-DEC NOx Adsorber/DPF Project: SUV / Pick-up Truck Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, C; Weber, P; Thornton,M

    2003-08-24

    The objective of this project is to determine the influence of diesel fuel composition on the ability of NOX adsorber catalyst (NAC) technology, in conjunction with diesel particle filters (DPFs), to achieve stringent emissions levels with a minimal fuel economy impact. The test bed for this project was intended to be a light-duty sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a goal of achieving light-duty Tier 2-Bin 5 tail pipe emission levels (0.07 g/mi. NOX and 0.01 g/mi. PM). However, with the current US market share of light-duty diesel applications being so low, no US 2002 model year (MY) light-duty truck (LDT) or SUV platforms equipped with a diesel engine and having a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) less than 8500 lb exist. While the current level of diesel engine use is relatively small in the light-duty class, there exists considerable potential for the diesel engine to gain a much larger market share in the future as manufacturers of heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) attempt to offset the negative impact on cooperate average fuel economy (CAFE) that the recent rise in market share of the SUVs and LDTs has caused. The US EPA Tier 2 emission standards also contain regulation to prevent the migration of heavy light-duty trucks and SUV's to the medium duty class. This preventive measure requires that all medium duty trucks, SUV's and vans in the 8,500 to 10,000 lb GVWR range being used as passenger vehicles, meet light-duty Tier 2 standards. In meeting the Tier 2 emission standards, the HLDTs and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. Because the MDPV is the closest weight class and application relative to the potential upcoming HLDTs and SUV's, a weight class compromise was made in this program to allow the examination of using a diesel engine with a NAC-DPF system on a 2002 production vehicle. The test bed for this project is a 2500 series Chevrolet Silverado equipped with a 6.6L Duramax diesel engine certified to 2002 MY Federal heavy-duty and 2002 MY California medium-duty emission standards. The stock vehicle included cooled air charge (CAC), turbocharger (TC), direct fuel injection (DFI), oxidation catalyst (OC), and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

  14. Selective catalytic reduction system and process for treating NOx emissions using a palladium and rhodium or ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly (Orlando, FL); Rossin, Joseph A. (Columbus, OH); Knapke, Michael J. (Columbus, OH)

    2011-07-12

    A process for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in a gas stream (29) in the presence of H.sub.2 is provided. The process comprises contacting the gas stream with a catalyst system (38) comprising zirconia-silica washcoat particles (41), a pre-sulfated zirconia binder (44), and a catalyst combination (40) comprising palladium and at least one of rhodium, ruthenium, or a mixture of ruthenium and rhodium.

  15. Non-thermal plasma-assisted NOx reduction over Na-Y zeolites: The promotional effect of acid sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos

    2006-06-01

    The effect of acid sites on the catalytic activities of a series of H+-modified Na-Y zeolites was investigated in the non-thermal plasma assisted NOx reduction reaction using a simulated diesel engine exhaust gas mixture. The acid sites were formed by NH4+ ion exchange and subsequent heat treatment of a NaY zeolite. The catalytic activities of these H+-modified NaY zeolites significantly increased with the number of acid sites. This NOx conversion increase was correlated with the decrease in the amount of unreacted NO2. The increase in the number of acid sites did not change the NO level, it stayed constant. Temperature programmed desorption following NO2 adsorption showed the appearance of a high temperature desorption peak at 453 K in addition to the main desorption feature of 343 K observed for the base Na-Y. The results of both the IR and TPD experiments revealed the formation of crotonaldehyde, resulting from condensation reaction of adsorbed acetaldehyde. Strong adsorptions of both NOx and hydrocarbon species are proposed to be responsible for the higher catalytic activity of H+-modified Na-Y zeolites in comparison to the base NaY material

  16. Regeneration of field-spent activated carbon catalysts for low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeon, Jong Ki; Kim, Hyeonjoo; Park, Young-Kwon; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

    2011-10-15

    In the process of producing liquid crystal displays (LCD), the emitted NOx is removed over an activated carbon catalyst by using selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH3 at low temperature. However, the catalyst rapidly deactivates primarily due to the deposition of boron discharged from the process onto the catalyst. Therefore, this study is aimed at developing an optimal regeneration process to remove boron from field-spent carbon catalysts. The spent carbon catalysts were regenerated by washing with a surfactant followed by drying and calcination. The physicochemical properties before and after the regeneration were investigated by using elemental analysis, TG/DTG (thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric) analysis, N2 adsorption-desorption and NH3 TPD (temperature programmed desorption). Spent carbon catalysts demonstrated a drastic decrease in DeNOx activity mainly due to heavy deposition of boron. Boron was accumulated to depths of about 50 {mu}m inside the granule surface of the activated carbons, as evidenced by cross-sectional SEM-EDX analysis. However, catalyst activity and surface area were significantly recovered by removing boron in the regeneration process, and the highest NOx conversions were obtained after washing with a non-ionic surfactant in H2O at 70 C, followed by treatment with N2 at 550 C.

  17. Thermal Durability of Cu-CHA NH3-SCR Catalysts for Diesel NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmieg, Steven J.; Oh, Se H.; Kim, Chang H.; Brown, David B.; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Kim, Do Heui

    2012-04-30

    Multiple catalytic functions (NOx conversion, NO and NH3 oxidation, NH3 storage) of a commercial Cu-zeolite urea/NH3-SCR catalyst were assessed in a laboratory fixed-bed flow reactor system after differing degrees of hydrothermal aging. Catalysts were characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), 27Al solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) / energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to develop an understanding of the degradation mechanisms during catalyst aging. The catalytic reaction measurements of laboratory-aged catalysts were performed, which allows us to obtain a universal curve for predicting the degree of catalyst performance deterioration as a function of time at each aging temperature. Results show that as the aging temperature becomes higher, the zeolite structure collapses in a shorter period of time after an induction period. The decrease in SCR performance was explained by zeolite structure destruction and/or Cu agglomeration, as detected by XRD/27Al NMR and by TEM/EDX, respectively. Destruction of the zeolite structure and agglomeration of the active phase also results in a decrease in the NO/NH3 oxidation activity and the NH3 storage capacity of the catalyst. Selected laboratory aging conditions (16 h at 800oC) compare well with a 135,000 mile vehicle-aged catalyst for both performance and characterization criteria.

  18. Simultaneous Removal of Particulates and NOx Using Catalyst Impregnated Fibrous Ceramic Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.I.; Mun, S.H.; Kim, S.T.; Hong, M.S.; Lee, J.C.

    2002-09-19

    The research is focused on the development and commercialization of high efficiency, cost effective air pollution control system, which can replace in part air pollution control devices currently in use. In many industrial processes, hot exhaust gases are cooled down to recover heat and to remove air pollutants in exhaust gases. Conventional air pollution control devices such as bag filters, E.P. and adsorption towers withstand operating temperatures up to 300 C. Also, reheating is sometimes necessary to meet temperature windows for S.C.R. Since Oxidation reactions of acid gases such as SO{sub 2}, and HCl with lime are enhanced at high temperatures, catalyst impregnated ceramic filters can be candidate for efficient and cost effective air pollution control devices. As shown on Fig. 1., catalytic ceramic filters remove particulates on exterior surface of filters and acid gases are oxidized to salts reacting with limes injected in upstream ducts. Oxidation reactions are enhanced in the cake formed on exterior of filters. Finally, injected reducing gas such as NH{sub 3} react with NOx to form N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O interior of filters in particulate-free environment. Operation and maintenance technology is similar to conventional bag filters except that systems are exposed to relatively high temperatures ranging 300-500 C.

  19. Apparatus and method for burning a lean, premixed fuel/air mixture with low NOx emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostiuk, Larry W. (Edmonton, CA); Cheng, Robert K. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for enabling a burner to stably burn a lean fuel/air mixture. The burner directs the lean fuel/air mixture in a stream. The apparatus comprises an annular flame stabilizer; and a device for mounting the flame stabilizer in the fuel/air mixture stream. The burner may include a body having an internal bore, in which case, the annular flame stabilizer is shaped to conform to the cross-sectional shape of the bore, is spaced from the bore by a distance greater than about 0.5 mm, and the mounting device mounts the flame stabilizer in the bore. An apparatus for burning a gaseous fuel with low NOx emissions comprises a device for premixing air with the fuel to provide a lean fuel/air mixture; a nozzle having an internal bore through which the lean fuel/air mixture passes in a stream; and a flame stabilizer mounted in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture. The flame stabilizer may be mounted in the internal bore, in which case, it is shaped and is spaced from the bore as just described. In a method of burning a lean fuel/air mixture, a lean fuel/air mixture is provided, and is directed in a stream; an annular eddy is created in the stream of the lean fuel/air mixture; and the lean fuel/air mixture is ignited at the eddy.

  20. Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its grid integration subprogram.

  1. Effects of Potassium loading and thermal aging on K/Pt/Al2O3 high-temperature lean NOx trap catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Jinyong; Gao, Feng; Kim, Do Heui; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-03-31

    The effects of K loading and thermal aging on the structural properties and high temperature performance of Pt/K/Al2O3 lean NOx trap (LNT) catalysts were investigated using in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed decomposition/desorption of NOx (NOx-TPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), NO oxidation and NOx storage tests. In situ XRD results demonstrate that KNO3 becomes extremely mobile on the Al2O3 surface, and experiences complex transformations between orthorhombic and rhombohedral structures, accompanied by sintering, melting and thermal decomposition upon heating. NOx storage results show an optimum K loading around 10% for the best performance at high temperatures. At lower K loadings where the majority of KNO3 stays as a surface layer, the strong interaction between KNO3 and Al2O3 promotes KNO3 decomposition and deteriorates high-temperature performance. At K loadings higher than 10%, the performance drop is not caused by NOx diffusion limitations as for the case of barium-based LNTs, but rather from the blocking of Pt sites by K species, which adversely affects NO oxidation. Thermal aging at 800 şC severely deactivates the Pt/K/Al2O3 catalysts due to Pt sintering. However, in the presence of potassium, some Pt remains in a dispersed and oxidized form. These Pt species interact strongly with K and, therefore, do not sinter. After a reduction treatment, these Pt species remain finely dispersed, contributing to a partial recovery of NOx storage performance.

  2. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Fact Sheet, 2014 The Gas Technology Institute, in collaboration with Cannon Boiler Works, Integrated CHP Systems Corp., Capstone Turbine Corporation, Johnston Boiler...

  3. Understanding Automotive Exhaust Catalysts Using a Surface Science Approach: Model NOx Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Yi, Cheol-Woo W.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2013-11-01

    The structure-reactivity relationships of model BaO-based NOx storage/reduction catalysts were investigated under well controlled experimental conditions using surface science analysis techniques. The reactivity of BaO toward NO2, CO2, and H2O was studied as a function of BaO layer thickness [0\\hBaO\\30 monolayer (ML)], sample temperature, reactant partial pressure, and the nature of the substrate the NOx storage material was deposited onto. Most of the efforts focused on understanding the mechanism of NO2 storage either on pure BaO, or on BaO exposed to CO2 or H2O prior to NO2 exposure. The interaction of NO2 with a pure BaO film results in the initial formation of nitrite/nitrate ion pairs by a cooperative adsorption mechanism predicted by prior theoretical calculations. The nitrites are then further oxidized to nitrates to produce a fully nitrated surface. The mechanism of NO2 uptake on thin BaO films (\\4 ML), BaO clusters (\\1 ML) and mixed BaO/Al2O3 layers are fundamentally different: in these systems initially nitrites are formed only, and then converted to nitrates at longer NO2 exposure times. These results clarify the contradicting mechanisms presented in prior studies in the literature. After the formation of a nitrate layer the further conversion of the underlying BaO is slow, and strongly depends on both the sample temperature and the NO2 partial pressure. At 300 K sample temperature amorphous Ba(NO3)2 forms that then can be converted to crystalline nitrates at elevated temperatures. The reaction between BaO and H2O is facile, a series of Ba(OH)2 phases form under the temperature and H2O partial pressure regimes studied. Both amorphous and crystalline Ba(OH)2 phases react with NO2, and initially form nitrites only that can be converted to nitrates. The NO2 adsorption capacities of BaO and Ba(OH)2 are identical, i.e., both of these phases can completely be converted to Ba(NO3)2. In contrast, the interaction of CO2 with pure BaO results in the formation of a BaCO3 layer that prevents to complete carbonation of the entire BaO film under the experimental conditions applied in these studies. However, these ‘‘carbonated’’ BaO layers readily react with NO2, and at elevated sample temperature even the carbonate layer is converted to nitrates. The importance of the metal oxide/metal interface in the chemistry on NOx storage-reduction catalysts was studied on BaO(\\1 ML)/Pt(111) reverse model catalysts. In comparison to the clean Pt(111), new oxygen adsorption phases were identified on the BaO/Pt(111) surface that can be associated with oxygen atoms strongly adsorbed on Pt atoms at the peripheries of BaO particles. A simple kinetic model developed helped explain the observed thermal desorption results. The role of the oxide/metal interface in the reduction of Ba(NO3)2 was also substantiated in experiments where Ba(NO3)2/O/Pt(111) samples were exposed to CO at elevated sample temperature. The catalytic decomposition of the nitrate phase occurred as soon as metal sites opened up by the removal of interfacial oxygen via CO oxidation from the O/Pt(111) surface. The temperature for catalytic nitrate reduction was found to be significantly lower than the onset temperature of thermal nitrate decomposition. We gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  4. A computational investigation of diesel and biodiesel combustion and NOx formation in a light-duty compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zihan; Srinivasan, Kalyan K.; Krishnan, Sundar R.; Som, Sibendu

    2012-04-24

    Diesel and biodiesel combustion in a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine were simulated during a closed cycle (from IVC to EVO), using a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, CONVERGE, coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The computational domain was constructed based on engine geometry and compression ratio measurements. A skeletal n-heptane-based diesel mechanism developed by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and a reduced biodiesel mechanism derived and validated by Luo and co-workers were applied to model the combustion chemistry. The biodiesel mechanism contains 89 species and 364 reactions and uses methyl decanoate, methyl-9- decenoate, and n-heptane as the surrogate fuel mixture. The Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) spray breakup model for diesel and biodiesel was calibrated to account for the differences in physical properties of the fuels which result in variations in atomization and spray development characteristics. The simulations were able to capture the experimentally observed pressure and apparent heat release rate trends for both the fuels over a range of engine loads (BMEPs from 2.5 to 10 bar) and fuel injection timings (from 0���° BTDC to 10���° BTDC), thus validating the overall modeling approach as well as the chemical kinetic models of diesel and biodiesel surrogates. Moreover, quantitative NOx predictions for diesel combustion and qualitative NOx predictions for biodiesel combustion were obtained with the CFD simulations and the in-cylinder temperature trends were correlated to the NOx trends."

  5. Experimental study on NOx emission and unburnt carbon of a radial biased swirl burner for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan Xue; Shi'en Hui; Qulan Zhou; Tongmo Xu

    2009-07-15

    Pilot tests were carried out on a 1 MW thermal pulverized coal fired testing furnace. Symmetrical combustion was implemented by use of two whirl burners with dual air adjustment. The burnout air device was installed in various places at the top of the main burner, which consists of a primary air pipe with a varying cross-section and an impact ring. In the primary air pipe, the air pulverized coal (PC) stream was separated into a whirling stream that was thick inside and thin outside, thus realizing the thin-thick distribution at the burner nozzle in the radial direction. From the comparative combustion tests of three coals with relatively great characteristic differences, Shaanbei Shenhua high rank bituminous coal (SH coal), Shanxi Hejin low rank bituminous coal (HJ coal), and Shanxi Changzhi meager coal (CZ coal), were obtained such test results as the primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, impact of the change of outer secondary air, change of the relative position for the layout of burnout air, change of the swirling intensity of the primary air and secondary air, etc., on the NOx emission, and unburnt carbon content in fly ash (CFA). At the same time, the relationship between the NOx emission and burnout ratio and affecting factors of the corresponding test items on the combustion stability and economic results were also acquired. The results may provide a vital guiding significance to engineering designs and practical applications. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NOx formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased swirl burner, the configuration of the furnace, and the distribution of the air. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Insolation integrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, John J. (Norristown, PA); Rudge, George T. (Lansdale, PA)

    1980-01-01

    An electric signal representative of the rate of insolation is integrated to determine if it is adequate for operation of a solar energy collection system.

  7. Development of a Low NOx Medium sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Ram

    2013-07-31

    This report presents the accomplishments at the completion of the DOE sponsored project (Contract # DE-FC26-09NT05873) undertaken by Solar Turbines Incorporated. The objective of this 54-month project was to develop a low NOx combustion system for a medium sized industrial gas turbine engine operating on Hydrogen-rich renewable and opportunity Fuels. The work in this project was focused on development of a combustion system sized for 15MW Titan 130 gas turbine engine based on design analysis and rig test results. Although detailed engine evaluation of the complete system is required prior to commercial application, those tasks were beyond the scope of this DOE sponsored project. The project tasks were organized in three stages, Stages 2 through 4. In Stage 2 of this project, Solar Turbines Incorporated characterized the low emission capability of current Titan 130 SoLoNOx fuel injector while operating on a matrix of fuel blends with varying Hydrogen concentration. The mapping in this phase was performed on a fuel injector designed for natural gas operation. Favorable test results were obtained in this phase on emissions and operability. However, the resulting fuel supply pressure needed to operate the engine with the lower Wobbe Index opportunity fuels would require additional gas compression, resulting in parasitic load and reduced thermal efficiency. In Stage 3, Solar characterized the pressure loss in the fuel injector and developed modifications to the fuel injection system through detailed network analysis. In this modification, only the fuel delivery flowpath was modified and the air-side of the injector and the premixing passages were not altered. The modified injector was fabricated and tested and verified to produce similar operability and emissions as the Stage 2 results. In parallel, Solar also fabricated a dual fuel capable injector with the same air-side flowpath to improve commercialization potential. This injector was also test verified to produce 15-ppm NOx capability on high Hydrogen fuels. In Stage 4, Solar fabricated a complete set of injectors and a combustor liner to test the system capability in a full-scale atmospheric rig. Extensive high-pressure single injector rig test results show that 15-ppm NOx guarantee is achievable from 50% to 100% Load with fuel blends containing up to 65% Hydrogen. Because of safety limitations in Solar Test Facility, the atmospheric rig tests were limited to methane-based fuel blends. Further work to validate the durability and installed engine capability would require long-term engine field test.

  8. Advanced integration concepts for oxygen plants and gas turbines in gasification/IGCC facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.R.; Klosek, J.; Woodward, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    The commercialization of Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power has been aided by concepts involving the integration of a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) with the gas turbine combined-cycle module. Other processes, such as coal-based ironmaking and combined power and industrial gas production facilities, can benefit from the integration of these two units. It is known and now widely accepted that an ASU designed for elevated pressure service and optimally integrated with the gas turbine can increase overall IGCC power output, increase overall efficiency, and decrease the net cost of power generation compared to non-integrated facilities employing low pressure ASU`s. Depending upon the specific gas turbine, gasification technology, NOx emission specification, and other site specific factors, various degrees of compressed air and nitrogen integration are optimal. Air Products has supplied ASU`s with no integration (Destec/Plaquemine IGCC), nitrogen-only integration (Tampa Electric/Polk County IGCC), and full air and nitrogen integration (Demkolec/Buggenum IGCC). Continuing advancements in both air separation and gas turbine technologies offer new integration opportunities to further improve performance and reduce costs. This paper will review basic integration principles and describe advanced concepts based on emerging high compression ratio gas turbines. Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycles, and integration of compression heat and refrigeration sources from the ASU. Operability issues associated with integration will be reviewed and control measures described for the safe, efficient, and reliable operation of these facilities.

  9. Harmonic Oscillator on the ${\\rm SO}(2,2)$ Hyperboloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davit R. Petrosyan; George S. Pogosyan

    2015-11-25

    In the present work the classical problem of harmonic oscillator in the hyperbolic space $H_2^2$: $z_0^2+z_1^2-z_2^2-z_3^2=R^2$ has been completely solved in framework of Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We have shown that the harmonic oscillator on $H_2^2$, as in the other spaces with constant curvature, is exactly solvable and belongs to the class of maximally superintegrable system. We have proved that all the bounded classical trajectories are closed and periodic. The orbits of motion are ellipses or circles for bounded motion and ultraellipses or equidistant curve for infinite ones.

  10. FOG CHAMBER STUDIES OF SOOT-CATALYZED SO2 OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    VACUUM BW" Boiling water F " Filter HM= Heating mantel N "Fluoropore filter was extracted in water and analyzed forfilter was analyzed for total carbon by combustion analysis. When pure water

  11. FOG CHAMBER STUDIES OF SOOT-CATALYZED SO2 OXIDATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    VACUUM BW" Boiling water F " Filter HM= Heating mantel N "the Fluoropore filter was extracted in water and analyzedfilter was analyzed for total carbon by combustion analysis. When pure water

  12. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  13. Synthetic Assessment of Historical Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    research sources, such as from energy consumption and greenhouse gas-air pollution Interactions) is a chemical compound that is present in the atmosphere produced both by natural sources, such as volcanoes decreasing overall until 2000, when China became the biggest pollutant in the world (Smith et al

  14. China's rapid deployment of SO2 scrubbers Robert H. Williamsb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In the language of the Environmental Kuznets Curve, studies have indicated that China has not been rich enough

  15. CHEMISTRY OF SO2 AND DESOX PROCESSES ON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    On bulk stoichiometric oxides, SO{sub 2} mainly reacts with the O centers to form SO{sub 3} or SO{sub 4} species that decompose at elevated temperatures. Adsorption on the metal cations occurs below 300 K and does not lead to cleavage of the S-O bonds. In bulk oxides, the occupied cation bands are too stable for effective bonding interactions with the LUMO of SO{sub 2}. The effects of quantum confinement on the electronic properties of oxide nanoparticles and the structural defects that usually accompany these systems in general favor the bonding and dissociation of SO{sub 2}. Thus, nanoparticles of MgO, CaO, SrO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} are all more efficient for sequestering SO{sub 2} than the corresponding bulk oxides. Structural imperfections in pure or metal-doped ceria nanoparticles accelerate the reduction of SO{sub 2} by CO by facilitating the formation and migration of O vacancies in the oxide surface.

  16. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small AngleSNL&BAMn n u a l r

  17. Impact of Heavy Duty Vehicle Emissions Reductions on Global Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2010-08-01

    The impact of a specified set of emissions reductions from heavy duty vehicles on climate change is calculated using the MAGICC 5.3 climate model. The integrated impact of the following emissions changes are considered: CO2, CH4, N2O, VOC, NOx, and SO2. This brief summarizes the assumptions and methods used for this calculation.

  18. ContentsContents1133integration integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vickers, James

    ContentsContents1133integration integration 1. Basic concepts of integration 2. Definite integrals 3. The area bounded by a curve 4. Integration by parts 5. Integration by substitution and using partial fractions 6. Integration of trigonometric functions Learning outcomes In this workbook you

  19. Integrability Singular reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, George

    Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration of Singular quotients Summary References Singular reduction of Poisson manifolds and integrability Rui L. Fernandes1 Joint work with J.P. Ortega Fernandes Singular reduction and integrability #12;Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration

  20. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

  1. Improved performance of NOx reduction by H2 and CO over a Pd/Al2O3 catalyst at low temperatures under lean-burn conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    pollutants that are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels. The NOx emitted by vehicles contributes to the formation of smog, ozone, and acid rain, causing serious environmental pollution. Vehicles that run on light and produce fewer pollutants by using a rel- atively high air-to-fuel ratio as compared to gasoline- powered

  2. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  3. NOx Emissions Reduction from CPS Energy's "Save For Tomorrow Energy Plan" Within the Alamo Area Council of Governments Report to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Do, S. L.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.

    2010-01-01

    to be 2,543 GWh of electricity savings (based on the aggressive incentive scenario and exception of industrial sector). According to the TCEQ/ESL, the total annual NOx emissions reductions estimated through 2009 energy savings were 114.03 ton/year. Annual...

  4. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  5. NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    than offset by the overall reduction in CO2 , NOx , and SO2 . In the high wind and solar scenario, net are more than offset by the overall reduction in CO2 , NOx , and SO2 . Our analysis using real-world data by the overall reduction in CO2 , NOX , and SO2 . #12;· Operating costs increase by 2% to 5% on average

  6. NOx emission characteristics of counterflow syngas diffusion flames with airstream dilution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    a viable fuel for electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems [3 is being recognized as a viable energy source worldwide, particularly for stationary power generation to its high specific heat that decreases the thermal NO, and its ability to significantly reduce

  7. Full Useful Life (120,000 miles) Exhaust Emission Performance of a NOx Adsorber and Diesel Particle Filter Equipped Passenger Car and Medium-duty Engine in Conjunction with Ultra Low Sulfur Fuel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Weber, P.; Webb, C.

    2005-08-25

    Discusses the full useful life exhaust emission performance of a NOx (nitrogen oxides) adsorber and diesel particle filter equipped light-duty and medium-duty engine using ultra low sulfur diesel fuel.

  8. Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce lower emissions it is essential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Next generation gas turbines will be required to produce low concentrations of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and soot. In order to design gas turbines which produce

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Cummins-ORNL\\FEERC Emissions CRADA: NOx Control & Measurement Technology for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines, Self-Diagnosing SmartCatalyst Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about NOx control ...

  10. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Minish Shah

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbonâ??s catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full-automation was implemented to enable continuous operation (24/7) with minimum operator supervision. Continuous run was carried out for 40 days. Very high SOx (>99.9%) and NOx (98%) removal efficiencies were also achieved in a continuous unit. However, the retention capacity of carbon beds for SOx and NOx was decreased from ~20 hours to ~10 hours over a 40 day period of operation, which was in contrast to the results obtained in a batch unit. These contradictory results indicate the need for optimization of adsorption-regeneration cycle to maintain long term activity of activated carbon material at a higher level and thus minimize the capital cost of the system. In summary, the activated carbon process exceeded performance targets for SOx and NOx removal efficiencies and it was found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. More efforts are needed to optimize the system performance.

  11. Residential Buildings Integration (RBI)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 RBI Priorities for FY15 and Beyond Integrating Advanced Technologies for Homes: * Building integrated renewables * IAQVentilation solutions * Integrated high performance...

  12. Integrating Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayYearYear JanDecade Year-0per6,167,3715) Integrating

  13. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  14. Study on the interaction between NOx and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} during CO{sub 2} absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xinglei Zhao; Michael A. Simioni; Kathryn H. Smith; Sandra E. Kentish; Weiyang Fei; Geoffrey W. Stevens [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering

    2009-09-15

    The trend toward global warming has become more and more apparent in recent years. It has been widely accepted that CO{sub 2} is the main contributor to this process and that CO{sub 2} emissions urgently need to be reduced. However, the capital cost for CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power station using traditional solvent absorption technology is relatively high. A possible solution to reduce the cost is to achieve absorption of SO{sub 2}, NOx, and CO{sub 2} in a one-step process. Potassium carbonate (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) is a potential solvent for absorbing all of these components simultaneously. To apply this absorption process in an industrial situation, it is very important to understand the interaction between the solvent and minor components contained in the flue gas, such as SO{sub 2} and NOx. The effect of SO{sub 2} on CO{sub 2} absorption using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions has been previously discussed. This paper studies the influence of NOx upon CO{sub 2} absorption using 30 wt % K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solvent. It was found that the reaction between NOx and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was irreversible, which would result in the accumulation of NO{sub 2}{sup -} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} in the solvent using an industrial flue gas process, with a simultaneous reduction in the CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} concentration. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  16. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H?/O? mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N?O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N?O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N?O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in the ignition delay time was proportional to the amount of N?O added and depended on pressure and temperature conditions. A detailed chemical kinetics model was developed using kinetic mechanisms from the literature. This model predicts well the experimental data obtained during this study and from the literature. The chemical analysis using this model showed that the decrease in the ignition delay time was mainly due to the reaction N?O +M ? N? + O +M which provides O atoms to strengthen the channel O + H? ? OH + H. Ignition delay times have been measured behind reflected shock waves at 1.5, 12 and 30 atm for a mixture representative of a syngas produced from biomass (0.29659% CO / 0.29659% H? / 0.15748% CO? / 0.08924% CH? / 0.20997% H?O / 0.95013% O? in 98% Ar (mol.%)) and for the same biomass-derived syngas mixture doped with 200 ppm of NH?. The importance of the various constituents on the ignition delay time was investigated by comparing the results with data from various baseline mixtures (H?/O?/Ar, H?/CO/O?/Ar and H?/CO/O?/Ar with one of the other constituent of the syngas (i.e. CO?, H?O, CH? or NH?)). The equivalence ratio was set to 0.5 during this study. Several recent detailed kinetics mechanisms from the literature were computed against these data, with fair agreement. Results showed that the mixture composition can have an important effect on the ignition delay time, with most of the effect being due to CH? addition through the reaction CH?+OH?CH?+H?O. The ammonia impurity had very little effect on the ignition delay time over the range of conditions studied.

  17. Multifunctional (NOx/CO/O2) Solid-State Sensors For Coal Combustion Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2006-12-31

    Solid-state sensors were developed for coal combustion control and the understanding of sensing mechanisms was advanced. Several semiconducting metal oxides (p-type and n-type) were used to fabricate sensor electrodes. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and catalytic activities of these materials were measured with Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments. The sensitivity, selectivity, and response time of these sensors were measured for steps of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O vapor in simple N{sub 2}-balanced and multi-component, simulated combustion-exhaust streams. The role of electrode microstructure and fabrication parameters on sensing performance was investigated. Proof for the proposed sensing mechanism, Differential Electrode Equilibria, was demonstrated by relating the sensing behavior (sensitivities and cross-sensitivities) of the various electrode materials to their gas adsorption/desorption behaviors and catalytic activities. A multifunctional sensor array consisting of three sensing electrodes and an integrated heater and temperature sensors was fabricated with tape-casting and screen-printing and its NO{sub x} sensing performance was measured. The multifunctional sensor demonstrated it was possible to measure NO{sub 2} independent of NO by locally heating one of the sensing electrodes. The sensor technology was licensed to Fuel FX International, Inc. Fuel FX has obtained investor funding and is developing prototype sensors as a first step in their commercialization strategy for this technology.

  18. Integrated EPC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerby, L.A. [Calpine Corp., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A continuing challenge facing the independent power industry is building better plants at lower cost. Price considerations have forced many developers to re-focus their capabilities to create viable, new alternatives to traditional turnkey project contracts. Prompted by such pressures, Calpine Corp. recently created its own internal, integrated solution to project development which provides more control and input for a project owner and manager while establishing a solid set of guarantees to non-recourse lenders through a program of warranties and overall insurance coverage. The proof case for Calpine-Construct is the Sumas Project, a 125 MW gas-fired cogeneration plant in Sumas, WA, near the Canadian border. The Sumas project demonstrates how owners, suppliers and contractors, working together on site, can be readily able to solve construction problems.

  19. Energy Efficiency/ Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Preliminary Report: Integrated Nox Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Clardige, D.; Parker, P.; Ellis, S.; Kim, H.

    2013-01-01

    ninth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes. Volume I - Summary Report - provides...

  20. Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP) Preliminary Report: Integrated NOx Emissions Savings from EE/RE Programs Statewide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Gilman, D.; Baltazar, J. C.; Lewis, C.; McKelvey, K.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Degelman, L.; Liu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    eighth annual report, Energy Efficiency/Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Impact in the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The report is organized in three volumes: Volume I – Summary Report – provides an executive...

  1. A Methodology For Calculating Integrated NOx Emissions Reductions from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs Across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Mukopadhyay. J; Marshall, K.; Gilman, D.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Montgomery, C.; McKelvy, K.; Reid, V.

    2010-01-01

    ://www.puc.state.tx.us/ Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO), 2007, available at: http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/ USDOE 2005. Analysis of Texas Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirment, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), U.S.D.O.E., Washington, D...://www.puc.state.tx.us/ Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO), 2007, available at: http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/ USDOE 2005. Analysis of Texas Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirment, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), U.S.D.O.E., Washington, D...

  2. A Methodology for Calculating Integrated Nox Emissions Reduction from Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs Across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilman, D.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Culp, C.; Kim, S.; Baltazar-Cervantes, J. C.; Im, P.

    2007-01-01

    Office (SECO), 2007, available at: http://www.seco.cpa.state.tx.us/ USDOE 2005. Analysis of Texas Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirement, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), U.S.D.O.E., Washington, D.C. 9 Table 1: Final...

  3. A Methodology for Calculating Integrated NOx Emissions Reductions From Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE/RE) Programs Across State Agencies in Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    General Foods Corporation is one of the largest food manufacturing companies in the United States. It's brand names are well known, covering a wide range of food products. Maxwell House coffee, Post cereals, Birds Eye ...

  4. Design of Integrated Laboratory and Heavy-Duty Emissions Testing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Houston and City of Houston: Collaboration to Determine Best Solutions for Diesel Emission Reductions Combining Biodiesel and EGR for Low-Temperature NOx and PM Reductions...

  5. Current Understanding of Cu-Exchanged Chabazite Molecular Sieves for Use as Commercial Diesel Engine DeNOx Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Feng; Kwak, Ja Hun; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-11-03

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia using metal-exchanged molecular sieves with a chabazite (CHA) structure has recently been commercialized on diesel vehicles. One of the commercialized catalysts, i.e., Cu-SSZ-13, has received much attention for both practical and fundamental studies. For the latter, the particularly well-defined structure of this zeolite is allowing long-standing issues of the catalytically active site for SCR in metal-exchanged zeolites to be addressed. In this review, recent progress is summarized with a focus on two areas. First, the technical significance of Cu-SSZ-13 as compared to other Cu-ion exchanged zeolites (e.g., Cu-ZSM-5 and Cu-beta) is highlighted. Specifically, the much enhanced hydrothermal stability for Cu-SSZ-13 compared to other zeolite catalysts is addressed via performance measurements and catalyst characterization using several techniques. The enhanced stability of Cu-SSZ-13 is rationalized in terms of the unique small pore structure of this zeolite catalyst. Second, the fundamentals of the catalytically active center; i.e., the chemical nature and locations within the SSZ-13 framework are presented with an emphasis on understanding structure-function relationships. For the SCR reaction, traditional kinetic studies are complicated by intra-particle diffusion limitations. However, a major side reaction, nonselective ammonia oxidation by oxygen, does not suffer from mass-transfer limitations at relatively low temperatures due to significantly lower reaction rates. This allows structure-function relationships that are rather well understood in terms of Cu ion locations and redox properties. Finally, some aspects of the SCR reaction mechanism are addressed on the basis of in-situ spectroscopic studies.

  6. Integral Invariant Signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Manay; A. J. Yezzi; B. W. Hong; S. Soatto

    2004-01-01

    Projective curvature and integral invariants. IJCV, 40(3):a database of 23 shapes. Integral Invariant Signatures 7. A.C. Lopez, and J. M. Morel. Integral and local a?ne invariant

  7. Integral invariant signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manay, S; Hong, B W; Yezzi, A J; Soatto, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    Projective curvature and integral invariants. IJCV, 40(3):a database of 23 shapes. Integral Invariant Signatures 7. A.C. Lopez, and J. M. Morel. Integral and local a?ne invariant

  8. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  9. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  10. The Cauchy Integral Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steve Bell

    2009-06-24

    Feb 23, 2009 ... Cauchy Integral Formula basics. I'm using the enumerate environment on this slide. 1. The Cauchy Integral Formula was discovered by Cauchy ...

  11. The Cauchy Integral Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feb 23, 2009 ... Cauchy Integral Formula basics I'm using the enumerate environment on this slide. The Cauchy Integral Formula was discovered by Cauchy.

  12. Random integral currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Zyskin

    2010-05-12

    For nice functions, invariant means over integral currents (certain generalized surfaces), can be uniquely defined.

  13. Reactive based NOx sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassiliou, Christophoros Christou

    2006-01-01

    Diesel engines exhibit better fuel economy and emit fewer greenhouse gases than gasoline engines. Modern diesel technology has virtually eliminated carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. Sulfur oxide emissions have ...

  14. NOx Sensor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, L Y; Glass, R S

    2010-11-01

    NO{sub x} compounds, specifically NO and NO{sub 2}, are pollutants and potent greenhouse gases. Compact and inexpensive NO{sub x} sensors are necessary in the next generation of diesel (CIDI) automobiles to meet government emission requirements and enable the more rapid introduction of more efficient, higher fuel economy CIDI vehicles. Because the need for a NO{sub x} sensor is recent and the performance requirements are extremely challenging, most are still in the development phase. Currently, there is only one type of NO{sub x} sensor that is sold commercially, and it seems unlikely to meet more stringent future emission requirements. Automotive exhaust sensor development has focused on solid-state electrochemical technology, which has proven to be robust for in-situ operation in harsh, high-temperature environments (e.g., the oxygen stoichiometric sensor). Solid-state sensors typically rely on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as the oxygen-ion conducting electrolyte and then target different types of metal or metal-oxide electrodes to optimize the response. Electrochemical sensors can be operated in different modes, including amperometric (a current is measured) and potentiometric (a voltage is measured), both of which employ direct current (dc) measurements. Amperometric operation is costly due to the electronics necessary to measure the small sensor signal (nanoampere current at ppm NO{sub x} levels), and cannot be easily improved to meet the future technical performance requirements. Potentiometric operation has not demonstrated enough promise in meeting long-term stability requirements, where the voltage signal drift is thought to be due to aging effects associated with electrically driven changes, both morphological and compositional, in the sensor. Our approach involves impedancemetric operation, which uses alternating current (ac) measurements at a specified frequency. The approach is described in detail in previous reports and several publications. Briefly, impedancemetric operation has shown the potential to overcome the drawbacks of other approaches, including higher sensitivity towards NO{sub x}, better long-term stability, potential for subtracting out background interferences, total NO{sub x} measurement, and lower cost materials and operation. Past LLNL research and development efforts have focused on characterizing different sensor materials and understanding complex sensing mechanisms. Continued effort has led to improved prototypes with better performance, including increased sensitivity (to less than 5 ppm) and long-term stability, with more appropriate designs for mass fabrication, including incorporation of an alumina substrate with an imbedded heater. Efforts in the last year to further improve sensor robustness have led to successful engine dynamometer testing with prototypes mounted directly in the engine manifold. Previous attempts had required exhaust gases to be routed into a separate furnace for testing due to mechanical failure of the sensor from engine vibrations. A more extensive cross-sensitivity study was also undertaken this last year to examine major noise factors including fluctuations in water, oxygen, and temperature. The quantitative data were then used to develop a strategy using numerical algorithms to improve sensor accuracy. The ultimate goal is the transfer of this technology to a supplier for commercialization. Due to the recent economic downturn, suppliers are demanding more comprehensive data and increased performance analysis before committing their resources to take the technology to market. Therefore, our NO{sub x} sensor work requires a level of technology development more thorough and extensive than ever before. The objectives are: (1) Develop an inexpensive, rapid-response, high-sensitivity and selective electrochemical sensor for oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) for compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) exhaust gas monitoring; (2) Explore and characterize novel, effective sensing methodologies based on impedance measurements and designs and manufacturing metho

  15. Wind Integration Study Methods (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of common elements, differences, integration costs, and errors in integration analysis.

  16. Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harold, Michael; Crocker, Mark; Balakotaiah, Vemuri; Luss, Dan; Choi, Jae-Soon; Dearth, Mark; McCabe, Bob; Theis, Joe

    2013-09-30

    Oxides of nitrogen in the form of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) commonly referred to as NO{sub x}, is one of the two chemical precursors that lead to ground-level ozone, a ubiquitous air pollutant in urban areas. A major source of NO{sub x} is generated by equipment and vehicles powered by diesel engines, which have a combustion exhaust that contains NO{sub x} in the presence of excess O{sub 2}. Catalytic abatement measures that are effective for gasoline-fueled engines such as the precious metal containing three-way catalytic converter (TWC) cannot be used to treat O2-laden exhaust containing NO{sub x}. Two catalytic technologies that have emerged as effective for NO{sub x} abatement are NO{sub x} storage and reduction (NSR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). NSR is similar to TWC but requires much larger quantities of expensive precious metals and sophisticated periodic switching operation, while SCR requires an on-board source of ammonia which serves as the chemical reductant of the NO{sub x}. The fact that NSR produces ammonia as a byproduct while SCR requires ammonia to work has led to interest in combining the two together to avoid the need for the cumbersome ammonia generation system. In this project a comprehensive study was carried out of the fundamental aspects and application feasibility of combined NSR/SCR. The project team, which included university, industry, and national lab researchers, investigated the kinetics and mechanistic features of the underlying chemistry in the lean NOx trap (LNT) wherein NSR was carried out, with particular focus on identifying the operating conditions such as temperature and catalytic properties which lead to the production of ammonia in the LNT. The performance features of SCR on both model and commercial catalysts focused on the synergy between the LNT and SCR converters in terms of utilizing the upstream-generated ammonia and alternative reductants such as propylene, representing the hydrocarbon component of diesel exhaust. First-principle models of the LNT and SCR converters, which utilized the mechanistic-based kinetics and realistic treatments of the flow and transport processes, in combination with bench-scale reactor experiments helped to identify the best designs for combining the NSR and SCR catalysts over a range of operating conditions encountered in practice. This included catalysts having multiple zones and layers and additives with the focus on determining the minimal precious metal component needed to meet emission abatement targets over a wide range of operating conditions. The findings from this study provide diesel vehicle and catalyst companies valuable information to develop more cost effective diesel emissions catalysts which helps to expand the use of more fuel efficient diesel power. The fundamental modeling and experimental tools and findings from this project can be applied to catalyst technologies used in the energy and chemical industries. Finally, the project also led to training of several doctoral students who were placed in research jobs in industry and academia.

  17. CIM-EARTH: Community integrated model of economic and resource trajectories for humankind.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.; Foster, I.; Judd, K.; Moyer, E.; Munson, T.; Univ. of Chicago; Hoover Inst.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change is a global problem with local climatic and economic impacts. Mitigation policies can be applied on large geographic scales, such as a carbon cap-and-trade program for the entire U.S., on medium geographic scales, such as the NOx program for the northeastern U.S., or on smaller scales, such as statewide renewable portfolio standards and local gasoline taxes. To enable study of the environmental benefits, transition costs, capitalization effects, and other consequences of mitigation policies, we are developing dynamic general equilibrium models capable of incorporating important climate impacts. This report describes the economic framework we have developed and the current Community Integrated Model of Economic and Resource Trajectories for Humankind (CIM-EARTH) instance.

  18. INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS INTO PUBLIC SECTOR PERFORMANCE CONTRACTS IN DELAWARE FINAL for Energy and Environmental Policy University of Delaware February 2006 #12;INTEGRATING PHOTOVOLTAIC..................................................................................................... 1 1.2 Photovoltaics in Performance Contracts: An Overview

  19. Research Misconduct (Research Integrity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    Research Misconduct (Research Integrity Coordinator report) Glossary ADR Associate Dean Research ANDS Australian National Data Sharing ITS Information Technology Services NeCTAR National eResearch Collaboration Tools and Resources RSDI Research Storage Data Infrastructure input Research Integrity Advisors

  20. Transmission Commercial Project Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Generator Interconnection Reform Implementation Network Integration Transmission Service (NT Service) Network Open Season (NOS) PTSA Reform North American Energy...

  1. Development and Demonstration of a High Efficiency, Rapid Heating, Low NOx Alternative to Conventional Heating of Round Steel Shapes, Steel Substrate (Strip) and Coil Box Transfer Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurek, Harry; Wagner, John

    2010-01-25

    Direct Flame Impingement involves the use of an array of very high-velocity flame jets impinging on a work piece to rapidly heat the work piece. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. Because of the locally high rate of heat transfer at the surface of the work piece, the refractory walls and exhaust gases of a DFI furnace are significantly cooler than in conventional radiant heating furnaces, resulting in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A DFI furnace is composed of a successive arrangement of heating modules through or by which the work piece is conveyed, and can be configured for square, round, flat, and curved metal shapes (e.g., billets, tubes, flat bars, and coiled bars) in single- or multi-stranded applications.

  2. What Energy ModelersWhat Energy Modelers Need to Know AboutNeed to Know About

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (NOx, PM, SO2) CO2 CapturePC Boiler Mostly N2 Stack Flue gas to atmosphere Amine/CO2Amine CO2 Pollution Control Systems (NOx, PM, SO2) CO2 CapturePC Boiler Mostly N2 Stack Flue gas to atmosphere Amine ( NOx, PM, SO2) Distillation System PC Boiler CO2 to storageCO2 Compression CO2 Air

  3. Integrated rural energy planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mahgary, Y.; Biswas, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on integrated community energy systems in developing countries. Topics considered include an integrated rural energy system in Sri Lanka, rural energy systems in Indonesia, integrated rural food-energy systems and technology diffusion in India, bringing energy to the rural sector in the Philippines, the development of a new energy village in China, the Niaga Wolof experimental rural energy center, designing a model rural energy system for Nigeria, the Basaisa village integrated field project, a rural energy project in Tanzania, rural energy development in Columbia, and guidelines for the planning, development and operation of integrated rural energy projects.

  4. The universal path integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seth Lloyd; Olaf Dreyer

    2013-02-12

    Path integrals represent a powerful route to quantization: they calculate probabilities by summing over classical configurations of variables such as fields, assigning each configuration a phase equal to the action of that configuration. This paper defines a universal path integral, which sums over all computable structures. This path integral contains as sub-integrals all possible computable path integrals, including those of field theory, the standard model of elementary particles, discrete models of quantum gravity, string theory, etc. The universal path integral possesses a well-defined measure that guarantees its finiteness, together with a method for extracting probabilities for observable quantities. The universal path integral supports a quantum theory of the universe in which the world that we see around us arises out of the interference between all computable structures.

  5. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Sanjayan (2007). "Green house gas emissions due to concretematter (PM) VOC CO SOx / SO 2 NOx Green house gases,total Green house gases, process /fuel Greenhouse gases,

  6. Allocation of Carbon Emission Certificates in the Power Sector: How generators profitfrom grandfathered rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Kim Keats; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2006-03-14

    be auctioned. The paper also analyses the interactions with the Large Combustion Plant Directive, which limits SO2 and NOx emissions...

  7. Presentation title: This can be up to 2 lines

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    December 7, 2015 Regulation AEO2015 Assumption AEO2016 Assumption Comment Cross State Air Pollution Rule- CSAPR (SO 2 NOx) Clean Air Interstate Rule Will model CSAPR Mercury...

  8. bectcom-comrem | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1997) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Commercial Demonstration of the NOXSO SO2NOx Removal Flue Gas...

  9. Integral and Euclidean Ramsey theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tressler, Eric

    2010-01-01

    CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Integral and Euclidean Ramsey Theory Ax ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Integral and Euclidean Ramsey

  10. TVA's Integrated River System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and controlling floods. So far as may be consistent with such purposes, ...for the generation of electric energy... TVA Power Service Area TVA'S INTEGRATED RIVER SYSTEM | 3...

  11. The Cauchy Integral Formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-06-24

    Feb 23, 2009 ... Integral. Formula. Steve Bell. A slide with a definition and a theorem. Definition. The residue of an analytic function f at an isolated singularity.

  12. Sandia Energy - Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cybersecurity, energy storage, materials science, advanced controls, and microgrids, and is an integral part of Sandia's larger portfolio of renewable energy technology...

  13. Commercial Buildings Integration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Integration Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL 2 Strategic Fit within...

  14. Water Waves and Integrability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossen I. Ivanov

    2007-07-12

    The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

  15. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  16. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  17. Integration of Diesel Engine Technology to Meet US EPA 2010 Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel Engine for Low Temperature Combustion Operation Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low...

  18. Optimal integrated design of air separation unit and gas turbine block for IGCC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, R.; Grossman, I.; Biegler, L.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  19. Optimal Integrated Design of Air Separation Unit and Gas Turbine Block for IGCC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravindra S. Kamath; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lorenz T. Biegler; Stephen E. Zitney

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems are considered as a promising technology for power generation. However, they are not yet in widespread commercial use and opportunities remain to improve system feasibility and profitability via improved process integration. This work focuses on the integrated design of gasification system, air separation unit (ASU) and the gas turbine (GT) block. The ASU supplies oxygen to the gasification system and it can also supply nitrogen (if required as a diluent) to the gas turbine block with minimal incremental cost. Since both GT and the ASU require a source of compressed air, integrating the air requirement of these units is a logical starting point for facility optimization (Smith et al., 1997). Air extraction from the GT can reduce or avoid the compression cost in the ASU and the nitrogen injection can reduce NOx emissions and promote trouble-free operation of the GT block (Wimer et al., 2006). There are several possible degrees of integration between the ASU and the GT (Smith and Klosek, 2001). In the case of 'total' integration, where all the air required for the ASU is supplied by the GT compressor and the ASU is expected to be an elevated-pressure (EP) type. Alternatively, the ASU can be 'stand alone' without any integration with the GT. In this case, the ASU operates at low pressure (LP), with its own air compressor delivering air to the cryogenic process at the minimum energy cost. Here, nitrogen may or may not be injected because of the energy penalty issue and instead, syngas humidification may be preferred. A design, which is intermediate between these two cases, involves partial supply of air by the gas turbine and the remainder by a separate air compressor. These integration schemes have been utilized in some IGCC projects. Examples include Nuon Power Plant at Buggenum, Netherlands (both air and nitrogen integration), Polk Power Station at Tampa, US (nitrogen-only integration) and LGTI at Plaquemine, US (stand-alone). However, there is very little information on systematic assessment of air extraction, nitrogen injection and configuration and operating conditions of the ASU and it is not clear which scheme is optimal for a given IGCC application. In this work, we address the above mentioned problem systematically using mixed-integer optimization. This approach allows the use of various objectives such as minimizing the investment and operating cost or SOx and NOx emissions, maximizing power output or overall efficiency or a weighted combination of these factors. A superstructure is proposed which incorporates all the integration schemes described above. Simplified models for ASU, gas turbine system and steam cycle are used which provide reasonable estimates for performance and cost (Frey and Zhu, 2006). The optimal structural configuration and operating conditions are presented for several case studies and it is observed that the optimal solution changes significantly depending on the specified objective.

  20. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    water treatment High efficiency/low Nox burners Membrane technology wastewater Process Integration (pinch