Sample records for integrated coal-gasification combined

  1. Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Integrated Coal Gasification Power Plant Credit states that an income taxpayer that makes a qualified investment in a new integrated coal gasification power plant or in the expansion of an existing...

  2. Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 22, 1988, DOE issued Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Number-DE-PS01-88FE61530 for Round II of the CCT Program. The purpose of the PON was to solicit proposals to conduct cost-shared ICCT projects to demonstrate technologies that are capable of being commercialized in the 1990s, that are more cost-effective than current technologies, and that are capable of achieving significant reduction of SO[sub 2] and/or NO[sub x] emissions from existing coal burning facilities, particularly those that contribute to transboundary and interstate pollution. The Combustion Engineering (C-E) Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project was one of 16 proposals selected by DOE for negotiation of cost-shared federal funding support from among the 55 proposals that were received in response to the PON. The ICCT Program has developed a three-level strategy for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that is consistent with the President's Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and the DOE guidelines for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The strategy includes the consideration of programmatic and project-specific environmental impacts during and subsequent to the reject selection process.

  3. Coal gasification-based integrated coproduction energy facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, P.D. (InterFact, Inc., Dallas, TX (US)); Epstein, M. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Kern, E.E. (Houston Lighting and Power Co., TX (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification has been a technological reality for over a half century, being first used in great detail in Europe as an alternative to petroleum. Several projects in the US in the last decade have led to the commercial demonstration and verification of the coal gasification process. This paper reports that, in an effort to reduce the cost of electricity from an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plant, the Electric Power Research Institute embarked in a program to research, evaluate and potentially demonstrate a coal gasification-based integrated coproduction energy facility, and release an RFP in mid 1990 as Phase I of that program. Houston Lighting and Power Company responded with a proposal in its ongoing effort to study emerging technologies for electricity production. HL and P recognized the opportunities available to them in coproduction because of their close proximity to the world's largest petrochemical complex located on the Houston Ship Channel.

  4. Analysis of integrating compressed air energy storage concepts with coal gasification/combined-cycle systems for continuous power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.; Andersson, L. (Energy Storage and Power Consultants, Inc., Mountainside, NJ (United States))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previous study sponsored by EPRI concluded that integrating a compressed-air energy storage (CAES) plant with a coal-gasification system (CGS) can reduce the required capacity and cost of the expensive gasification system. The results showed that when compared at an equal plant capacity, the capital cost of the CGS portion of the integrated CAES/CGS plant can be reduced by as much as 30% relative to the same portion of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant. Furthermore, the capital cost of the CAES/CGS.plant, configured as a peaking unit, was found to be slightly lower than that of the base-load IGCC plant. However, the overall economics of the CAES/CGS plant were adversely affected by the low capacity factor of the peak-load service, and ultimately, were found to be less attractive than the IGCC plant. The main objective of this study was to develop and analyze integrated CAES/CGS power plant concepts which provide for continuous (around-the-clock) operation of both the CAES reheat turboexpander train and the CGS facility. The developed concepts also provide utility-load management functions by driving the CAES compressor trains with off-peak electricity supplied through the grid. EPRI contracted with Energy Storage Power Consultants, Inc. (ESPC) to develop conceptual designs, optimized performance characteristics, and preliminary cost data for these CAES/CGS concepts, and to provide a technical and cost comparison to the IGCC plant. The CAES/CGS concepts developed by ESPC for the current study contrast from those of Reference 1.

  5. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liljedahl, Gregory N. (Tariffville, CT); Moffat, Bruce K. (Simsbury, CT)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  6. Coal Gasification for Power Generation, 3. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered include: an overview of Coal Generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; a description of gasification technology including processes and systems; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; a discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; an evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; a discussion of IGCC project development options; a discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and, a detailed description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  7. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  8. Combined Air Sparge and Bioremediation of an Underground Coal Gasification Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covell, J.R.; Thomas, M.H.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EG&G Technical Services of West Virginia (TSWV) Inc. is successfully remediating a former underground coal gasification (UCG) test site in northeastern Wyoming. EG&G is demonstrating the effectiveness of combined air sparge and biostimulation technology. This project is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE ) - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), the lease holder of the site. UCG testing from 1976 through 1979 contaminated three water-bearing units at the site with benzene. Previous pump and treat operations at the site showed the presence of a persistent non-dissolved benzene source material. The Felix I coal seam is the most contaminated unit at the site and was the target unit for the initial demonstration. Air sparging was selected to strip dissolved benzene, volatilize the non- dissolved benzene source material, and to provide oxygen for increasing aerobic bacteria populations. Indigenous bacteria populations were stimulated with ammonium phosphate addition. EG&G designed the remediation system to take advantage of the hydrogeologic environment to produce a cost-effective approach to the groundwater remediation. Groundwater pumping was used to manipulate subsurface air flow, nutrient transport, and biomass management. Demonstration operations began on September 29, 1995, and were suspended on April 30, 1996 to begin demonstration expansion. Initial results of the demonstration show substantial reduction in benzene concentrations across the demonstration area. Benzene concentration reductions greater than 80% were observed two months after demonstration operations were suspended.

  9. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

  10. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  11. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  12. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

  13. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. Topical report, July 1992--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP, or Wabash Project) is a joint venture of Destec Energy, Inc. of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc. of Plainfield, Indiana, who will jointly repower an existing 1950 vintage coal-fired steam generating plant with coal gasification combined cycle technology. The Project is located in West Terre Haute, Indiana at PSI`s existing Wabash River Generating Station. The Project will process locally-mined Indiana high-sulfur coal to produce 262 megawatts of electricity. PSI and Destec are participating in the Department of Energy Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments. As a Clean Coal Round IV selection, the project will demonstrate integration of an existing PSI steam turbine generator and auxiliaries, a new combustion turbine generator, heat recovery steam generator tandem, and a coal gasification facility to achieve improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and reduced installation costs. Upon completion in 1995, the Project will not only represent the largest coal gasification combined cycle power plant in the United States, but will also emit lower emissions than other high sulfur coal-fired power plants and will result in a heat rate improvement of approximately 20% over the existing plant configuration. As of the end of December 1993, construction work is approximately 20% complete for the gasification portion of the Project and 25% complete for the power generation portion.

  14. Coal gasification 2006: roadmap to commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Surging oil and gas prices, combined with supply security and environmental concerns, are prompting power generators and industrial firms to further develop coal gasification technologies. Coal gasification, the process of breaking down coal into its constituent chemical components prior to combustion, will permit the US to more effectively utilize its enormous, low cost coal reserves. The process facilitates lower environmental impact power generation and is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to traditional generation techniques. The study is designed to inform the reader as to this rapidly evolving technology, its market penetration prospects and likely development. Contents include: Clear explanations of different coal gasification technologies; Emissions and efficiency comparisons with other fuels and technologies; Examples of US and global gasification projects - successes and failures; Commercial development and forecast data; Gasification projects by syngas output; Recommendations for greater market penetration and commercialization; Current and projected gasification technology market shares; and Recent developments including proposals for underground gasification process. 1 app.

  15. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  16. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  17. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  18. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

  19. Coal gasification vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loo, Billy W. (Oakland, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  20. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ' in 1981 and won the 'energy conservation award' for 1983. The decision to install and operate a coal gasification plant was based on severe natural gas curtailments at York with continuing supply interruptions. This paper will present a detailed...

  1. Opportunities in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomstran, M.A.; Davis, B.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the results obtained on DOE-sponsored field tests of underground coal gasification in steeply-dipping beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The coal gas composition, process parameters, and process economics are described. Steeply-dipping coal resources, which are not economically mineable using conventional coal mining methods, are identified and potential markets for underground coal gasification products are discussed. It is concluded that in-situ gasification in steeply-dipping deposits should be considered for commercialization.

  2. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  3. Underground coal gasification: environmental update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dockter, L.; Mcternan, E.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the potential for ground water contamination by underground coal gasification, extensive postburn groundwater monitoring programs are being continued at two test sites in Wyoming. An overview of the environmental concerns related to UCG and some results to date on the two field sites are presented in this report.

  4. Underground coal gasification: A near-term alternate fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avasthi, J.; Singleton, A.M.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the beginning of this century underground coal gasification has been considered as an alternative to mining as a means of utilizing the coal resources not recoverable by conventional methods. The energy crunch of the seventies gave a new impetus to it, and several tests were conducted in the U.S. to demonstrate the feasibility of this method in both horizontal and steeply dipping coal resources. Gulf Research and Development Company has conducted two successful underground coal gasification tests near Rawlins, Wyoming, in steeply dipping coal beds. The results of these tests indicate that the present state of the art is advanced enough for utilization of this technique for commercial purposes. A right combination of resource, consumer, and economic factors will dictate future commercialization of underground coal gasification for the U.S. coal resources.

  5. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the underground coal gasification field test at the Hoe Creek site No. 2, Wyoming, helium pulses were introduced to develop information to characterize the flow field, and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Quantitative analysis of the tracer response curves shows an increasing departure from a plug flow regime with time because of the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex non-uniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model. 17 refs.

  6. Geosphere in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.; Schmit, C.R.; Evans, J.M.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG), the in-situ conversion of coal to natural gas, has been demonstrated through 28 tests in the US alone, mainly in low-rank coals, since the early 1970s. Further, UCG is currently entering the commercial phase in the US with a planned facility in Wyoming for the production of ammonia-urea from UCG-generated natural gas. Although the UCG process both affects and is affected by the natural setting, the majority of the test efforts have historically been focused on characterizing those aspects of the natural setting with the potential to affect the burn. With the advent of environmental legislation, this focus broadened to include the potential impacts of the process on the environment (e.g., subsidence, degradation of ground water quality). Experience to date has resulted in the growing recognition that consideration of the geosphere is fundamental to the design of efficient, economical, and environmentally acceptable UCG facilities. The ongoing RM-1 test program near Hanna, Wyoming, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute, reflects this growing awareness through a multidisciplinary research effort, involving geoscientists and engineers, which includes (1) detailed geological site characterization, (2) geotechnical, hydrogeological, and geochemical characterization and predictive modeling, and (3) a strategy for ground water protection. Continued progress toward commercialization of the UCG process requires the integration of geological and process-test information in order to identify and address the potentially adverse environmental ramifications of the process, while identifying and using site characteristics that have the potential to benefit the process and minimize adverse impacts.

  7. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine Current Edition: Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Quarterly News, Vol.1, Issue 3 (Apr 2015) Archived Editions: Coal...

  8. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr. (comps.)

    1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  9. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

  11. Biological treatment of underground coal gasification wastewaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, C.W. Jr.; Humenick, M.J.; Cawein, C.C.; Nolan, B.T. III

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biotreatability studies using underground coal gasification (UCG) wastewaters were performed by the University of Arizona and the University of Wyoming. The University of Arizona researchers found that UCG condensate could be effectively treated by activated sludge, using feed wastewaters of up to 50% strength. Total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals approached 90% during this research. The University of Wyoming researchers found that solvent extraction and hot-gas stripping were effective pretreatments for undiluted UCG condensate and that addition of powdered activated carbon enhanced the biotreatment process. TOC and COD removals resulting from the combination of pretreatments and biotreatment were 91% and 95%, respectively. The yield, decay, and substrate removal rate coefficients were greater in the University of Wyoming study than in the University of Arizona study. This was possibly caused by removing bioinhibitory substances, such as ammonia, with pretreatment. 18 refs., 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Flow characteristics in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Himmelblau, D.M.; Edgar, T.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the Hoe Creek No. 2 (Wyoming) underground-coal-gasification field test, researchers introduced helium pulses to characterize the flow field and to estimate the coefficients in dispersion models of the flow. Flow models such as the axial-dispersion and parallel tanks-in-series models allowed interpretation of the in situ combustion flow field from the residence time distribution of the tracer gas. A quantitative analysis of the Hoe Creek tracer response curves revealed an increasing departure from a plug-flow regime with time, which was due to the combined effects of the free and forced convection in addition to the complex nonuniformity of the flow field. The Peclet number was a function of temperature, pressure, gas recovery, and characteristic velocity, as well as the split of the gas between the parallel streams in the model.

  13. NETL: Coal Gasification Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |IsLoveReferenceAgenda Workshop AgendaGraphic of a

  14. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  15. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  16. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  17. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  18. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV); Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  19. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we focused on getting a bench-scale test system to expose alloy coupons to simulated gasifier environment. The test facility was designed to allow about 20 specimen coupons to be exposed simultaneously for an extend period to a simulated coal gas stream at temperatures up to 1000 C. The simulated gas stream contained about 26%H{sub 2}, 39%CO, 17%CO{sub 2}, 1.4% H{sub 2}S and balance steam. We successfully ran a 100+h test with coated and uncoated stainless steel coupons. The tested alloys include SS304, SS316, SS405, SS409, SS410, and IN800. The main finding is that Ti/Ta coating provides excellent protection to SS405 under conditions where uncoated austenitic and ferritic stainless steel alloy coupons are badly corroded. Cr coatings also appear to afford some protection against corrosion.

  20. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  1. The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Simon Shackley #12;The Public Perceptions of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): A Pilot Study Dr Simon Shackley of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) in the United Kingdom. The objectives were to identify the main dangers

  2. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  3. Underground coal gasification product quality parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruggink, P.R.; Davis, B.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified model is described which will indicate the economic value of the raw product gas from an experimental underground coal gasification test on a real-time basis in order to aid in the optimization of the process during the course of the test. The model relates the properties of the product gas and the injection gas to the cost of producing each of five potential commercial products. This model was utilized to evaluate data during the Gulf-DOE underground coal gasification test at Rawlins, Wyoming in the fall of 1981. 6 refs.

  4. Materials performance in coal gasification pilot plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.; Bradley, R.A.

    1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of several materials testing projects which were conducted in operating coal gasification pilot plants in the United States. These projects were designed to test potential materials of construction for commercial plants under actual operating conditions. Pilot plants included in the overall test program included the Hygas, Conoco Coal, Synthane, Bi-Gas, Peatgas (Hygas operating with peat), Battelle, U-Gas, Westinghouse (now KRW), General Electric (Gegas), and Mountain Fuel Resources plants. Test results for a large variety of alloys are discussed and conclusions regarding applicability of these materials in coal gasification environments are presented. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  6. Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

  7. Optimum Design of Coal Gasification Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohani, B. P.; Ray, H. P.; Wen, H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the optimum design of heat recovery systems using the Texaco Coal Gasification Process (TCGP). TCGP uses an entrained type gasifier and produces hot gases at approximately 2500oF with high heat flux. This heat is removed...

  8. Underground coal gasification simulation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The underground coal gasification (UCG) process - both forward gasification and reverse combustion linkage - was mathematically modeled. The models were validated with field and laboratory data. They were then used to explain some important UCG phenomena that had not been predictable with other methods. Some views on the UCG technology status are also presented. 3 references, 25 figures, 10 tables.

  9. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Clean Coal Power Generation and Combustion Technology of Ministry of Education

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Mass balances for underground coal gasification in steeply dipping beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindeman, R.; Ahner, P.; Davis, B.E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different mass balances were used during the recent underground coal gasification tests conducted in steeply dipping coal beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The combination of both mass balances proved extremely useful in interpreting the test results. One mass balance which assumed char could be formed underground required the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. The assumption of no char decouples the 3 equations in the other mass balance. Both mass balance results are compared to the test data to provide an interpretation of the underground process.

  11. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

  12. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  13. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  14. Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis was to study the relative merits (or liabilities) of these two catalysts in coal char gasification. This work

  15. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe SolarContamination Detectorof EnergyCoal Gasification Hydrogen

  16. Coalbed methane production enhancement by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettema, M.H.H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Neumann, B.V.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-surface of the Netherlands is generally underlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous strata at greater depths (at many places over 1,500 m). These coal seams are generally thinner than 3 meter, occur in groups (5--15) within several hundred meters and are often fairly continuous over many square kilometers. In many cases they have endured complex burial history, influencing their methane saturation. In certain particular geological settings, a high, maximum coalbed methane saturation, may be expected. Carboniferous/Permian coals in the Tianjin-region (China) show many similarities concerning geological settings, rank and composition. Economical coalbed methane production at greater depths is often obstructed by the (very) low permeabilities of the coal seams as with increasing depth the deformation of the coal reduces both its macro-porosity (the cleat system) and microporosity. Experiments in abandoned underground mines, as well as after underground coal gasification tests indicate ways to improve the prospects for coalbed methane production in originally tight coal reservoirs. High permeability areas can be created by the application of underground coal gasification of one of the coal seams of a multi-seam cycle with some 200 meter of coal bearing strata. The gasification of one of the coal seams transforms that seam over a certain area into a highly permeable bed, consisting of coal residues, ash and (thermally altered) roof rubble. Additionally, roof collapse and subsidence will destabilize the overburden. In conjunction this will permit a better coalbed methane production from the remaining surrounding parts of the coal seams. Moreover, the effects of subsidence will influence the stress patterns around the gasified seam and this improves the permeability over certain distances in the coal seams above and below. In this paper the effects of the combined underground coal gasification and coalbed methane production technique are regarded for a single injection well. Known geotechnical aspects are combined with results from laboratory experiments on compaction of thermally treated rubble. An axi-symmetric numerical model is used to determine the effects induced by the gasified coal seam. The calculation includes the rubble formation, rubble compaction and induced stress effects in the overlying strata. Subsequently the stress effects are related to changes in coal permeability, based on experimental results of McKee et al.

  17. Thermophysical models of underground coal gasification and FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, mathematical models of the coupled thermohydromechanical process of coal rock mass in an underground coal gasification panel are established. Combined with the calculation example, the influence of heating effects on the observed values and simulated values for pore water pressure, stress, and displacement in the gasification panel are fully discussed and analyzed. Calculation results indicate that 38, 62, and 96 days after the experiment, the average relative errors for the calculated values and measured values for the temperature and water pressure were between 8.51-11.14% and 3-10%, respectively; with the passage of gasification time, the calculated errors for the vertical stress and horizontal stress gradually declined, but the simulated errors for the horizontal and vertical displacements both showed a rising trend. On the basis of the research results, the calculated values and the measured values agree with each other very well.

  18. Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test or Burn was conducted from approximately mid-November, 1987 through February, 1988. After the burn the project began proceeding with the following overall tasks: venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities; subsurface or groundwater cleanup; post-burn coring and drilling; groundwater monitoring, and site restoration/reclamation. By the beginning of 1991 field activities associated with venting, flushing and cooling of the cavities and post-burn coring and drilling had been completed. However, data analysis continued including the University of North Dakota analyzing drilling and coring data, and the US Department of Energy (DOE)/EG G developing a chronological listing of project events.

  19. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  20. Environmental Permitting of a Low-BTU Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murawczyk, C.; Stewart, J. T.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that merits serious consideration since only relatively small modifications to the existing oil or gas burner system may be required, and boiler derating can be minimized. The environmental permitting and planning process for a low-Btu coal gasification...

  1. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammesfahr, F.W.; Winter, P.L.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. This effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities. The concept that existing surface facilities, currently or potentially gas-capable, might contribute to the development of underground coal gasification technology by providing a low cost industrial application for the gas produced in a multi-module test appears valid. To further test the concept, three industries were reviewed in depth. These were the electric utility, natural gas, and petroleum industries. When looking at a fuel substitution of the type proposed, each industry had its special perspective. These are discussed in detail in the report.

  2. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  3. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  4. Process analysis and simulation of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation pertains to the prediction of cavity growth and the prediction of product gas composition in underground coal gasification (ICG) via mathematical model. The large-scale simulation model of the UCG process is comprised of a number of sub-models, each describing definable phenomena in the process. Considerable effort has been required in developing these sub-models, which are described in this work. In the first phase of the investigation, the flow field in field experiments was analyzed using five selected flow models and a combined model was developed based on the Hoe Creek II field experimental observations. The combined model was a modified tanks-in-series mode, and each tank consisted of a void space and a rubble zone. In the second phase of this work, a sub-model for self-gasification of coal was developed and simulated to determine the effect of water influx on the consumption of coal and whether self-gasification of coal alone was shown to be insufficient to explain the observed cavity growth. In the third phase of this work, a new sweep efficiency model was developed and coded to predict the cavity growth and product gas composition. Self-gasification of coal, water influx, and roof collapse and spalling were taken into account in the model. Predictions made by the model showed reasonable agreement with the experimental observations and calculations.

  5. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. In previous tests, we had frequently encountered problems with our steam generator that were exacerbated by the very low flow rates that we needed. During this period we installed a new computer-controlled system for injecting water into the steam generator that eliminated this problem. We also tested alloy coupons coated by using the improved procedures described in our last quarterly report. Most of these coatings were nitrided Ti and Ta coatings, either by themselves, or sometimes with barrier layers of Al and Si nitrides. The samples were tested for 300 h at 900 C in a gas stream designed to mimic the environment in the high temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). Three samples that showed least corrosion were exposed for an additional 100 h.

  6. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in an integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high-alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period, we conducted a simulated gasifier test primarily with TiN-coated steel samples. Although the test showed these coatings to offer significant protection against corrosion, they also revealed a lack of uniformity in the coatings. We spent a considerable amount of effort improving our coatings procedure as well as the fluidized bed reactor and its heater. Based on the results collected thus far, we selected 12 samples and sent them to ConocoPhillips for testing in their gasifier at the Wabash River Energy plant.

  7. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    renewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withmethane reforming or coal gasification are well established,central plant) Coal Coal gasification with Carbon Capture

  8. REGULATION AND SYSTEM INTERDEPENDENCE: EFFECTS ON THE SITING OF CALIFORNIA ELECTRICAL ENERGY FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kooser, J.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strategies for Siting Coal Gasification Facilities in theStrategies for Siting Coal Gasification Facilities in thea 100 MW integrated coal gasification/ combined cycle

  9. Role of site characteristics in coal gasification. [Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bader, B.E.; Glass, R.E.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field test data for a series of four underground coal gasification tests (UCG) at a site near Hanna, Wyoming are presented. Results of these field tests were combined with modeling efforts to identify site selective parameters broadly identified as the flow and mechanical properties of a coal seam that can help determine the degree to which any UCG test would be successful. Specifically, the characteristics shown to be important are concluded to be: (1) permeability structure and mobile water, which play a crucial role in determining air flow paths; (2) high permeability zones at midstream and above to act as the primary air flow path; (3) spacing of injection and production wells can be varied to enhance the chance of keeping the air flow paths low in the coal seam; (4) completion of the process wells in a manner that minimizes neighboring permeability inhibits the chance of override; (5) the orthotropic permeability of coal improve UCG results; (6) thermochemical properties of coal are important with respect to the manner of combustion front propogation; and (7) heating will result in stress dependent anisotropic strength characteristics of the coal. Other properties characteristic of a given coal, petrographic constitutents of a coal, chemistry of combustion and the in situ stress distribution are also pointed out as significant factors to be considered in the most efficient use of UCG technique. 14 references, (BLM)

  10. Pricetown I underground coal gasification field test: operations report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field test in bituminous coal was successfully completed near Pricetown, West Virginia. The primary objective of this field test was to determine the viability of the linked vertical well (LVV) technology to recover the 900 foot deep, 6 foot thick coal seam. A methane rich product gas with an average heating value of approximately 250 Btu/SCF was produced at low air injection flow rates during the reverse combustion linkage phase. Heating value of the gas produced during the linkage enhancement phase was 221 Btu/SCF with air injection. The high methane formation has been attributed to the thermal and hydrocracking of tars and oils along with hydropyrolysis and hydrogasification of coal char. The high heating value of the gas was the combined effect of residence time, flow pattern, injection flow rate, injection pressure, and back pressure. During the gasification phase, a gas with an average heating value of 125 Btu/SCF was produced with only air injection, which resulted in an average energy production of 362 MMBtu/day.

  11. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  12. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification field test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The six in situ coal gasification field tests conducted by LETC near Hanna, WY, demonstrated typical gasification rates of 100 tons/day for continuous operation of about 30 days. Featuring high coal recovery and high product-gas calorific values, the underground process proved to be simple, reliable, and potentially controllable.

  13. The Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field test series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Gunn, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six field tests of in-situ coal gasification have been conducted by the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center Near Hanna, Wyoming with typical gasification rates of 100 tons of coal per day for continuous operation of about 30 days. This paper presents an overview of the Hanna field tests.

  14. EIS-0007: Low Btu Coal Gasification Facility and Industrial Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy prepared this environmental impact statement which evaluates the potential environmental impacts that may be associated with the construction and operation of a low-Btu coal gasification facility and the attendant industrial park in Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky.

  15. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  16. Diffusion Coatings for Corrosion-Resistant Components in Coal Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high-temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low-cost alloy may improve its resistance to such sulfidation attack, and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this period we tested coated alloy coupons under conditions designed to mimic the conditions in the filter unit after the high-temperature heat recovery unit (HTHRU). The filter unit is another important area where corrosion has caused unscheduled downtime, and the remedy has been the use of sintered metal tubes made of expensive alloys such as inconel. The objective of our test was to determine if those coatings on 400-series steel that were not able to withstand the harsher conditions of the HTHRU, may be sufficiently resistant for use in the filter unit, at the reduced temperatures. Indeed, most of our coatings survived well; the exceptions were the coated porous samples of SS316. We continued making improvements to our coatings apparatus and the procedure began during the last quarter. As a result of these modifications, the coupons we are now producing are uniform. We describe the improved procedure for preparing diffusion coatings. Finally, because porous samples of steel in grades other than SS316 are not readily available, we also decided to procure SS409 powder and fabricate our own sintered porous coupons.

  17. Improving process performances in coal gasification for power and synfuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Sudiro; A. Bertucco; F. Ruggeri; M. Fontana [University of Padova, Milan (Italy). Italy and Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is aimed at developing process alternatives of conventional coal gasification. A number of possibilities are presented, simulated, and discussed in order to improve the process performances, to avoid the use of pure oxygen, and to reduce the overall CO{sub 2} emissions. The different process configurations considered include both power production, by means of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant, and synfuel production, by means of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The basic idea is to thermally couple a gasifier, fed with coal and steam, and a combustor where coal is burnt with air, thus overcoming the need of expensive pure oxygen as a feedstock. As a result, no or little nitrogen is present in the syngas produced by the gasifier; the required heat is transferred by using an inert solid as the carrier, which is circulated between the two modules. First, a thermodynamic study of the dual-bed gasification is carried out. Then a dual-bed gasification process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the efficiency and overall CO{sub 2} emissions of the process are calculated and compared with a conventional gasification with oxygen. Eventually, the scheme with two reactors (gasifier-combustor) is coupled with an IGCC process. The simulation of this plant is compared with that of a conventional IGCC, where the gasifier is fed by high purity oxygen. According to the newly proposed configuration, the global plant efficiency increases by 27.9% and the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease by 21.8%, with respect to the performances of a conventional IGCC process. 29 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Proceedings of the eleventh annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eleventh Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Laramie Project Office of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, US Department of Energy, and hosted by the Western Research Institute, University of Wyoming research Corporation, in Denver, Colorado, on August 11 to 14, 1985. The five-session symposium included 37 presentations describing research on underground coal gasification (UCG) being performed throughout the world. Eleven of the presentations were from foreign countries developing UCG technology for their coal resources. The papers printed in the proceedings have been reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. The papers have not been refereed, nor have they been edited extensively. All papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Underground coal gasification: a brief review of current status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafirovich, E.; Varma, A. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification is a promising option for the future use of coal. Similarly to gasification in industrial reactors, underground coal gasification (UCG) produces syngas, which can be used for power generation or for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and other valuable chemical products. As compared with conventional mining and surface gasification, UCG promises lower capital/operating costs and also has other advantages, such as no human labor underground. In addition, UCG has the potential to be linked with carbon capture and sequestration. The increasing demand for energy, depletion of oil and gas resources, and threat of global climate change lead to growing interest in UCG throughout the world. In this article, we review the current status of this technology, focusing on recent developments in various countries.

  1. In-situ coal-gasification data look promising

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a report given at the 6th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium (Afton, Oklahoma 1980), the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal-gasification experiments Oil Gas J. 77 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute and directed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of in-situ coal conversion and featured the use of a directionally drilled channel to connect the injection and production wells rather than the reverse-burn ordinarily used to produce the connecting channel. In the test, 2816 cu m of coal weighing (APPROX) 4200 tons was consumed, with (APPROX) 18% of the product gas escaping through the overburden or elsewhere. When air injection was used, the average heating value was 217 Btu/std cu ft. The average thermal efficiency of the burn was 65%, and the average gas composition was 35% hydrogen, 5% methane, 11% carbon monoxide, and 44% carbon dioxide. Subsidence occurred after completion of the test. The Uniwell gasification method, scheduled for use in the final experiment in the Deep-1 series of underground coal-gasification tests in Wyoming, seeks to prevent subsidence by use of concentric pipes which are inserted into the vertical well to control the combustion zone. Underground coal-gasification prospects and the mechanics of subsidence are discussed.

  2. High frequency electromagnetic burn monitoring for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deadrick, F.J.; Hill, R.W.; Laine, E.F.

    1981-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of high frequency electromagnetic waves to monitor an in-situ coal gasification burn process, and presents some recent results obtained with the method. Both the technique, called HFEM (high frequency electromagnetic) probing, the HFEM hardware used are described, and some of the data obtained from the LLNL Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment conducted near Gillette, Wyoming are presented. HFEM was found to be very useful for monitoring the burn activity found in underground coal gasification. The technique, being a remote sensing method which does not require direct physical contact, does not suffer from burnout problems as found with thermocouples, and can continue to function even as the burn progresses on through the region of interest. While HFEM does not replace more conventional instrumentation such as thermocouples, the method does serve to provide data which is unobtainable by other means, and in so doing it complements the other data to help form a picture of what cannot be seen underground.

  3. Burn cavity growth during the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.

    1981-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed history is given of the growth of the burn cavity during the first month of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment near Gillette, Wyoming, in 1979. The changing shape of the cavity with time is inferred from data from three types of instruments installed throughout the experimental zone: (1) thermocouples at various levels in a number of holes, to map temperatures; (2) extensometers at various levels in other holes, to detect motions of the overburden material; and (3) high-frequency electromagnetic (HFEM) scans made between various pairs of holes, to detect cavities and zones of burning coal. Additional data on the final shape of the underground cavity are derived from the results of a core drilling program carried out from the surface after the burn had ended. This study of cavity growth history has contributed significantly to our understanding of how the in situ coal gasification process operates in sites like Hoe Creek. The diagnostic system provided invaluable information on cavity growth and on the interaction between the two coal seams. Some new problems with injection well survival and slag production in oxygen-steam burns were brought out, and the importance of understanding and controlling heat loss mechanisms was amply demonstrated. Although no one system of underground diagnostics can give all of the information needed to fully describe the in situ process, a combination of several diagnostic systems can be used to deduce a self-consistent description.

  4. Burn cavity growth during the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground-coal-gasification experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.

    1981-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed history is given of the growth of the burn cavity during the first month of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment near Gillette, Wyoming, in 1979. The changing shape of the cavity with time is inferred from data from three types of instruments installed throughout the experimental zone: (1) thermocouples at various levels in a number of holes, to map temperatures; (2) extensometers at various levels in other holes, to detect motions of the overburden material; and (3) high-frequency electromagnetic scans made between various pairs of holes, to detect cavities and zones of burning coal. Additional data on the final shape of the underground cavity is derived from the results of a core drilling program carried out from the surface after the burn had ended. This study of cavity growth history has contributed significantly to our understanding of how the in-situ coal gasification process operates in sites like Hoe Creek. The diagnostic system provided invaluable information on cavity growth and on the interaction between the two coal seams. Some new problems with injection well survival and slag production in oxygen-steam burns were brought out, and the importance of understanding and controlling heat loss mechanisms was amply demonstrated. Although no one system of underground diagnostics can give all of the information needed to fully describe the in-situ process, a combination of several diagnostic systems can be used to deduce a self-consistent description.

  5. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, Nicholas S.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Litster, Shawn; Berry, David, A

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present experimental results of coal gasification with and without the addition of calcium oxide and potassium hydroxide as dual-functioning catalyst–capture agents. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect of these catalyst–capture agents on (1) the syngas composition, (2) CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S capture, and (3) the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate. The syngas composition from the gasifier was roughly 20% methane, 70% hydrogen, and 10% other species when a CaO/C molar ratio of 0.5 was added. We demonstrated significantly enhanced steam–coal gasification kinetic rates when adding small amounts of potassium hydroxide to coal when operating a CaO–CaCO{sub 3} chemical looping gasification reactor. For example, the steam–coal gasification kinetic rate increased 250% when dry mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 with a sub-bituminous coal, and the kinetic rate increased 1000% when aqueously mixing calcium oxide at a Ca/C molar ratio of 0.5 along with potassium hydroxide at a K/C molar ratio of 0.06. In addition, we conducted multi-cycle studies in which CaCO{sub 3} was calcined by heating to 900 °C to regenerate the CaO, which was then reused in repeated CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycles. The increased steam–coal gasification kinetics rates for both CaO and CaO + KOH persisted even when the material was reused in six cycles of gasification and calcination. The ability of CaO to capture carbon dioxide decreased roughly 2–4% per CaO–CaCO{sub 3} cycle. We also discuss an important application of this combined gasifier–calciner to electricity generation and selling the purge stream as a precalcined feedstock to a cement kiln. In this scenario, the amount of purge stream required is fixed not by the degradation in the capture ability but rather by the requirements at the cement kiln on the amount of CaSO{sub 4} and ash in the precalcined feedstock.

  6. Rawlins UCG (underground coal gasification) Demonstration Project site characterization report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy and Energy International, Inc. have entered into a Cooperative Agreement to conduct a cost-shared UCG field test demonstrating the operation of commercial scale Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) on steeply dipping bed modules to provide synthesis gas for a small scale commercial ammonia plant. The field test and the commercial ammonia plant will be located at the North Knobs site near Rawlins, Wyoming. During this demonstration test, two or more UCG modules will be operated simultaneously until one module is completely consumed and an additional module is brought on line. During this period, the average coal gasification rate will be between 500 and 1200 tons per day. A portion of the raw UCG product gas will be cleaned and converted into a synthesis gas, which will be used as feedstock to a 400--500 ton per day ammonia plant. The UCG facility will continue to operate subsequent to the test demonstration to provide feedstock for the commercial plant. The objective of the hydrologic site characterization program is to provide an accurate representation of the hydrologic environment within the area to be gasified. This information will aid in the placement and operation of the process wells in relation to the ground water source. 21 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Rawlins UCG (underground coal gasification) Demonstration Project site characterization report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy and Energy International, Inc. have entered into a Cooperative Agreement to conduct a cost-shared UCG field test demonstrating the operation of commercial scale underground coal gasification (UCG) on steeply dipping bed modules to provide synthesis gas for a small scale commercial ammonia plant. The field test and the commercial ammonia plant will be located at the North Knobs site near Rawlins, Wyoming. During this demonstration test, two or more UCG modules will be operated simultaneously until one module is completely consumed and an additional module is brought on line. During this period, the average coal gasification rate will be between 500 and 1200 tons per day. A portion of the raw UCG product gas will be cleaned and converted into a synthesis gas, which will be used as feedstock to a 400--500 ton per day ammonia plant. The UCG facility will continue to operate subsequent to the test demonstration to provide feedstock for the commercial plant. The objective of the geologic site characterization program is to provide a descriptive model that accurately represents the geologic environment of the coal resource that is to be gasified. This model is to be used as an aid in understanding the hydrology of the coal bearing sequence, as a framework for installation of the process wells and the subsequent exploitation of the coal resources. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  9. Modeling of contaminant transport in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanhe Yang; Xing Zhang [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geosciences

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study and discuss the impact of contaminants produced from underground coal gasification on groundwater, a coupled seepage-thermodynamics-transport model for underground gasification was developed on the basis of mass and energy conservation and pollutant-transport mechanisms, the mathematical model was solved by the upstream weighted multisell balance method, and the model was calibrated and verified against the experimental site data. The experiment showed that because of the effects of temperature on the surrounding rock of the gasification panel the measured pore-water-pressure was higher than the simulated one; except for in the high temperature zone where the simulation errors of temperature, pore water pressure, and contaminant concentration were relatively high, the simulation values of the overall gasification panel were well fitted with the measured values. As the gasification experiment progressed, the influence range of temperature field expanded, the gradient of groundwater pressure decreased, and the migration velocity of pollutant increased. Eleven months and twenty months after the test, the differences between maximum and minimum water pressure were 2.4 and 1.8 MPa, respectively, and the migration velocities of contaminants were 0.24-0.38 m/d and 0.27-0.46 m/d, respectively. It was concluded that the numerical simulation of the transport process for pollutants from underground coal gasification was valid. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadowski, Richard S. (Greenville, SC)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  11. Fundamental investigations of underground coal gasification. Final report, March 1982-December 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report presents several mathematical models of underground coal-gasification processes. Through these models, a much better theoretical understanding of underground coal gasification becomes possible. Specific phenomena studied were the effects of high-amplitude pressure oscillation, reverse combustion, spontaneous ignition at high pressures, an analytical model of reverse-combustion channeling, an exploratory study of electrolinking, cavity-growth behavior, and a technical evaluation of the Forestburg underground coal-gasification field test at Forestburg, Alberta. This test is especially interesting because the site was escavated after completion of the experiment.

  12. Arco's research and development efforts in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.J.; Bailey, D.W.; Brandenburg, C.F.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco has studied underground coal gasification (UCG) since the mid-1970's in an attempt to advance the technology. This paper is a review of past and present UCG research and development efforts, starting with Arco's Rocky Hill No. 1 test. Although this first experiment gave Arco invaluable experience for conducting UCG in the deep, wet, thick coal resources of the Powder River Basin in Wyoming, many formidable questions remain to be addressed with the operation of a larger-scale, multi-well test. Unresolved issues include such items as site selection, well design, well linking, overburden subsidence, ground water protection, surface treatment of product gas, and the interaction of simultaneously operating modules.

  13. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  14. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W. (eds.)

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  15. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  16. Large-block experiments in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the nation's energy program is to develop processes for cleanly producing fuels from coal. One of the more promising of these is underground coal gasification (UCG). If successful, UCG would quadruple recoverable U.S. coal reserves. Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performed an early series of UCG field experiments from 1976 through 1979. The Hoe Creek series of tests were designed to develop the basic technology of UCG at low cost. The experiments were conducted in a 7.6-m thick subbituminous coal seam at a relatively shallow depth of 48 m at a site near Gillette, Wyoming. On the basis of the Hoe Creek results, more extensive field experiments were designed to establish the feasibility of UCG for commercial gas production under a variety of gasification conditions. Concepts and practices in UCG are described, and results of the field tests are summarized.

  17. Review of underground coal gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL has conducted three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, WY. Three different linking methods were used: explosive fracturing, reverse burning and directional drilling. Air was injected on all three experiments and a steam/oxygen mixture during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the linking method didn't influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters, but declined from its initial value over a period of time. This was due to heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  18. Review of underground coal gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, WY, LLNL applied three different linking methods: explosive fracture, reverse burning, and directional drilling. Air was injected in all three experiments; a steam/oxygen mixture, during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the type of linking method did not influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters but declined from its initial value over a period of time because of heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  19. A sweep efficiency model for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.L.; Edgar, T.F.; Himmelblau, D.M.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model to predict sweep efficiency for underground coal gasification (UCG) has been developed. The model is based on flow through rubble in the cavity as well as through the open channel and uses a tanks-in-series model for the flow characteristics. The model can predict cavity growth and product gas composition given the rate of water influx, roof collapse, and spalling. Self-gasification of coal is taken into account in the model, and the coal consumption rate and the location of the flame front are determined by material and energy balances at the char surface. The model has been used to predict the results of the Hoe Creek III field tests (for the air gasification period). Predictions made by the model such as cavity shape, product gas composition, temperature profile, and overall reaction stoichiometry between the injected oxygen and the coal show reasonable agreement with the field test results.

  20. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  1. EA-1219: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming.

  2. Case-study of a coal gasification-based energy supply system for China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China ``Syngas city'' (SC) is a concept for a coal. Introduction ``Syngas city'' (SC) is a concept for coal gasification- based energy supply systems that deploy

  3. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 1. General information and executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation. This report covers: (1) history of underground coal gasification leading to the Hanna tests; (2) area characteristics (basic meteorological and socioeconomic data); (3) site selection history; (4) site characteristics; (5) permitting; and (6) executive summary. 5 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  5. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Final technical progress report, October 1978-November 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The agreement between the United States Government Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute for the Joint Coal Gasification Research Program provided for one or more technical evaluation contractors. Pullman Kellogg (now the M.W. Kellogg Company) was selected as evaluation contractor to assess, and report to the DOE/GRI Operating Committee on, the relative merits of the active programs covered by the agreement. This report includes the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 November 1982. The objective was to provide engineering support for the DOE/GRI high Btu coal gasification program. This support generally consisted of assistance in developing or advancing each process to its maximum potential. Kellogg monitored and evaluated the startup and operational activities of all pilot plant projects within the combined DOE/GRI program. Kellogg evaluated proposals to determine their technical feasibility as potential processes or as viable processing operations for commercial-scale gasification of coal. Kellogg also recorded observations on the reliability, maintainability, and availability of the equipment used in the pilot plant or PDU facilities. Kellogg performed design reviews, data analyses, and engineering evaluations of proposals, cost estimates and monthly progress reports to provide information considered essential to the overall objectives of the combined DOE/GRI program.

  6. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective, the following goals were established for the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Project: Provide sufficient quantity of products for full-scale test burns; Develop data for the design of future commercial plants; Demonstrate plant and process performance; Provide capital and O&M cost data; and Support future LFC{trademark} technology licensing efforts. Each of these goals has been met and exceeded. The plant has been in operation for nearly 5 years, during which the LFC{trademark} process has been demonstrated and refined. Fuels were made, successfully burned, and a commercial-scale plant is now under contract for design and construction.

  7. Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

  8. Effects of aquifer interconnection resulting from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory evaluated the effects of aquifer interconnection caused by the collapse of cavities formed in coal seams by two small underground coal gasification experiments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Flow models and field measurements were used to show that the water from one or both of the upper aquifers enters the collapse, rubble and flows down to the lowest aquifer (the gasified coal seam) where it flows away from the collapse zones. The investigations showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the collapse rubble is less than that of the aquifers and provides only a moderately permeable interconnection between them, a marked reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the gasified coal seam near the collapse zones restricts the flow in the seam, away from them; changes in the hydraulic head and flow patterns caused by aquifer interconnection extend generally only 60-90 m away from the experiment sites, whereas flow in the uppermost aquifer at one of the sites may be influenced as far away as 122 m. At both sites, the aquifer interconnection allows water from the uppermost (sand) aquifer, which contains the poorest quality water of the 3 aquifers, to enter one or both of the underlying aquifers.

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Underground Coal Gasification project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Britten, J.A.

    1989-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been actively developing Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) technology for 15 years. The goal of the project has been to develop a fundamental technological understanding of UCG and foster the commercialization of the process. In striving to achieve this goal the LLNL project has carried out laboratory experiments, developed mathematical models, actively participated in technology transfer programs, and conducted field test experiments. As a result of this work the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) concept was developed which helps insure optimum performance of an underground gasifier in a flat seam, and provides a means to produce multiple gasification cavities. The LLNL field work culminated in the Rocky Mountain I field test in which a gasifier using the CRIP technology generated gas of a quality equal to that of surface gasifiers. This last test and others preceding it have demonstrated beyond any reasonable doubt, that UCG is technically feasible in moderately thick coal seams at modest depths. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Analysis of mathematical models of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fausett, L.V.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are reported of a survey and comparison of forward combustion underground coal gasification (UCG) models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study were mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The computer code for each model was implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses were made with each of the programs using data to simulate six representative UCG field tests. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam. Modifications were necessary to two models in order for them to simulate oxygen/steam injection experiments. A mistake in the computer code for one model was discovered and corrected; this enabled the code to execute with data from one field test for which the original version had failed. An alternate numerical solution technique for one mdoel was studied, and improved correlations for the model were developed. An approximate analytical solution to the model was obtained that is valid over the region where difficulties were encountered, using both multiple shooting and collocation numerical solutions. The applicability of each model to the various conditions occurring in the different field tests was determined.

  11. Proceedings of the thirteenth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.W.; Barone, S.P. (eds.)

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thirteenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office and Gas Research Institute of Chicago, Illinois, and hosted by the Western Research Institute of Laramie, Wyoming. The symposium was held in Laramie, Wyoming, during the period, August 24 to 26, 1987. Papers printed in these Proceedings were reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. They have not been refereed nor have they been edited after receipt for publishing. The purpose for this annual meeting is to provide an opportunity for scientists working in the technology to present their research results, exchange ideas, and discuss their future plans. Nearly 100 attendees from industry, academia, Government, and eight countries, including Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Japan, West Germany, India, and Yugoslavia participated. Forty-seven papers were presented in five formal sessions covering Technology, International, Environmental, and General Topics and one informal poster session dominantly covering laboratory and modeling studies. Industrial papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  12. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

  13. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  14. Analysis of forward combustion underground coal gasification models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fausett, L.K.; Fausett, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey has been made of forward combustion gasification models that are available in the public domain. The six models obtained for study have been mathematically analyzed to determine their conceptual completeness and computational complexity. The models range in scope of generality from a simple constrained mass balance model to a two-dimensional unsteady-state model. The computer code for each model has been implemented on the University of Wyoming CDC CYBER 730/760 computer system. Computed analyses with each of the programs are compared using data (taken primarily from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Data Base) corresponding to six representative DOE sponsored field experiments at Hanna, Hoe Creek, Rawlins, and Pricetown. Four of the field tests were air injection experiments and two were oxygen/steam injection experiments. This study provides a direct comparison of input data requirements and computer resource requirements of the six computer codes. It furnishes an indication of the applicability of each model to the various operating conditions in the different field tests. Computational capabilities and limitations of each model are discussed in detail. 20 references, 47 figures, 13 tables.

  15. Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    Steam-Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture Nicholas S. Siefert Virginia 26507, United States ABSTRACT: We present experimental results of coal gasification. Using two different coal types and temperatures between 700 and 900 °C, we studied the effect

  16. Fundamental investigations of underground coal gasification. Annual report Mar 82-Mar 83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, R.D.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal deposits in the Appalachian and Midwest Coal Regions consist primarily of thin relatively deep seams of swelling bituminous coal, but little scientific effort in the United States has been directed toward underground coal gasification in these important industrial areas. In Europe, however, major work is under way on underground coal gasification in thin, deep seams of swelling coal. The principal investigator and a graduate student are participating in field tests in Belgium and supporting laboratory experiments in Germany. Mathematical models are being developed to interpret these experimental data, and a better understanding of the underground coal gasification process is emerging. This understanding is essential for evaluating potential problems, for devising solutions to such problems and for designing field tests.

  17. Excavation of the Partial Seam CRIP underground coal gasification test site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.; Britten, J.A.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1987-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fall of 1983, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory conducted the Partial Seam CRIP (PSC) underground coal gasification (UCG) field experiment at the Washington Irrigation and Development Company mine near Centralia, Washington. The test, in the subbituminous Big Dirty coal seam, lasted 30 days during which time 1400 cubic meters of coal were consumed from two injection/production well combinations. In the spring of 1986, normal mining activity in the vicinity of the PSC test allowed the opportunity to carefully excavate the experiment and examine the post-burn cavities. The mining operation dug out the front and back half of the test area and most of the overburden above the UCG cavities, leaving approximately 23,000 cubic meters of earth containing the main portion of the test area undisturbed. Under direction of the Wyoming Research Institute (WRI), this remaining earth was carefully excavated, in slices perpendicular to the original injection/production line, using small earthmoving equipment to uncover and sample the final burn cavities. Preliminary results of the excavation were presented by WRI at the 12th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium. We present additional results and conclusions based on all of the information obtained. Topics covered include: comparison to material balance and thermal instrumentation data, analysis and composition of samples taken from the cavity and general cavity shape and characteristics in comparison with mechanistic models of cavity growth. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, Madhav R. (Morgantown, WV); Yang, Ralph T. (Williamsville, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon, zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high parity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber.

  19. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Postburn evaluation for Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3, underground coal gasification experiments, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Sinks, D.J.; Craig, G.N. II; Ethridge, F.G.; Burns, L.K.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1980 and 1981 the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) conducted a post-burn study at the Hanna II, Phases 2 and 3 underground coal gasification (UCG) site, Hanna, Wyoming. This report contains a summary of the field and laboratory results from the study. Lithologic and geophysical well log data from twenty-two (22) drill holes, combined with high resolution seismic data delineate a reactor cavity 42.7m (140 ft.) long, 35.1 m (115 ft.) and 21.3 m (70 ft.) high that is partially filled with rubble, char and pyrometamorphic rock. Sedimentographic studies were completed on the overburden. Reflectance data on coal samples within the reactor cavity and cavity wall reveal that the coal was altered by temperatures ranging from 245/sup 0/C to 670/sup 0/C (472/sup 0/-1238/sup 0/F). Overburden rocks found within the cavity contain various pyrometamorphic minerals, indicating that temperatures of at least 1200/sup 0/C (2192/sup 0/F) were reached during the tests. The calcite cemented fine-grained sandstone and siltstone directly above the Hanna No. 1 coal bed formed a strong roof above the cavity, unlike other UCG sites such as Hoe Creek which is not calcite cemented. 30 references, 27 figures, 8 tables.

  1. LLNL Underground Coal Gasification Project annual report - fiscal year 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.; O'Neal, E.M. (eds.)

    1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laboratory has been conducting an interdisciplinary underground coal gasification program since 1974 under the sponsorship of DOE and its predecessors. We completed three UCG tests at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming, during the period 1975 to 1979. Five small field experiments, the large-block tests, were completed from 1981 to 1982 at the exposed coal face in the WIDCO coal mine near Centralia, Washington. A larger test at the same location, the partial-seam CRIP test, was completed during fiscal year 1984. In conjunction with the DOE and an industrial group lead by the Gas Research Institute, we have prepared a preliminary design for a large-scale test at the WIDCO site. The planned test features dual injection and production wells, module interaction, and consumption of 20,000 tons of coal during a hundred-day steam-oxygen gasification. During fiscal year 1984, we documented the large-block excavations. The cavities were elongated, the cavity cross sections were elliptical, and the cavities contained ash and slag at the bottom, char and dried coal above that, and a void at the top. The results from the large-block tests provided enough data to allow us to construct a composite model, CAVSM. Preliminary results from the model agree well with the product-gas chemistry and cavity shape observed in the large-block tests. Other models and techniques developed during the year include a transient, moving-front code, a two-dimensional, reactive-flow code using the method of lines, and a wall-recession-rate model. In addition, we measured the rate of methane decomposition in the hot char bed and developed an engineering rate expression to estimate the magnitude of the methane-decomposition reaction. 16 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Steam tracer experiment at the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Water plays an important role in in-situ coal gasification. To better understand this role, we conducted a steam tracer test during the later stages of the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification field test. Deuterium oxide was used as the tracer. This report describes the tracer test and the analysis of the data obtained. The analysis indicates that at Hoe Creek the injected steam interacts with a large volume of water as it passes through the underground system. We hypothesize that this water is undergoing continual reflux in the underground system, resulting in a tracer response typical of a well-stirred tank.

  3. The suitability of coal gasification in India's energy sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lori Allison

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), an advanced coal-based power generation technology, may be an important technology to help India meet its future power needs. It has the potential to provide higher generating ...

  4. Thermal-Hydrological Sensitivity Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Hao, Y; Morris, J P; Burton, E A

    2009-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent work from an ongoing project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a set of predictive tools for cavity/combustion-zone growth and to gain quantitative understanding of the processes and conditions (natural and engineered) affecting underground coal gasification (UCG). We discuss the application of coupled thermal-hydrologic simulation capabilities required for predicting UCG cavity growth, as well as for predicting potential environmental consequences of UCG operations. Simulation of UCG cavity evolution involves coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical-mechanical (THCM) processes in the host coal and adjoining rockmass (cap and bedrock). To represent these processes, the NUFT (Nonisothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) code is being customized to address the influence of coal combustion on the heating of the host coal and adjoining rock mass, and the resulting thermal-hydrological response in the host coal/rock. As described in a companion paper (Morris et al. 2009), the ability to model the influence of mechanical processes (spallation and cavity collapse) on UCG cavity evolution is being developed at LLNL with the use of the LDEC (Livermore Distinct Element Code) code. A methodology is also being developed (Morris et al. 2009) to interface the results of the NUFT and LDEC codes to simulate the interaction of mechanical and thermal-hydrological behavior in the host coal/rock, which influences UCG cavity growth. Conditions in the UCG cavity and combustion zone are strongly influenced by water influx, which is controlled by permeability of the host coal/rock and the difference between hydrostatic and cavity pressure. In this paper, we focus on thermal-hydrological processes, examining the relationship between combustion-driven heat generation, convective and conductive heat flow, and water influx, and examine how the thermal and hydrologic properties of the host coal/rock influence those relationships. Specifically, we conducted a parameter sensitivity analysis of the influence of thermal and hydrological properties of the host coal, caprock, and bedrock on cavity temperature and steam production.

  5. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  6. Markets for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification: an analysis of 13 site specific studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through its Office of Resource Applications, developed a commercialization plan for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. Several initial steps have been taken in that process, including a comprehensive study of industrial markets, issuance of a Notice of Program Interest, and funding of proposals under the Alternate Fuels Legislation (P.L. 96-126). To assist it in the further development and administration of the commercialization plan, the Office of Resource Applications has asked Booz, Allen and Hamilton to assess the market prospects for low- and medium-Btu coal gasification. This report covers the detailed findings of the study. Following the introduction which discusses the purpose of the study, approach used for the assignment and current market attitudes on coal gasification, there are three chapters on: systems configurations and applications; economic and finanical attractiveness; and summary of management decisions based on feasibility study results. The final chapter briefly assesses the management decisions. The general consensus seems to be that coal gasification is a technology that will be attractive in the future but is marginal now. 6 figures, 5 tables.

  7. LLNL underground coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olness, D.U. (ed.)

    1981-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We have continued laboratory studies of forward gasification through drilled holes in small blocks of coal (approx. 30 cm on a side). Such studies give insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production. In addition, we have been developing a mathematical model for these experiments in order to further our understanding of the physical and chemical processes governing the burning of the coal and the growth of the cavity within the block. This model will be adapted, later, to larger-scale coal-block experiments, and finally to full-scale field exoperiments. We hope to obtain scaling laws and other insights from the model. The small-block experiments are beginning to provide information relevant to the early-time cavity growth. The natural extension of these experiments to larger blocks, perhaps 10ft or more on a side, is presently being planned. The large-block tests will be conducted at a mine, where blocks of coal will be isolated by the experimenter; the objective will be to quantify early-time cavity growth. We completed planning for the directionally drilled injection well for DOE Experiment No. 1. Assessment of the data obtained during the various underground coal gasification tests is continuing. Results from the four different diagnostic systems have been combined to produce a description of the shape of the burn cavity as a function of time during the Hoe Creek No. 3 experiment. Groundwater samples from wells located at distances of a few feet to several hundred feet from the gasification cavities have been collected before, during, and after each of the Hoe Creek tests. The analysis of the groundwater contamination data pertinent to the Hoe Creek No. 2 test was completed.

  8. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  9. Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Usman

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water. To answer questions relating to the amount of lignite gasified, subsidence, ground water pollution problems and to obtain a better understanding of the process itself, work is needed to define the size, shape and orientation of the cavity...CHARACTERIZING A LIGNITE FORMATION BEFORE AND AFTER AN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION EXPERIMENT A Thesis by USMAN AHMED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  10. Shaped-charge tests in support of the coal-gasification program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheloske, R.F.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LLNL concept for in-situ coal gasification requires forming horizontal holes in deep coal beds to connect vertical bore shafts. These lateral holes are required to provide a passage for the gases between the vertical shafts. Shaped charges are being considered for producing these horizontal bore holes. This report describes a test method for evaluating new shaped charge designs and presents the results for three designs.

  11. Estimated groundwater restoration costs associated with commercial underground coal gasification operations. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.D.

    1985-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to complete a preliminary cost estimate for groundwater restoration for the Hoe Creek commercial underground coal gasification (UCG) facility under a set of ground rules based on field data measurements and specific compound removal requirements. Of the three approaches evaluated for disposal of the contaminated groundwater, deep well injection is the least expensive, followed by the alternate treatment approach.

  12. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  13. Underground coal gasification data base. [Information on 14 US DOE sponsored tests; also available on computer tapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.; Thorsness, C.B.; Ott, L.L.

    1982-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a data base containing results from fourteen DOE-sponsored underground coal gasification (UCG) field tests. These tests include three performed by LLNL near Gillette, Wyoming at the Hoe Creek site, eight performed by LETC at a site near Hanna, Wyoming, two by GULF near Rawlings, Wyoming, and one performed by METC near Princetown, West Virginia. All tests were done in flat lying coal seams except the Rawlings tests, which utilized a steeply dipping seam. The report presents process parameters and the results of material and energy balances for each test in a variety of forms. The raw process data used to construct the data base is first discussed along with material and energy balance conventions. Following this, each test is described with the process geometry and a brief operating chronology given. Differential and integral summary information in tabular and graphic form is provided for each test. Computer tapes of the entire data base may be requested from the authors through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, Eric Jon

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the hot gases flow into a condenser where they are (1-3, 7) cooled and the liquid sulfur 1s removed. The final steps 1n the gasif1cation process are to compr ess the methanated gas from appr oximately 140 psig to pipel1ne pr essure of 1000 psig...THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS(PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment...

  15. Rocky Mountain 1: Underground coal gasification test, Hanna, Wyoming. Volume 1. Operations. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted near Hanna, Wyoming during the period January 1986 through March 1988. The report focuses on operations phases that included site selection, facility design, facility construction, well drilling, gasification and environmental monitoring. Two technologies were evaluated as separate modules: the Extended Linked Well (ELW) and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) processes. The test results, along with a discussion of the key test parameters and conclusions of the gasification phase, are provided. A bibliography and schematics are included.

  16. Subsidence associated with single and multi-cavities for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avasthi, J.M.; Harloff, G.J.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extension of the 3-dimensional theoretical development of Berry and Sales has brought their subsidence predictions into agreement with the NCB's comprehensive set of empirical data. The new elastic parameters fit the amplitude of ground level subsidence. Another modification of the theory makes the subsidence profiles agree with the NCB data. The extended theory has predicted: (1) subsidence for an actual US coalmining case with multiple cavities, and (2) subsidence level and profile for a recent in situ coal-gasification test carried out in Wyoming in a steeply dipping seam.

  17. Oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. Quarterly progress report, July-September, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical progress made for the second quarter, July 1, 1983 through September 30, 1983 are described for three areas, oil shale, tar sand and underground gasification of coal. The oil shale program is divided into the following tasks: chemistry and physics; retort bed analysis; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. The tar sand investigation covers: recovery processes; preparation; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. Underground coal gasification covers: recovery processes; field project evaluation; novel processing methods; and environmental impact mitigation. An executive summary is provided for the three programs. 19 figures, 23 tables.

  18. Advances in the development of wire mesh reactor for coal gasification studies - article no. 084102

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, C.; Chen, L.; Liu, G.; Li, W.H.; Huang, B.M.; Zhu, H.D.; Zhang, B.; Zamansky, V. [GE Global Research Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to further understand the coal gasification behavior in entrained-flow gasifiers, a high pressure and high temperature wire mesh reactor with new features was recently built. An advanced LABVIEW-based temperature measurement and control system were adapted. Molybdenum wire mesh with aperture smaller than 70 {mu} m and type D thermocouple were used to enable high carbon conversion ({gt}90%) at temperatures {gt}1000 {sup o}C. Gaseous species from wire mesh reactor were quantified using a high sensitivity gas chromatography. The material balance of coal pyrolysis in wire mesh reactor was demonstrated for the first time by improving the volatile's quantification techniques.

  19. Changes in major organic contaminants in the groundwater at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F.; Mead, W.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of groundwater analysis at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification (UCG) site have indicated that, after gasification, the phenolic compounds and neutral aromatic hydrocarbons decrease more slowly than expected on the basis of our laboratory studies. The field data also fail to confirm the expected inverse relationship between a contaminant's water solubility and the extent to which it is sorbed by surrounding coal. The authors described a mechanism for the deposition of coal pyrolysis products that may help to elucidate the observed behavior of these organic contaminants. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, December 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E. (ed.)

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of data for the Hanna IV and Hoe Creek in situ coal gasification tests raised questions concerning the fundamental controlling mechanisms of the process. The two main areas of concern are: (1) the air flow patterns; and (2) the initial cavity growth. Sandia National Laboratories is addressing these concerns by developing models of these processes. Results to date are in qualitative agreement with known phenomena. There have also been developments in data handling capability. These include improved data presentation ability and development of routine storage, access and back up methods.

  1. Techniques and equipment used in contaminant detection at Hoe Creek underground coal gasification experimental site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, S.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data obtained from existing monitoring wells at an experimental coal gasification site indicated that local groundwater supplies were under risk from organic contaminants, particularly phenols. A more extensive monitoring system was installed. A drilling and open-hole sampling programme was devised to locate the edge of the contaminated area and indicate where additional monitoring wells were required. Geophysical logging was employed to determine the optimal position of gas-driven groundwater samplers/piezometers. The system successfully delineated the extent of the contaminant plume on 3 sides, but further work is required on the fourth side.

  2. Mutagenic and toxic activity of environmental effluents from underground coal gasification experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timourian, H.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using bacterial bioassays, the authors have screened for the presence of mutagens and toxins in extracts from groundwater, and in tar from product gas, at the Hoe Creek II and III in situ coal gasification sites. The sites exhibited different potential biological hazards, suggesting that different gasification processes may represent different human health concerns. It was found that mutagens are present in groundwater, they persist for at least 2 years after gasification has been terminated, and they show a change in activity with time, possibly in parallel with changes in chemical composition. The tar may represent a disposal problem, since it is mutagenic, but with a low level of activity.

  3. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  4. Application of geological studies to overburden collapse at underground coal gasification experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethridge, F.G.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Burns, L.K.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed geologic and mineralogic studies were conducted on the Hanna, Wyoming, and Hoe Creek, Wyoming, underground coal gasification sites. These studies demonstrate the importance geologic factors have on controlling overburden collapse into the reactor cavity during and after coal gasification and on subsequent environmental problems. Parameters that control the collapse of overburden material into the reactor cavity include: duration of the burn; maximum span of unsupported roof rock; lateral and vertical homogeneity, permeability and rock strength; and thickness of overburden materials. At the Hoe Creek I experiment, a small reactor cavity and a correspondingly short maximum span of unsupported roof rock consisting of fine-grained, low permeability overbank deposits resulted in minimal collapse. At the Hoe Creek II experiment, a significant amount of collapse occurred due to an increased span of unsupported roof rock comprised of poorly consolidated, more permeable channel sandstones and a limited amount of overburden mudstones and siltstones. Roof rock collapse extended to the surface at the Hoe Creek III experiment where the roof rock consisted of highly permeable, poorly consolidated channel sandstones. The unit comprising the reactor cavity roof rock at the Hanna II experimental site is a laterally continuous lacustrine delta deposit, which primarily consists of sandstones with lesser amounts of interbedded siltstones and claystones. Calcite cement has reduced permeability and interstitial waters which probably kept spalling of the roof rock to a minimum. Consequently, roof rock collapse at the Hanna II experiment was much less extensive than at the Hoe Creek II and III experiments.

  5. Hoe Creek experiments: LLNL's underground coal-gasification project in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and predecessor organizations, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory carried out a laboratory program and three field, underground coal gasification tests near Gillette, Wyoming. This report summarizes that work. Three methods of linking or connecting injection and production wells were used for the UCG field tests: Hoe Creek No. 1 employed explosive fracturing, Hoe Creek No. 2 featured use of reverse combustion, and directional drilling was used for the Hoe Creek No. 3. The Gas Research Institute cosponsored the latter test. Laboratory experiments and modeling, together with a laboratory and field environment program, are necessary adjuncts to the field program. Explosive fracturing in coal was simulated using computer models and laboratory tests. We developed a relationship of total inelastic strains to permeability, which we used to design and interpret a coal outcrop, explosive fracturing experiment at Kemmerer, Wyoming. Coal gasification was also simulated in laboratory experiments and with computer models. The primary aim has been to predict and correlate reaction, thermal-front propagation rates, and product gas composition as a function of bed properties and process operating conditions. Energy recovery in the form of produced gas and liquids amounted to 73% of the energy in the consumed coal. There were essentially no losses to the subsurface formation. The greatest energy loss was in steam production.

  6. Groundwater restoration field test at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordin, J.S.; Barrash, W.; Nolan, B.T.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three underground coal gasification burns were conducted at the Hoe Creek Site in the Powder River Basin. Some contaminants were released in the groundwater. The Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the water from a network of wells. Two million gallons of groundwater were pumped from wells adjacent to the Hoe Creek II underground coal gasification cavity, passed through filters and carbon adsorbers, and reinjected into the cavity. Phenol was the target compound of the water treatment system. The phenol concentration pumped from well WS-10 decreased from 974 parts per billion (ppB) when treatment began on July 2, 1987, to about 200 ppB when treatment ceased on August 29, 1987. Phenol concentrations pumped from well WS-22 fluctuated during the tests, but they decreased to the 150 to 200 ppB range by the time treatment was terminated. The phenol concentration of treated water reinjected into the Hoe Creek II cavity was below detectable limits (less than 20 ppB). Pumping rates were about 18 gallons per minute (gpm) from well WS-10 and 6 to 8 gpm from well WS-22. Hoe Creek is located approximately 20 miles southwest of Gillette, Wyoming. 12 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

  8. Organic contaminants in groundwater mar an underground coal gasification site in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuermer, D.H.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three groundwater samples collected near two underground coal gasification (UCG) sites 15 months after the end of gasification were analysed for dissolved organic contaminants. The contaminants consisted of phenols, aromatic carboxylic acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, pyridines, quinolines, isoquinolines, and aromatic amines. Concentrations ranged up to about 50 ppm with large variations both in the relative concentrations of acidic, neutral, and basic constituents and in the concentrations of individual compounds. Naphthalene o-xylene, 2-methylpyridine, and o-cresol were consistently present in high concentrations and were identified as UCG contaminant-indicator compounds that appear to be particularly useful for monitoring purposes. A simplified method of analysis for these compounds was developed.

  9. Organic contaminants in groundwater near an underground coal gasification site in northeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuermer, D.H.; Ng, D.J.; Morris, C.J.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three groundwater samples collected near two underground coal gasification (UCG) sites 15 months after the end of gasification were analyzed for dissolved organic contaminants. The contaminants consisted of phenols, aromatic carboxylic acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, pyridines, quinolines, isoquinolines, and aromatic amines. Concentrations ranged up to about 50 ppm with large variations both in the relative concentrations of acidic, neutral, and basic constituents and in the concentrations of individual compounds. Naphthalene, o-xylene, 2-methylpyridine, and o-cresol were consistently present in high concentrations and were identified as UCG contaminant-indicator compounds that appear to be particularly useful for monitoring purposes. A simplified method of analysis for these compounds was developed.

  10. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  11. Analysis of Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification test. Topical report, March 1989-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, S.S.; Floyd, F.M.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Rocky Mountain I Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Project, the Extended Linked Well (ELW) module and the Controlled Retracting Injection Point (CRIP) module were operated and demonstrated side-by-side. This engineering analysis of the process data was conducted to establish the viability of these technologies for commercial use. The data indicate that an optimum oxygen rate (700 SCFM) exists for the CRIP module and that the optimum steam/oxygen rate is comparable to that for moving bed gasifiers (1.3:1). Data from the post oxygen injection period indicate that 6-10% of carbon in the product gas from the ELW module was a result of pyrolysis. The gas produced by devolatilization was essentially free of carbon dioxide.

  12. Underground coal gasification field experiment in the high-dipping coal seams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Liu, S.Q.; Yu, L.; Zhang, W. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources & Geoscience

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article the experimental conditions and process of the underground gasification in the Woniushan Mine, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province are introduced, and the experimental results are analyzed. By adopting the new method of long-channel, big-section, and two-stage underground coal gasification, the daily gas production reaches about 36,000 m{sup 3}, with the maximum output of 103,700 m{sup 3}. The daily average heating value of air gas is 5.04 MJ/m{sup 3}, with 13.57 MJ/m{sup 3} for water gas. In combustible compositions of water gas, H{sub 2} contents stand at over 50%, with both CO and CH{sub 4} contents over 6%. Experimental results show that the counter gasification can form new temperature conditions and increase the gasification efficiency of coal seams.

  13. Research on chemical factors in underground coal gasification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, T.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research has been to acquire experimental data and develop mathematical models in order to analyze results from laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments on underground coal gasification (UCG), especially for low-rank coals such as Texas lignite. Experimental data for water injection in a combustion tube, coal core combustion, and coal block gasification are reported; in parallel, a mathematical model for the combustion tube temperature profile and gas composition was developed which compared favorably with experimental data. A mathematical model for predicting gas composition and coal recovery in the Hoe Creek field experiment has been completed and verified with field data. Two experiments have been constructed to obtain data on reactions of interest to UCG; these include an apparatus for determining the kinetics of tar cracking and a microreactor for analyzing the process dynamics of the water gas shift reaction carried out in a fixed bed catalytic system. 44 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

  14. The Hanna and Hoe Creek underground coal gasification test sites: Status report, (June 1986-June 1987)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berdan, G.L.; Nolan, B.T.; Barteaux, W.L.; Barrash, W.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To comply with a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Western Research Institute (WRI) is required to submit an annual report summarizing the status of environmentally related work performed by WRI at the Hanna and Hoe Creek underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. The following is a summary of work performed at these two sites from June 1986 to June 1987. Several tasks for restoring the water quailty at Hoe Creek were: (1) groundwater treatment demonstration (1986); (2) bench-scale carbon adsorption experiments (1987); (3) design of the scaled-up treatment system (1987); (4) well-pumping test (1987). A summary of the results of each task is presented. 6 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Geological evaluation of the proposed Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.

    1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To characterize the proposed Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming, 30 drill and/or core holes were completed and downhole geophysically logged during the summer of 1986. Core testing was conducted to identify coal quality and predict behavior during gasification. Data were then interpreted to provide information on process parameters and restoration to be used by process and environmental engineers. The coal seam at the Rocky Mountain 1 site dips to the northeast at 7/sup 0/ and shows only minor folding of strata. A fault with 30 feet of stratigraphic displacement is located approximately 300 feet northeast of the northern boundary of the proposed burn area. From core and outcrop observations, tectonic fracturing is predicted to be minor, although local areas of fracturing may exist. Overburden stratigraphy consists of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale with minor coal. The Hanna No. 1 coal (target of the experiments) is approximately 30 feet thick. It contains an upper bench approximately 3 to 4 feet thick of lower quality (higher ash, lower Btu), a central bench about 20 feet thick of higher quality (lower ash, higher Btu), and a lower bench approximately 3 to 4 feet thick also of lower quality. The benches are separated by shaley zones approximately 1 to 2 feet thick, which are correlative across the site. Another shaley zone exists near the base of the central bench. The coal varies vertically and somewhat laterally across the site but averages at a high volatile C bituminous rank. Average-as-received proximate analysis values for the coal are 8.8 wt % moisture, 27.3 wt % ash, 32.0 wt % volatile matter, 31.9 wt % fixed carbon, and approximately 8600 Btu/lb heating value. Average-as-received sulfur content is 0.7 wt %. Site characteristics are very amenable to underground coal gasification, and no hindrances to the test due to geologic conditions are expected. 9 refs., 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Environmental assessment for the Hoe Creek underground, Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation, Campbell County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this EA to assess environmental and human health Issues and to determine potential impacts associated with the proposed Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Test Site Remediation that would be performed at the Hoe Creek site in Campbell County, Wyoming. The Hoe Creek site is located south-southwest of the town of Gillette, Wyoming, and encompasses 71 acres of public land under the stewardship of the Bureau of Land Management. The proposed action identified in the EA is for the DOE to perform air sparging with bioremediation at the Hoe Creek site to remove contaminants resulting from underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments performed there by the DOE in the late 1970s. The proposed action would involve drilling additional wells at two of the UCG test sites to apply oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to the subsurface to volatilize benzene dissolved in the groundwater and enhance bioremediation of non-aqueous phase liquids present in the subsurface. Other alternatives considered are site excavation to remove contaminants, continuation of the annual pump and treat actions that have been used at the site over the last ten years to limit contaminant migration, and the no action alternative. Issues examined in detail in the EA are air quality, geology, human health and safety, noise, soils, solid and hazardous waste, threatened and endangered species, vegetation, water resources, and wildlife. Details of mitigative measures that could be used to limit any detrimental effects resulting from the proposed action or any of the alternatives are discussed, and information on anticipated effects identified by other government agencies is provided.

  17. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Rocky mountain 1: Underground coal-gasification test, Hanna, Wyoming. Summary report, Volume 1. Appendix. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vardaman, M.H.

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test was conducted near Hanna, Wyoming during the period January 1986 through March 1988. These appendixes include information supporting Volume I as well as complete data for certain aspects of the gasification phase. These aspects include daily operations reports, raw and corrected process data, thermocouple and Time Domain Reflectometer results, and monitoring well pressure and level data obtained during the gasification phase. Piping and instrumentation diagrams and supplemental informations on the data acquisition system are included.

  19. Results of the groundwater restoration project, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Test Site, Wyoming: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments conducted during the 1970s at the Department of Energy (DOE) site near Hanna, Wyoming, formed six underground cavities in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam, an aquifer of low permeability. When the first Hanna UCG experiment began in March 1973, researchers had little information about what effects the geologic or hydrologic characteristics of the area might have on the UCG process; likewise, the effects of UCG on the environment were unknown. Since the UCG experiments were completed, dilute concentrations of pyrolysis products and leachates have been detected in groundwater monitoring wells in and near some of the six cavities. Three primary UCG indicator constituents have been measured at elevated concentrations: phenols, TDS, and sulfate. The Hanna III cavity water exceeded the DOE target level for TDS and sulfate, and the Hanna I cavity water exceeded the DOE target level for phenols. The indicated phenols contamination, however, was in groundwater sampled from a well which was previously used as a production well during the experiment. Water pumped during the restoration project and a new well located approximately 10 ft from the old production well was sampled and no elevated phenols concentration was detected. Therefore, the restoration performed on the Hanna I cavity water was not necessary. The restoration was performed, however, because these indications were not available until during the restoration. Locally, various other constituents exceed DOE target levels, but concentrations are very near target levels and are well within livestock use limits. 2 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Role of hydrogeology in Rocky Mountain 1 underground coal gasification test, Hanna basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, D.J.; Schmit, C.R.; Beaver, F.W.; Evans, J.M. (North Dakota Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute, Grand Forks (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience has shown that the designs and implementation of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) operations that are technically sound and environmentally safe require a thorough understanding of the hydrogeology of the UCG site, complemented by an understanding of the potential interactions between the elements of the hydrogeologic system and UCG process. This is significant because UCG is conducted in the saturated zone, consumes large volumes of ground water, and has the potential to adversely affect ground water quality and flow. The textural, mineralogical, chemical, and structural character of the geologic materials constituting the UCG reactor, as well as the occurrence, flow, and quality of fluids moving through that three-dimensional matrix of geologic materials, must be understood. The US Department of Energy and an industry consortium led by the Gas Research Institute recently conducted the Rocky Mountain 1 Test in the Hanna basin of Wyoming. For this test, the hydrogeologic aspects of the site were characterized to an extent unprecedented in UCG testing. This information was then used to develop and evaluate operating strategies intended to prevent or minimize contamination. Such strategies included gasifying at less than hydrostatic pressure to enhance ground water flow toward the gasification modules and to restrict contamination to the module area. Hydrogeologic information also allowed a more complete evaluation of process-setting interactions. For example, a substantial and widespread drop in elevation heat noted for the ground water in the target coal emphasized the importance of an adequate water supply for UCG, particularly in a long-term commercial operation.

  1. Investigation of tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming for underground coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trudell, L.G.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review was conducted to identify and evaluate tar sand and heavy oil deposits of Wyoming which are potentially suitable for in situ processing with process heat or combustible gas from underground coal gasification (UCG). The investigation was undertaken as part of a project to develop novel concepts for expanding the role of UCG in maximizing energy recovery from coal deposits. Preliminary evaluations indicate six surface deposits and three shallow heavy oil fields are within 5 miles of coal deposits, the maximum distance judged to be feasible for UCG applications. A tar sand or heavy oil deposit in the northeast Washakie Basin is less than 250 feet above a zone of four coal seams suitable for UCG, and another deposit near Riverton appears to be interbedded with coal. Three shallow light oil fields found to be within 5 miles of coal may be amenable to application of UCG technology for enhanced oil recovery. Sufficient data are not available for estimating the size of Wyoming's tar sand and heavy oil resource which is suitable for UCG development. Additional investigations are recommended to more fully characterize promising deposits and to assess the potential resource for UCG applications. 54 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. High resolution seismic survey of the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1983 a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Department of Energy, Laramie Energy Technology Center's underground coal gasification test site near Hanna, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to locate and characterize underground burn zones and to identify shallow geologic faults at the test site. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were based upon prior work in the area, and were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow, 61 to 91 meter (200 to 300 ft) depths of interest. Data were obtained on two north-south lines along the test site boundary in addition to a three-dimensional grid over the Hanna IV experiment area. Processing included time varying filters, deconvolution, trace composition, and three-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. Anomalies were discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse void above the burn zones in the vicinity of the injection wells at the Hanna IV experiment area. The fault studies disclosed faults at the Hanna IV experiment area which may be responsible for the unexpected problems experienced in the early in-site gasification tests. For the test site the fault system was found to be a generally arcuate east-west trending graben complex with numerous antithetic faults. 15 references, 33 figures, 6 tables.

  3. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 3. The Hanna II, Phase I field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phase I was conducted during the spring and summer of 1975, at a site about 700 feet up dip (to the southwest) of the Hanna I test. The test was conducted in two stages - Phase IA and IB. Phase IA consisted of linking and gasification operations between Wells 1 and 3 and Phase IB of linking from the 1-3 gasification zone to Well 2, followed by a short period of gasification from Well 2 to Well 3 over a broad range of air injection rates, in order to determine system turndown capabilities and response times. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operational testing; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 2. The Hanna I field test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project, and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Based on the recommendations of A.D. Little, Inc. in a 1971 report prepared for the US Bureau of Mines, the Hanna I test represented the first field test in reestablishing a field program by the US Bureau of Mines. The test was directed toward comparing results from a thick subbitiminous coal seam with those obtained during the field test series conducted at Gorgas, AL, in the 1940's and 1950's. Hanna I was conducted from March 1973 through February 1974. This report covers: (1) site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 9 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Modeling of the coal gasification processes in a hybrid plasma torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I. [Applied Plasma Technology, Mclean, VA (USA)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of the computational-fluid-dynamics-computational method, preliminary 3-D calculations of heat exchange in a 1-MW plasma generator operating with direct vortex and RV have been conducted at the air flow rate of 100 g/s. For the investigated mode and designed parameters, reduction of the total wall heat transfer for the reverse scheme is about 65 kW, which corresponds to an increase of the plasma generator efficiency by approximately 6.5%. This new hybrid plasma torch operates as a multimode, high power plasma system with a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turn down ratio, and offers convenient and simultaneous feeding of several additional reagents into the discharge zone.

  7. SPINEL-BASED REFRACTORIES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology and refractory end users have developed novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels. The objective of this U.S. DOE funded project was to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al 2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments and work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the service environment and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the systematic development of these materials, laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials, and relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL SPINEL REFRACTORIES FOR USE IN COAL GASIFICATION ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work has been performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with industrial refractory manufacturer (Minteq International, Inc.), academic research partner (Missouri University of Science and Technology) and end users to employ novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels found in industries such as aluminum, chemical, glass, and pulp and paper. The objective of the project was to address the need for new innovative refractory compositions by developing a family of novel MgO-Al 2O3 spinel structured unshaped refractory compositions (castables, gunnables, shotcretes, etc) utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. As part of the four-year project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), materials have been developed specifically for coal gasification environments. Additionally, work has been performed to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against corrosion attack of the refractory brick and to develop a light-weight back-up refractory system to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the development of these materials, along with preliminary results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment.

  9. Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

  10. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Jiangsu (China)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  11. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W. (eds.) [eds.

    1981-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  12. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  13. Environmental evaluation and restoration plan of the Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site, Wyoming: Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barteaux, W.L.; Berdan, G.L.; Lawrence, J.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments were conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the Hoe Creek Site, Wyoming; the Hoe Creek I experiment was conducted in 1976, the Hoe Creek II experiment in 1977, and the Hoe Creek III experiment in 1979. These experiments have had an impact on the land and groundwater quality at the site, and the Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that Western Research Institute (WRI) develop and implement a site restoration plan. The purpose of the plan is to restore the site to conditions being negotiated with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ). To prepare for developing a plan, WRI compiled background information on the site. The geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the site were determined, and the water quality data were analyzed. Modelling the site was considered and possible restoration methods were examined. Samples were collected and laboratory tests were conducted. WRI then developed and began implementing a field-scale restoration test. 41 refs, 46 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. LLNL underground-coal-gasification project. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavity mapping has been completed for the large block experiments, which were done near Centralia, Washington, in the winter of 1981-1982. Postburn excavations into the experimental sites show all the cavities to be largely filled with rubble consisting of dried coal, char, ash, and slag. None of the five injection holes remained completely open through its associated cavity. Temperature histories for all the in situ thermocouples in the large block experiments have been analyzed. The interpretation of most of this temperature data is straightforward and consistent with other observations. As a further refinement in our underground coal gasification (UCG) modeling effort, transient temperature profiles have been calculated for open borehole gasification in wet coal by the isotherm migration method, using the LSODE computer code developed at LLNL. The next logical step in this calculation would be to make the rate of combustion surface movement a function of the rate of steam generation at the vaporization interface. Follow-up observations have continued at the Hoe Creek UCG experiment sites in Wyoming. Phenols have been detected at very low but significant levels in groundwater 400 ft from the Hoe Creek 2 experiment, which was done in 1977. It appears important to continue this investigation of phenol transport at Hoe Creek, and to extend it by drilling and sampling additional wells. The controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technique, which was devised for UCG application, may also have applications in enhanced recovery of crude oil.

  15. Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

  16. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  17. Laboratory characterization of the spalling properties of the rock cores from the UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test site near Porto Alegre in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tantekin, S.B.; Sperry, D.P.; Krantz, W.B.; Britten, J.A.

    1988-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal problems encountered in most of the Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) field tests conducted thus far has been excessive water influx. Spalling-enhanced-drying of coal and overburdens rock has been identified as the principal mechanism of water influx observed in the Hanna UCG field tests in Wyoming Spalling is defined as the chipping, fracturing and breaking off of small rock fragments from the cavity roof due to the combined action of mechanical loading and thermally induced stresses. Spalling is also responsibble for vertical cavity growth and a portion of the heat losses during UCG. A laboratory core characterization method has been developed to determine the spalling properties of overburden rock which are essential to make influx and cavity geometry predictions for a prospective field test. In this study, the spalling properties of the representative rock cores from the UCG test site near Porto Alegre in Brazil have been determined using the laboratory core characterization test which utilizes the temperature-gradient-induced spalling hypothesis.

  18. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Monthly technical progress report, 22 August - 25 September, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Hubbard, D.A.; Koneru, P.B.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this contract is to provide engineering support services to the Department of Energy/Gas Research Institute in the high Btu coal gasification research program. The gasification research program is to determine the specific process and/or combination of component processing steps that offer the greatest economic potential for commercial application. During September, Kellogg continued active monitoring of operations at Westinghouse, IGT, Peatgas, and BI-GAS. Efforts relative to Hygas, Rockwell, Exxon and Bell were minimal. Test runs monitored and reported here are BI-GAS tests 17E and 17F, Westinghouse PDU test TP-028-3, and IGT Peatgas test 3. Kellog attended meetings on 1 and 22 September to discuss the review of the Hygas final report. Comments on Kellogg's draft report on the Hygas data base evaluation were received. Kellogg's evaluations of PDU operating data from Westinghouse and Exxon continues. The Kellogg report on Peatgas PDU data base evaluation was issued in draft form. At DOE's request, Kellogg began work on an evaluation of the existing data base (by IGT) for single-stage gasification of peat. Work on the descriptive brochure continued, aimed toward issue of a draft in the near future. Kellogg also provided input regarding Westinghouse test runs to a DOE consultant.

  19. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  20. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  1. LLNL in situ coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olness, D.U. (ed.)

    1980-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have continued our laboratory work on forward gasification through drilled holes in blocks of coal. These tests have produced some insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production in Wyodak coal. The results will be presented at the Sixth Underground Coal Conversion Symposium in July. The data from the Hanna 4B experiment have been incorporated into the UCC Data Base and have been analyzed in the same way as the Hoe Creek data. Eventually, all of the Department of Energy (DOE) test data will be included in this continuing program. Site-restoration work has been started at the Hoe Creek site. This work includes the sealing of abandoned wells, some grading and reseeding of the ground surface, and general cleanup. A search for a site for underground coal-gasification (UCG) testing and possible commercial development has been carried out in Washington. The Tono basin was chosen as a tentative UCG test site, and a preliminary investigation of the site has been accomplished. Although the Tono basin appears suitable for UCG testing, additional geohydrologic investigation is needed. Our effort to survey the Soviet literature is continuing; in particular, experiments that yielded results similar to those obtained at Hoe Creek have been analyzed carefully. The Soviets conducted a series of directed-flow experiments in 1955 and 1956. In each experiment, both those in which the roof subsided and those in which it did not, the product-gas heating value was quite stable throughout the gasification period and there was no general decline in heating value, as is customarily observed.

  2. Methodology for technology evaluation under uncertainty and its application in advanced coal gasification processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Bo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has attracted interest as a cleaner alternative to conventional coal-fired power generation processes. While a number of pilot projects have been launched to ...

  3. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 6. Hanna IVA and IVB field test research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. The reports in this series include: The Hanna IV test was designed as the first underground coal gasification test using commercial well spacings of 100 and 150 feet between well pairs in a linear 3-well pattern. The test was initiated in late 1977 and completed in late 1979. This long duration was due to unfavorable geologic conditions (faulting) which could not be successfully overcome resulting in the test being split into Hanna IVA and Hanna IVB with about one year between the conduct of each. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facility description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 5 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Hoe Creek No. 3: first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are compelling reasons for pursuing underground coal gasification. The resource that could be exploited is huge - enough to quadruple present proved coal reserves - if the process is successful. Cost estimates indicate that substitute natural gas or gasoline may be producible at reasonable prices by the technique. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification experiment linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, then the forward gasification process began - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, approximately 3900 tons of coal was gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons/day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/SCF (194 kj/mol), suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is approximately 900 Btu/SCF (800 kj/mol).

  5. Availability analysis of an integrated gasification-combined cycle: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) contracted with ARINC Research Corporation to perform availability assessments of an integrated coal gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) design. The objective of the study was to quantify the availability impact associated with several design and operating options specified by EPRI. In addition, several scheduled maintenance options for the IGCC plant were evaluated. The IGCC plant addressed in this analysis employs many modular design features that give the plant high equivalent availability through redundancy. The study focused on evaluating and quantifying the expected changes in unit capability, equivalent availability, and heat rate associated with various design alternatives. The findings of the baseline case studies are as follows: (1) The Baseline IGCC design using four gasifiers with 11.2% spare gasification capacity and three combustion turbine/HRSGs sets will have an expected equivalent availability of 86.18% and an average heat rate of 9002 Btu/kWh. (2) The Baseline with Supplemental Firing design using four gasifiers with the 11.2% spare gasification capacity being used to produce supplemental steam and with three combustion turbine HRSG sets will have an expected equivalent availability of 85.64% and an average heat rate of 9147 Btu/kWh. (3) The Baseline with Natural Gas Backup design using four gasifiers and three combustion turbine/HRSG sets with supplemental natural gas backup will have an expected equivalent availability of 91.53% with an average heat rate of 8981 Btu/kWh and a coal-to-natural gas fuel mixture of 23:1. 49 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. CoalFleet RD&D augmentation plan for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To help accelerate the development, demonstration, and market introduction of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean coal technologies, EPRI formed the CoalFleet for Tomorrow initiative, which facilitates collaborative research by more than 50 organizations from around the world representing power generators, equipment suppliers and engineering design and construction firms, the U.S. Department of Energy, and others. This group advised EPRI as it evaluated more than 120 coal-gasification-related research projects worldwide to identify gaps or critical-path activities where additional resources and expertise could hasten the market introduction of IGCC advances. The resulting 'IGCC RD&D Augmentation Plan' describes such opportunities and how they could be addressed, for both IGCC plants to be built in the near term (by 2012-15) and over the longer term (2015-25), when demand for new electric generating capacity is expected to soar. For the near term, EPRI recommends 19 projects that could reduce the levelized cost-of-electricity for IGCC to the level of today's conventional pulverized-coal power plants with supercritical steam conditions and state-of-the-art environmental controls. For the long term, EPRI's recommended projects could reduce the levelized cost of an IGCC plant capturing 90% of the CO{sub 2} produced from the carbon in coal (for safe storage away from the atmosphere) to the level of today's IGCC plants without CO{sub 2} capture. EPRI's CoalFleet for Tomorrow program is also preparing a companion RD&D augmentation plan for advanced-combustion-based (i.e., non-gasification) clean coal technologies (Report 1013221). 7 refs., 30 figs., 29 tabs., 4 apps.

  7. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual Energy Outlook coal gasification compressed naturalof natural gas, coal gasification was the preferred methodcompared to SMR and coal gasification. Production costs can

  8. Identification and separation of the organic compounds in coal-gasification condensate waters. [5,5 dimethyl hydantoin, dihydroxy benzenes, acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohr, D.H. Jr.; King, C.J.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A substantial fraction of the organic solutes in condensate waters from low-temperature coal-gasification processes are not identified by commonly employed analytical techniques, have low distriution coefficients (K/sub C/) into diisopropyl ether (DIPE) or methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), and are resistant to biological oxidation. These compounds represent an important wastewater-treatment problem. Analytical techniques were developed to detect these polar compounds, and the liquid-liquid phase equilibria were measured with several solvents. A high-performance liquid - chromatography (HPLC) technique was employed to analyze four condensate-water samples from a slagging fixed-bed gasifier. A novel sample-preparation technique, consisting of an azeotropic distillation with isopropanol, allowed identification of compounds in the HPLC eluant by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. 5,5-dimethyl hydantoin and related compounds were identified in condensate waters for the first time, and they account for 1 to 6% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD). Dimethyl hydatoin has a K/sub D/ of 2.6 into tributyl phosphate (TBP) and much lower K/sub D/ values into six other solvents. It is also resistant to biological oxidation. Phenols (59 to 76% of the COD), dihydroxy benzenes (0.02 to 9.5% of the COD), and methanol, acetonitrile, and acetone (15% of the COD in one sample) were also detected. Extraction with MIBK removed about 90% of the COD. MIBK has much higher K/sub D/ values than DIPE for dihydroxy benzenes. Chemical reactions occurred during storage of condensate-water samples. The reaction products had low K/sub D/ values into MIBK. About 10% of the COD had a K/sub D/ of nearly zero into MIBK. These compounds were not extracted by MIBK over a wide range of pH. 73 references, 6 figures, 35 tables.

  9. Surface detection of retort gases from an underground coal gasification reactor in steeply dipping beds near Rawlins, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, V.T.; Thune, H.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-surface soil-gas geochemical survey was executed at the North Knobs, Wyoming, GR and DC-DOE underground coal gasification (UCG) facility in 1981. The soil-gas detection method offers a new technique for locating potential gas leakage areas before any significant migration avenues can develop. The survey demonstrates that residual gases from the phase 1 burn are still present in the near surface, and product gases generated during the phase II burn clearly were evident. Casing leakage explains most anomalies located in the rock sequence stratigraphically below the coal. It is concluded that a properly designed and operated UCG facility would not experience adverse product gas leakage and would pose no hazard.

  10. Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification. [STEALTH Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langland, R.T.; Trent, B.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two computer codes compare surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code are shown to match equivalent, implicit finite-element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite-difference continuum rigid-block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical studies but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together. It is recommended that the thermal characteristics of coal measure rock be investigated and that additional calculations be carried out to longer times so that cooling influences can be modeled.

  11. Computer models to support investigations of surface subsidence and associated ground motion induced by underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trent, B.C.; Langland, R.T.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two computer codes compare surface subsidence induced by underground coal gasification at Hoe Creek, Wyoming, and Centralia, Washington. Calculations with the STEALTH explicit finite-difference code are shown to match equivalent, implicit finite-element method solutions for the removal of underground material. Effects of removing roof material, varying elastic constants, investigating thermal shrinkage, and burning multiple coal seams are studied. A coupled, finite-difference continuum rigid-block caving code is used to model underground opening behavior. Numerical techniques agree qualitatively with empirical studies but, so far, underpredict ground surface displacement. The two methods, numerical and empirical, are most effective when used together. It is recommended that the thermal characteristics of coal measure rock be investigated and that additional calculations be carried out to longer times so that cooling influences can be modeled.

  12. Hoe Creek No. 3 - First long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the first long-term underground coal gasification experiment with oxygen-steam injection. In the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground experiment, linkage paths were established between the injection and production wells by drilling a horizontal borehole between them near the bottom of the coal seam. The drilled linkage hole was enlarged by reverse burning, and then the forward gasification process was started - first with air injection for one week, then with oxygen-steam injection for the remainder of the experiment. During the oxygen-steam injection period, about 3900 tons of coal were gasified in 47 days, at an average rate of 83 tons per day. The heating value of the dry product gas averaged 218 Btu/scf, suitable for input to a processing plant for upgrading to pipeline quality, which is about 900 Btu/scf.

  13. Laboratory studies on evaluation of in situ biodegradation at the Hoe Creek UCG (underground coal gasification) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, B.T.; Suthersan, S.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential for in situ biodegradation in the contaminated groundwater aquifer at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site. Experiments were performed in electrolytic respirometric cells under simulated environmental conditions. An orthogonal, fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of the following factors on phenol degradation: nutrient dose, amount of bacterial inoculum, temperature, light conditions, and substrate concentration. Microorganisms native to the environment were used as the inoculum, and phosphorus was used as the nutrient. The amount of inoculum introduced and the nutrient dose were found to have a positive effect on phenol degradation. Temperature changes from 15{degree}C (59{degree}F) to 25{degree}C (77{degree}F) had no significant effect. The light conditions (fluorescent or dark) also had no significant effect on phenol degradation. Higher concentrations of substrate required increased amounts of oxygen for biodegradation. 24 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Review of underground coal-gasification field experiments at Hoe Creek. [Hoe Creek 1, 2, and 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.; Creighton, J.R.

    1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    LLNL has conducted three underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek site near Gillette, Wyoming. Three different linking methods were used: explosive fracture, reverse burning and directional drilling. Air was injected on all three experiments and a steam/oxygen mixture during 2 days of the second and most of the third experiment. Comparison of results show that the linking method didn't influence gas quality. The heat of combustion of the product gas was higher with steam/oxygen injection, mainly because of reduced inert diluent. Gas quality was generally independent of other operating parameters, but declined from its initial value over a period of time. This was due to heat loss to the wet overburden and extensive roof collapse in the second and third experiments.

  15. In: Proceedings of the 87th Annual Meeting (held June 19-24 in Cincinnati, OH), Air and Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, June 1994, Paper No. 94-260.05. 1994 H.C. Frey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Probabilistic Performance, Environmental, and Economic Evaluation of an Advanced Coal Gasification System H and possible future environmental regulations. Coal gasification systems are a promising approach for clean and efficient coal-based power generation. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems

  16. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  17. Comparison of coal tars generated by pyrolysis of Hanna coal and UCG (underground coal gasification) Hanna IVB coal tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, F.A.; Cummings, R.E.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compositions of coal tars produced by laboratory and pilot scale apparatus have been compared to those produced during underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments at Hanna, Wyoming. Four coal tars were generated by pyrolysis using the block reactor and the laboratory reference retort, and a fifth coal tar was composited from products produced by UCG. Coal tars were separated into chemically defined fractions and were characterized by gas chromatography. Specific compounds were not identified, but rather fingerprinting or compound-type profiling was used for identifying similarities and differences in the product tars. This permitted the evaluation of the different methods of tar production with respect to one another. The UCG coal tars appeared to have undergone more secondary cracking than the pyrolytic products. The coal tar products from the laboratory reference retort appear to be more indicative of the coal's chemical structure. Products from the block reactor contained lesser amounts of the lighter boiling material. In addition there is organic sulfur contamination as indicated by the large amount of sulfur present in the product tar from the block reactor. 11 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

  19. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 4. Hanna II, Phases II and III field test research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna II, Phases II and III, were conducted during the winter of 1975 and the summer of 1976. The two phases refer to linking and gasification operations conducted between two adjacent well pairs as shown in Figure 1 with Phase II denoting operations between Wells 5 and 6 and Phase III operations between Wells 7 and 8. All of the other wells shown were instrumentation wells. Wells 7 and 8 were linked in November and December 1975. This report covers: (1) specific site selection and characteristics; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 16 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

  1. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Safety audits of pilot plants and PDU's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Lee, M.D.; Miller, G.R.; Bernard, D.M.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.W. Kellogg (formerly Pullmann Kellogg) was requested by DOE to investigate and to evaluate normal and emergency operating procedures and the drawing record systems of the coal gasification pilot plants and process development units (PDU). The purpose of this Safety Audit was to identify deficiencies in operating policies or procedures which could lead to potential hazards. The evaluation of safety-related documentation at the pilot plants and PDU's was also included in the audit. The safety audit visits and meetings were conducted at the following research sites: Bell Aerosopace, BCR BI-GAS, Exxon, IGT Hygas/Peatgas, Rockwell International, and Westinghouse. Kellogg conducted the safety audits requested by DOE. These reviews show the developers as possessing very sincere, positive attitudes toward safety and as being committed to ongoing safety programs. Kellogg found that (in general) all of the developers: use written statements of objectives, operating procedures and check lists; have some form of formal safety training for operators; review equipment and procedural revisions with operators; and maintain timely and accurate drawing records.

  2. Underground coal gasification: Development of theory, laboratory experimentation, interpretation, and correlation with the Hanna field tests: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following report is a description of a 7 year effort to develop a theoretical understanding of the underground coal gasification process. The approach used is one of the mathematical model development from known chemical and principles, simplification of the models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models to isolate important effects, and through validation of models with laboratory experiments and field test data. Chapter I contains only introductory material. Chapter II describes the development of two models for reverse combustion: a combustion model and a linearized model for combustion front instability. Both models are required for realistic field predictions. Chapter III contains a discussion of a successful forward gasification model. Chapter IV discusses the spalling-enhanced-drying model is applicable to prediction of cavity growth and subsidence. Chapter VI decribes the correct use of energy and material balances for the analysis of UCG field test data. Chapter VII shows how laboratory experiments were used to validate the models for reverse combustion and forward gasification. It is also shown that laboratory combustion tube experiments can be used to simulate gas compositions expected from field tests. Finally, Chapter VII presents results from a comprehensive economic analysis of UCG involving 1296 separate cases. 37 refs., 49 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Materials testing at the Hanna-IV and Hoe Creek-III in situ coal-gasification sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loop, R.B.; LaRue, D.M.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Candidate structural alloys were exposed to the direct product gas stream during three different in situ coal gasification experiments at two sites. Physical appearance and chemical analysis indicate that the coating on the specimens following exposure is typical of condensed hydrocarbons, coal char, coal ash, and mineral particles from the overburden. Deposits on specimens from one test had a fairly high concentration of sulfur (about 8 w/o) while the others had very low sulfur concentrations (0.313 w/o and 0.014 w/o, respectively). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectra indicate that corrosion occurred principally by oxidation, with some sulfidation. Mean penetration rates expressed in millimetres/year were calculated from weight loss data. No material evaluated showed a truly unacceptable degradation. There was no consistent difference in the amount of material removed from specimens with or without welds. Specimens from one test experienced no consistent difference in material removal between different exposure angles; a consistent difference in material loss and dents from particle impact indicated that erosion may have occurred in the other two tests. There was no indication of carburization, decarburization, or severe localized attack in the form of pitting or intergranular corrosion on any of the specimens examined. Results obtained for the flame-sprayed 316 SS specimens and one of the Alonized specimens indicated that use of these processes may be questionable in this environment.

  4. Study of the treatability of wastewater from a coal-gasification plant. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iglar, A. F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focused on the coal gasification facility serving the Holston Army Ammunition Plant in Kingsport, Tennessee. Objectives were to characterize the wastewater produced by the gasification facility, and to evaluate technology for treating the waste in preparation for dischage to the environment. Most wastewater was recycled for scrubbing and cooling the product gas, with the excess requiring disposal found to be an average of only 1170 gallons per day (53 gallons per ton of coal, as received, and 366 gallons per million cubic feet of product gas). Analysis indicated that the waste was warm, high in alkaline material, especially ammonia, high in organic material, especially phenols, and also contaminated with other substances. Sulfides and thiocyanates were especially high in concentration. It was found that pretreatment could be accomplished by stripping (air injection) at high pH, removal of grease and oil (by pH suppression and light aeration) and neutralizatin. Equations were developed to describe the first two steps. Biological treatment through activated sludge was found to be successful, but effected only a moderate degree of treatment, and was troubled with frequent process upset. Attempts to improve treatment efficiency and stability are described. The data indicated the need to study aerated waste stabilization ponds as an alternative to activated sludge. Biological reaction kinetics were studied for activated sludge. Evaluation of the application of granular activated carbon suggested that this could be an effective practical tertiary treatment.

  5. Hydrometallurgical recovery of germanium from coal gasification fly ash: pilot plant scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo, F.; Fernandez-Pereira, C.; Olivares, J.; Coca, P. [University of Seville, Seville (Spain)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, a hydrometallurgical method for the selective recovery of germanium from fly ash (FA) has been tested at pilot plant scale. The pilot plant flowsheet comprised a first stage of water leaching of FA, and a subsequent selective recovery of the germanium from the leachate by solvent extraction method. The solvent extraction method was based on Ge complexation with catechol in an aqueous solution followed by the extraction of the Ge-catechol complex (Ge(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}){sub 3}{sup 2-}) with an extracting organic reagent (trioctylamine) diluted in an organic solvent (kerosene), followed by the subsequent stripping of the organic extract. The process has been tested on a FA generated in an integrated gasification with combined cycle (IGCC) process. The paper describes the designed 5 kg/h pilot plant and the tests performed on it. Under the operational conditions tested, approximately 50% of germanium could be recovered from FA after a water extraction at room temperature. Regarding the solvent extraction method, the best operational conditions for obtaining a concentrated germanium-bearing solution practically free of impurities were as follows: extraction time equal to 20 min; aqueous phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5; stripping with 1 M NaOH, stripping time equal to 30 min, and stripping phase/organic phase volumetric ratio equal to 5. 95% of germanium were recovered from water leachates using those conditions.

  6. Effective Renewable Energy Policy: Leave It to the States?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weissman, Steven

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, fuel produced by coal gasification or liquefaction,solid waste, or coal integrated gasification combined cycle.gasification combined cycle technologies, waste coal, and

  7. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  8. Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. LLNL underground coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, July-Sep 1980. [Hoe Creek and Gorgas, Alabama tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olness, D.U. (ed.)

    1980-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory studies of forward gasification through drilled holes in blocks of coal have continued. Such studies give insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production. In addition to obtaining a qualitative comparison of the forward burn characteristics of two coals, we obtained information on the influence of bedding plane/cleat structure orientation on the early-time shape of the burn cavity in the Roland coal. We have improved our model of the coal drying rate during underground coal gasification (UCG) by adding refinements to the model. To aid in analyzing and predicting the performance of UCG tests, we have developed a simple gas-compositional model. When the model was tested against experimental data from the three Hoe Creek experiments, it was able to match very closely the observed gas compositions, energy fractions, and water influxes. This model can be used to make performance predictions consistent with the material and energy balance constraints of the underground system. A postburn coring and wireline-logging study is under way at the Hoe Creek No. 3 site to investigate the overall effect of the directionally-drilled, horizontal linking hole to better estimate the amount of coal gasified and the shape of the combustion front, and to provide additional information on subsurface deformation and thermal effects. The site reclamation work was completed, including the dismantling of all surface equipment and piping and the plugging and sealing of process and diagnostics wells. Final grading of the reclaimed land has been completed, and the area is ready for disk-seeding. Our survey of the UCG literature has continued with a review of the extensive tests at Gorgas, Alabama, carried on by the US Bureau of Mines from 1947 to 1959.

  10. Numerical study on convection diffusion for gasification agent in underground coal gasification. Part I: establishment of mathematical models and solving method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Ding, Y.M. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Resources and Geoscience

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this article is to discuss the distribution law of the gasification agent concentration in a deep-going way during underground coal gasification and the new method of solving the problem for the convection diffusion of the gas. In this paper, the basic features of convection diffusion for the gas produced in underground coal gasification are studied. On the basis of the model experiment, through the analysis of the distribution and patterns of variation for the fluid concentration field in the process of the combustion and gasification of the coal seams within the gasifier, the 3-D non-linear unstable mathematical models on the convection diffusion for oxygen are established. In order to curb such pseudo-physical effects as numerical oscillation and surfeit which frequently occurred in the solution of the complex mathematical models, the novel finite unit algorithm, the upstream weighted multi-cell balance method is advanced in this article, and its main derivation process is introduced.

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and power via biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergyrenewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withLubricants Waxes Naptha Gasification Ethane, Benzene, and

  12. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and power via biomass gasification. Biomass and Bioenergyrenewables Integrated coal gasification combined cycle withLubricants Waxes Naptha Gasification Ethane, Benzene, and

  13. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Topics

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    conventional coal-fired power plants, CTL plants, CBTL plants, and integrated coal gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) plants without carbon capture and storage (CCS)-is...

  14. CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Bruce Abbott

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1973, Chapter 5. "Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, IIReactions jn Coal Gasification/Combination Atmosphen~s,"

  15. Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

  16. Coal gasification system with a modulated on/off control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modulated control system is provided for improving regulation of the bed level in a fixed-bed coal gasifier into which coal is fed from a rotary coal feeder. A nuclear bed level gauge using a cobalt source and an ion chamber detector is used to detect the coal bed level in the gasifier. The detector signal is compared to a bed level set point signal in a primary controller which operates in proportional/integral modes to produce an error signal. The error signal is modulated by the injection of a triangular wave signal of a frequency of about 0.0004 Hz and an amplitude of about 80% of the primary deadband. The modulated error signal is fed to a triple-deadband secondary controller which jogs the coal feeder speed up or down by on/off control of a feeder speed change driver such that the gasifier bed level is driven toward the set point while preventing excessive cycling (oscillation) common in on/off mode automatic controllers of this type. Regulation of the bed level is achieved without excessive feeder speed control jogging.

  17. ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration project. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July - September 1995) and the 1995 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basis coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly lower current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In the LFC technology, coal is first deeply dried to remove water physically. The temperature is further raised in a second stage which results in decomposition reactions that form the new products. This chemical decomposition (mild gasification) creates gases by cracking reactions from the feed coal. The chemically altered solids are cooled and further processed to make PDF. The gases are cooled, condensing liquids as CDL, and the residual gases are burned in the process for heat. The process release for the ENCOAL plant predicted that one ton of feed coal would yield roughly {1/2} ton of PDF and {1/2} barrel of CDL. By varying plant running conditions, however, it has since been learned that the actual CDL recovery rate may be as much as 15% to 20% above the projections.

  18. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  19. Coal Gasification Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Recommendations 4.5. Non-Fossil Technologies Non-fossil technologies include nuclear, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass IGCC, municipal solid waste, geothermal, wind,...

  20. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth quarterly reports, December 1978 through August 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E. (ed.)

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The second phase of the Hanna IV In Situ Coal Gasification Test, Hanna IV-B, was initiated on April 20, 1979. The reverse combustion linking process was completed July 13, 1979, and gasification began July 28, 1979. Sandia Laboratories is providing support by fielding and monitoring diagnostic and remote monitoring instrumentation techniques. All techniques are supported by a minicomputer-based, field data acquisition system developed for this application which provides on-site, real-time reduction, analysis and display of the experimental data. Results to date show the development of at least three links, and the progress of the gasification front is being monitored. There have also been developments in hardware for use in the planned Hoe Creek III experiment, notably an inverted thermocouple string with a lateral transmission device. To support all field activities an in-house computing system with complete data base storage capability has been assembled.

  1. THE COST OF CARBON CAPTURE Jeremy David and Howard Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's technology for CO2 separation and capture at three types of power plants: integrated coal gasification the economics of capturing CO2 at Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants (six studies), Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants (four studies), and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) power plants (four

  2. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting ace025rappe2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR...

  3. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation ace025rappe2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR...

  4. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers Providing Clean, Low-Cost,...

  5. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Outlook coal gasification compressed natural gastechnologies, including gasification and water electrolysis.of natural gas, coal gasification was the preferred method

  6. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI Coal-Gasification Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Castiglioni, B.P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities included contained monitoring of test operations at the Hygas, BI-GAS, Westinghoue, Exxon and Bell plant sites. Peat gasification laboratory tests were also monitored; Rockwell testing ended during June. Pilot Plant/PDU test runs monitored and reported were: Hygas Test 87 (the last of the pilot plant series), BI-GAS Tests G-13 and G-14, Westinghouse test runs TP-027, TP-027-4 and TP-027-5, Exxon test periods 19 through 21 and Bell Tests 2174 through 3195. Kellogg continued its work on the Hygas data base evaluation and began an evaluation of the scaleup risks of the Westinghouse oxygen-blown gasifier. Work under new task orders was initiated. The topics included are: Technical/Economic Assessments of Westinghouse, Exxon and Peatgas, Gasifier Vessel Design, Technical/Economic Comparisons of Westinghouse and U-Gas, Peat Harvesting and Dewatering, and Carbonyl Formation in Coal Gasification processes. Economics are essentially complete for the Screening Evaluations of Westinghouse, Exxon and Rockwell and report preparation has begun. Work on the Pilot/Plant PDU Safety Evaluation Task continued.

  7. Ground-water hydrologic effects resulting from underground coal gasification experiments at the Hoe Creek Site near Gillette, Wyoming. Interim report, October 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raber, E.; Stone, R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note summarizes our activities, to date, on the research project: Ground-Water Hydrologic Effects Resulting from Underground Coal Gasification Experiments (EPA-IAG-79-D-X0795). The gasified coal seam (Felix No. 2 coal) and two overlying aquifers (Felix No. 1 coal and overlying sand) appear to have become interconnected as a result of roof collapse and subsidence at both Hoe Creek Sites II and III near Gillette, Wyoming. To evaluate changes in the ground-water flow regime at the two sites, completion of supplementary wells was necessary to define the distance versus head drawdown relationships in each of the three aquifers. Hydraulic head potentials have been measured at Site III since gasification ended on October 10, 1979. These data are presented in graphic format. Although hydraulic head measurements at Site II seemed to be approaching a steady-state condition 1.5 years after gasification, the subsequent gasification at Site III temporarily altered the ground-water flow patterns. These changes will have a definite effect on contaminant dispersal and will need to be taken into consideration.

  8. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hoe Creek, Wyoming underground coal gasification site and comparison with the Hanna, Wyoming site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethridge, F.C.; Burns, L.K.; Alexander, W.G.; Craig, G.N. II; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1978 the third test (Hoe Creek III) in a series of underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments was completed at a site south of Gillette, Wyoming. The post-burn study of the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock of the two coal seams affected by the experiment is based on the study of fifteen cores. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the geology of the overburden and interlayered rock and to determine and evaluate the mineralogical and textural changes that were imposed by the experiment. Within the burn cavity the various sedimentary units have been brecciated and thermally altered to form several pyrometamorphic rock types of paralava rock, paralava breccia, buchite, buchite breccia and hornfels. High temperature minerals of mullite, cordierite, oligo-clase-andesine, tridymite, cristobalite, clinopyroxenes, and magnetite are common in the pyrometamorphic rocks. The habit of these minerals indicates that they crystallized from a melt. These minerals and textures suggest that the rocks were formed at temperatures between 1200/sup 0/ and 1400/sup 0/C. A comparison of geologic and geological-technological factors between the Hoe Creek III site, which experienced substantial roof collapse, and the Hanna II site, which had only moderate roof collapse, indicates that overburden thickness relative to coal seam thickness, degree of induration of overburden rock, injection-production well spacing, and ultimate cavity size are important controls of roof collapse in the structural setting of the two sites.

  9. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Twentieth quarterly report: September-November 1979. [Hanna IV and Hoe Creek III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The second phase of the Hanna IV in situ coal gasification test, Hanna IV-B, which was initiated on April 20, 1979, was completed on October 4, 1979. Sandia National Laboratories provided support by fielding and monitoring diagnostic and remote monitoring instrumentation techniques. During the final gasification stage, 765 tons of coal were reacted involving 17,000 cubic feet. The Hoe Creek III experiment conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratories began on August 15, 1979, and was terminated on October 10, 1979. The purpose of the experiment was to test the drilled borehole linking concept. Sandia National Laboratories' involvement consisted of fielding and monitoring both an inverted thermocouple and a surface electrical resistivity network. The inverted thermocouple was successfully tested and provided thermal data from beneath the burn zone. A real time analysis procedure for the electrical resistivity technique was implemented at Hoe Creek III. Unfortunately, there was insufficient change in the data for this to have been a useful diagnostic. Efforts are continuing to identify the reason for this lack of response.

  10. Seth A. Lawson e-mail: seth.lawson9@gmail.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    that exist for utilizing available coal resources in a clean manner is coal gasification. Integrated gasification combined cycle IGCC power plants utilize coal gasification technology to produce hydrogen of Multiphase Particle Deposition on Endwall Film-Cooling Demand for clean energy has increased motivation

  11. What should the government do to encourage technical change in the energy sector?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    , and storage; (4) clean coal technologies, such as the Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle; and (5 technology on a vast scale ­ coal gasification, carbon capture and sequestration, alternative fuels sector? John Deutch Abstract Government support of innovation ­ both technology creation and technology

  12. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment Technologies Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Work is undertaken to examine the feasibility of integrating SCR and DPF technologies...

  13. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  14. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACWH consists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification combined cycleconsists of a 3,000 MW coal gasification, combined cycleless expensive in a coal gasification, combined cycle power

  15. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. ace025rappe2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR...

  16. LLL in situ coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979. [Hoe Creek No. 3 and planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.; Strack, B.S. (eds.)

    1980-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The major effort this quarter has been postexperiment analysis of Hoe Creek No. 3 and planning for future gasification experiments. Hoe Creek No. 3: Thermal data have been analyzed to determine the performance of the drilled horizontal channel during forward gasification. Thermal and material balance data are combined to determine late-time burn boundaries for the experiment. Surface subsidence after the experiment was completed is described. Process wells were inspected to determine failure characteristics and pinpoint late-time injection location. Ground-water quality before and after Hoe Creek No. 3 and the effects of aquifer interconnection on hydraulic measurements at the Hoe Creek No. 2 and No. 3 sites are discussed. Future experiments: Potential UCG sites are being characterized for future tests. Two sites in the Powder River Basin near Gillette, Wyoming are discussed. Preliminary plans for a deep site gasification experiment and a new method for in situ gasification of thick seams are presented.

  17. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  18. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  19. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cover, A.E.; Bostwick, L.E.; Gunderson, J.M.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities during the third quarter of 1979 included the continued monitoring of test operations at the Hygas, BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon and Rockwell plant sites. Test runs monitored and reported were: Hygas 80, 81 and 82, BI-GAS G-8, G-8A and G-8B, Westinghouse TP-022-2, TP-023-1, Exxon startup activities and Rockwell 318-011 through 318-023. Kellogg continued to monitor design and construction of the Bell Aerospace PDU and the bench-scale and non-integrated PDU activities on peat at the IGT laboratories. Kellogg participated in discussion with DOE and GRI concerning the proposed extension of Kellogg's contract to 31 March 1981. Kellog personnel attended program review meetings at IGT in July, at Rockwell and C.F. Braun in August and at Westinghouse in September. Kellogg continued participation in Metals Properties Council activities. At the request of MPC members, Kellogg prepared a series of recommendations for obtaining data useful for future design of gasification plants. Kellogg personnel attended the semi-annual meeting of MPC Subcommittee 9. Work on the draft report on DOE Task No. 3, Consultation on Westinghouse PDU, has been completed. Work on DOE Task No. 4, PDU Screening Analysis continued with final definitions of process flowsheets and operating conditions. Kellogg continued work on DOE Task No. 5, Safety Assurance Study. Information and data are being gathered on the safety-related aspects of the several processes. Work on DOE Task No. 6, Westinghouse Risk Analysis, has been started.

  20. Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    concentrated CO2 stream can subsequently be captured and sequestered. Learn more about carbon capture and sequestration. Why Is This Technology Being Considered? The United...

  1. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  2. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction of the project dominated the activities of both the ENCOAL and KCI field groups during this reporting period. Emphasis.was placed on expediting late vendor information and upon completing the construction phase of the project. Field progress was estimated to be 94 complete as of the end of March. As a result of the construction progress, demobilization of KCI and their subcontractors was initiated. The Operations team concentrated on the operator. training classes which began on February 24. The classes were well received and many precommissioning activities were accomplished during the afternoon hands-on'' sessions. Commissioning and testing plans were also a priority as the project continued to make the transition from construction to operation. Several meetings were held during the quarter discussing the commissioning and testing procedures. The purpose of these meetings was to develop a sequential work schedule to coordinate all commissioning activities. A resulting time-line of both testing and commissioning plans was developed, and will be continuously updated to ensure the most efficient management of manpower.

  3. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  4. ESCOE Engineering Program. Combined monthly/quarterly report, March 1, 1981-May 31, 1981. [Coal gasification liquefaction, etc. , for US DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ksander, Y.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the ESCOE Engineering Program is to provide independent assessments of key portions of energy RD and D programs conducted by the Department of Energy. These programs are aimed at development of technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes or converting coal into products that substitute for those derived from oil and natural gas. The imposition of an embargo on recruitment of the professional staff and development of new technical tasks severely limits ESCOE's ability to continue planned and timely performance under the contract extension. The two principal professionals currently on board are scheduled to complete their residences between June and August. Similarly qualified personnel must be recruited now to ensure the selective, orderly and continued delivery of these technical services and knowledge to the Department of Energy. (LTN)

  5. future energy resources irtually every energy study recommends that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    production, transmission, and storage; (4) clean coal technologies, such as the Integrated Coal Gasification

  6. Condition Number Estimates for Combined Potential Boundary Integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langdon, Stephen

    Condition Number Estimates for Combined Potential Boundary Integral Operators in Acoustic parameter. Of independent interest we also obtain upper and lower bounds on the norms of two oscillatory integral operators, namely the classical acoustic single- and double-layer potential operators. 1

  7. Condition Number Estimates for Combined Potential Boundary Integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langdon, Stephen

    Condition Number Estimates for Combined Potential Boundary Integral Operators in Acoustic parameter. Of independent interest we first obtain upper and lower bounds on the norms of two oscillatory integral operators, namely the classical acoustic single- and double-layer potential operators. 1

  8. Combined Field Integral Equation Based Theory of Characteristic Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi I. Dai; Qin S. Liu; Hui Gan; Weng Cho Chew

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional electric field integral equation based theory is susceptible to the spurious internal resonance problem when the characteristic modes of closed perfectly conducting objects are computed iteratively. In this paper, we present a combined field integral equation based theory to remove the difficulty of internal resonances in characteristic mode analysis. The electric and magnetic field integral operators are shown to share a common set of non-trivial characteristic pairs (values and modes), leading to a generalized eigenvalue problem which is immune to the internal resonance corruption. Numerical results are presented to validate the proposed formulation. This work may offer efficient solutions to characteristic mode analysis which involves electrically large closed surfaces.

  9. EIS-0409: Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project, Mississippi

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to provide funding for the Kemper County Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project in Kemper County, Mississippi to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a project proposed by Southern Power Company, through its affiliate Mississippi Power Company, which has been selected by DOE for consideration under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program.

  10. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, H.M.; Reuther, R.B.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected six integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  11. Air-blown Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle demonstration project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Power Cogeneration, Inc. (CPC) has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design construction, and operation of a normal 1270 ton-per-day (120-MWe), air-blown integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) demonstration plant. The demonstration plant would produce both power for the utility grid and steam for a nearby industrial user. The objective of the proposed project is to demonstrate air-blown, fixed-bed Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. The integrated performance to be demonstrated will involve all the subsystems in the air-blown IGCC system to include coal feeding; a pressurized air-blown, fixed-bed gasifier capable of utilizing caking coal; a hot gas conditioning systems for removing sulfur compounds, particulates, and other contaminants as necessary to meet environmental and combustion turbine fuel requirements; a conventional combustion turbine appropriately modified to utilize low-Btu coal gas as fuel; a briquetting system for improved coal feed performance; the heat recovery steam generation system appropriately modified to accept a NO{sub x} reduction system such as the selective catalytic reduction process; the steam cycle; the IGCC control systems; and the balance of plant. The base feed stock for the project is an Illinois Basin bituminous high-sulfur coal, which is a moderately caking coal. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. INTEGRATED PYROLYSIS COMBINED CYCLE BIOMASS POWER SYSTEM CONCEPT DEFINITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Sandvig; Gary Walling; Robert C. Brown; Ryan Pletka; Desmond Radlein; Warren Johnson

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced power systems based on integrated gasification/combined cycles (IGCC) are often presented as a solution to the present shortcomings of biomass as fuel. Although IGCC has been technically demonstrated at full scale, it has not been adopted for commercial power generation. Part of the reason for this situation is the continuing low price for coal. However, another significant barrier to IGCC is the high level of integration of this technology: the gas output from the gasifier must be perfectly matched to the energy demand of the gas turbine cycle. We are developing an alternative to IGCC for biomass power: the integrated (fast) pyrolysis/ combined cycle (IPCC). In this system solid biomass is converted into liquid rather than gaseous fuel. This liquid fuel, called bio-oil, is a mixture of oxygenated organic compounds and water that serves as fuel for a gas turbine topping cycle. Waste heat from the gas turbine provides thermal energy to the steam turbine bottoming cycle. Advantages of the biomass-fueled IPCC system include: combined cycle efficiency exceeding 37 percent efficiency for a system as small as 7.6 MW{sub e}; absence of high pressure thermal reactors; decoupling of fuel processing and power generation; and opportunities for recovering value-added products from the bio-oil. This report provides a technical overview of the system including pyrolyzer design, fuel clean-up strategies, pyrolysate condenser design, opportunities for recovering pyrolysis byproducts, gas turbine cycle design, and Rankine steam cycle. The report also reviews the potential biomass fuel supply in Iowa, provide and economic analysis, and present a summery of benefits from the proposed system.

  13. A review of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle technology and its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A review of biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle technology and its application Copersucar, CP 162, Piracicaba, SP ­ Brazil ­ 13400-970 Biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined-from-sugarcane program. 1. Introduction The biomass integrated-gasifier/gas turbine combined cy- cle (BIG

  14. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Evaluation of the IGT Peatgas PDU data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Chen, R.G.; Hubbard, D.A.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As requested by DOE, Kellogg has reviewed the data base generated by IGT for the Peatgas process during laboratory and PDU testing. Kellogg's central finding, from the review reported here, is that the existing data base contains sufficient evidence to warrant further evaluation of the Peatgas process at pilot plant scale. The existing data base relates to testing with peats from (primarily) Minnesota, North Carolina and Maine. Thermobalance studies were employed to define a few kinetic parameters, i.e., the rate of base carbon conversion. Numerous tests using a small coiled-tube reactor and the lift-line PDU were conducted to investigate hydrogasification, where hydrogen or a steam/hydrogen mixture was the reactive gas. A fluidized bed PDU was employed to investigate steam-oxygen gasification and fluidization relationships were studied. The primary advantages to be gained by Peatgas pilot plant testing are, in Kellogg's opinion, the demonstration and evaluation of the three process stages (drying, hydrogasification and steam-oxygen gasification) in an integrated mode. The lack of integrated operation is a significant shortcoming of the existing data base and as such Kellogg would not recommend use of the data base for purposes other than pilot plant design and preliminary engineering studies. Other more specific comments regarding the data base are given.

  15. Development and application of optimal design capability for coal gasification systems - Task 1 (Volume 1, 2 and 3). Topical report, July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a process for the post-combustion removal of NO{sub x} from the flue gas of fossil-fuel-fired power plants. SCR is capable of NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of up to 80 or 90 percent. SCR technology has been applied for treatment of flue gases from a variety of emission sources, including natural gas- and oil-fired gas turbines, process steam boilers in refineries, and coal-fired power plants. SCR applications to coal-fired power plants have occurred in Japan and Germany. Full-scale SCR systems have not been applied to coal-fired power plants in the U.S., although there have been small-scale demonstration projects. SCR has become increasingly widely applied in the U.S. to natural-gas fired gas turbine combined cycle systems. In the remainder of this section, we review the applicability of SCR, as well as the need for post-combustion NO{sub x} control, for several power generation systems.

  16. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  17. Water pollution control for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humenick, M.J.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water pollution arising from underground gasification of coal is one of the important considerations in the eventual commercialization of the process. Because many coal seams which are amenable to in situ gasification are also ground-water aquifers, contaminants may be released to these ground waters during and after gasification. Also, when product gas is processed above ground for use, wastewater streams are generated which are too polluted to be discharged. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the nature of the groundwater and above-ground pollutants, discuss the potential long and short-term effects on ground water, propose control and restoration strategies, and to identify potential wastewater treatment schemes.

  18. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Moraga, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  19. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    in downst eam absorbs oxygen from air at low pressure by units. Selection of the optimum oxygen urHy contact with a circulating molten salt. High must be performed by optimizing the capit land purity (>99.5%) oxygen is regenerated from the operating... are evaluated, the use of oxygen is often preferred over air regardless of the pressure requirement. GOX GAN WASTE AIR FROM MOL SIEVE MAIN EXCHANGERS EXPANDER Figure 4 - Low Pressure Cryogenic Cycle Below about 95% purity, the specific power (k...

  20. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blasiole, George A. (Greensburg, PA)

    1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  1. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, Jr., Charles A. (15163 Dianna La., Houston, TX 77062); Wesselhoft, Robert D. (120 Caldwell, Baytown, TX 77520); Dunkleman, John J. (3704 Autumn La., Baytown, TX 77520); Aquino, Dolores C. (15142 McConn, Webster, TX 77598); Gouker, Toby R. (5413 Rocksprings Dr., LaPorte, TX 77571)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  2. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  3. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOECoach Compliance Form My teamCoal

  4. Combining Path Integration and Remembered Landmarks When Navigating without Vision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrater, Paul R.

    This study investigated the interaction between remembered landmark and path integration strategies for estimating current location when walking in an environment without vision. We asked whether observers navigating without ...

  5. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery, water treatment/instrument air, and power conditioning/controls were built and shipped to the site. The two fuel cell modules, each rated at 1 MW on natural gas, were fabricated by FuelCell Energy in its Torrington, CT manufacturing facility. The fuel cell modules were conditioned and tested at FuelCell Energy in Danbury and shipped to the site. Installation of the power plant and connection to all required utilities and syngas was completed. Pre-operation checkout of the entire power plant was conducted and the plant was ready to operate in July 2004. However, fuel gas (natural gas or syngas) was not available at the WREL site due to technical difficulties with the gasifier and other issues. The fuel cell power plant was therefore not operated, and subsequently removed by October of 2005. The WREL fuel cell site was restored to the satisfaction of WREL. FuelCell Energy continues to market carbonate fuel cells for natural gas and digester gas applications. A fuel cell/turbine hybrid is being developed and tested that provides higher efficiency with potential to reach the DOE goal of 60% HHV on coal gas. A system study was conducted for a 40 MW direct fuel cell/turbine hybrid (DFC/T) with potential for future coal gas applications. In addition, FCE is developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants with Versa Power Systems (VPS) as part of the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program and has an on-going program for co-production of hydrogen. Future development in these technologies can lead to future coal gas fuel cell applications.

  6. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M. (Mauldin, SC); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  7. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C9, supplCmentauJournal de Physique 111,Volume 3, dCcembre 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Alloy corrosion in a coal gasification system(*) N.J. ~imms('),J.F. or ton(^) and T.M. Lowe, The Netherlands Abstract. - The corrosion performance of alloys in coal gasification systems is of increasing. Introduction. The development of coal gasification plant, especially for use in combined cycle power gen

  8. The importance of combined cycle generating plants in integrating large levels of wind power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puga, J. Nicolas

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration of high wind penetration levels will require fast-ramping combined cycle and steam cycles that, due to higher operating costs, will require proper pricing of ancillary services or other forms of compensation to remain viable. Several technical and policy recommendations are presented to help realign the generation mix to properly integrate the wind. (author)

  9. (This is a sample cover image for this issue. The actual cover is not yet available at this time.) This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litster, Shawn

    2 February 2013 Keywords: Fossil fuel Coal gasification Solid oxide fuel cell Carbon capture fossil fuel power plants configurations: an integrated gasification combined cycle with advanced H2 and O2 membrane separation including CO2 sequestration (Adv. IGCC­CCS) and an integrated gasification

  10. NOVEL GAS CLEANING/CONDITIONING FOR INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis A. Horazak; Richard A. Newby; Eugene E. Smeltzer; Rachid B. Slimane; P. Vann Bush; James L. Aderhold Jr; Bruce G. Bryan

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development efforts have been underway for decades to replace dry-gas cleaning technology with humid-gas cleaning technology that would maintain the water vapor content in the raw gas by conducting cleaning at sufficiently high temperature to avoid water vapor condensation and would thus significantly simplify the plant and improve its thermal efficiency. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. conducted a program with the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) to develop a Novel Gas Cleaning process that uses a new type of gas-sorbent contactor, the ''filter-reactor''. The Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process described and evaluated here is in its early stages of development and this evaluation is classified as conceptual. The commercial evaluations have been coupled with integrated Process Development Unit testing performed at a GTI coal gasifier test facility to demonstrate, at sub-scale the process performance capabilities. The commercial evaluations and Process Development Unit test results are presented in Volumes 1 and 2 of this report, respectively. Two gas cleaning applications with significantly differing gas cleaning requirements were considered in the evaluation: IGCC power generation, and Methanol Synthesis with electric power co-production. For the IGCC power generation application, two sets of gas cleaning requirements were applied, one representing the most stringent ''current'' gas cleaning requirements, and a second set representing possible, very stringent ''future'' gas cleaning requirements. Current gas cleaning requirements were used for Methanol Synthesis in the evaluation because these cleaning requirements represent the most stringent of cleaning requirements and the most challenging for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning process. The scope of the evaluation for each application was: (1) Select the configuration for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning Process, the arrangement of the individual gas cleaning stages, and the probable operating conditions of the gas cleaning stages to conceptually satisfy the gas cleaning requirements; (2) Estimate process material & energy balances for the major plant sections and for each gas cleaning stage; (3) Conceptually size and specify the major gas cleaning process equipment; (4) Determine the resulting overall performance of the application; and (5) Estimate the investment cost and operating cost for each application. Analogous evaluation steps were applied for each application using conventional gas cleaning technology, and comparison was made to extract the potential benefits, issues, and development needs of the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology. The gas cleaning process and related gas conditioning steps were also required to meet specifications that address plant environmental emissions, the protection of the gas turbine and other Power Island components, and the protection of the methanol synthesis reactor. Detailed material & energy balances for the gas cleaning applications, coupled with preliminary thermodynamic modeling and laboratory testing of candidate sorbents, identified the probable sorbent types that should be used, their needed operating conditions in each stage, and their required levels of performance. The study showed that Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning technology can be configured to address and conceptually meet all of the gas cleaning requirements for IGCC, and that it can potentially overcome several of the conventional IGCC power plant availability issues, resulting in improved power plant thermal efficiency and cost. For IGCC application, Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning yields 6% greater generating capacity and 2.3 percentage-points greater efficiency under the Current Standards case, and more than 9% generating capacity increase and 3.6 percentage-points higher efficiency in the Future Standards case. While the conceptual equipment costs are estimated to be only slightly lower for the Filter-Reactor Novel Gas Cleaning processes than for the conventional processes, the improved power plant capacity results in the potentia

  11. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants: A Real Options Analysis May 2005 MIT LFEE 2005. LFEE 2005-002 Report #12;#12;i ABSTRACT Investments in three coal-fired power generation technologies environment. The technologies evaluated are pulverized coal (PC), integrated coal gasification combined cycle

  12. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  13. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, H.M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has selected seven integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D)program that supports the CCT program, and addresses long-term improvements in support of IGCC technology. This overview briefly describes the CCT projects and the supporting RD&D activities.

  14. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management - Combining Fluid Loops in Electric Drive Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles have increased vehicle thermal management complexity, using separate coolant loop for advanced power electronics and electric motors. Additional thermal components result in higher costs. Multiple cooling loops lead to reduced range due to increased weight. Energy is required to meet thermal requirements. This presentation for the 2013 Annual Merit Review discusses integrated vehicle thermal management by combining fluid loops in electric drive vehicles.

  15. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  16. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCS with combustion or gasification of fossil fuels, each ofHigh-efficiency coal gasification, high-efficiency Injectionefficiency, integrated gasification injection systems with

  17. California’s Energy Future: The View to 2050 - Summary Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCS with combustion or gasification of fossil fuels, each ofHigh-efficiency coal gasification, high-efficiency Injectionefficiency, integrated gasification injection systems with

  18. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  19. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  20. AN INTEGRATED MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR CARBON MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand B. Rao; Edward S. Rubin; Michael B. Berkenpas

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) is gaining widespread interest as a potential method to control greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel sources, especially electric power plants. Commercial applications of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies are found in a number of industrial process operations worldwide. Many of these capture technologies also are applicable to fossil fuel power plants, although applications to large-scale power generation remain to be demonstrated. This report describes the development of a generalized modeling framework to assess alternative CO{sub 2} capture and storage options in the context of multi-pollutant control requirements for fossil fuel power plants. The focus of the report is on post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using amine-based absorption systems at pulverized coal-fired plants, which are the most prevalent technology used for power generation today. The modeling framework builds on the previously developed Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). The expanded version with carbon sequestration is designated as IECM-cs. The expanded modeling capability also includes natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) power plants and integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems as well as pulverized coal (PC) plants. This report presents details of the performance and cost models developed for an amine-based CO{sub 2} capture system, representing the baseline of current commercial technology. The key uncertainties and variability in process design, performance and cost parameters which influence the overall cost of carbon mitigation also are characterized. The new performance and cost models for CO{sub 2} capture systems have been integrated into the IECM-cs, along with models to estimate CO{sub 2} transport and storage costs. The CO{sub 2} control system also interacts with other emission control technologies such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems for SO{sub 2} control. The integrated model is applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing PC plants as well as new NGCC plants. The cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance using amine-based CO{sub 2} capture technology is found to be sensitive to assumptions about the reference plant design and operation, as well as assumptions about the CO{sub 2} capture system design. The case studies also reveal multi-pollutant interactions and potential tradeoffs in the capture of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. The potential for targeted R&D to reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture also is explored using the IECM-cs in conjunction with expert elicitations regarding potential improvements in key performance and cost parameters of amine-based systems. The results indicate that the performance of amine-based CO{sub 2} capture systems can be improved significantly, and the cost of CO{sub 2} capture reduced substantially over the next decade or two, via innovations such as new or improved sorbents with lower regeneration heat requirements, and improvements in power plant heat integration to reduce the (currently large) energy penalty of CO{sub 2} capture. Future work will explore in more detail a broader set of advanced technology options to lower the costs of CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Volume 2 of this report presents a detailed User's Manual for the IECM-cs computer model as a companion to the technical documentation in Volume 1.

  1. Mathematical modeling of cavity growth during underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, K.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four two-dimensional cavity growth models are developed based on the permeation process concept in order to understand what has happened in previous field tests, and to learn better methods for future field tests and commercial scale operations. The first model considers only a wet coal region beyond the cavity. In the second model, dried coal is added to the first model, so that there are two different coal regions: the wet coal and dried coal regions. The third model includes the effect of links formed by reverse combustion, but the dried coal region is not included. Also in this model, plugging phenomenon, due to particulates carried by the injectant to the cavity wall, is introduced. The final model incorporates nonisotropic permeability, a dried coal region, links and plugging phenomenon. Considerations of a wet coal region only or of wet coal and coal drying do not explain the high recovery of coal observed in field tests. However, plugging phenomenon prevents channeling of gases down high-permeability links, and thereby the recovery of coal is increased. Also link configurations have a marked effect on the coal source recovery. Computation results from the fourth model show that coal recovery is improved greatly if a large dried coal zone exists around the cavity.

  2. Arco's research and development efforts in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.J.; Brandenburg, C.F.; Bailey, D.W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco's Rocky Hill No. 1 field test provided invaluable experience in gasifying the deep, thick coal resources in Wyoming. Reverse combustion successfully linked the wells and allowed conversion of the highly permeable, very wet coal to a high-quality gas. The test also produced data on overburden subsidence and groundwater effects. Unresolved issues include such items as site selection, ground water protection, surface treatment of product gas, and the interaction of simultaneously operating gas production modules.

  3. Improving heat capture for power generation in coal gasification plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botros, Barbara Brenda

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the steam cycle design to maximize power generation is demonstrated using pinch analysis targeting techniques. Previous work models the steam pressure level in composite curves based on its saturation temperature ...

  4. advanced coal gasification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Kumfer, ACERF Manager Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization Fly ash utilization Be a resourceADVANCED COAL & ENERGY RESEARCH...

  5. anthracite coal gasification: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Demonstrations (5050) Clear Skies Reduced Carbon Intensity Clean Coal First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23...

  6. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  7. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  8. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snell, George J. (Fords, NJ); Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  9. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiman, William R. (Livermore, CA); Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  10. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  11. In-situ coal gasification: a new technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, A.K.; Zielinski, R.E.; Seabaugh, P.W.; Liberatore, A.J.; Martin, J.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the technology for underground gasification of Western US subbituminous coals is advancing through efforts at the Hanna and Hoe Creek test sites, the development of an Eastern bituminous coal technology has only begun. The Pricetown 1 field test proved the feasibility of gasifying the thin-seam, swelling bituminous coal resources. Key issues remaining to be demonstrated include an effective linkage method, means of controlling gas production and composition, and scale-up. A major field-test program could entail three phases: (1) resolving the linkage and process control problems in the Appalachian basin, (2) assessing the technology in the untested Illinois basin, and (3) testing a multimodule commercial-scale prototype.

  12. Hydrogen separation by ceramic membranes in coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavalas, G.R.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general objective of this project was to develop hydrogen permselective membranes for hydrogen production from coal gas. The project consisted of the following tasks: (i) membrane preparation and characterization, (ii) membrane stability testing, and (iii) analysis and economic evaluation of a membrane-assisted ammonia from coal process. Several oxides (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in dense (or nonporous) form were identified to be permselective to hydrogen at elevated temperatures. To obtain reasonable permeance it is necessary that the membrane consists of a thin selective layer of the dense oxide supported on or within the pores of a porous support tube (or plate). Early in the project we chose porous Vycor tubes (5mm ID, 7 mm OD, 40 {Angstrom} mean pore diameter) supplied by Corning Inc. as the membrane support. To form the permselective layer (SiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) we employed chemical vapor deposition using the reaction of the chloride (SiCl{sub 4}, etc.) vapor and water vapor at high temperatures. Deposition of the selective layer was carried out in a simple concentric tube reactor comprising the porous support tube surrounded by a wider concentric quartz tube and placed in an electrically heated split tube furnace. In one deposition geometry (the opposing reactants or two-sided geometry) the chloride vapor in nitrogen carrier was passed through the inner tube while the water vapor also in nitrogen carrier was passed in the same direction through the annulus between the two tubes. In the other (two-sided) geometry the chloride-containing stream and the water-containing stream were both passed through the inner tube or both through the annulus.

  13. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Final Technical Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not FoundInformation DOEInformation Summary Big*Theea DynamicWabash River

  14. How Coal Gasification Power Plants Work | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37Energy HighlightsCarbon Capture Works

  15. Coal Gasification and Transportation Fuels Magazine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOECoach Compliance Form My

  16. Nine clean coal projects chosen by DOE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On July 25, 1986 the US Department of Energy announced the nine projects selected as DOE's top choices in their Clean Coal Technology Program. The projects are: pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle utility retrofit; extended tests of limestone injection multi-stage burner plus sorbent duct injection; slagging combustor with sorbent injection into combustor; gas reburning and sorbent injection retrofit into 3 utility boilers; steeply dipping bed underground coal gasification integrated with indirect liquefaction; integrated coal gasification steam injection gas turbine demonstration plants (2) with hot gas cleanup; coal-oil coprocessing liquefaction; fluidized bed gasification with hot gas cleanup integrated combined cycle demonstration plant; and direct iron ore reduction to replace coke oven/blast furnace for steelmaking. A table lists the 14 runner-up projects any of which could be selected if cooperative agreements are not reached with any of the nine companies selected. Brief descriptions are given of the nine selected projects.

  17. An Integrated Assessment of the Impacts of Hydrogen Economy on Transportation, Energy Use, and Air Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Loughlin, Daniel H.; Shay, Carol; Gage, Cynthia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2001. [36] EIA, Annual energy outlook 2005 with projectionsAdministration, Annual energy outlook 2006 with projectionsMC NRC O&M SMR WTW Annual Energy Outlook coal gasification

  18. Transient studies of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next-generation coal-fired power plants need to consider the option for CO2 capture as stringent governmental mandates are expected to be issued in near future. Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants are more efficient than the conventional coal combustion processes when the option for CO2 capture is considered. However, no IGCC plant with CO2 capture currently exists in the world. Therefore, it is important to consider the operability and controllability issues of such a plant before it is commercially built. To facilitate this objective, a detailed plant-wide dynamic simulation of an IGCC plant with 90% CO2 capture has been developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign}. The plant considers a General Electric Energy (GEE)-type downflow radiant-only gasifier followed by a quench section. A two-stage water gas shift (WGS) reaction is considered for conversion of CO to CO2. A two-stage acid gas removal (AGR) process based on a physical solvent is simulated for selective capture of H2S and CO2. Compression of the captured CO2 for sequestration, an oxy-Claus process for removal of H2S and NH3, black water treatment, and the sour water treatment are also modeled. The tail gas from the Claus unit is recycled to the SELEXOL unit. The clean syngas from the AGR process is sent to a gas turbine followed by a heat recovery steam generator. This turbine is modeled as per published data in the literature. Diluent N2 is used from the elevated-pressure ASU for reducing the NOx formation. The heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is modeled by considering generation of high-pressure, intermediate-pressure, and low-pressure steam. All of the vessels, reactors, heat exchangers, and the columns have been sized. The basic IGCC process control structure has been synthesized by standard guidelines and existing practices. The steady state results are validated with data from a commercial gasifier. In the future grid-connected system, the plant should satisfy the environmental targets and quality of the feed to other sections, wherever applicable, without violating the operating constraints, and without sacrificing the efficiency. However, it was found that the emission of acid gases may far exceed the environmental targets and the overshoot of some of the key variables may be unacceptable under transient operation while following the load. A number of operational strategies and control configurations is explored for achieving these stringent requirements. The transient response of the plant is also studied by perturbing a number of key inputs.

  19. EIS-0382: Mesaba Energy Project Itasca County, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: All DOE funding has been expended. This EIS evalutes the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct and demonstrate a commercial utility-scale next-generation Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generating facility having a capacity of 606 MWe (net). It will incorporate over 1,600 design and operational lessons learned from the successful but smaller-scale 262 MWe (net) Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project, located in Terre Haute, Indiana.

  20. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  1. Diesel combustion: an integrated view combining laser diagnostics, chemical kinetics, and empirical validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akinyami, O C; Dec, J E; Durrett, R P; Flynn, P F; Hunter, G L; Loye, A O; Westbrook, C

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a structure for the diesel combustion process based on a combination of previously published and new results. Processes are analyzed with proven chemical kinetic models and validated with data from production-like direct injection diesel engines. The analysis provides new insight into the ignition and particulate formation processes, which combined with laser diagnostics, delineates the two-stage nature of combustion in diesel engines. Data are presented to quantify events occurring during the ignition and initial combustion processes that form soot precursors. A framework is also proposed for understanding the heat release and emission formation processes.

  2. Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschorke, Albrecht; Musanovic, Emina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integration By Albrecht Koschorkeby Emina Musanovic [Integration (from Lat. integrare, “toa social unity. Social integration is distinct from systemic

  3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat|

  4. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"Department of8, 2013Aftertreatment Combination

  5. Methods and Issues for the Combined Use of Integral Experiments and Covariance Data: Results of a NEA International Collaborative Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giuseppe Palmiotti; Massimo Salvatores

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the Nuclear Science Committee under the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) established a Subgroup (called “Subgroup 33”) in 2009 on “Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data.” The first stage was devoted to producing the description of different adjustment methodologies and assessing their merits. A detailed document related to this first stage has been issued. Nine leading organizations (often with a long and recognized expertise in the field) have contributed: ANL, CEA, INL, IPPE, JAEA, JSI, NRG, IRSN and ORNL. In the second stage a practical benchmark exercise was defined in order to test the reliability of the nuclear data adjustment methodology. A comparison of the results obtained by the participants and major lessons learned in the exercise are discussed in the present paper that summarizes individual contributions which often include several original developments not reported separately. The paper provides the analysis of the most important results of the adjustment of the main nuclear data of 11 major isotopes in a 33-group energy structure. This benchmark exercise was based on a set of 20 well defined integral parameters from 7 fast assembly experiments. The exercise showed that using a common shared set of integral experiments but different starting evaluated libraries and/or different covariance matrices, there is a good convergence of trends for adjustments. Moreover, a significant reduction of the original uncertainties is often observed. Using the a–posteriori covariance data, there is a strong reduction of the uncertainties of integral parameters for reference reactor designs, mainly due to the new correlations in the a–posteriori covariance matrix. Furthermore, criteria have been proposed and applied to verify the consistency of differential and integral data used in the adjustment. Finally, recommendations are given for an appropriate use of sensitivity analysis methods and indications for future work are provided.

  6. A modeling software linking approach for the analysis of an integrated reforming combined cycle with hot potassium carbonate CO[subscript 2] capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nord, Lars Olof

    The focus of this study is the analysis of an integrated reforming combined cycle (IRCC) with natural gas as fuel input. This IRCC consisted of a hydrogen-fired gas turbine (GT) with a single-pressure steam bottoming cycle ...

  7. CPC air-blown integrated gasification combined cycle project. Quarterly report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project cost and schedule. The combustion turbine commercial operation date is scheduled for 7/1/95 with the combined cycle commercial operation date of 7/1/96. A two year demonstration period will commence after IGCC commercial operation. Details of costs on a total project and DOE Envelope basis along with detailed schedule components were covered. Major cost variances to date were discussed. The major variances this year relate to contracts which were anticipated to be finalized mid 1992 but which are not executed. These include GEESI, the ASU and key vessels. Some of these contracts are almost in place and others are scheduled for the first quarter 1993. Numerous project specifications, process flow diagrams, piping and instrument diagrams and other drawings have been reviewed and approved as part of the preliminary engineering process.

  8. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITY ON STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF Ni-YSZ ANODE OF SOFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production through the integration of coal gasification with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) may potentially be an efficient technique for clean energy generation. However, multiple minor and trace components are naturally present in coals. These impurities in coal gas not only degrade the electrochemical performance of Ni-YSZ anode used in SOFCs, but also severely endanger the structural integrity of the Ni-YSZ anode. In this paper, effect of the trace impurity of the coal syngases on the mechanical degradation of Ni-YSZ anode was studied by using an integrated experimental/modeling approach. Phosphorus is taken as an example of impurity. Anode-support button cell was used to experimentally explore the migration of phosphorous impurity in the Ni-YSZ anode of SOFCs. X-ray mapping was used to show elemental distributions and new phase formation. The subsequent finite element stress analyses were conducted using the actual microstructure of the anode to illustrate the degradation mechanism. It was found that volume expansion induced by the Ni phase change produces high stress level such that local failure of the Ni-YSZ anode is possible under the operating conditions

  9. The U.S. Department of Energy`s integrated gasification combined cycle research, development and demonstration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brdar, R.D.; Cicero, D.C.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, coal has played a major role as a fuel source for power generation both domestically and abroad. Despite increasingly stringent environmental constraints and affordable natural gas, coal will remain one of the primary fuels for producing electricity. This is due to its abundance throughout the world, low price, ease of transport an export, decreasing capital cost for coal-based systems, and the need to maintain fuel diversity. Recognizing the role coal will continue to play, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is working in partnership with industry to develop ways to use this abundant fuel resource in a manner that is more economical, more efficient and environmentally superior to conventional means to burn coal. The most promising of these technologies is integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. Although IGCC systems offer many advantages, there are still several hurdles that must be overcome before the technology achieves widespread commercial acceptance. The major hurdles to commercialization include reducing capital and operating costs, reducing technical risk, demonstrating environmental and technical performance at commercial scale, and demonstrating system reliability and operability. Overcoming these hurdles, as well as continued progress in improving system efficiency, are the goals of the DOE IGCC research, development and demonstrate (RD and D) program. This paper provides an overview of this integrated RD and D program and describes fundamental areas of technology development, key research projects and their related demonstration scale activities.

  10. EROSION PREDICTION NEAR A STAGNATION POINT RESULTING FROM AERODYNAMICALLY ENTRAINED SOLID PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitone, J. A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geothermal cnnversion, and coal gasification are three areasthe environment of a coal gasification system. Inside the

  11. THE CORROSION OF SILICATE MATERIALS BY HYDROGEN GAS AND HYDROFLUORIC ACID SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tso, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the process of coal gasification, for producing syntheticas quickly as possible. Coal gasification equipment must be

  12. CORRELATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF SINTERED MULLITE BODIES WITH THEIR STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR IN COMPRESSION LOADING AT 1200oC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacks, M.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of coal gasification dquantities of refrac~behavior. In coal gasification processes, resistance to

  13. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Institutional Plan FY 1993-98

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chartock, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysis (coal gasification and liquefaction; environmentalthose produced during coal gasification. Another project is

  14. The Role of Illinois and the Midwest in Responding to the Challenges of Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Douglas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    has previously permitted a coal gasification plant that hasstrongly advocating coal gasification and other clean coal

  15. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  16. "Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nuclear","X" "Biomass" " - Pulverized Coal",,,"X" " - Fuel Preparation",,"X" "Geothermal ",,"X" "Municipal Solid WasteLandfill Gas",,,"X" "Conventional Hydroelectric",,,"X"...

  17. An integrated assessment of the energy savings and emissions-reduction potential of combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Elliott, R.N.; Spurr, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, or cogeneration systems, generated electrical/mechanical and thermal energy simultaneously, recovering much of the energy normally lost in separate generation. This recovered energy can be used for heating or cooling purposes, eliminating the need for a separate boiler. Significant reductions in energy, criteria pollutants, and carbon emissions can be achieved from the improved efficiency of fuel use. Generating electricity on or near the point of use also avoids transmission and distribution losses and defers expansion of the electricity transmission grid. Several recent developments make dramatic expansion of CHP a cost-effective possibility over the next decade. First, advances in technologies such as combustion turbines, steam turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells. and heat-recovery equipment have decreased the cost and improved the performance of CHP systems. Second, a significant portion of the nation's boiler stock will need to be replaced in the next decade, creating an opportunity to upgrade this equipment with clean and efficient CHP systems. Third, environmental policies, including addressing concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, have created pressures to find cleaner and more efficient means of using energy. Finally, electric power market restructuring is creating new opportunities for innovations in power generation and smaller-scale distributed systems such as CHP. The integrated analysis suggests that there is enormous potential for the installation of cost-effective CHP in the industrial, district energy, and buildings sectors. The projected additional capacity by 2010 is 73 GW with corresponding energy savings of 2.6 quadrillion Btus, carbon emissions reductions of 74 million metric tons, 1.4 million tons of avoided SO{sub 2} emissions, and 0.6 million tons of avoided NO{sub x} emissions. The authors estimate that this new CHP would require cumulative capital investments of roughly $47 billion over ten years.

  18. Integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefert, N.; Shamsi, A.; Shekhawat, D.; Berry, D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review was conducted for coal gasification technologies that integrate with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) to achieve system efficiencies near 60% while capturing and sequestering >90% of the carbon dioxide [1-2]. The overall system efficiency can reach 60% when a) the coal gasifier produces a syngas with a methane composition of roughly 25% on a dry volume basis, b) the carbon dioxide is separated from the methane-rich synthesis gas, c) the methane-rich syngas is sent to a SOFC, and d) the off-gases from the SOFC are recycled back to coal gasifier. The thermodynamics of this process will be reviewed and compared to conventional processes in order to highlight where available work (i.e. exergy) is lost in entrained-flow, high-temperature gasification, and where exergy is lost in hydrogen oxidation within the SOFC. The main advantage of steam gasification of coal to methane and carbon dioxide is that the amount of exergy consumed in the gasifier is small compared to conventional, high temperature, oxygen-blown gasifiers. However, the goal of limiting the amount of exergy destruction in the gasifier has the effect of limiting the rates of chemical reactions. Thus, one of the main advantages of steam gasification leads to one of its main problems: slow reaction kinetics. While conventional entrained-flow, high-temperature gasifiers consume a sizable portion of the available work in the coal oxidation, the consumed exergy speeds up the rates of reactions. And while the rates of steam gasification reactions can be increased through the use of catalysts, only a few catalysts can meet cost requirements because there is often significant deactivation due to chemical reactions between the inorganic species in the coal and the catalyst. Previous research into increasing the kinetics of steam gasification will be reviewed. The goal of this paper is to highlight both the challenges and advantages of integrating catalytic coal gasifiers with SOFCs.

  19. An Assessment of Industrial Cogeneration Potential in Pennsylvania 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkle, B. K.; Qasim, S.; Ludwig, E. V., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal-gasification combined cycles, fuel cells and bottoming cycles were analyzed in addition to the economic assessment of conventional cogeneration systems; Industry-specific rates of market penetration were developed...

  20. An Assessment of Industrial Cogeneration Potential in Pennsylvania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkle, B. K.; Qasim, S.; Ludwig, E. V., Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, coal-gasification combined cycles, fuel cells and bottoming cycles were analyzed in addition to the economic assessment of conventional cogeneration systems; Industry-specific rates of market penetration were developed...

  1. Topping of a combined gas- and steam-turbine powerplant using a TAM combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G.; Wang, C.C.; Lovell, B.T.; McCrank, J.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to evaluate the engineering and economic feasibility of a thermionic array module (TAM) topped combustor for a gas turbine. A combined gas- and steam-turbine system was chosen for this study. The nominal output of the gas and steam turbines were 70 MW and 30 MW, respectively. The gas-turbine fuel was a coal-derived medium-Btu gas assumed to be from an oxygen blown Texaco coal-gasification process which produces pressurized gas with an approximate composition of 52% CO and 36% H/sub 2/. Thermionic converters are assumed to line the walls of the gas-turbine combustor, so that the high-temperature gases heat the thermionic converter emitter. The thermionic converters produce electricity while the rejected heat is used to preheat the combustion air. To maximize the production of power from the thermionic converter, the highest practical flame temperature is obtained by preheating the combustor air with the thermionic collectors and rich combustion. A portion of the air, which bypassed the combustor, is reintroduced to complete the combustion at a lower temperature and the mixed gases flow to the turbine. The exhaust gases from the turbine flow to the heat recovery boilers to the bottoming steam cycle. The gas and steam turbine system performance calculation was based on data from Brown Boveri Turbomachinery, Inc. The performance of the thermionic converters (TAM) for the reference case was based on actual measurements of converters fired with a natural gas flame. These converters have been operated in a test furnace for approximately 15,000 device hours.

  2. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  3. THE EROSION BEHAVIOR OF STEEL AS A FUNCTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE ON SOLID PARTICLE EROSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Alan V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Erosion Problems in Coal Gasification Processes, Speechsystems, especially coal gasification and liquefaction. 5been observed in coal gasification pilot plants caused by

  4. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF IRON-BASE TERNARY ALLOYS THAT DEVELOP Cr2O3 AND/OR Al2O3 BARRIER SCALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajan, V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistant Alloy for Coal Gasification Service, LockheedI.M. , Table H Coal gasification atmosphere (mol fraction).development of "coal gasification" processes. large number

  5. The Development of a Hydrothermal Method for Slurry Feedstock Preparation for Gasification Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Wei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Affairs, Carbon and coal gasification: science andand B.F. Towler, Coal Gasification and Its Applications .Coal Chars , in Coal Gasification . 1974, AMERICAN CHEMICAL

  6. THE EFFECT OF COAL CHAR ON THE CORROSION OF 304 SS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foerster, Thomas Friedrich Wilhelm

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Materials for Coal Gasification Applications". of Highcommercially proven coal gasification processes exist. TheseDiagram of the Synthane Coal Gasification Process (from Ref.

  7. PROCEEDINGS OF 1976 SUMMER WORKSHOP ON AN ENERGY EXTENSION SERVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nuclear power or coal gasification. One immediately obviousthe construction of coal gasification plants, etc. Travel tothe construction of coal gasification facilities, the

  8. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bell D, Towler B. Coal Gasification and Its Applications.C, Chaney R. Alaskan coal gasification feasibility studies -Task 2 Topical Report: Coke/Coal Gasification with Liquids

  9. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION Annual Report 1977.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    310 Stainless Steel in Coal Gasification Environments, LBL-of Materials Used in Coal Gasification Plants, AGA- ERDA-MPCResistant Alloy for Coal Gasification Service Annual Report

  10. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74. Any coal application (coal gasification, coal combustionFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for RetrofittingPower Plants Employing Coal Gasification," Bergman, P. D. ,

  11. THE EROSION BEHAVIOR OF STEEL AS A FUNCTION OF MICROSTRUCTURE ON SOLID PARTICLE EROSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Alan V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Erosion Problems in Coal Gasification Processes, Speechsystems, especially coal gasification and liquefaction. 5has been observed in coal gasification pilot plants caused

  12. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elements During Coal Gasification 1 Element Participatingconsistency with the coal gasification process. n.m. = notthose occurring during coal gasification. The composition of

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greminger, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shale Retorting, Synthane Coal Gasification and COED CoalBeychok, M.R. , "Coal Gasification and the Phenosolvanwaters formed during coal gasification and liquefaction (Ho,

  14. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    encountered in coal gasification processes. Kinetics andfor two-phase flow in coal gasification environ- ments hasflow typical of a coal gasification system. It was f? und t~

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Al MUilE 16 MMTIVl COAL GASIFICATION - HIGH STU 1250 MMCF/Olfacilities, particularly coal gasification plants,coal-firedfor construction of coal gasification plants during this

  16. STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Joel David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Stripping of Coal Gasification Waste Water", U. S.to completion in a coal gasification process. Water usagecondensate for a typical coal gasification process are shown

  17. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2000, The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project,constant rate to feed a coal gasification facility in Norththat compared with coal gasification, methane gasification

  18. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change is coal gasification, which can make thethe world leaders in coal gasification tech- nology, haswill not occur. If not coal gasification, then perhaps fuel

  19. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: A Case Study for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M; Chen, Chien-Wei

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gasification, coal gasification, natural gas reforming, andgasification and then coal gasification with carbon captureproduction of H2 via coal gasification with CCS C-SMR, C-

  20. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT 1981

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemicals from Coal via Coal Gasification Disguised Kineticsliquefaction and with coal gasification as a preliminaryand Other Gases for Coal-Gasification Processes," invited

  1. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jolm Prausnitz In coal gasification operations, a complexPoint Calculations in Coal Gasification Processes " Ph.D. ,Heavy Hydrocarbons from Coal Gasification. Pressures and Dew

  2. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF IRON-BASE TERNARY ALLOYS THAT DEVELOP Cr2O3 AND/OR Al2O3 BARRIER SCALES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajan, V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistant Alloy for Coal Gasification Service, LockheedPratt I.M. , Table H Coal gasification atmosphere (molthe development of "coal gasification" processes. large

  3. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: The Least-Cost Hydrogen for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gasification, coal gasification, natural gas reforming, andgasification and then coal gasification with carbon captureproduction of H2 via coal gasification with CCS C-SMR, C-

  4. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and other Gases for Coal-Gasification Processes", Chemicalof Liquid Effluents from Coal Gasification Plants", Economicand other Gases for Coal-Gasification Processes", Chemical

  5. Supercritical Pulverized Coal and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Partial CO2 Capture Cases - Updated Performance and Cost Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer.SupercomputingSuperconductivity at DawnCost

  6. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard D. Noble; John L. Falconer

    2006-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H{sub 2} separation from other light gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO). However, zeolite membranes have not been successful for H{sub 2} separation from light gases because the zeolite pores are either too big or the membranes have a large number of defects. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H{sub 2} separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H{sub 2} selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO{sub 2}CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} were separated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one BZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated B-ZSM-5 membrane was activated, but the CO{sub 2} and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H{sub 2} permeance and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sup 2} /CH{sub 4} separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 molxm-2xs-1xPa-1, and the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H{sub 2} with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H{sub 2} permeance more than one order of magnitude. The H{sub 2} separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Increasing the membrane feed pressure also increased the H{sub 2} flux and the H{sub 2} mole fraction in the permeate stream for both mixtures. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO{sub 2} adsorption inhibited H{sub 2} adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO{sub 2} permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol m-2 s-1 Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H{sub 2} recompression because H{sub 2} remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO{sub 2} feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} sorption selectivity with increased CO{sub 2} partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H{sub 2} from CH{sub 4} because CH{sub 4} is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity is much lower than the H{sup 2} diffusivity. The H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation selectivity was almost independent of temperature, pressure, and feed composition. Silylation on SAPO-34 membranes increased H{sup 2}/CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivities but did not increase H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivities because silylation only blocked defects in SAPO-34 membranes. Hydr

  7. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  8. Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Usman

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) . Grid Break Up System for the Areal Model Pressure Drawdown (Semi-log Plot) on Well 9 (Post-Gasification). 24 25 27 31 16 Ei-Function Plot. Drawdown on Well 9 and Inter- ference on Wells 10, 13 and 18 (Post-Gasification) . . 32 17 Pressure... Drawdown (Semi-log Plot) on Well 10 (Post-Gasification). 34 18 Ei-Function Plot. Drawdown on Well 10 and Inter- ference on Wells 9, 13 and 18 (Post-Gasification). . . 35 ~Fi ure 19 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Pressure Drawdown (Semi-log Plot) on Well...

  9. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Demonstration Project. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining Company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The LFC technology uses a mild pyrolysis or mild gasification process which involves heating the coal under carefully controlled conditions. The process causes chemical changes in the feed coal in contrast to conventional drying, which leads only to physical changes. Wet subbituminous coal contains considerable water, and conventional drying processes physically remove some of this moisture, causing the heating value to increase. The deeper the coal is physically dried, the higher the heating value and the more the pore structure permanently collapses, preventing resorption of moisture. However, deeply dried Powder River Basin coals exhibit significant stability problems when dried by conventional thermal processes. The LFC process overcomes these stability problems by thermally altering the solid to create PDF and CDL. Several of the major objectives of the ENCOAL Project have now been achieved. The LFC Technology has been essentially demonstrated. Significant quantities of specification CDL have been produced from Buckskin coal. Plant operation in a production mode with respectable availability (approaching 90%) has been demonstrated.

  10. Oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights of progress achieved during the quarter ending June 30, 1984 are summarized. This research involves three resource areas: oil shale, tar sands, and underground gasification of coal. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each section for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  11. Theoretical and experimental investigations of underground coal gasification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunn, R.D.; Krantz, W.B.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contents of this report include work performed at the University of Wyoming and the University of Colorado. For the University of Wyoming these are: (1) statistical correlations; (2) Hanna core data analysis; and (3) reverse combustion in Balsa Wood. The University of Colorado conducted: (1) reverse combustion studies; (2) water-influx modeling studies and applications; and (3) laboratory core characterization studies.

  12. SLAG CHARACTERIZATION AND REMOVAL USING PULSE DETONATION TECHNOLOGY DURING COAL GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DR. DANIEL MEI; DR. JIANREN ZHOU; DR. PAUL O. BINEY; DR. ZIAUL HUQUE

    1998-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulse detonation technology for the purpose of removing slag and fouling deposits in coal-fired utility power plant boilers offers great potential. Conventional slag removal methods including soot blowers and water lances have great difficulties in removing slags especially from the down stream areas of utility power plant boilers. The detonation wave technique, based on high impact velocity with sufficient energy and thermal shock on the slag deposited on gas contact surfaces offers a convenient, inexpensive, yet efficient and effective way to supplement existing slag removal methods. A slight increase in the boiler efficiency, due to more effective ash/deposit removal and corresponding reduction in plant maintenance downtime and increased heat transfer efficiency, will save millions of dollars in operational costs. Reductions in toxic emissions will also be accomplished due to reduction in coal usage. Detonation waves have been demonstrated experimentally to have exceptionally high shearing capability, important to the task of removing slag and fouling deposits. The experimental results describe the parametric study of the input parameters in removing the different types of slag and operating condition. The experimental results show that both the single and multi shot detonation waves have high potential in effectively removing slag deposit from boiler heat transfer surfaces. The results obtained are encouraging and satisfactory. A good indication has also been obtained from the agreement with the preliminary computational fluid dynamics analysis that the wave impacts are more effective in removing slag deposits from tube bundles rather than single tube. This report presents results obtained in effectively removing three different types of slag (economizer, reheater, and air-heater) t a distance of up to 20 cm from the exit of the detonation tube. The experimental results show that the softer slags can be removed more easily. Also closer the slag to the exit of the detonation tube, the better are their removals. Side facing slags are found to shear off without breaking. Wave strength and slag orientation also has different effects on the chipping off of the slag. One of the most important results from this study is the observation that the pressure of the waves plays a vital role in removing slag. The wave frequency is also important after a threshold pressure level is attained.

  13. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems: Greenfield assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the KRW fluidized-bed gasifier and the transport gasifier case studies were used for this assessment. The transport technology is a high-velocity circulating fluidized-bed reactor currently under development by The M.W. Kellogg Company. In the earlier assessment, seven design concepts or cases were identified; a process design was developed; major equipment items were identified; estimates of capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and cost of electricity were developed; reliability was predicted; and development issues were identified for six studies. Three of the most probable cases were further evaluated for a Greenfield assessment in this report to adequately determine all costs independent of facilities at Plant Wansley.

  14. advanced coal-gasification technical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University, Department of Engineering, Technical Report 97-25, December 1997. Based Pont, Michael J. 260 Memory Hierarchy: Advanced Concepts Computer Technologies and...

  15. ANG coal gasification project management control system report. [Great Plains project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much time, money and effort has been spent in the forefront of this project for project controls. The work breakdown structure for the systems has been custom designed. The systems, both manual and computerized, have been well scrutinized and chosen by ANG to represent the most cost effective and efficient way of controlling a project the magnitude of $1.5 billion. These systems have been developed in a manner so that information can be gathered as detailed or as summarized as necessary, and in the most timely and expeditious ways.

  16. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. Annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Shell Mining Company, is constructing a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by Shell and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin Coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly reduce current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain.

  17. ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification project. Technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Construction of the project dominated the activities of both the ENCOAL and KCI field groups during this reporting period. Emphasis.was placed on expediting late vendor information and upon completing the construction phase of the project. Field progress was estimated to be 94 complete as of the end of March. As a result of the construction progress, demobilization of KCI and their subcontractors was initiated. The Operations team concentrated on the operator. training classes which began on February 24. The classes were well received and many precommissioning activities were accomplished during the afternoon ``hands-on`` sessions. Commissioning and testing plans were also a priority as the project continued to make the transition from construction to operation. Several meetings were held during the quarter discussing the commissioning and testing procedures. The purpose of these meetings was to develop a sequential work schedule to coordinate all commissioning activities. A resulting time-line of both testing and commissioning plans was developed, and will be continuously updated to ensure the most efficient management of manpower.

  18. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  19. Electrochemical Membrane Separation (EMS) of Hydrogen Sulfide from Coal Gasification Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, A.A.; Winnick, J.; Liu, M.; Li, S.

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work is to prepare an electrolytic cell for scale-up that is capable of removing H2S continuously. The major hurdles that remain are cathode selection and optimizing cell design and operating conditions. Studies have focused upon determining critical cell parameters for process scale-up as well as finding more stable and catalytically active cathode materials.

  20. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  1. A Brief Review of Viscosity Models for Slag in Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Wang, Ping

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many researchers have defined the phenomenon of 'slagging' as the deposition of ash in the radiative section of a boiler, while 'fouling' refers to the deposition of ash in the convective-pass region. Among the important parameters affecting ash deposition that need to be studied are ash chemistry, its transport, deposit growth, and strength development; removability of the ash deposit; heat transfer mechanisms; and the mode of operation for boilers. The heat transfer at the walls of a combustor depends on many parameters including ash deposition. This depends on the processes or parameters controlling the impact efficiency and the sticking efficiency. For a slagging combustor or furnace, however, the temperatures are so high that much of the coal particles are melted and the molten layer, in turn, captures more particles as it flows. The main problems with ash deposition are reduced heat transfer in the boiler and corrosion of the tubes. Common ways of dealing with these issues are soot blowing and wall blowing on a routine basis; however, unexpected or uncontrolled depositions can also complicate the situation, and there are always locations inaccessible to the use of such techniques. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1300 C and 1500 C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa {center_dot} s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. In such cases the slag should be regarded as a non-Newtonian suspension, consisting of liquid silicate and crystals. A better understanding of the rheological properties of the slag, such as yield stress and shear-thinning, are critical in determining the optimum operating conditions. To develop an accurate heat transfer model in any type of coal combustion or gasification process, the heat transfer and to some extent the rheological properties of ash and slag, especially in high-temperature environments need to be understood and properly modeled. The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal (and biomass for co-firing cases) present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. In this report, we first provide a brief review of the various approaches taken by different researchers in formulating or obtaining a slag viscosity model. In general, these models are based on experiments. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied.

  2. In situ small angle x-ray studies of coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, K F

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress made the first 12 months of a planned 36 month project on small angle x-ray studies of coal and char pore structure. Model carbon studies have been employed to demonstrate the usefulness of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) in monitoring the structural changes in porous carbonaceous materials during gasification. Scattering data from particles gasified to varying levels of conversion show increases in the micropore sizes with conversion. This is also supported by surface area measurements by SAXS showing a maximum at intermediate conversion in agreements with previous studies by conventional means. The application of SAXS to PSOC coal samples is also demonstrated. Existing models for the porous structure have been reviewed and percolation theory has been selected as a consistent framework for both the modelling and the data analysis. This theory will make it possible to describe the porous structure in terms of its geometry and connectivity, rather than being limited to a fixed geometry as in conventional approaches. Two graduate students and the PI have been trained in SAXS and the associated theory. Results from the model carbon studies have been published. 18 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  3. The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brink, Eric Jon

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sources. Technologies with some promise of fulfilling this need include solar power, laser fusion, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, geothermal power, wind power, wave power, hydr oelectric power, oil shale, tar sands, and coal conversion. Although...

  4. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  5. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  6. Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, LaTosha M.; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V.; Shadle, Lawrence J.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young's modulus should be considered in applications such as gasification and other cases involving the impact of non-spherical particles and complex surfaces. Sliding was observed when particles impacted on oblique surfaces; however, the resulting effects were within the range of measurement uncertainties.

  7. Mutagenic and toxic activity of environmental effluents from underground coal gasification experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timourian, H.; Felton, J.S.; Stuermer, D.H.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using bacterial bioassays, researchers have screened for the presence of mutagens and toxins in extracts from groundwater, and in tar from product gas, at the sites of two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in situ experiments: Hoe Creek II and Hoe Creek III. The sites exhibited different potential biological hazards, suggesting that different gasification processes may represent different human health concerns. Researchers found that mutagens are present in groundwater, persist for at least 2 yr after gasification has been terminated, and show a change in activity with time - possibly in parallel with changes in chemical composition. Preliminary evidence suggests that the mutagens in groundwater are quinoline and aniline derivatives, while the toxins in groundwater may be phenolic compounds. In tar from the product gas, the organic bases and neutrals were found to be genotoxic in both bacterial and mammalian cells; the neutral compounds appear to be the major mutagenic health hazards. Neutral compounds constitute most of the tar (85 to 97 wt %) and were mutagenic in both the bacterial and mammalian cell assays. Tar in the gas stream may be a problem for the aboveground environment if gas escapes through fractures in the overburden. Because it is mutagenic and induces chromosomal damage to mammalian cells, the tar may represent a disposal problem as well. However, it is difficult to assess tar quantitatively as a health hazard because its mutagenic activity is low, possibly due to contaminants in the neutral fraction that act to suppress mutagenicity.

  8. Mutagenic and toxic activity of environmental effluents from underground coal gasification experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timourian, H.; Felton, J.S.; Stuermer, D.H.; Healy, S.; Berry, P.; Tompkins, M.; Battaglia, G.; Hatch, F.T.; Thompson, L.H.; Carrano, A.V.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using bacterial bioassays, the authors screened for the presence of mutagens and toxins in extracts from ground water, and in tar from product gas, at the sites of two Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in situ experiments: Hoe Creek II and Hoe Creek III. The sites exhibited different potential biological hazards, suggesting that different gasification processes may represent different human health concerns. It was found that mutagens are present in groundwater persist for at least 2 years after gasification has been terminated, and show a change in activity with time - possibly in parallel with changes in chemical composition. Preliminary evidence suggests that the mutagens in ground water are quinoline and aniline derivatives, while the toxins in groundwater may be phenolic compounds. In tar from the product gas, the organic bases and neutrals were found to be genotoxic in both bacterial and mammalian cells; the neutral compounds appear to be the major mutagenic health hazards. Neutral compounds constitute most of the tar (85-97 wt%) and were mutagenic in both the bacterial and mammalian cell assays. Tar in the gas stream may be a problem for the above ground environment if gas escapes through fractures in the overburden. Because it is mutagenic and induces chromosomal damage to mammalian cells, the tar may represent a disposal problem as well. However, it is difficult to assess tar quantitatively as a health hazard because its mutagenic activity is low, possibly due to contaminants in the neutral fraction that act to suppress mutagenicity.

  9. Environmental controls for underground coal gasification: ground-water effects and control technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, W.; Raber, E.

    1980-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Underground coal gasfication (UCG) promises to provide economic access to an enormous deep-coal resource. It is, therefore, of considerable importance to develop appropriate environmental controls for use in conjunction with the UCG process. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has conducted three UCG experiments at its Hoe Creek site in northeastern Wyoming. Environmental studies are being conducted in conjunction with these UCG experiments, including an investigation of changes in local ground-water quality and subsidence effects. Ground-water monitoring and geotechnical measurements have helped to clarify the environmental significance of reaction-product contaminants that remain underground following gasification, and the implications of cavity roof collapse and aquifer interconnection. These investigations have led to the development of preliminary plans for a specific method of ground water quality restoration utilizing activated carbon adsorption. Unconventional technologies are also being investigated that may be appropriate for restoring ground water that has been contaminated as a result of UCG operations. These water treatment technologies are being explored as possible supplements to natural controls and process restrictions.

  10. LLL in situ Coal Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olness, D.U. (ed.)

    1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed three small-scale, coal-block reactor experiments in order to gain some insight into the performance of the proposed injection well design for the next field test, and to better understand some of the observed in situ phenomena which occurred during the Hoe Creek No. 3 field test. The modeling group has begun to consolidate into a single data base the data from Hoe Creek No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3, permitting some comparisons which are presented and discussed. During and after the Hoe Creek experiments, groundwater samples were collected from wells located at a distance of a few feet to several hundred feet from the gasification cavities. Analysis of the water was performed and work is continuing to understand and to explain the observed increased concentration of several cations. Several sources of information, including two recent papers by Zvyaghintsev covering Soviet UCG stations, have been analyzed. The Soviets developed an effective method for UCG in the 1950's. Plans were developed to increase UCG production from 0.7 billion m/sup 3/ in 1958 to over 40 billion m/sup 3//yr. These plans were not implemented; production peaked in 1966 at 2 billion m/sup 3//yr and declined to 0.7 billion m/sup 3//yr by 1977. The reasons for this decline are presumed to be the poorer heating values, closer wellbore spacings, and higher product gas losses at Angren than expected. Comparable results would produce unfavorable economics in the US. Also, UCG technology in the USSR faced stiff competition from natural gas production and efficient open-pit coal mining.

  11. Formulations, simulations and evaluations associated with thermo-mechanical models for underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advani, S.H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model formulations and governing equations for the investigation of the thermo-mechanical, consolidation and failure responses associated with UCG are given. Typical results from sample finite element model representations are presented. The examples quoted include the simulation of the transient temperature profiles, thermo-elastic stresses incorporating temperature dependent material properties and fracture responses. The application of the developed models to the evaluation of field experiments is demonstrated by the simulation of the Hoe Creek II experiments. The numerical experiments for different overburden failure thresholds demonstrated the pronounced sensitivity of the predicted cavity shapes with respect to the assumed properties.

  12. Support research on chemical, mechanical, and environmental factors in underground coal gasification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, T.F.; Humenick, M.J.; Thompson, T.W.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general goal of this research has been to develop basic data and mathematical models in order to better understand information obtained from large scale field experimentation in underground gasification of Texas lignite. The chemical engineering research has focused on the topics of combustion tube studies of water influx, investigation of cavity growth mechanisms, cracking of pyrolysis products, and analysis of flow patterns in UCG. The petroleum engineering research has focused on subsidence analysis, creep testing and modeling, and effects of overburden drying. Good agreement between subsidence model predictions and data from the Hoe Creek No. 2 field experiment has been obtained. Environmental effects of UCG have been studied both for surface processing of wastewater as well as subsurface phenomena. Activated sludge processing of wastewater seems feasible and pertinent laboratory data have been acquired. Adsorption characteristics and microbial activity for different species in contaminated groundwater have been determined for the Tennessee Colony, Texas, field test site. 100 references, 95 figures, 10 tables.

  13. LLNL underground coal gasification project. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olness, D.U.; Clements, W. (eds.)

    1981-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification through drilled holes in small blocks of coal, approximately 1 foot on a side. Such studies give insight into cavity growth mechanisms and particulate production. However, because of the small dimensions involved, the information these tests provide is necessarily limited to aspects of cavity growth at very early times. The preliminary process design of the Tono No. 1 field experiment in Washington has been completed. The experimental plan and operational strategy have been developed to ensure that the injection point remains near the bottom of the coal seam and that the experiment continues at least until a period of stable operation has been reached and sustained for a time. We have continued to develop a mathematical model for the small coal block experiments in order to further our understanding of the physical and chemical processes governing the burning of the coal and the growth of the cavity within the block. This model will be adapted, later, to larger-scale coal block experiments, and finally to full-scale field experiments. We hope to obtain scaling laws and other insights from the model. Groundwater samples from wells located at distances of a few feet to several hundred feet from the gasification cavities were collected before, during, and after each of the Hoe Creek tests. The analysis of the groundwater contamination data pertinent to the Hoe Creek No. 3 test was completed. This is an ongoing project, and we will continue to obtain and analyze groundwater samples from these test sites.

  14. Metal-Organic Frameworks Capture CO2 From Coal Gasification Flue Gas |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenter (LMI-EFRC)MaRIETechnologiesMesdiCenter for Gas

  15. Opening New Avenues for High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Coal Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse toOctober 2014Funds for CleanAboutDepartment of Energy

  16. Desiccant-Based Combined Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    .4 Regeneration and Parasitic Energy Optimization .........................................................22 5Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development;ORNL/SUB/01/4000010402 Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid

  17. Dynamic simulation and load-following control of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D,; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-following control of future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. To study control performance during load following, a plant-wide dynamic simulation of a coal-fed IGCC plant with CO{sub 2} capture has been developed. The slurry-fed gasifier is a single-stage, downward-fired, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow type with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC). The syngas from the outlet of the RSC goes to a scrubber followed by a two-stage sour shift process with inter-stage cooling. The acid gas removal (AGR) process is a dual-stage physical solvent-based process for selective removal of H{sub 2}S in the first stage and CO{sub 2} in the second stage. Sulfur is recovered using a Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. The recovered CO{sub 2} is compressed by a split-shaft multistage compressor and sent for sequestration after being treated in an absorber with triethylene glycol for dehydration. The clean syngas is sent to two advanced “F”-class gas turbines (GTs) partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit. A subcritical steam cycle is used for heat recovery steam generation. A treatment unit for the sour water strips off the acid gases for utilization in the Claus unit. The steady-state model developed in Aspen Plus® is converted to an Aspen Plus Dynamics® simulation and integrated with MATLAB® for control studies. The results from the plant-wide dynamic model are compared qualitatively with the data from a commercial plant having different configuration, operating condition, and feed quality than what has been considered in this work. For load-following control, the GT-lead with gasifier-follow control strategy is considered. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for the syngas pressure control. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate while load-following, a linear model predictive controller (LMPC) is implemented in MATLAB®. A combined process and disturbance model is identified by considering a number of model forms and choosing the final model based on an information-theoretic criterion. The performance of the LMPC is found to be superior to the conventional PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

  18. Integrated supercritical water gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems for improved performance and reduced operating costs in existing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolman, R.; Parkinson, W.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A revolutionary hydrothermal heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is being developed to produce clean fuels for gas turbines from slurries and emulsions of opportunity fuels. Water can be above 80% by weight and solids below 20%, including coal fines, coal water fuels, biomass, composted municipal refuse, sewage sludge and bitumen/Orimulsion. The patented HRSG tubes use a commercial method of particle scrubbing to improve heat transfer and prevent corrosion and deposition on heat transfer surfaces. A continuous-flow pilot plant is planned to test the HRSG over a wide range of operating conditions, including the supercritical conditions of water, above 221 bar (3,205 psia) and 374 C (705 F). Bench scale data shows, that supercritical water gasification below 580 C (1,076 F) and low residence time without catalysts or an oxidizer can produce a char product that can contain carbon up to the amount of fixed carbon in the proximate analysis of the solids in the feed. This char can be burned with coal in an existing combustion system to provide the heat required for gasification. The new HRSG tubes can be retrofitted into existing power plant boilers for repowering of existing plants for improved performance and reduced costs. A special condensing turbine allows final low-temperature cleaning and maintains quality and combustibility of the fuel vapor for modern gas turbine in the new Vapor Transmission Cycle (VTC). Increased power output and efficiency can be provided for existing plants, while reducing fuel costs. A preliminary computer-based process simulation model has been prepared that includes material and energy balances that simulate commercial-scale operations of the VTC on sewage sludge and coal. Results predict over 40% HHV thermal efficiency to electric power from sewage sludge at more than 83% water by weight. The system appears to become autothermal (no supplemental fuel required) at about 35% fixed carbon in the feed. Thus, bituminous and lignite coal slurries could be gasified at less than 25% coal and more than 75% water. Preliminary life cycle cost analyses indicate that disposal fees for sewage sludge improve operating economics over fuel that must be purchased, the cost and schedule advantages of natural gas-fired combined cycle systems are preserved. Sensitivity analyses show that increasing capital costs by 50% can be offset by an increase in sewage sludge disposal fees of $10/metric ton.

  19. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: A Case Study for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M; Chen, Chien-Wei

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production technologies including biomass gasification,coal gasification, natural gas reforming, and waterby biomass central gasification and then coal gasification

  20. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: The Least-Cost Hydrogen for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production technologies including biomass gasification,coal gasification, natural gas reforming, and waterby biomass central gasification and then coal gasification

  1. ONE DIMENSIONAL-TWO PHASE PARTICULATE FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleist, D.M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Materials for Coal Gasification, MPC Contract No. 875-2",coal turbines and coal gasification plants. The importance

  2. GAS-PARTICLE FLOW IN THE ENTRY REGION OF A CURVED PIPE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Woon-Shing

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the development of large coal gasification plants under thepiping systems of a coal gasification plant is the elbow of

  3. HYDROGENOLYSIS OF A SUB-BITUMINOUS COAL WITH MOLTEN ZINC CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holten, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or gaseous fuels, coal gasification has advanced furthestrapidly. While coal gasification may reach commercializa-5272 (1976). COal Processing - Gasification, Liguefaction,

  4. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be achieved by using the adaptive KF.

  5. APPLICATION OF A DAMPED LOCALLY OPTIMIZED COMBINATION OF IMAGES METHOD TO THE SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FAINT COMPANIONS USING AN INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pueyo, Laurent [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Dekany, Richard; Bouchez, Antonin; Roberts, Jenny [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Parry, Ian [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Rd., Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Beichman, Charles [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lap@pha.jhu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Marin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-contrast imaging instruments are now being equipped with integral field spectrographs (IFSs) to facilitate the detection and characterization of faint substellar companions. Algorithms currently envisioned to handle IFS data, such as the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm, rely on aggressive point-spread function (PSF) subtraction, which is ideal for initially identifying companions but results in significantly biased photometry and spectroscopy owing to unwanted mixing with residual starlight. This spectrophotometric issue is further complicated by the fact that algorithmic color response is a function of the companion's spectrum, making it difficult to calibrate the effects of the reduction without using iterations involving a series of injected synthetic companions. In this paper, we introduce a new PSF calibration method, which we call 'damped LOCI', that seeks to alleviate these concerns. By modifying the cost function that determines the weighting coefficients used to construct PSF reference images, and also forcing those coefficients to be positive, it is possible to extract companion spectra with a precision that is set by calibration of the instrument response and transmission of the atmosphere, and not by post-processing. We demonstrate the utility of this approach using on-sky data obtained with the Project 1640 IFS at Palomar. Damped LOCI does not require any iterations on the underlying spectral type of the companion, nor does it rely on priors involving the chromatic and statistical properties of speckles. It is a general technique that can readily be applied to other current and planned instruments that employ IFSs.

  6. The United States of America and the People`s Republic of China experts report on integrated gasification combined-cycle technology (IGCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A report written by the leading US and Chinese experts in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants, intended for high level decision makers, may greatly accelerate the development of an IGCC demonstration project in the People`s Republic of China (PRC). The potential market for IGCC systems in China and the competitiveness of IGCC technology with other clean coal options for China have been analyzed in the report. Such information will be useful not only to the Chinese government but also to US vendors and companies. The goal of this report is to analyze the energy supply structure of China, China`s energy and environmental protection demand, and the potential market in China in order to make a justified and reasonable assessment on feasibility of the transfer of US Clean Coal Technologies to China. The Expert Report was developed and written by the joint US/PRC IGCC experts and will be presented to the State Planning Commission (SPC) by the President of the CAS to ensure consideration of the importance of IGCC for future PRC power production.

  7. Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasificaiton Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power; however, it generates solid waste materials in relatively large quantities. For example, a 400-MW power plant using 4000 tons of 10% ash coal per day may generate over 440 tons/day of solid waste of slag, consisting of vitrified mineral matter and unburned carbon. The disposal of the wastes represents significant costs. Regulatory trends with respect to solid wastes disposal, landfill development costs and public concern make utilization of solid wastes a high-priority issue. As coal gasification technologies find increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feed stocks, it becomes imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. Praxis is working on a DOE/METC funded project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of making lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates from slags left as solid by-products from the coal gasification process. The project objectives are to develop and demonstrate the technology for producing slag-based lightweight aggregates (SLA), to produce 10 tons of SLA products with different unit weights from two slags, to collect operational and emissions data from pilot-scale operations, and to conduct laboratory and commercial scale evaluations of SLA with conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates.

  8. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

  9. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. In this presentation, we will share our experience in setting up parallel computing using GA in the MATLAB® environment and present the overall approach for achieving higher computational efficiency in this framework.

  10. COMBINED SOCIOLOGY Ph.D. / POPULATION HEALTH M.S. OR MINOR OPTIONS OPTION I--M.S. in Population Health with Integrated Sociology Dissertation/Population Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Health with Integrated Sociology Dissertation/Population Health Thesis (33 credit minimum) Core Courses complete a Ph.D. dissertation that will also satisfy the master's program thesis requirements (including on the Ph.D. Dissertation. That faculty member must serve as the MS advisor and, in that capacity, sign

  11. Advanced Turbine Systems Program conceptual design and product development: Task 4.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Topical Report presents the results of Task 4 of the Westinghouse ATS Program. The purpose of Task 4 is to determine the technical development needs for conversion of the gas-fired ATS (GFATS). Two closely related, advanced, coal-based power plant technologies have been selected for consideration as the CFATS -- air-blown, coal gasification with hot gas cleaning incorporated into an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), and the Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) combined cycle. These are described and their estimated performance and emissions in the CFATS are reported. A development program for the CFATS is described that focuses on major commercialization issues. These issues are in the areas of combustion, flow distribution, structural analysis, and materials selection.

  12. Progress on a New Integrated 3-D UCG Simulator and its Initial Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J J; Camp, D W; Buscheck, T A; White, J A; Burton, G C; Wagoner, J L; Chen, M

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive simulator is being developed for underground coal gasification (UCG), with the capability to support site selection, design, hazard analyses, operations, and monitoring (Nitao et al., 2010). UCG is computationally challenging because it involves tightly-coupled multi-physical/chemical processes, with vastly different timescales. This new capability will predict cavity growth, product gas composition and rate, and the interaction with the host environment, accounting for site characteristics, injection gas composition and rate, and associated water-well extraction rates. Progress on the new simulator includes completion and system integration of a wall model, a rock spalling model, a cavity boundary tracking model, a one-dimensional cavity gas reactive transport model, a rudimentary rubble heat, mass, and reaction model, and coupling with a pre-existing hydrology simulator. An existing geomechanical simulator was enhanced to model cavity collapse and overburden subsidence. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is being evaluated to model cavity gas flow and combustion in two and three dimensions. Although the simulator is midway in its development, it was applied to modeling the Hoe Creek III field test (Stephens, 1981) conducted in the 1970s, in order to evaluate and demonstrate the simulator's basic capabilities, gain experience, and guide future development. Furthermore, it is consistent with our philosophy of incremental, spiral software development, which helps in identifying and resolving potential problems early in the process. The simulation accounts for two coal seams, two injection points, and air and oxygen phases. Approximate extent and shape of cavity growth showed reasonable agreement with interpreted field data. Product gas composition and carbon consumed could not be simultaneously matched for a given set of parameter values due to the rudimentary rubble model currently used, although they can be matched using separate parameter sets. This result is not surprising and confirms plans for a more sophisticated rubble model as our next step, as well as adding geomechanical collapse modeling and higher accuracy cavity gas reactive transport models. The results are very encouraging and demonstrate that our approach is sound.

  13. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems: Greenfield assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Both the KRW fluidized-bed gasifier and the transport gasifier case studies were used for this assessment. The transport technology is a high-velocity circulating fluidized-bed reactor currently under development by The M.W. Kellogg Company. In the earlier assessment, seven design concepts or cases were identified; a process design was developed; major equipment items were identified; estimates of capital cost, operation and maintenance cost, and cost of electricity were developed; reliability was predicted; and development issues were identified for six studies. Three of the most probable cases were further evaluated for a Greenfield assessment in this report to adequately determine all costs independent of facilities at Plant Wansley.

  14. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude higher than those of the sol-gel based sorbents. The results of the tests conducted with various dolomite-based sorbent indicate that the reactivity of the modified dolomite sorbent increases with increasing potassium concentration, while higher calcination temperature adversely affects the sorbent reactivity. Furthermore, the results indicate that as long as the absorption temperature is well below the equilibrium temperature, the reactivity of the sorbent improves with increasing temperature (350-425 C). As the temperature approaches the equilibrium temperature, because of the significant increase in the rate of reverse (i.e., regeneration) reaction, the rate of CO{sub 2} absorption decreases. The results of cyclic tests show that the reactivity of the sorbent gradually decreases in the cyclic process. To improve long-term durability (i.e., reactivity and capacity) of the sorbent, the sorbent was periodically re-impregnated with potassium additive and calcined. The results indicate that, in general, re-treatment improves the performance of the sorbent, and that, the extent of improvement gradually decreases in the cyclic process. The presence of steam significantly enhances the sorbent reactivity and significantly decreases the rate of decline in sorbent deactivation in the cyclic process.

  15. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Koneru, P.B.; Hubbard, D.A.; Shah, K.V.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU test runs which were monitored and reported included BI-GAS Tests G-18, G-18A and G-18B; Westinghouse PDU Test TP-032-1 and CFSF Test TP-M003; and Peatgas Pilot Plant Test No. 5. Kellogg also monitored winterization/maintenance activities at BI-GAS and Westinghouse and precommissioning of the IGT Wet Carbonization PDU. The final report on the Hygas Data Base Evaluation was issued, while final revisions were completed for the reports concerning PDU data base evaluations of Peatgas and single-stage peat gasification. Efforts toward completion of the brochure describing the DOE/GRI Joint Program proceeded. Normal MPC activities continued. Several technical progress reports were issued during this quarter.

  16. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term performance and thermal cycling (573 - 723 - 573 K) at 15 psi pressure drop for 1200 hours. Pd membranes showed excellent hydrogen permeability and thermal stability during the operational period. Under thermal cycling (573 K - 873 K - 573 K), Pd-Cu-MPSS membrane was stable and retained hydrogen permeation characteristics for over three months of operation. From this limited study, we conclude that SIEP is viable method for fabrication of defect-free, robust Pd-alloy membranes for high-temperature H{sub 2}-separation applications.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Coal Gasification Processes in a Well-Stirred Reactor: Effects of Devolatilization and Moisture Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    and syngas production). The results show that the syngas yield is most sensitive to the reaction rates on the syngas composition. The coal conversion time is most sensitive to the heat transfer rates including both

  18. Slag characterization and removal using pulse detonation for coal gasification. Quarterly research report, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huque, Z.; Zhou, J.; Mei, D.; Biney, P.O.

    1995-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments will mainly focus on breaking the bonds within the slag itself using detonation wave. For the experiments, initial suggestion was to build up slag deposit around a representative tube by placing it inside the convection pass of an actual boiler at the Northern States Power Company. But it was later concluded that once the tube is cooled to room condition, the thermal stress will greatly reduce the bonding between the heat transfer surface and the slag. It was concluded that the slag will be attached to the tube using high density epoxy resin. High density epoxy will be used so that they do not diffuse into the slag and strengthen the bonding within the slag. Suggestions on candidate epoxy are provided by MTI lab. MTI also provided PVAMU with different kinds of slags for testing. The deposits for characterization were from a subbituminous coal fired utility boiler.

  19. LWA demonstration applications using Illinois coal gasification slag: Phase II. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Steck, P. [Harvey Cement Products, Inc. (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major objective of this project is to demonstrate the suitability of using ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) produced by thermal expansion of solid residues (slag) generated during the gasification of Illinois coals as substitutes for conventional aggregates, which are typically produced by pyroprocessing of perlite ores. To meet this objective, expanded slag aggregates produced from an Illinois coal slag feed in Phase I will be subjected to characterization and applications-oriented testing. Target applications include the following: aggregates in precast products (blocks and rooftiles); construction aggregates (loose fill insulation and insulating concrete); and other applications as identified from evaluation of expanded slag properties. The production of value-added products from slag is aimed at eliminating a solid waste and possibly enhancing the overall economics of the gasification process, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are taken into consideration.

  20. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  1. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  2. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. Looking beyond the demonstration plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, R.A.; Halow, J.S. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, MV (US))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC), pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, near-term, coal-based technology options for new, base-load capacity additions are being demonstrated in projects currently underway. Longer-term technology options can be envisioned that potentialy will have lower capital, operating, and maintenance costs particularly for small increments of new capacity, higher efficiencies, the ability to economically meet increasingly stringent environmental standards, shorter construction times, higher reliability, improved load-response characteristics, tolerance to a wide range of coal feed-stocks, and infrastructure acceptability. Candidate longer-term technologies include gas turbine-based systems using air-blown, entrained flow gasifiers coupled with novel cleanup processes; PFBC systems utilizing a topping combustor; coal gasification/fuel cell systems; and coal-fueled gas turbines. This paper discusses the advantages and market niches of these longer-term technology options.

  4. Mesaba next-generation IGCC plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement awarded in June 2006, MEP-I LLC plans to demonstrate a next generation integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generating plant, the Mesaba Energy Project. The 606-MWe plant (the first of two similarly sized plants envisioned by project sponsors) will feature next-generation ConocoPhillips E-Gas{trademark} technology first tested on the DOE-funded Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering project. Mesaba will benefit from recommendations of an industry panel applying the Value Improving Practices process to Wabash cost and performance results. The project will be twice the size of Wabash, while demonstrating better efficient, reliability and pollutant control. The $2.16 billion project ($36 million federal cost share) will be located in the Iron Range region north of Duluth, Minnesota. Mesaba is one of four projects selected under Round II of the Clean Coal Power Initiative. 1 fig.

  5. Resource characterization and residuals remediation, Task 1.0: Air quality assessment and control, Task 2.0: Advanced power systems, Task 3.0: Advanced fuel forms and coproducts, Task 4.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Timpe, R.C.; Hartman, J.H. [and others

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses three subtasks related to the Resource Characterization and Residuals Remediation program: (1) sulfur forms in coal and their thermal transformations, (2) data resource evaluation and integration using GIS (Geographic Information Systems), and (3) supplementary research related to the Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) UCG (Underground Coal Gasification) test program.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE CALIFORNIA ENERGY INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Al MUilE 16 MMTIVl COAL GASIFICATION - HIGH STU 1250 MMCF/Olfacilities, particularly coal gasification plants,coal-fired5 5T/yr ore) Coal Gasification (Hi BTU (80Xl0 9 ft 3/yr)

  7. EROSION PREDICTION NEAR A STAGNATION POINT RESULTING FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SOLID PARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laitone, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    opera- tion of coal gasification, fired turbine facilities.flow typical of a coal gasification system is analyzed.is typical of coal gasification systems. XBL 7712-6550 U ;)

  8. The Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition Model (HIT) & Its Application in Optimizing a 50-year Hydrogen Infrastructure for Urban Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Ogden, J; Fan, Yueyue; Sperling, Dan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GHG emissions from coal gasification plants without carboncapital cost of one coal gasification plant at size of 1,200capital cost of one coal gasification central plant without

  9. HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS RESEARCH MEETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is pointed out that coal gasification involves 70% to 80% ofof alkali metals in coal gasification is poorly under- stoodOther methods of catalyzing coal gasification also should be

  10. PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS, STABILITY AND MATERIALS INTERACTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jr., J.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of multiple oxidants in coal gasification and fluidized bedsimilar to corrosion of coal gasification internals, but i strue in the case of coal gasification and l i q u i -

  11. The Hydrogen Infrastructure Transition (HIT) Model and Its Application in Optimizing a 50-year Hydrogen Infrastructure for Urban Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Ogden, Joan M; Fan, Yueyue; Sperling, Dan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GHG emissions from coal gasification plants without carboncapital cost of one coal gasification plant at size of 1,200capital cost of one coal gasification central plant without

  12. DIFFUSION OF A CHEMICAL SPECIES THROUGH A VISCOUS BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.3 Evaluation of a Coal Gasification Atmosphere. . -iv-a highly cor- rosive coal gasification mixture. It is shown2.3 Evaluation of a Coal Gasification Atmosphere The purpose

  13. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION, ANNUAL REPORT 1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of metals for use in coal gasification equipment. N. F.of HZ/CO mixtures from coal gasification and the water-gaschar, and ash in a coal gasification system. was the only

  14. Comparison of Preanode and Postanode Carbon Dioxide Separation for IGFC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Liese

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the arrangement of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) within a coal gasification cycle, this combination generally being called an integrated gasification fuel cell cycle. This work relies on a previous study performed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that details thermodynamic simulations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems and considers various gasifier types and includes cases for 90% CO2 capture (2007, “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants, Vol. 1: Bituminous Coal and Natural Gas to Electricity,” National Energy Technology Laboratory Report No. DOE/NETL-2007/1281). All systems in this study assume a Conoco Philips gasifier and cold-gas clean up conditions for the coal gasification system (Cases 3 and 4 in the NETL IGCC report). Four system arrangements, cases, are examined. Cases 1 and 2 remove the CO2 after the SOFC anode. Case 3 assumes steam addition, a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst, and a Selexol process to remove the CO2 in the gas cleanup section, sending a hydrogen-rich gas to the fuel cell anode. Case 4 assumes Selexol in the cold-gas cleanup section as in Case 3; however, there is no steam addition, and the WGS takes places in the SOFC and after the anode. Results demonstrate significant efficiency advantages compared with IGCC with CO2 capture. The hydrogen-rich case (Case 3) has better net electric efficiency compared with typical postanode CO2 capture cases (Cases 1 and 2), with a simpler arrangement but at a lower SOFC power density, or a lower efficiency at the same power density. Case 4 gives an efficiency similar to Case 3 but also at a lower SOFC power density. Carbon deposition concerns are also discussed

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hoe Creek Underground Coal...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site - 045 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Hoe Creek Underground Coal Gasification Site (045) Designated Name: Alternate Name: Location:...

  16. WWS 402: Energy for Sustainable Development Professor Denise Mauzerall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    -in....................................................................... 3. Clean Coal Technology........................................................................................... 3.1 Coal Gasification Technology......................................................... 3.2 Comparison of Coal Gasification and Boiler Technologies........................ 3.3 Gasification

  17. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    application (coal gasification, coal combustion followed byversions of advanced gasification processes show promise ofFixed-Bed Low-Btu Coal Gasification Systems for Retrofitting

  18. THE EFFECT OF COAL CHAR ON THE CORROSION OF 304 SS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foerster, Thomas Friedrich Wilhelm

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Materials for Coal Gasification Applications". of Highcommercially proven coal gasification processes exist. Theseprocesses. more efficient gasification Much of this work is

  19. Climate Change, Adaptation, and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climate change is coal gasification, which can make theworld leaders in coal gasification tech- nology, has beenexperimenting with "in situ" gasification, where the coal is

  20. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF INDUSTRIAL CATALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Heinz

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification In coal gasification there are two worthwhiledemonstrated. Many coal gasification plants are in operationCatalytic Coal Liquefaction and Gasification a) Liquefaction

  2. KE Uhrich (7/31/14) 1 K A T H R Y N E L I Z A B E T H U H R I C H

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    involving mechanistic studies of products formed in coal gasification condensate water PROFESSIONAL mechanistic studies of products formed in coal gasification condensate water USDA-Agricultural Research

  3. Rheological Study of Comingled Biomass and Coal Slurries with HydrothermalPretreatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, W; Park, C S; Norbeck, J N

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based fuels or coal gasification. 1 The transportation andemissions in the coal gasification process while maintainingbe very efficient for gasification of both coal and biomass

  4. water gas shift | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are extremely sensitive to sulfur and chloride poisoning and are normally not used in coal gasification plants. Sweet shift is normally not used for coal gasification...

  5. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Nina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    curtail-chinas-coal- gasification-for-fuel-yet-conversion-coal as a feedstock, coal gasification produces syngas whichCoal to Methanol Gasification Coal to Synthetic Methanol

  6. HYDROGENATION OF CO AND CO ON CLEAN RHODIUM AND IRON FOILS. CORRELATIONS OF REACTIVITIES AND SURFACE COMPOSITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dwyer, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    l) As a result of coal gasification (coal + H 0 + CO + H )dynamic data for the coal gasification and water shift

  7. EROSION-CORROSION-WEAR PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Alan V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presence of char in coal gasification reac- tors provides aand operation of coal gasification systems, coal fireddifferent gasification processes and starting coals. i·Brief

  8. Supercritical Pulverized Coal and Integrated Gasification Combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants Supplement: Sensitivity to CO 2 Capture Rate in Coal-Fired Power Plants June 22, 2015 DOENETL-20151720 OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

  9. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for HDD to provide a pathway to the next generation of emissions control systems CRADA with PACCAR, working closely with DAF Trucks Highly evolving field of work (mostly...

  10. Signal Integrity Analysis of a 2-D and 3-D Integrated Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanacevic, Milutin

    for the substrate, power network, and through silicon vias (TSVs). These models are combined integrated implantable systems. I. INTRODUCTION A multichannel potentiostat, integrated with micro and power dissipation. Signal integrity characteristics of a 2- D and 3-D integrated potentiostat

  11. Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Final report 1978-83

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.D.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical evaluations performed prior to 1981 were published as a separate document, Topical Reports 1978-1980, by C F Braun and Co, November 1982, Report No. GRI-80/0168. These evaluations include the Cities Service-Rockwell, Exxon Catalytic, Mountain Fuels, Slagging Lurgi, U-Gas, and Westinghouse processes for coal gasification, the Peatgas process for peat gasification, the GE Membrane process for acid gas removal, and an integrated test facility for use in the development of gasification processes. Evaluations performed in the 1981 to 1983 period are included in the present document, the Final Report. These evaluations include the Westinghouse process for coal gasification, the Engelhard, Stone and Webster and Texaco processes for gasification of coal derived liquids, the Catalysis Research Corporation (CRC) process for direct methanation of raw gas streams, and the CNG Research Company process for removal of acid gases from coal gasification process streams. Other recent investigations include the evaluation of materials of construction, fundamental design data, and heat recovery technology for coal gasification processes.

  12. GRI highlights underground gasification effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A consortium headed by the Gas Research Institute is supporting major underground coal gasification tests to take place over the next two years at a site near Hanna, Wyoming. About 200 tons of coal will be gasified per day. Directional drilling will be used to form the horizontal gasification pathways linking the injection and production wells. The objectives of the program include a further evaluation of the controlled-retracting-injection-point technology. The technology involves the use of a device that is capable of igniting successive coal zones as it is retracted through a borehole in the coal seam. Comparable data will also be obtained during the test in sections where a linked-vertical-well concept will be used instead of the retracting-injection method. The linked-vertical-well concept, which has been used in most coal gasification tests, involves drilling a series of vertical wells into the coal seam gasification pathway for the ignition of successive coal zones. A parallel program will be conducted to evaluate environmental control technology applicable to underground coal gasification and to define the process requirements that must be satisfied to meet environmental quality standards. The results of these combined programs will provide the process and environmental data bases necessary to assess the economic potential of underground coal gasification from various US locations for a variety of end-product applications.

  13. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification technology in China: Application and Development,” presentation at the China-US Clean

  14. SYSTEMS OPTIMIZATION LABORATORY DEPARTMENT OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Liquefaction Coal Gasification Thermal Electric Power Generation Oil Shale Conversion Fuel Refining Coal Slurry

  15. Analyzing and Tracking Burning Structures in Lean Premixed Hydrogen Flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    component of a clean-coal power plant utilizing hydrogen extracted from coal gasification. Lean premixed

  16. REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuel cells* A. coal gasification -»H - molten carbonatemechanical Fossil Coal Conventional Gasification Oil shale

  17. ORNL 2010-G00659/jcn UT-B ID 200701958

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ·· Fracture testing for materials used in transportation, nuclear-power­generated hydrogen, coal-gasification

  18. he West Coast energy crisis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reliability Spring 2006 What's Inside Coal Gasification: An Old 8 Technology Gains New Ground Success Story

  19. ORNL/TM-2007/28 Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    ............................................................................................................................................... 4 2.1 COAL GASIFICATION ........................................................................................................................... 1 2. COAL........................................................................................................ 4 2.2 COAL LIQUEFACTION

  20. Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applications including coal gasification, fer- tilizers fromin hydro-gasification reactions, such as coal and biomass,

  1. UAE UNIVERSITY College of Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Methane Reformation Process. · Coal Gasification. · Biomass Gasification. b. Non-Conventional Energy Resources

  2. Harmonic Representation of Combinations and Partitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalis Psimopoulos

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present article a new method of deriving integral representations of combinations and partitions in terms of harmonic products has been established. This method may be relevant to statistical mechanics and to number theory.

  3. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    goals chpaccomplishmentsbooklet.pdf More Documents & Publications High Efficiency Microturbine with Integral Heat Recovery - Fact Sheet, 2014 Combined Heat and Power - A Decade...

  4. EIS-0429: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Indiana Integrated...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    9: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Indiana Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Rockport, IN EIS-0429: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Indiana Integrated...

  5. Utilization of Illinois coal gasification slags for production of ultra-lightweight aggregates. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States); Zimmerle, T. [Silbrico Corp. (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was aimed at testing and developing the expansion potential of solid residues (slag) from gasification of Illinois coals to manufacture ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA). Conventional ULWAs are manufactured by pyroprocessing perlite or vermiculite ores and have unit weights in the 5--12 lb/ ft{sup 3} range. These materials sell for approximately $200/ton ($1.00/ft{sup 3}) and have numerous applications. The incentive for this effort was based on previous experimental results in which lightweight aggregates (LWA) with unit weights of 25--55 lb/ft{sup 3} were produced from Illinois slag using a direct-fired furnace. In this program, bench-scale expansion tests conducted with two Illinois coal slags resulted in product unit weights of 12 and 18.5 lb/ ft{sup 3}, thus confirming the feasibility of producing ULWA from Illinois slags. During initial pilot vertical shaft furnace test runs, two Illinois slags were expanded to generate products with unit weights of 12.5--26.5 and 20--52 lb/ ft{sup 3}. Further attempts to lower the product unit weights resulted in fusion of the slag. This problem could be overcome by methods including surface treatment of the slag, blending the slag with other materials, or utilization of indirect firing methods. To lower the product unit weights, an indirect-fired horizontal shaft furnace was used and products with unit weights of 12.4--52.0 lb/ft{sup 3} were generated, thus indicating that this method can be used to produce a wide range of expanded products. A large batch of expanded slag was produced using an 18-in. diameter x 12-ft long indirect-fired pilot furnace. A sample from this batch was characterized. Specimens of insulating concrete made from expanded slag had a unit weight 43.3 lb/ft{sup 3} and thermal conductivity of 1.34 Btu-in./h/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F. This compares well with a value of 1. 2 Btu-in./h/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F for insulating concrete of a similar weight made from perlite, as per ASTM C 332-82.

  6. Novel Sorption Enhanced Reaction Process for Simultaneous Production of CO2 and H2 from Synthesis Gas Produced by Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivaji Sircar; Hugo S. Caram; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael G. Beaver; Fan Ni; Agbor Tabi Makebe

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to evaluate the extensive feasibility of a novel concept called Thermal Swing Sorption Enhanced Reaction (TSSER) process to simultaneously produce H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} as a single unit operation in a sorber-reactor. The successful demonstration of the potential feasibility of the TSSER concept implies that it is worth pursuing further development of the idea. This can be done by more extensive evaluation of the basic sorptive properties of the CO{sub 2} chemisorbents at realistic high pressures and by continuing the experimental and theoretical study of the TSSER process. This will allow us to substantiate the assumptions made during the preliminary design and evaluation of the process and firm up the initial conclusions. The task performed under this project consists of (i) retrofitting an existing single column sorption apparatus for measurement of high pressure CO{sub 2} sorption characteristics, (ii) measurement of high pressure CO{sub 2} chemisorption equilibria, kinetics and sorption-desorption column dynamic characteristics under the conditions of thermal swing operation of the TSSER process, (iii) experimental evaluation of the individual steps of the TSSER process (iv) development of extended mathematical model for simulating cyclic continuous operation of TSSER to aid in process scale-up and for guiding future work, (v) simulate and test SER concept using realistic syngas composition, (vi) extensive demonstration of the thermal stability of sorbents using a TGA apparatus, (vii) investigation of the surfaces of the adsorbents and adsorbed CO{sub 2} ,and (viii) test the effects of sulfur compounds found in syngas on the CO{sub 2} sorbents.

  7. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Koneru, P.B.; Hubbard, D.A.; Shah, K.V.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pilot Plant and Process Development Unit Monitoring continued through August 1982; thereafter, such activities (and also MPC participation) were terminated in accordance with contract modifications. Testing monitored included PDU test run IP-033-1 and CFSF Tests TP-M005 and TP-M007-1 at Westinghouse, and wet carbonization PDU Test PB-5 at IGY. A draft report of the Westinghouse CFSF was issued for approval. Work on the descriptive brochure of the DOE/GRI Joint Program is nearly complete.

  8. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Chen, R.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities included continued monitoring of test operations at the Hygas, BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon, Rockwell and Bell plant sites, and of peat gasification laboratory activities. Pilot plant/PDU test runs monitored and reported were: Hygas Tests 85 and 86; BI-GAS Tests G-11C, 11D, 11E, 11F, G-12 and G-12A; Westinghouse test runs TP-023-4, TP-027-1, TP-027-2 and TP-027-3; Exxon test periods 13 through 17; and Rockwell Tests 318-063 through 318-073. Kellogg made significant progress toward completion of the Operating Plan Requirements for the individual developers, and began an evaluation of the Hygas data base. The final report on Westinghouse Risk Analysis were issued. Progress was made in completing the reports of the screening evaluations of Exxon, Rockwell and Westinghouse. The safety assurance study continued, as did normal participation in MPC activities. New task orders for technical/economic studies were submitted for review and approval.

  9. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Gilwood, W.C.; Glasgow, P.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Shah, K.V.; Singer, D.L.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During July-September 1981 Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU tests which were monitored and reported included BI-GAS Tests G-17D, G-17E, and G-17F; Westinghouse PDU test runs TP-0282 and TP-028-3 and CFSF Tests TP-M002-2 and TP-M006-1; Peatgas pilot plant Tests number 2 and number 3; and single-stage peat gasification PDU Test BF-21. Work on several task orders was completed with the issue of final reports on technical/economic assessments of Exxon, Westinghouse and Peatgas, the technical/economic comparison of Westinghouse and U-Gas, safety audits, safety assurance, peat harvesting and dewatering, gasifier vessel design and carbonyl formation. Kellogg continued its efforts toward completion of the descriptive brochure for the DOE/GRI Joint program and of the reports on the Hygas and Peatgas data bases. A new subtask, to evaluate the data base for single-stage peat gasification, was undertaken, and Kellogg participated in reviews of the Hygas final report. Normal MPC activities continued.

  10. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Castiglioni, B.P.; Gunderson, J.M.; Hare, R.M.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jacks, J.P.G.; Smith, M.R.; Starr, D.W.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities during the first quarter of 1980 included the continued monitoring of test operations at the Hygas, BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon, and Rockwell plant sites. Test runs monitored and reported were: Hygas test 85, BI-GAS tests G-11, G-11A, G-11B, Westinghouse test TP-023-4, Exxon test periods 7 through 12, and Rockwell tests 318-044 through 318-062. Kellogg continued to monitor design and construction of the Bell Aerospace PDU, and bench-scale test activities on peat at the IGT laboratories. Kellogg personnel attended the DOE/GRI Operating Committee meeting on 4 March, and program review meetings for Westinghouse, on 1 February, and Rockwell, on 26 March. Kellogg continued their participation in Metals Properties Council activities. On 3-6 March, Mr. S. Sathe attended the 1980 meeting of MPC Phase Group VII, which was held in conjunction with the NACE Corrosion '80 meeting in Chicago. The final report on DOE Task No. 6, Westinghouse Risk Analysis, was issued for approval by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee. Preparation of the final report for the PDU Screening Evaluation (Task No. 4) is underway. Process and estimating work is complete for each of the processes being evaluated. Kellogg continued work on Task No. 5, Safety Assurance Study. Information on the safety-related aspects of each process is still being received and evaluated.

  11. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Monthly technical progress report, 27 February-26 March 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Hubbard, D.A.; Koneru, P.B.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.; Zeis, L.A.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During March, Kellogg continued to monitor operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse and IGT Peatgas. Test runs monitored and reported were: BI-Gas tests G-18A and G-18B; Westinghouse PDU test: TP-032-1, and CFSF test TP-M003; Peatgas pilot plant test No. 5 at IGT. Kellog personnel briefed the Gas Research Institute (GRI) Project Advisors in regard to recent tasks and attended the Westinghouse briefing for GRI. Meetings of the DOE/GRI Joint Operating Committee were attended to discuss the Data Base Evaluation of Single-Stage Peat Gasification and the Joint Program Brochure. Kellogg proceeded to finalize the data base evaluation report and to institute necessary changes in the brochure.

  12. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Chen, R.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities included continued monitoring of test operations at BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon and IGT (for peak gasification). Pilot plant/PDU test runs which were monitored and reported included: BI-GAS tests G-14, G-14A, G-15 and G-15A; Westinghouse PDU tests TP-027-5 and TP-031-1 and CFSF tests TP-M001-1, 2, 3 and 4; Exxon run periods No. 23 and No. 24; and IGT single-stage peat gasification tests BF-1 through BF-6. Draft reports were submitted regarding Hygas data base evaluation, gasifier vessel design and scaleup risks of the Westinghouse oxygen-blown gasifier. Evaluation of the Hygas data base continued, and a similar study of the Peatgas PDU data base was initiated. Work was begun on preparation of a descriptive brochure for the DOE/GRI joint program. Kellogg personnel participated in investigations of welding materials with the MPC. Significant progress was made in the technical/economic assessments of Westinghouse, Exxon and Peatgas and in the technical/economic comparison of Westinghouse and U-gas, with technical definitions being essentially finished and cost estimation begun. Technical definition and preliminary capital cost estimates were completed for the peat harvesting/dewatering study. Work continued in the study of carbonyl formation. Following reviews by the developers, Kellogg began finalization of the report on screening evaluations of Westinghouse, Exxon and Rockwell. Work on the safety assurance study continued, with the commencement of safety audit visits.

  13. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI Coal Gasification Research Program. Quarterly technical progress report for the period October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Brancheau, R.J.; Castiglioni, B.P.; Gunderson, J.M.; Hare, R.M.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jacks, J.P.G.; Smith, M.R.; Starr, D.W.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities included the continued monitoring of test operations at the Hygas, BI-GAS, Westinghouse, Exxon and Rockwell plant sites. Test runs monitored and reported were: Hygas tests 83 and 84, BI-GAS tests G-9, G-10 and G10A, Westinghouse tests TP-025-2 and TP-023-3, Exxon test periods 3 through 6 and Rockwell tests 318-024 through 318-043. Kellogg initiated monitoring of the test program at Bell Aerospace. Bench-scale test activities for the IGT Peatgas program were monitored. Kellogg continued their participation in Metals Properties Council activities. The final report on DOE Task No. 3, Consultation on Westinghouse PDU, was completed and issued. The report on Task No. 6, Westinghouse Risk analysis, is complete and in the final review stage. Work continued on the PDU Screening Evaluation, Rockwell and Exxon processes: process work is essentially complete and cost estimation assurance study is in various stages of completion for each of the processes being monitored. Further information on the safety-related aspects of the processes is still being received and evaluated.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of the IGT peat-gasification process. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI Coal Gasification Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Senules, E.A.; Shah, K.V.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg has completed a moderately detailed design and cost estimate of a 250 billion Btu/Day grass-roots SNG plant using the Peatgas process. Results indicate that the cost of SNG would be $4.40/MM Btu, using a cost of $1.50/MM Btu for peat feedstock at 50% moisture. The SNG cost is reasonably competitive with that currently estimated for SNG from coal, and Kellogg would anticipate that capital cost reductions, via design optimization, could reduce the NSG cost to a level which is quite competitive. The cost of peat feedstock is a critical area of concern in evaluating economics of the Peatgas process. The value chosen for the base-case economics ($1.50/MM Btu) is in the higher portion of the price range considered typical by most investigators; the price of $1.50/MM Btu was chosen arbitrarily to represent a 50% increase over the cost of coal ($1.00/MM Btu) used by Kellogg in parallel studies, to reflect higher costs for land use and reclamation and for harvesting and dewatering of peat. In a study concurrent with that reported here, Kellogg found that one method of wet harvesting and mechanical/thermal dewatering yields a peat (50% moisture) cost which is unfavorably high and was therefore rejected for use as a base-case cost since much cheaper feedstock is apparently available by other harvesting/dewatering methods. The base-case cost of SNG is moderate somewhat by the values placed on the benzene and oil coproducts (i.e., $1.10 and $0.75 per gallon, respectively). The total of such credits amounts to about 39% of the gross operating cost; a reduction in value of the coproducts would adversely affect the cost of SNG. Certain technical factors are discussed: materials handling problems, high reactivity, low sulfur content, and limited gasification data.

  15. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Starr, D.W.; Shah, K.V.; Hubbard, D.A.; Koneru, P.B.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.; Wong, E.W.; Zeis, L.A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg continued to actively monitor operations at BI-GAS Westinghouse and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU testing which was monitored and reported includes Westinghouse PDU tests TP-030-3 and TP-031-3 and CFSF test TP-M003-1; Peatgas Pilot Plant test No. 4; and single-stage peat gasification PDU tests BF-22 and BF-23. Kellogg personnel briefed the GRI Project Advisors on current tasks and a DOE representative on peat-related work. The report on the Hygas Data Base Evaluation was approved for issue. Progress was made toward finalizing the report on the Peatgas Data Base Evaluation and the Descriptive Brochure for the DOE/GRI Joint Program. Work on the evaluation of the data base for single-stage peat gasification continued. Review of the Hygas final report was completed.

  16. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report for the period January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostwick, L.E.; Chen, R.G.; Ethridge, T.R.; Hare, R.M.; Hubbard, D.A.; Senules, E.A.; Singer, D.L.; Smith, M.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellogg activities during January to March 1981 included continued monitoring of the test operations at the BI-GAS, Westinghouse and Exxon plant sites. Peat gasification laboratory tests were monitored along with modification of Hygas pilot plant for testing of the Peatgas process. Testing at Rockwell ended during June 1980 and testing at Bell was suspended by DOE during July 1980. Pilot plant/PDU test runs monitored and reported were: BI-GAS Tests G-16 and G-16A, Westinghouse test runs TP-M001-1, 2, 3 and 4, Exxon test runs 25, 26 and 27, and single-stage fluidized bed peat gasification tests BF-7 through BF-12. Kellogg continued their participation in Metals Properties Council activities. The final report on the Westinghouse Risk Analysis (Kellogg Task 08) was approved by DOE and is ready for publication. Substantial progress was made on other listed Kellogg tasks. Work continued on subtasks involving Hygas and Peatgas data base evaluations, to incorporate in the draft reports the additional information and comments obtained from IGT.

  17. Engineering-support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, D.M.; Bostwick, L.E.; Ethridge, T.R.; Gilwood, W.C.; Hubbard, D.A.; Montgomery, R.L.; Senules, E.A.; Singer, D.L.; Smith, M.R.; Ward, W.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kellog activities during April to June 1981 included continued monitoring of activities at Bi-Gas, Westinghouse, Exxon and IGT (for peat gasification). Pilot plant/PDU tests which were monitored and reported include Bi-Gas tests G-16B, G-17, G-17A, G-17B, and G-17C; Westinghouse PDU test runs TP-029-1/030-1, TP-030-2 and TP-028-1 and CFSF tests TP-M002-1 and TP-M002-2; Exxon run period number 28; Peatgas pilot plant Test RF-1 and gasification Test number 1; and IGT single-stage peat gasification PDU Tests BF-13 through BF-20. Significant milestones were reached with the issue of draft reports for several tasks, including carbonyl formation, peat harvesting/dewatering, technical/economic assessments of Exxon, Westinghouse and PeatGas, technical/economic comparison of Westinghouse and U-Gas, gasifier design, safety audits, Hygas data base evaluation and the safety assurance study. In addition, final reports were issued for the Westinghouse oxygen blown gasifier risk analysis and for the PDU screening evaluations of Exxon, Westinghouse and Rockwell. Work on the Peatgas PDU data base evaluation continued, and a review of the Hygas final report was begun.

  18. Overburden characterization and post-burn study of the Hanna IV, underground coal gasification site, Wyoming, and comparison to other Wyoming UCG sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcouiller, B.A.; Burns, L.K.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of 21 post-burn cores taken from the Hanna IV UCG site allows 96 m (315 ft) of overburden to be subdivided into four local stratigraphic units. The 7.6 m (25 ft) thick Hanna No. 1 coal seam is overlain by a laterally discontinuous, 3.3 m (11 ft) thick shaley mudstone (Unit A') in part of the Hanna IV site. A more widespread, 30 m (90 ft) thick well-indurated sandstone (Unit A) overlies the A' unit. Unit A is the roof rock for both of the Hanna IV cavities. Overlying Unit A is a 33 m (108 ft) thick sequence of mudstone and claystone (Unit B), and the uppermost unit at the Hanna IV site (Unit C) is a coarse-grained sandstone that ranges in thickness from 40 to 67 m (131 to 220 ft). Two elliptical cavities were formed during the two phases of the Hanna IV experiment. The larger cavity, Hanna IVa, is 45 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 18 m (59 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity; the Hanna IVb cavity is 40 x 15 m in plan and has a maximum height of 11 m (36 ft) from the base of the coal seam to the top of the cavity. Geotechnical tests indicated that the Hanna IV overburden rocks were moderately strong to strong, based on the empirical classification of Broch and Franklin (1972), and a positive, linear correlation exists between rock strength and volume percent calcite cement. There is an inverse linear correlation between rock strength and porosity for the Hanna IV overburden rocks. 28 refs., 34 figs., 13 tabs..

  19. Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judith A. Kieffer

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasification combined cycle continues to represent an important defining technology area for the forest products industry. The ''Forest Products Gasification Initiative'', organized under the Industry's Agenda 2020 technology vision and supported by the DOE ''Industries of the Future'' program, is well positioned to guide these technologies to commercial success within a five-to ten-year timeframe given supportive federal budgets and public policy. Commercial success will result in significant environmental and renewable energy goals that are shared by the Industry and the Nation. The Battelle/FERCO LIVG technology, which is the technology of choice for the application reported here, remains of high interest due to characteristics that make it well suited for integration with the infrastructure of a pulp production facility. The capital cost, operating economics and long-term demonstration of this technology area key input to future economically sustainable projects and must be verified by the 200 BDT/day demonstration facility currently operating in Burlington, Vermont. The New Bern application that was the initial objective of this project is not currently economically viable and will not be implemented at this time due to several changes at and around the mill which have occurred since the inception of the project in 1995. The analysis shows that for this technology, and likely other gasification technologies as well, the first few installations will require unique circumstances, or supportive public policies, or both to attract host sites and investors.

  20. POWER-GEN '91 conference papers: Volume 7 (Non-utility power generation) and Volume 8 (New power plants - Gas and liquid fuels/combustion turbines). [Independent Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is book 4 of papers presented at the Fourth International Power Generation Exhibition and Conference on December 4-6, 1991. The book contains Volume 7, Non-Utility Power Generation and Volume 8, New Power Plants - Gas and Liquid Fuels/Combustion Turbines. The topics of the papers include PUHCA changes and transmission access, financing and economics of independent power projects, case histories, combustion turbine based technologies, coal gasification, and combined cycle.

  1. AGA encouraging industry to adopt gas option. [American Gas Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, G.H.

    1980-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The American Gas Association (AGA) supports a policy of increasing conventional natural gas production and sustaining the higher level for at least 40 years in addition to developing unconventional sources by coal gasification, methane, biomass, and other technologies. International efforts to shift from petroleum to gas are responding to the need for appropriate policies. With gas supplying 40% of the energy consumed by American buildings and by industry and agriculture, the country has a significant financial investment in equipment and distribution systems. Although deregulation of gas prices will not prevent a decline in conventional production for the next decade, new sources and technologies will combine to maintain supplies. Policies are needed to enhance the US coal gasification capability and to promote the use of dual-fired furnaces. The worldwide gas option is an appropriate to other oil-importing countries as it is to the US. (DCK)

  2. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.F. [SIMTECHE, Half Moon Bay, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  3. Grid Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its grid integration subprogram.

  4. Integrated assessment briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  5. Evolution integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocco Duvenhage

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A framework analogous to path integrals in quantum physics is set up for abstract dynamical systems in a W*-algebraic setting. We consider spaces of evolutions, defined in a specific way, of a W*-algebra A as an analogue of spaces of classical paths, and show how integrals over such spaces, which we call ``evolution integrals'', lead to dynamics in a Hilbert space on a ``higher level'' which is viewed as an analogue of quantum dynamics obtained from path integrals. The measures with respect to which these integrals are performed are projection valued.

  6. Moving granular-bed filter development program - option 1 - component test facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smelzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Science & Technology Center has proposed a novel moving granular bed filter concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF). The SMGBF has inherent advantages over the current state-of-the-art moving granular bed filter technology and is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters. The SMGBF system combines several unique features that make it highly effective for use in advanced coal-fueled power plants, such as pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC), and integrated coal-gasification combined cycles (IGCC). The SMGBF is being developed in a phased program having an initial Base Contract period followed by optional periods. The Base Contract period was successfully completed and previously documented by Westinghouse. The Option 1 period, {open_quote}Component Test Facilities{close_quotes}, has also been completed and its results are reported in this document. The objective of the Option 1 program was to optimize the performance of the SMGBF system through component testing focused on the major technology issues. The SMGBF has been shown to be a viable technology in both cold flow simulations and high-temperature, high-pressure testing, and conditions to lead to best performance levels have been identified. Several development activities remain to be complete before the SMGBF can achieve commercial readiness.

  7. Insolation integrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, John J. (Norristown, PA); Rudge, George T. (Lansdale, PA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric signal representative of the rate of insolation is integrated to determine if it is adequate for operation of a solar energy collection system.

  8. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

  9. Quantitative Network Signal Combinations Downstream of TCR Activation Can Predict IL-2 Production Response1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantitative Network Signal Combinations Downstream of TCR Activation Can Predict IL-2 Production of intense ongoing study, but understanding how the consequent downstream signaling networks integrate hypothesized that a quantitative combination of key downstream network signals across multiple pathways must

  10. Conservation Conservation ResourcesConservation Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sequestration,, coal gasification, carbon sequestration, energy storage, highenergy storage, highConfirm cost & availability of promising resources ­­ Oil sandsOil sands cogencogen, coal gasification, carbon

  11. HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS RESEARCH MEETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    synthesis gas by coal gasification is very expensive andin the cost of coal gasification would have a significantas K co , to promote gasification would be beneficial s1nce

  12. MATERIALS AND MOLECULAR RESEARCH DIVISION Annual Report 1977.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stainless Steel in Coal Gasification Environments, LBL-733Z.of Materials Used in Coal Gasification Plants, AGA- ERDA-MPCon ~hterials for the Gasification of Coal, presented to the

  13. Holes in the Backstop: Optimal Contracts and the Saga of the US Synthetic Fuels Corporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Richard J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal gasification, oil shale, and other technologies. [2] AsSyngas, Louisiana Oil Shale 10,400 BPD Coal GasificationCathedral Bluffs, Colorado Oil Shale 15,160 BPD Union Oil

  14. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  15. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JL. Kinetics of coal gasification. Ind Eng Chem Process DesK, Ryo Y, et al. Coal gasification with a subcritical steamkinetic analysis of coal char gasification reactions at high

  16. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    control systems Probe interaction of DPF-SCR couples to better understand the optimization of the coupled units Determine system limitations, define basic requirements for...

  17. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for HDD to provide a pathway to the next generation of emissions control systems CRADA with PACCAR, working intimately with PTC and DAF Trucks N.V. Evolving field of work...

  18. Combination & Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"Department of8, 2013

  19. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"Department of8, 2013Aftertreatment

  20. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"Department of8, 2013AftertreatmentDepartment

  1. Combination and Integration of DPF-SCR Aftertreatment Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"Department of8,

  2. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Â… Combining Fluid Loops in Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry Research U.S. Department ofofDepartmentDrive

  3. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Â… Combining Fluid Loops in Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry Research U.S. Department

  4. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management Â… Combining Fluid Loops in Electric

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry Research U.S. DepartmentDrive Vehicles |

  5. "Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8 WaterRegional

  6. An analysis of the TR-BDF2 integration scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmaraja, Sohan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We intend to try to better our understanding of how the combined L-stable 'Trapezoidal Rule with the second order Backward Difference Formula' (TR-BDF2) integrator and the standard A-stable Trapezoidal integrator perform ...

  7. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  8. o f U r b a n A Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    to the river's noticeable pollution This kudzu patch was once used as a coal gasification plant and a dump site

  9. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: The Least-Cost Hydrogen for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Chen, Chien-Wei; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCS is not adopted, the transition sequence, dominated by coal gasification, provides positive but little CO2 mitigation potential.

  10. Optimized Pathways for Regional H2 Infrastructure Transitions: A Case Study for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhenhong; Fan, Yueyue; Ogden, Joan M; Chen, Chien-Wei

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CCS is not adopted, the transition sequence, dominated by coal gasification, provides positive but little CO2 mitigation potential.

  11. solicitations | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications Coal Gasification Magazine Solicitations FAQs All NETL Solicitations Funding Opportunity...

  12. Schrepel, Eric From: Phillips, Kendra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    refineries and the first true coal gasification plant in the Mohave desert, namely Cool Water, that exceeded

  13. Duke, China's Huaneng to 'explore' clean tech

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A vaguely worded press release said the two companies will focus on carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and coal gasification.

  14. Integrated CHP/Advanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    restrictions. Integrated Combined Heat and PowerAdvanced Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine System for Landfill Gas to Power Applications More Documents & Publications...

  15. Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management for Advanced Vehicle Propulsion Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for evaluating and quantifying integrated transient and continuous heat loads of combined systems incorporating electric drive systems operating primarily under transient duty cycles.

  16. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipis: An Integrated Baseline for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to establish an "integrated baseline" by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA)...

  17. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Rizeq; Janice West; Raul Subia; Arnaldo Frydman; Parag Kulkarni; Jennifer Schwerman; Valadimir Zamansky; John Reinker; Kanchan Mondal; Lubor Stonawski; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

    2005-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    GE Global Research is developing an innovative energy technology for coal gasification with high efficiency and near-zero pollution. This Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology simultaneously converts coal, steam and air into three separate streams of hydrogen-rich gas, sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and high-temperature, high-pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in gas turbines. This is the draft final report for the first stage of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program. The UFP technology development program encompassed lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP concept. Modeling and economic assessments were also key parts of this program. The chemical and mechanical feasibility were established via lab and bench-scale testing, and a pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated, demonstrating the major UFP features. Experimental and preliminary modeling results showed that 80% H{sub 2} purity could be achieved, and that a UFP-based energy plant is projected to meet DOE efficiency targets. Future work will include additional pilot plant testing to optimize performance and reduce environmental, operability and combined cycle integration risks. Results obtained to date have confirmed that this technology has the potential to economically meet future efficiency and environmental performance goals.

  18. Pilot plant used to develop load and pressure controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagata, Kazue; Yamada, Toshihiro; Hiza, Tomoyuki

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viewed from the perspective of the power-generation mixture in Japan, nuclear power plants will continue to be operated to meet the base load. Meanwhile, integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants will be required to serve as thermal power plants to cover the middle load, as is the case with conventional thermal power plants. In terms of operational performance, therefore, IGCC power plants will need to have a capability of following a wide range of load demand at high speed. For this purpose, a load and pressure controller was developed and tested during the operational research on a 200 tons/day entrained flow IGCC pilot plant at the Nakoso Power Station by the Engineering Research Association for IGCC Power Systems (IGC Association). This article reports on the development of the load and pressure controller and the results of the control test carried out to check the load follow capability of the pilot plant, while touching upon the simulation study also being conducted.

  19. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  20. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.