Sample records for instant liquid nitrogen

  1. Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream (1st Grade) Lesson Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Introduce kids to liquid nitrogen. Explain that it is a liquid and is very cold (kids will be excited

  2. Effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Acciarri; M. Antonello; B. Baibussinov; M. Baldo-Ceolin; P. Benetti; F. Calaprice; E. Calligarich; M. Cambiaghi; N. Canci; F. Carbonara; F. Cavanna; S. Centro; A. G. Cocco; F. Di Pompeo; G. Fiorillo; C. Galbiati; V. Gallo; L. Grandi; G. Meng; I. Modena; C. Montanari; O. Palamara; L. Pandola; F. Pietropaolo; G. L. Raselli; M. Roncadelli; M. Rossella; C. Rubbia; E. Segreto; A. M. Szelc; S. Ventura; C. Vignoli

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated test of the effects of Nitrogen contamination in liquid Argon has been performed at the INFN-Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS, Italy) within the WArP R&D program. A detector has been designed and assembled for this specific task and connected to a system for the injection of controlled amounts of gaseous Nitrogen into the liquid Argon. Purpose of the test is to detect the reduction of the Ar scintillation light emission as a function of the amount of the Nitrogen contaminant injected in the Argon volume. A wide concentration range, spanning from about 10^-1 ppm up to about 10^3 ppm, has been explored. Measurements have been done with electrons in the energy range of minimum ionizing particles (gamma-conversion from radioactive sources). Source spectra at different Nitrogen contaminations are analyzed, showing sensitive reduction of the scintillation yield at increasing concentrations. The rate constant of the light quenching process induced by Nitrogen in liquid Ar has been found to be k(N2)=0.11 micros^-1 ppm^-1. Direct PMT signals acquisition at high time resolution by fast Waveform recording allowed to extract with high precision the main characteristics of the scintillation light emission in pure and contaminated LAr. In particular, the decreasing behavior in lifetime and relative amplitude of the slow component is found to be appreciable from O(1 ppm) of Nitrogen concentrations.

  3. NATURAL CONVECTION OF SUBCOOLED LIQUID NITROGEN IN A VERTICAL CAVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    temperature superconductor) power devices, such as HTS transformers, fault current limiters, and terminals power transformer cooled by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen. A liquid nitrogen bath of subcooled liquid nitrogen system for an HTS transformer, operating at around 65 K. This system consists

  4. Performance of extended surface from a cryocooler for subcooling liquid nitrogen by natural convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    of cryocooling systems for HTS power devices without any forced circulation of liquid nitrogen. Since the cold for the HTS (high temperature superconductor) power devices over the past several years since liquid nitrogen et al. [3] have proposed a new cryo- genic concept for HTS transformer, operating in the range of 63

  5. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Liquid Nitrogen Packed Column Distributor Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    concepts for a liquid nitrogen distributor for a packed distillation column. The design team at Penn State distillation column design. Approach The design team first gathered customer specifications from Air ProductsPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Liquid Nitrogen Packed Column

  6. Rhodium Mossbauer Supperadiance Induced by Liquid-Nitrogen Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao Cheng; Bing Xia; Zhongming Wang

    2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the previous report, we have demonstrated cascade branching channels of the multipolar E3 transition of rhodium Mossbauer gamma via the time- and energy-resolved spectroscopy. Moreover, superradiance in the Borrmann channel from inverted nuclei gives gamma entanglement. In this letter, we report further four observations of superradiance and its associated gamma entanglement at the liquid-nitrogen temperature, i.e. (i) speed-up decay, (ii) immediate recovery of the speed-up decay after quenching, (iii) simultaneous suppression of gamma and K lines, and (iv) enhanced multiple ionizations. Anisotropic superradiant channels open by quenching and recover back immediately after quenching. Enhanced K satellites and K hypersatellites induced by cooling are attributed to the inelastic scattering of more than three entangled gammas.

  7. Rhodium Mossbauer Supperadiance Induced by Liquid-Nitrogen Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yao; Wang, Zhongming

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the previous report, we have demonstrated cascade branching channels of the multipolar E3 transition of rhodium Mossbauer gamma via the time- and energy-resolved spectroscopy. Moreover, superradiance in the Borrmann channel from inverted nuclei gives gamma entanglement. In this letter, we report further four observations of superradiance and its associated gamma entanglement at the liquid-nitrogen temperature, i.e. (i) speed-up decay, (ii) immediate recovery of the speed-up decay after quenching, (iii) simultaneous suppression of gamma and K lines, and (iv) enhanced multiple ionizations. Anisotropic superradiant channels open by quenching and recover back immediately after quenching. Enhanced K satellites and K hypersatellites induced by cooling are attributed to the inelastic scattering of more than three entangled gammas.

  8. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  9. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  10. Magellan Instant Camera testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEwen, Heather K. (Heather Kristine), 1982-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Magellan Instant Camera (MagIC) is an optical CCD camera that was built at MIT and is currently used at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) in La Serena, Chile. It is designed to be both simple and efficient with minimal ...

  11. Instant Revocation Jon A. Solworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solworth, Jon A.

    efficient--both in relative and absolute terms--when used with coarser grain (non-instant) revocations. Key

  12. Oxygen quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator and nitrogen bubbling model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao Hua-Lin

    2009-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen quenching effect in Linear Alkl Benzne (LAB) based liquid scintillator (LAB as the solvent, 3 g/L 2, 5 diphe-nyloxazole (PPO) as the fluor and 15 mg/L $p$-bis-($o$-methylstyryl)-benzene (bis-MSB) as the $\\lambda$-shifter) is studied by measuring the light yield as the function of the nitrogen bubbling time. It is shown that the light yield of the fully purged liquid scintillator is increased by 11% at the room temperature and the room atmosphere pressure. A simple nitrogen bubbling model is proposed to describe the relationship between the relative light yield (oxygen quenching factor) and the bubbling time.

  13. Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    is provided by a LN2-cooled radiation shroud, which reduces the radiative heat load on the cryosail. Since Engineering, Mitchell.Walker@ae.gatech.edu #12;2 nitrogen shroud, the heat transfer calculated by Eqn. (1 operating temperature. This is seen notionally by equation 1: Eqn. (1) where Q is the rate of heat transfer

  14. MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY OF57 Fe IMPLANTED TO ALUMINIUM AT LIQUID NITROGEN TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY OF57 Fe IMPLANTED TO ALUMINIUM AT LIQUID NITROGEN TEMPERATURE K. Sassa, Y. The ageing behavior of the specimen was examined by conversion electron Mossbauer spec- troscopy at 77 K at room temperature. Internal conversion electron Mossbauer spec- troscopy is most suitable

  15. Design and Implementation of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Hollow Cathode Discharge Source for the Study of the Reaction H+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Benjamin J.

    Design and Implementation of a Liquid Nitrogen-Cooled Hollow Cathode Discharge Source for the Study in the first place and providing me with this incredible opportunity! You guys rock! 2 #12;Introduction Work

  16. Characteristic evaluation of cooling technique using liquid nitrogen and metal porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanno, Yusuke; Ito, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hidetoshi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A remountable high-temperature superconducting magnet, whose segments can be mounted and demounted repeatedly, has been proposed for construction and maintenance of superconducting magnet and inner reactor components of a fusion reactor. One of the issues in this design is that the performance of the magnet deteriorates by a local temperature rise due to Joule heating in jointing regions. In order to prevent local temperature rise, a cooling system using a cryogenic coolant and metal porous media was proposed and experimental studies have been carried out using liquid nitrogen. In this study, flow and heat transfer characteristics of cooling system using subcooled liquid nitrogen and bronze particle sintered porous media are evaluated through experiments in which the inlet degree of subcooling and flow rate of the liquid nitrogen. The flow characteristics without heat input were coincided with Ergun’s equation expressing single-phase flow in porous materials. The obtained boiling curve was categorized into three conditions; convection region, nucleate boiling region and mixed region with nucleate and film boiling. Wall superheat did not increase drastically with porous media after departure from nucleate boiling point, which is different from a situation of usual boiling curve in a smooth tube. The fact is important characteristic to cooling superconducting magnet to avoid its quench. Heat transfer coefficient with bronze particle sintered porous media was at least twice larger than that without the porous media. It was also indicated qualitatively that departure from nucleate boiling point and heat transfer coefficient depends on degree of subcooling and mass flow rate. The quantitative evaluation of them and further discussion for the cooling system will be performed as future tasks.

  17. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  18. hal-00132485,version1-21Feb2007 Liquid nitrogen to room temperature thermometry using niobium nitride thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00132485,version1-21Feb2007 Liquid nitrogen to room temperature thermometry using niobium´eel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France (Dated: February 21, 2007) Niobium nitride thin, the interesting properties of niobium nitride (NbN) as well as amorphous Nb-Si have been ex- tensively used

  19. Natural circulation loop using liquid nitrogen for cryo-detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Yeon Suk [Korea Basic Science Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural circulation loop is designed for the cryogenic insert in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Sensitivity is the key parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer and the cryo-cooling of the pre-amplifier can reduce the thermal noise level and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The pre-amplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling loop which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. The liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the loop to cool the pre-amplifier indirectly. At the end, a cryocooler is located to re-condense nitrogen vapor generated due to the heat from the pre-amplifier. The circulating fluid removes heat from the pre-amplifier and transports it to the cryocooler or heat sink. In this paper the natural circulation loop for cryogenic pre-amplifier is introduced for improving the sensitivity of cryo-detector. In addition, the initial cool-down of the system by a cryocooler is presented and the temperature of the radiation shield is discussed with respect to the thickness of shield and the thermal radiation load.

  20. Lithium-sulfur batteries based on nitrogen-doped carbon and ionic liquid electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon (NC) and sulfur were used to prepare an NC/S composite cathode, which was evaluated in an ionic liquid electrolyte of 0.5 M lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (MPPY.TFSI) by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and cycle testing. To facilitate the comparison, a C/S composite based on activated carbon (AC) without nitrogen doping was also fabricated under the same conditions as those for the NC/S composite. Compared with the AC/S composite, the NC/S composite showed enhanced activity toward sulfur reduction, as evidenced by the early onset sulfur reduction potential, higher redox current density in the CV test, and faster charge transfer kinetics as indicated by EIS measurement. At room temperature under a current density of 84 mA g-1 (C/20), the battery based on the NC/S composite exhibited higher discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1420 mAh g-1 whereas that based on the AC/S composite showed lower discharge potential and an initial capacity of 1120 mAh g-1. Both batteries showed similar capacity fading with cycling due to the intrinsic polysulfide solubility and the polysulfide shuttle mechanism; the capacity fading can be improved by further modification of the cathode.

  1. Liquid-nitrogen cooled, free-running single-photon sensitive detector at telecommunication wavelengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Covi; B. Pressl; T. Günthner; K. Laiho; S. Krapick; C. Silberhorn; G. Weihs

    2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of light characteristics at the single- and few photon level plays a key role in many quantum optics applications. Often photodetection is preceded with the transmission of quantum light over long distances in optical fibers with their low loss window near 1550nm. Nonetheless, the detection of the photonic states at telecommunication wavelengths via avalanche photodetectors has long been facing severe restrictions. Only recently, demonstrations of the first free-running detector techniques in the telecommunication band have lifted the demand of synchronizing the signal with the detector. Moreover, moderate cooling is required to gain single-photon sensitivity with these detectors. Here we implement a liquid-nitrogen cooled negative-feedback avalanche diode (NFAD) at telecommunication wavelengths and investigate the properties of this highly flexible, free-running single-photon sensitive detector. Our realization of cooling provides a large range of stable operating temperatures and has advantages over the relatively bulky commercial refrigerators that have been used before. We determine the region of NFAD working parameters most suitable for single-photon sensitive detection enabling a direct plug-in of our detector to a true photon counting task.

  2. Carbon-nitrogen bond-forming reactions in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide media : green synthetic chemistry with multiscale reaction and phase behavior modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciccolini, Rocco P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work was to develop a detailed understanding of carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond-forming reactions of amines carried out in supercritical and expanded-liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) media. Key motivations behind ...

  3. Electrical conductivity and equation of state of liquid nitrogen, oxygen, benzene, and 1-butene shocked to 60 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.C.

    1986-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements are reported for the electrical conductivity of liquid nitrogen (N/sub 2/), oxygen (O/sub 2/) and benzene (C/sub 6/H/sub 6/), and Hugoniot equation of state of liquid 1-butene (C/sub 4/H/sub 8/) under shock compressed conditions. The conductivity data span 7 x 10/sup -4/ to 7 x 10/sup 1/ ..cap omega../sup -1/cm/sup -1/ over a dynamic pressure range 18.1 to 61.5 GPa and are discussed in terms of amorphous semiconduction models which include such transport phenomena as hopping, percolation, pseudogaps, and metallization. Excellent agreement is found between the equation-of-state measurements, which span a dynamic pressure range 12.3 to 53.8 GPa, and Ree's calculated values which assume a 2-phase mixture consisting of molecular hydrogen and carbon in a dense diamond-like phase. There is a 2-1/2 fold increase in the thermal pressure contribution over a less dense, stoichiometrically equivalent liquid. 90 refs., 48 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Ultrasonic attenuation and volume viscosity in liquid argon, nitrogen and helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, James Robert

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /cm . Measurements taken at densities from 2 1. 06 to 1. 42 g/cm result in values of 2. 3 to 0. 8 for the ratio of volume to shear viscosity. These values are compared with theoretical predictions of other investigators. It appears that the volume viscosity...ULTRASOM IC A'ITEN UAT IOM AMD VOLUME VISCOSITY IM LIQUID ARGON, "IITROGEV AMD MET IUM A Thesis by JAMES ROBFRT SI'%GER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AgM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  5. Operation of a GERDA Phase I prototype detector in liquid argon and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Barnabé Heider; A. Bakalyarov; L. Bezrukov; C. Cattadori; O. Chkvorets; K. Gusev; M. Hult; I. Kirpichnikov; V. Lebedev; G. Marissens; P. Peiffer; S. Schönert; M. Shirchenko; A. Smolnikov; A. Vasenko; S. Vasiliev; S. Zhukov

    2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The GERDA (GERmanium Detector Array) experiment aiming to search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge at the Laboratori Nazionali Del Gran Sasso (LNGS), Italy, will operate bare enriched high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in liquid argon. GERDA Phase I will use the enriched diodes from the previous Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) and IGEX experiments. With the HPGe detectors mounted in a low-mass holder, GERDA aims at an excellent energy resolution and extremely low background. The goal is to check the claim for the neutrinoless double beta decay evidence in the HdM 76Ge experiment within one year of data taking. Before dismounting the enriched diodes from their cryostat, the performance parameters of the HdM and the IGEX detectors have been measured. The diodes have been removed from their cryostats, their dimensions measured and they have been put under va-cuum in a transportation container. They are now being refurbished for GERDA Phase I at Canberra Semiconductor NV. Before operating the enriched diodes, a non-enriched HPGe p-type detector mounted in a low-mass holder is operated in the liquid argon test facility of the GERDA Detector Laboratory (GDL) at LNGS. Since January 2006, the testing of the prototype detector is being carried out in the GDL as well as at the site of the detector manufacturer.

  6. Instant Personalization and Temporary Ownership of Handheld Devices Jurgen Bohn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instant Personalization and Temporary Ownership of Handheld Devices J¨urgen Bohn Institute a system for instant personalization and temporary ownership of mobile devices that addresses these issues of use, mobile user devices enable convenient ubiqui- tous access to personal user data in situations

  7. ComEd- Business Instant Lighting Discounts Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd offers the Business Instant Lighting Discounts program to businesses, multi-family properties and private schools. Incentives are available on a variety of reduced wattage lamps which can be...

  8. METHODS AND APPLICATIONS High-throughput instant quantification of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    based on photoactive yellow protein turn off/on label Youngmin Kim,1,2 Prabhakar Ganesan,1 on the Photoactive yellow protein turn Off/On Label (POOL) system that can instantly quan- tify the concentration Gel Electrophoresis; POOL, PYP turn Off/On Label; PYP, Photoactive Yellow Protein; SUMO, Small

  9. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  10. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  11. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1993-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  12. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  13. Nitrogen sorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Babcock, W.C.; Edlund, D.J.; Miller, W.K.

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-sorbing and -desorbing compositions and methods of using the same are disclosed, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas. 5 figs.

  14. Send an instant message 1 In your Contacts list, double-click a contact.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsson, Johan

    Send an instant message 1 In your Contacts list, double-click a contact. 2 Type a message in the message input area at the bottom of the message box, and then press Enter. 3 (Optional) To add an emoticon the letter A next to the emoticon button. Receive an instant message When someone sends you

  15. Analysis of liquified coal for nitrogenous bases; separation by high performance liquid chromatography and identification by probe microdistillation/mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schronk, Leonard Royce

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    units 82 CHAPTER I RESEARCH OBJECTIVE AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE Objective and Importance of Work The objective of this research is to develop a new method for analyzing coal liquefaction products through a combination of high performance liquid... in demand. These needs have necessi- tated the development of new sources of fuel. One of these new sources of fuel is synthetic crude derived from coal by liquefaction processes. It provides a promising temporary alternative to a long-term solution...

  16. LIQUID & GAS NITROGEN LINE SIZING

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHot electron dynamics in807 DE89 002669 RF and^ -RS 1 5

  17. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  18. RIS-M-2230 THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF NITROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    viscosity Liquid enthalpy density heat capacity - conductivity dynamic viscosity Surface tension Conven Temperature Pressure Latent heat of evaporation Gas enthalpy density - heat capacity conductivity - dynamic of nitrogen liquid and gas (1 to 6 bar) are presented. The approximations are polynomials worked out

  19. Nitrogen dioxide detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM); Agnew, Stephen F. (Los Alamos, NM); Christensen, William H. (Buena Park, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for detecting the presence of gaseous nitrogen dioxide and determining the amount of gas which is present. Though polystyrene is normally an insulator, it becomes electrically conductive in the presence of nitrogen dioxide. Conductance or resistance of a polystyrene sensing element is related to the concentration of nitrogen dioxide at the sensing element.

  20. Nitrogen spark denoxer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Henry K. (Naperville, IL); Novick, Vincent J. (Downers Grove, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NO.sub.X control system for an internal combustion engine includes an oxygen enrichment device that produces oxygen and nitrogen enriched air. The nitrogen enriched air contains molecular nitrogen that is provided to a spark plug that is mounted in an exhaust outlet of an internal combustion engine. As the nitrogen enriched air is expelled at the spark gap of the spark plug, the nitrogen enriched air is exposed to a pulsating spark that is generated across the spark gap of the spark plug. The spark gap is elongated so that a sufficient amount of atomic nitrogen is produced and is injected into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine. The injection of the atomic nitrogen into the exhaust of the internal combustion engine causes the oxides of nitrogen to be reduced into nitrogen and oxygen such that the emissions from the engine will have acceptable levels of NO.sub.X. The oxygen enrichment device that produces both the oxygen and nitrogen enriched air can include a selectively permeable membrane.

  1. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    however, in combustion processes using crude oil, coal andcombustion processes increases with nitrogen content of the fuel, TABLE 1 Typical Nitrogen Content of Fuels Reference Fuel Crude Oil

  2. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, Rishi (Ithaca, NY); Baik, Sunggi (Ithaca, NY)

    1984-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  3. Use of silicon in liquid sintered silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1984-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  4. Removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olmstead, W.N.

    1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for enhancing the removal of nitrogen and sulfur from oil-shale. The process consists of: (a) contacting the oil-shale with a sufficient amount of an aqueous base solution comprised of at least a stoichiometric amount of one or more alkali metal or alkaline-earth metal hydroxides based on the total amount of nitrogen and sulfur present in the oil-shale. Also necessary is an amount sufficient to form a two-phase liquid, solid system, a temperature from about 50/sup 0/C to about 350/sup 0/C., and pressures sufficient to maintain the solution in liquid form; (b) separating the effluents from the treated oil-shale, wherein the resulting liquid effluent contains nitrogen moieties and sulfur moieties from the oil-shale and any resulting gaseous effluent contains nitrogen moieties from the oil-shale, and (c) converting organic material of the treated oil-shale to shale-oil at a temperature from about 450/sup 0/C to about 550/sup 0/C.

  5. Application of the INSTANT-HPS PN Transport Code to the C5G7 Benchmark Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wang; H. Zhang; R. H. Szilard; R. C. Martineau

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INSTANT is the INL's next generation neutron transport solver to support high-fidelity multi-physics reactor simulation INSTANT is in continuous development to extend its capability Code is designed to take full advantage of middle to large cluster (10-1000 processors) Code is designed to focus on method adaptation while also mesh adaptation will be possible. It utilizes the most modern computing techniques to generate a neutronics tool of full-core transport calculations for reactor analysis and design. It can perform calculations on unstructured 2D/3D triangular, hexagonal and Cartesian geometries. Calculations can be easily extended to more geometries because of the independent mesh framework coded with the model Fortran. This code has a multigroup solver with thermal rebalance and Chebyshev acceleration. It employs second-order PN and Hybrid Finite Element method (PNHFEM) discretization scheme. Three different in-group solvers - preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (CG) method, preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual Method (GMRES) and Red-Black iteration - have been implemented and parallelized with the spatial domain decomposition in the code. The input is managed with extensible markup language (XML) format. 3D variables including the flux distributions are outputted into VTK files, which can be visualized by tools such as VisIt and ParaView. An extension of the code named INSTANTHPS provides the capability to perform 3D heterogeneous transport calculations within fuel pins. C5G7 is an OECD/NEA benchmark problem created to test the ability of modern deterministic transport methods and codes to treat reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. This benchmark problem had been widely analyzed with various code packages. In this transaction, results of the applying the INSTANT-HPS code to the C5G7 problem are summarized.

  6. Nitrogen at very high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nellis, W.J.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure results for nitrogen are reviewed and discussed in terms of phenomena that occur at extreme conditions.

  7. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

    1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

  8. Methane/nitrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

  9. Understanding Nitrogen Fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. Chirik

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of our program is to explore fundamental chemistry relevant to the discovery of energy efficient methods for the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) into more value-added nitrogen-containing organic molecules. Such transformations are key for domestic energy security and the reduction of fossil fuel dependencies. With DOE support, we have synthesized families of zirconium and hafnium dinitrogen complexes with elongated and activated N-N bonds that exhibit rich N{sub 2} functionalization chemistry. Having elucidated new methods for N-H bond formation from dihydrogen, C-H bonds and Broensted acids, we have since turned our attention to N-C bond construction. These reactions are particularly important for the synthesis of amines, heterocycles and hydrazines with a range of applications in the fine and commodity chemicals industries and as fuels. One recent highlight was the discovery of a new N{sub 2} cleavage reaction upon addition of carbon monoxide which resulted in the synthesis of an important fertilizer, oxamide, from the diatomics with the two strongest bonds in chemistry. Nitrogen-carbon bonds form the backbone of many important organic molecules, especially those used in the fertilizer and pharamaceutical industries. During the past year, we have continued our work in the synthesis of hydrazines of various substitution patterns, many of which are important precursors for heterocycles. In most instances, the direct functionalization of N{sub 2} offers a more efficient synthetic route than traditional organic methods. In addition, we have also discovered a unique CO-induced N{sub 2} bond cleavage reaction that simultaneously cleaves the N-N bond of the metal dinitrogen compound and assembles new C-C bond and two new N-C bonds. Treatment of the CO-functionalized core with weak Broensted acids liberated oxamide, H{sub 2}NC(O)C(O)NH{sub 2}, an important slow release fertilizer that is of interest to replace urea in many applications. The synthesis of ammonia, NH{sub 3}, from its elements, H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, via the venerable Haber-Bosch process is one of the most significant technological achievements of the past century. Our research program seeks to discover new transition metal reagents and catalysts to disrupt the strong N {triple_bond} N bond in N{sub 2} and create new, fundamental chemical linkages for the construction of molecules with application as fuels, fertilizers and fine chemicals. With DOE support, our group has discovered a mild method for ammonia synthesis in solution as well as new methods for the construction of nitrogen-carbon bonds directly from N{sub 2}. Ideally these achievements will evolve into more efficient nitrogen fixation schemes that circumvent the high energy demands of industrial ammonia synthesis. Industrially, atmospheric nitrogen enters the synthetic cycle by the well-established Haber-Bosch process whereby N{sub 2} is hydrogenated to ammonia at high temperature and pressure. The commercialization of this reaction represents one of the greatest technological achievements of the 20th century as Haber-Bosch ammonia is responsible for supporting approximately 50% of the world's population and serves as the source of half of the nitrogen in the human body. The extreme reaction conditions required for an economical process have significant energy consequences, consuming 1% of the world's energy supply mostly in the form of pollution-intensive coal. Moreover, industrial H{sub 2} synthesis via the water gas shift reaction and the steam reforming of methane is fossil fuel intensive and produces CO{sub 2} as a byproduct. New synthetic methods that promote this thermodynamically favored transformation ({Delta}G{sup o} = -4.1 kcal/mol) under milder conditions or completely obviate it are therefore desirable. Most nitrogen-containing organic molecules are derived from ammonia (and hence rely on the Haber-Bosch and H{sub 2} synthesis processes) and direct synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen could, in principle, be more energy-efficient. This is particularly attractive giv

  10. ARM - Oxides of Nitrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat fluxChinaNews : AMFAlaskaNewsOxides of Nitrogen

  11. The Electromagnetic Gauge Field Interpolation between the Instant Form and the Front Form of the Hamiltonian Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chueng-Ryong Ji; Ziyue Li; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the electromagnetic gauge field interpolation between the instant form and the front form of the relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics and extend our interpolation of the scattering amplitude presented in the simple scalar field theory to the case of the electromagnetic gauge field theory with the scalar fermion fields known as the sQED theory. We find that the Coulomb gauge in the instant form dynamics (IFD) and the light-front gauge in the front form dynamics, or the light-front dynamics (LFD), are naturally linked by the unified general physical gauge that interpolates between these two forms of dynamics and derive the spin-1 polarization vector for the photon that can be generally applicable for any interpolation angle. Corresponding photon propagator for an arbitrary interpolation angle is found and examined in terms of the gauge field polarization and the interpolating time ordering. Using these results, we calculate the lowest-order scattering processes for an arbitrary interpolation angle in sQED. We provide an example of breaking the reflection symmetry under the longitudinal boost, $P^z \\leftrightarrow -P^z$, for the time-ordered scattering amplitude in any interpolating dynamics except the LFD and clarify the confusion in the prevailing notion of the equivalence between the infinite momentum frame (IMF) and the LFD. The particular correlation found in our previous analysis of the scattering amplitude in the simple scalar field theory, coined as the J-shaped correlation, between the total momentum of the system and the interpolation angle persists in the present analysis of the sQED scattering amplitude. We discuss the singular behavior of this correlation in conjunction with the zero-mode issue in the LFD.

  12. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, R.; Baik, S.

    1985-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic. 4 figs.

  13. Use of free silicon in liquid phase sintering of silicon nitrides and sialons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raj, Rishi (Ithaca, NY); Baik, Sunggi (Ithaca, NY)

    1985-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the production of improved high density nitrogen based ceramics by liquid-phase densification of silicon nitride or a compound of silicon-nitrogen-oxygen-metal, e.g. a sialon. In the process and compositions of the invention minor amounts of finely divided silicon are employed together with the conventional liquid phase producing additives to enhance the densification of the resultant ceramic.

  14. Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    values at thermocouple locations. ................................. 45 IV Temperature values (K)at TC locations for LN2 injection on both gridsandtwoexperimentaldatasets................... 45 x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Basic elements of a spin... partialdiffr(rhovr)+ rhovr r = Sm (3.4) partialdiffrho partialdifft(rho vectorV + nabla?(rhovectorV vectorV )=-nablaP + nabla???tau + rhovectorg + vectorF (3.5) partialdiffrho partialdifft(rhoE)+nabla?( vectorV (rhoE + P)) = -nabla(kef f nablaT + ??tauef f...

  15. High Efficiency Energy Conversion Systems for Liquid Nitrogen Automobiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    energy storage, particularly lead-acid and Ni-Cd batteries. These heavy metal energy storage systems-hr/kg for gasoline combusted in an engine running at 28% thermal efficiency. Lead-acid batteries can take hours replacements over the lifetime of the vehicle raises the specter of increased heavy metal pollution, were lead-acid

  16. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

  18. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  19. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

  20. Managing Nitrogen Fertilizer in Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hons, F. M.; McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Nichols, Robert L.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Boman, R. K.; Saladino, V. A.; Jahn, R. L.; Stapper, J. R.

    2004-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To be profitable, cotton producers must manage fertilization efficiently. This publication reports the results of a 5-year study that showed over-fertilization with nitrogen is a common problem. There are specific recommendations for soil testing...

  1. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  2. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl Phosphate: Phosphorus – Nitrogen Synergism. Effect of Nitrogen Additives on Flame Retardant Action of Tributyl...

  3. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  4. Nitrogen Availability from Manipulated Manures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    digestion Converts manure into simple organic compounds and biogas products Microbes (bacteria) do the work or chemical nature of the manure. Liquid-solid separation Anaerobic digestion Composting #12;Common Liquid.90 0.30 0.24 6.67 3.76 * On farms C and D separation was performed on digested manure #12;Anaerobic

  5. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  6. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  7. Mechanistic models of oceanic nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monteiro, Fanny

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oceanic nitrogen fixation and biogeochemical interactions between the nitrogen, phosphorus and iron cycles have important implications for the control of primary production and carbon storage in the ocean. The biological ...

  8. Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Can Eutrophication Influence Nitrogen vs. Phosphorus Limitation? George Gregory Bates College, originating largely from septic systems and fertilizers, have caused significant eutrophication in freshwater nitrogen and phosphorus grew the highest concentration of phytoplankton, but eutrophic ponds grew a mean

  9. Availability of Nitrous Nitrogen to Plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

    1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen was only 25Y0 of that produced by the nitric nitrogen. Nitrites added to%pots of sterilized soils kept under the same conditions as those in which the plants were grov(rn were partly changed to nitrates and partly disappeared. Corn took up... nitrogen upon growth of corn -._-----....... ..-..-------- 17 Relation of degree of acidity of the solution on the growth of corn, cotton and oats with nitrate and nitrite nitrogen .____ _-_-._._._---- 19 Availability of nitrites as measured by growth...

  10. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Two Tropical Forests: Ecosystem-Level Patterns and Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cusack, Daniela F.; Silver, Whendee; McDowell, William H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was kept in open plastic containers and maintained nearconditions in open plastic containers Biological Nitrogen

  11. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  12. Absorption Coefficients of the Methane-Nitrogen Binary Ice System: Implications for Pluto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protopapa, S; Tegler, S C; Bergonio, J M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methane-nitrogen phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich (1983) indicates that at temperatures relevant to the surfaces of icy dwarf planets like Pluto, two phases contribute to the methane absorptions: nitrogen saturated with methane $\\bf{\\bar{N_{2}}}$:CH$_{4}$ and methane saturated with nitrogen $\\bf{\\bar{CH_{4}}}$:N$_{2}$. No optical constants are available so far for the latter component limiting construction of a proper model, in compliance with thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. New optical constants for solid solutions of methane diluted in nitrogen (N$_{2}$:CH$_{4}$) and nitrogen diluted in methane (CH$_{4}$:N$_{2}$) are presented at temperatures between 40 and 90 K, in the wavelength range 1.1-2.7 $\\mu$m at different mixing ratios. These optical constants are derived from transmission measurements of crystals grown from the liquid phase in closed cells. A systematic study of the changes of methane and nitrogen solid mixtures spectral behavior with mixing ratio and temperature is prese...

  13. What Happens to Nitrogen in Soils?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provin, Tony; Hossner, L. R.

    2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    of nitrogen and how it is added to and removed from the soil. Commercial fertilizers used by agricultural produc- ers are a significant source of nitrogen addition to soils. Nitrogen is continuously recycled through plant and animal waste residues and soil... to ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 - ) forms. Three important methods for changing nitrogen gas (N 2 ) to ammonium (NH 4 + ) are: a73 Free-living N 2 -fixing bacteria a73 N 2 -fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of leguminous plants, and a73 Nitrogen...

  14. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  15. Fourier spectroscopy of individual nitrogen impurity centers in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikezawa, Michio [PRESTO-JST, JST, Kawaguchi, Japan and Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Zhang, Liao; Mori, Tatsuya; Masumoto, Yasuaki [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakuma, Yoshiki; Sakoda, Kazuaki [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the measurement of the exciton homogeneous linewidth in nitrogen impurity centers in GaAs:N. Fourier spectroscopy on a single center revealed a long coherence time over 300 ps at low temperature. The narrowest linewidth obtained at liquid helium temperature is 3.5 ?eV, which is comparable with that of semiconductor quantum dots. The linewidth increases with increasing temperature, showing a thermally activated behavior with activation energies of 2?5 meV.

  16. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  17. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  18. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  19. Nitrogen fixation method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, H.L.

    1983-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for achieving nitrogen fixation includes a volumetric electric discharge chamber. The volumetric discharge chamber provides an even distribution of an electron beam, and enables the chamber to be maintained at a controlled energy to pressure (E/p) ratio. An E/p ratio of from 5 to 15 kV/atm of O[sub 2]/cm promotes the formation of vibrationally excited N[sub 2]. Atomic oxygen interacts with vibrationally excited N[sub 2] at a much quicker rate than unexcited N[sub 2], greatly improving the rate at which NO is formed. 1 fig.

  20. Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronicCurves |double-beta decay experiments | SciTech ConnectNitrogen

  1. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassham, James A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    RG and JA Bassham, Photosynthesis by isolated chloroplasts.chloroplasts during photosynthesis. Plant Physiol ~0:22H-2?NITROGEN METABOLISM AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS James A. Bassham,

  2. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  3. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  4. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  5. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  6. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  7. Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

  8. Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochem, Frank J.

    Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most important are diatoms, which may form phytoplankton blooms under conditions of sufficient silicate

  9. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils Model Applications at Different Scales in Time Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 #12;Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Agricultural Soils. Model Applications at Different Scales in Time and Space Abstract An understanding of soil organic carbon (C

  10. Using Petiole Analysis for Nitrogen Management in Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Livingston, Stephen; Hickey, M. G.; Stichler, Charles

    1996-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For cotton growers, maintaining proper nitrogen balance is a major concern. Petiole analysis, the laboratory analysis of the nitrogen content of leaf stems, can be coupled with plant monitoring to form an effective nitrogen management program...

  11. Catalytic two-stage coal liquefaction process having improved nitrogen removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for catalytic multi-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce high yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquids containing low concentrations of nitogen compounds. First stage catalytic reaction conditions are 700.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1500-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure, with the space velocity maintained in a critical range of 10-40 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 catalyst settled volume. The first stage catalyst has 0.3-1.2 cc/gm total pore volume with at least 25% of the pore volume in pores having diameters of 200-2000 Angstroms. Second stage reaction conditions are 760.degree.-870.degree. F. temperature with space velocity exceeding that in the first stage reactor, so as to achieve increased hydrogenation yield of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products having at least 75% removal of nitrogen compounds from the coal-derived liquid products.

  12. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  13. The Nitrogen-Nitride Anode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, Frank M.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen gas N 2 can be reduced to nitride N -3 in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte. However, the direct oxidation of N -3 back to N 2 is kinetically slow and only occurs at high overvoltage. The overvoltage for N -3 oxidation can be eliminated by coordinating the N -3 with BN to form the dinitridoborate (BN 2 -3 ) anion which forms a 1-D conjugated linear inorganic polymer with -Li-N-B-N- repeating units. This polymer precipitates out of solution as Li 3 BN 2 which becomes a metallic conductor upon delithiation. Li 3 BN 2 is oxidized to Li + + N 2 + BN at about the N 2 /N -3 redox potential with very little overvoltage. In this report we evaluate the N 2 /N -3 redox couple as a battery anode for energy storage.

  14. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  15. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  16. alters organic nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of 16 Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen from rivers to estuarine eutrophication CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The bioavailibility of dissolved organic nitrogen...

  17. acquire organic nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Universidad 12 Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen from rivers to estuarine eutrophication CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The bioavailibility of dissolved organic nitrogen...

  18. aox total nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998-07-08 46 Contribution of dissolved organic nitrogen from rivers to estuarine eutrophication CiteSeer Summary: ABSTRACT: The bioavailibility of dissolved organic nitrogen...

  19. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications. Abstract: Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by...

  20. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues Brooke E.and nitrogen apparent enrichment (e*) values ± one standardexplored the apparent enrichment (e*) between bone collagen

  1. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  2. (Ionization in liquids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  3. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  4. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  5. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  6. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  7. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  8. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  9. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  10. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  11. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  12. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Brears, Timothy

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  13. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  14. Transgenic plants that exhibit enhanced nitrogen assimilation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Brears, Timothy (Durham, NC)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for producing plants with improved agronomic and nutritional traits. Such traits include enhanced nitrogen assimilatory and utilization capacities, faster and more vigorous growth, greater vegetative and reproductive yields, and enriched or altered nitrogen content in vegetative and reproductive parts. More particularly, the invention relates to the engineering of plants modified to have altered expression of key enzymes in the nitrogen assimilation and utilization pathways. In one embodiment of the present invention, the desired altered expression is accomplished by engineering the plant for ectopic overexpression of one of more the native or modified nitrogen assimilatory enzymes. The invention also has a number of other embodiments, all of which are disclosed herein.

  15. Nitrogen oxide delivery systems for biological media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skinn, Brian Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in vivo are associated with a variety of cellular modifications thought to be mutagenic or carcinogenic. These processes are likely mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as ...

  16. Relation of Soil Nitrogen, Nitrification and Ammonification to Pot Experiments.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KD gm ....................................... Serond crop KD gm Average all crops KD gm ....................... : .... 5. ..... Nitrogen per million-average all mops ...................... .MI-. 060 Nitrogen . Number of soils... ........................................... ............................................ First crop KD .......................................... Second crop KD Average all crops KD ...................................... Nitrogen per million-average aU mops ....................... .061-. 080 Nitrogen . Number of soils...

  17. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  18. Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

  19. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  20. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  1. Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

    2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  3. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  4. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  5. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  6. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  7. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  8. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  9. The importance of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in nitrogen assimilation and recycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, S.M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen mobilization and recycling in trees. Photosynthesisloci mapping for nitrogen recycling in rice. Journal ofNitrogen Assimilation and Recycling Stéphanie M. Bernard 1

  10. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, S.A.; Latham, D.R.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results from the separation and characterization of nitrogen compound types in hydrotreated Paraho shale oil samples were obtained. Two samples of Paraho shale oil were hydrotreated by Chevron Research Company such that one sample contained about 0.05 wt. percent nitrogen and the other sample contained about 0.10 wt. percent nitrogen. A separation method concentrate specific nitrogen compound types was developed. Characterization of the nitrogen types was accomplished by infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration, and elemental analysis. The distribution of nitrogen compound types in both samples and in the Paraho crude shale oil is compared.

  11. Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Upadhyay, Jeetendra; Auvermann, Brent W.; Bush, K. Jack; Mukhtar, Saqib

    2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    together by one of nature?s strongest chemical bonds. As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond. Some natural processes that can break dinitrogen apart include lightning and nitrogen...- cultural Engi- neer; Research Technician II; Associate Profes- sor and Exten- sion Agricultural Engineer?Waste Management, The Texas A&M System E-464 02-08 J. K. Upadhyay, B. W. Auvermann, K. J. Bush, and S. Mukhtar* Texas AgriLife Extension...

  12. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  13. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R.; Olson, Edwin S.; Jiang, Junhua

    2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.

  14. ambient nitrogen dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy and nitrogen balance. The amounts of alfalfa eaten and the levels of nitrogen. Daylight ratio effect is evident in one case : long daily daylight increases the proportion of...

  15. atmospheric nitrogen deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N2O5, organic nitrates and nitrate deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can cause eutrophication, where the extra nitrogen stimulates rapid 51 CAN THE ESA ADDRESS THE THREATS OF...

  16. atmospherically deposited nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    N2O5, organic nitrates and nitrate deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems can cause eutrophication, where the extra nitrogen stimulates rapid 51 CAN THE ESA ADDRESS THE THREATS OF...

  17. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine...

  18. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a High-Performance Cathode for Li-S Batteries. First Principles Prediction of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotubes as a...

  19. Cooking with Rice (not instant)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of rice, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  20. Nitrogen oxide abatement by distributed fuel addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.; Mereb, J.B.

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor has been designed in order to retard the formation of nitrogen oxides by injection of reburning fuel. The design and the rebuilding of the new combustor was completed. Several new features were incorporated in the new design so that it would last longer. The design and construction of the furnace are discussed in this report. (VC)

  1. Involvement of peptides in nitrogen fixation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahlgren, Joy Annette

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as increased C in both roots and stems and a concomitant decrease in C per 14 32 unit mass of nodule. Ryle et al. (33) examined both red and white clovers; similar concentrations of C appeared in the terminal meri- 14 stem. In plants fixing nitrogen...

  2. OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

  3. groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    groundwater nitrogen source identification and remediation The Seymour Aquifer is a shallow aquifer, the Seymour Aquifer has the highest groundwater pollution potential of all the major aqui- fers in Texas drinking water standards. Potential sources of nitrate in groundwater include atmospheric deposi- tion

  4. Long-term tillage, cropping sequence, and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Fugen

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    observed in surface soils. NT significantly increased SOC. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased SOC only under NT. Compared to NT or N addition, enhanced cropping intensity only slightly increased SOC. Estimates of C sequestration rates under NT...

  5. Nitrogen limiation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toccalino, P.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Boone, D.R. (Oregon Graduate Institute of Science Technology, Portland, OR (United States))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leaking underground storage tanks are a significant source of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in soils and ground water. Hydrocarbon biodegradation studies have been conducted in both ground water and topsoil regions, but few studies have been done on the unsaturated zone between these two. This study examines the effects of Nitrogen on propane and butane biodegradiations in an unsaturated sandy soil. Results indicate that nitrogen additions initially stimulated both propane and butane oxidizing organisms in the soil, but that propane-amended soil became N limited whereas butane-amended soil eventually overcame its N limitations by fixing Nitrogen and that nitrogen fixing organisms grew in butane amended but not in propane amended soil. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  6. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  7. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  8. Breakup of Liquid Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , including the dispersion of liquid drugs into res- pirable droplets, microfluidics, crop- and paint-spraying, and ink-jet printing [2–4]. There are also biological sys- tems in which either long filaments remain intact, or many droplets are formed [5, 6...

  9. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  10. Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Chonggang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Fisher, Rosie [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Wilson, Cathy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cai, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); McDowell, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen is a dominant regulator of vegetation dynamics, net primary production, and terrestrial carbon cycles; however, most ecosystem models use a rather simplistic relationship between leaf nitrogen content and photosynthetic capacity. Such an approach does not consider how patterns of nitrogen allocation may change with differences in light intensity, growing-season temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration. To account for this known variability in nitrogen-photosynthesis relationships, we develop a mechanistic nitrogen allocation model based on a trade-off of nitrogen allocated between growth and storage, and an optimization of nitrogen allocated among light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, and respiration. The developed model is able to predict the acclimation of photosynthetic capacity to changes in CO{sub 2} concentration, temperature, and radiation when evaluated against published data of V{sub c,max} (maximum carboxylation rate) and J{sub max} (maximum electron transport rate). A sensitivity analysis of the model for herbaceous plants, deciduous and evergreen trees implies that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations lead to lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation but higher allocation to storage. Higher growing-season temperatures cause lower allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation, due to higher nitrogen requirements for light capture pigments and for storage. Lower levels of radiation have a much stronger effect on allocation of nitrogen to carboxylation for herbaceous plants than for trees, resulting from higher nitrogen requirements for light capture for herbaceous plants. As far as we know, this is the first model of complete nitrogen allocation that simultaneously considers nitrogen allocation to light capture, electron transport, carboxylation, respiration and storage, and the responses of each to altered environmental conditions. We expect this model could potentially improve our confidence in simulations of carbon-nitrogen interactions and the vegetation feedbacks to climate in Earth system models.

  11. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  12. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  13. Economical utilization of natural gas to produce synthetic petroleum liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, K.L.; Agee, M.A. [Syntroleum Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States); Willingham, F.Y.; Trepper, E.L. [Bateman Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for converting pipeline quality or subquality natural gas into liquid fuels and other petroleum products is described. The technology, developed by Syntroleum Corporation, utilizes autothermal reforming with air to produce a nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas having a near ideal ratio for converting into synthetic hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A proprietary F-T catalyst system, designed to operate in a nitrogen-diluted atmosphere, achieves conversion rates comparable to conventional F-T processes without the need for recycle and the associated recompression equipment. This results in potential plant capital costs low enough to make conversion of remote and or subquality gas into synthetic fuels economical, based on current oil prices. The process is energy self-sufficient and compact enough to be constructed in 5,000 to 10,000 b/d plants on floating or platform facilities to utilize offshore gas reserves. The liquid fuels produced by the process are free of sulfur and aromatics. The process has been demonstrated at pilot-scale. Numerous engineering studies and cost estimates have been conducted to provide the information needed for economic evaluation and confident scale-up. This paper also outlines improvements to the process currently under development and how the process presents new opportunities for gas processors.

  14. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Abstract:...

  15. Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmatad, Yael Sarah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moreover, the heat capacity of that liquid is also higherthe intensive heat capacities of the liquid and the crystal,

  16. Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

  17. Help cut pollution with vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woinsky, S.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are common in chemical process industries plants. In addition to separating phases, these devices can aid in reducing pollution in the plant. Two-phase separators achieve pollution prevention via recycling of intermediates and final products. It is doubtful that most vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are used specifically for pollution prevention projects. They may have another purpose yet provide pollution prevention as a bonus. The first step in achieving pollution prevention by design is for operating companies to be aware of vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators as potential pollution prevention devices. Then, likely applications need to be investigated. Since the quantities of material recovered are relatively small, higher value products are the most likely targets, especially for liquid/liquid separators. However, for vapor/liquid separators, the costs involved are usually relatively low since only the cost of a separator pad is normally involved, and more moderately valued products can be targets.

  18. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  19. Enzymatic solubilization of nitrogenous constituents of carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curry, James Cannon

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1971 Major Subject: Food Technology ENZYMATIC SOLUBILIZATION OF NITROGENOUS CONSTITUENTS OF CARROTS A Thesis by James Cannon Curry Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman o ittee) (Head of Department) (Member) ( Member) (Mem r) May... is extended to the Intensified Food Crop Produc- tion Group of the Nuplex Program at Texas ARM University for thei r assistance. Also, appreciation is expressed to Miles Laboratories, Inc. and Rohm and Haas, Inc. for thei r kindness i n providing...

  20. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  1. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the invention may be used to engineer organisms to overexpress wild-type or mutant P-PII regulatory protein. Engineered plants that overexpress or underexpress P-PII regulatory protein may have increased nitrogen assimilation capacity. Engineered organisms may be used to produce P-PII proteins which, in turn, can be used for a variety of purposes including in vitro screening of herbicides. P-PII nucleotide sequences have additional uses as probes for isolating additional genomic clones having the promoters of P-PII gene. P-PII promoters are light- and/or sucrose-inducible and may be advantageously used in genetic engineering of plants.

  2. Schrodinger Fermi Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Juven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a class of strongly interacting many-body fermionic systems in 2+1D non-relativistic conformal field theory via holography. The 5D charged black hole with asymptotic Schrodinger isometry in the bulk gravity side introduces parameters of background density and finite particle number into the boundary field theory. We propose the holographic dictionary, and realize a quantum phase transition of this fermionic liquid with fixed particle number by tuning the background density $\\beta$ at zero temperature. On the larger $\\beta$ side, we find the signal of a sharp quasiparticle pole on the spectral function A(k,w), indicating a well-defined Fermi surface. On the smaller $\\beta$ side, we find only a hump with no sharp peak for A(k,w), indicating the disappearance of Fermi surface. The dynamical exponent $z$ of quasiparticle dispersion goes from being Fermi-liquid-like $z\\simeq1$ scaling at larger $\\beta$ to a non-Fermi-liquid scaling $z\\simeq 3/2$ at smaller $\\beta$. By comparing the structure of Green's fu...

  3. Cryogenic cooling system of HTS transformers by natural convection of subcooled liquid nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    -Myung Chang a,*,1 , Yeon Suk Choi a , Steven W. Van Sciver a , Kyeong Dal Choi b a National High Magnetic is es- timated from the existing engineering correlations, and then the axial temperature distributions). * Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-850-644-0858; fax: +1-850-644- 0867. E-mail address: chang@magnet.fsu.edu (H

  4. The influence of irrigation water salinity on optimal nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium liquid fertilizer rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos Nu?n?ez, Ricardo

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of poor quality water (high in soluble salts) and high concentrations of water-soluble fertilizers can induce salt damage in plants. The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of salinity in irrigation water on optimal fertilization rates... in salt-sensitive tropical foliage. Spafhiphyllum 'Petite' and Dieffenbachia 'Camille' were grown using 9 levels of water-soluble fertilizers (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 mg I N in a 3-1-2 ratio of N-P205-K20), and two levels of salinity...

  5. Evolution of Photosynthesis and Biospheric Oxygenation Contingent Upon Nitrogen Fixation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Grula

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    How photosynthesis by Precambrian cyanobacteria oxygenated Earth's biosphere remains incompletely understood. Here it is argued that the oxic transition, which took place between approximately 2.3 and 0.5 Gyr ago, required a great proliferation of cyanobacteria, and this in turn depended on their ability to fix nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme system. However, the ability to fix nitrogen was not a panacea, and the rate of biospheric oxygenation may still have been affected by nitrogen constraints on cyanobacterial expansion. Evidence is presented for why cyanobacteria probably have a great need for fixed nitrogen than other prokaryotes, underscoring the importance of their ability to fix nitrogen. The connection between nitrogen fixation and the evolution of photosynthesis is demonstrated by the similarities between nitrogenase and enzymes critical for the biosynthesis of (bacterio)chlorophyll. It is hypothesized that biospheric oxygenation would not have occurred if the emergence of cyanobacteria had not been preceded by the evolution of nitrogen fixation, and if these organisms had not also acquired the ability to fix nitrogen at the beginning of or very early in their history. The evolution of nitrogen fixation also appears to have been a precondition for the evolution of (bacterio)chlorophyll-based photosynthesis. Given that some form of chlorophyll is obligatory for true photosynthesis, and its light absorption and chemical properties make it a "universal pigment," it may be predicted that the evolution of nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis are also closely linked on other Earth- like planets.

  6. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  7. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  8. Reactions of nitrogen heterocycle-organolithium intermediates with lead halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jerry Neal

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTIONS OF NITROGEN HETEROCYCLE- ORGANOLITHIUM INTERMEDIATES WITH LEAD HALIDES A Thesis by JERRY HEAL KINNEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree ot MASTER...) (Mem er) December 1970 ABSTRACT Reactions of Nitrogen Heterocycle-Organollthium intermediates With Lead Halides. (December l970) Jerry Neal Kinney, B. S. , Texas AE, M University Directed by: Dr. Choo-Seng Giam Reactions of nitrogen heterocycle...

  9. Fixation of nitrogen in the presence of water vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harteck, Paul (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the fixation of nitrogen is disclosed which comprises combining a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, metal oxide and water vapor, initially heating the combination to initiate a reaction which forms nitrate, but at a temperature and pressure range below the dissociation pressure of the nitrate. With or without the water component, the yield of fixed nitrogen is increased by the use of a Linde Molecular Sieve Catalyst.

  10. Nitrogen removal from natural gas using two types of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Wijmans, Johannes G.; Da Costa, Andre R.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for treating natural gas or other methane-rich gas to remove excess nitrogen. The invention relies on two-stage membrane separation, using methane-selective membranes for the first stage and nitrogen-selective membranes for the second stage. The process enables the nitrogen content of the gas to be substantially reduced, without requiring the membranes to be operated at very low temperatures.

  11. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  12. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  13. Nitrogen oxides storage catalysts containing cobalt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauterbach, Jochen (Newark, DE); Snively, Christopher M. (Clarks Summit, PA); Vijay, Rohit (Annandale, NJ); Hendershot, Reed (Breinigsville, PA); Feist, Ben (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) storage catalysts comprising cobalt and barium with a lean NO.sub.x storage ratio of 1.3 or greater. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be used to reduce NO.sub.x emissions from diesel or gas combustion engines by contacting the catalysts with the exhaust gas from the engines. The NO.sub.x storage catalysts can be one of the active components of a catalytic converter, which is used to treat exhaust gas from such engines.

  14. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinke, P.J.; Stangenberger, A.G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Forestry and Resource Management; Post, W.M.; Emanual, W.R.; Olson, J.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the research presented in this package was to identify data that could be used to estimate the size of the soil organic carbon pool under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. A subset of the data can be used to estimate amounts of soil carbon storage at equilibrium with natural soil-forming factors. The magnitude of soil properties so defined is a resulting nonequilibrium values for carbon storage. Variation in these values is due to differences in local and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation.

  15. Stanford Nitrogen Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarshipSpiraling Laser Pulses CouldStanford Nitrogen Group

  16. Global Proteomics Reveal An Atypical Strategy for Carbon/Nitrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    crucial to global oxygen production and worldwide carbon and nitrogen cycles. These microalgae are robust organisms capable carbon neutral biofuel production. Synechocystis sp....

  17. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAE Paper 750173, 1975. L. , Fifteenth Symposium Combustion,The Combustion Institute, International Pittsburgh, on 64.chemistry of products of combustion: nitrogenous The

  18. ammonium nitrogen removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  19. autotrophic nitrogen removal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treatment plants (WWTPs) with biological nitrogen removal processes, using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. Literature ... Xu, Xin, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of...

  20. alter carbon nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen Physics Websites Summary: and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are...

  1. Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. Surface Limited Desorption Kinetics in Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model Nanoporous Material: I. Surface Limited Desorption Kinetics in Abstract: The...

  2. Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II. Diffusion Limited Kinetics in Amorphous Adsorption, Desorption, and Diffusion of Nitrogen in a Model Nanoporous Material: II. Diffusion Limited Kinetics in Amorphous Abstract:...

  3. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowley, Brooke E.; Carter, Melinda L.; Karpanty, Sarah M.; Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Koch, Paul L.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon and nitrogen isotope enrichment in primate tissuesfactor (a) and isotope enrichment values (e), which provideisotope values from different modern primate tissues. Additionally, using these mean apparent enrichment

  4. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Nitrogen-Doped Graphene and its Application in Electrochemical Biosensing. Abstract: Chemical doping with foreign...

  5. COMBUSTION SOURCES OF UNREGULATED GAS PHASE NITROGENEOUS SPECIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogeneous Species in Gas Turbine Exhaust, from Conkle, et82) Percent of Organic Gas Turbine Emissions which containnitrogen dioxide from gas turbines (from the data presented

  6. Absorption of Foliar-Applied Nitrogen by Cotton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oosterhuis, Derrick M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the epicuticular wax composition and ultrastructure ofleaf age, epicuticular wax, and nitrogen-15 absorption. Cropleaf cuticle and epicuticular wax as described by Oosterhuis

  7. aerobic nitrogen cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanson 2010-10-06 63 Anaerobic aerobic systems evaluation with immobilized biomass for organic material and nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater using biogas in the...

  8. Nitrogen-incorporation induced changes in the microstructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the microstructure of nanocrystalline WO3 thin films. Abstract: Nitrogen doped tungsten oxide (WO3) films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition by varying the...

  9. accessible critical nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phase transition. P. Balenzuela; A. Chernomoretz; C. O. Dorso 2002-07-16 167 Galactic Evolution of Nitrogen Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We present detailed spectroscopic...

  10. Modeling nitrogen cycling in forested watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Garten, C.T.; Mulholland, P.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chesapeake Bay Agreement calls for a 40% reduction of controllable phosphorus and nitrogen to the tidal Bay by the year 2000. To accomplish this goal the Chesapeake Bay Program needs accurate estimates of nutrient loadings, including atmospheric deposition, from various land uses. The literature was reviewed on forest nitrogen pools and fluxes, and nitrogen data from research catchments in the Chesapeake Basin were identified. The structure of a nitrogen module for forests is recommended for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model along with the possible functional forms for fluxes.

  11. aerobic nitrogen fixation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests may be among the highest on earth. However, data supporting this contention are rare Cleveland, Cory 70 Nitrogen Controls on Climate Model Evapotranspiration University...

  12. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  13. Increasing Price of Nitrogen Nitrogen fertilizer is often the largest contributor to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    events; the distribution of more than 5,700 publications; and access to web-based guidance on deep and associated costs. Since 2007, the importance of deep-soil testing for nitrogen management has been-sampling methods and procedures. Economic and Environmental Impact The economic impact of deep-soil testing

  14. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 NITROGEN #2NITROGEN #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    fluidised bed combustionbed combustion ·· Nitrogen control (NHNitrogen control (NH33, HCN, ....) for, HCN ·· NOxNOx and Nand N22O chemistry in atmosphericO chemistry in atmospheric fluidisedfluidised bed onEffect of temperature and air factor on NO and NNO and N22O in circulating FBCO in circulating FBC

  15. Nitrogen oxides emission trends in Monthly emission estimates of nitrogen oxides from space provide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Chapter 5 Nitrogen oxides emission trends in East Asia Abstract Monthly emission estimates present first results of a new emission estimation algorithm, specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of short-lived atmospheric

  16. Nitrogen Deposition in the Southern High Plains Nitrogen is necessary for life on earth, but

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    . As a result, converting dinitrogen to other forms of nitrogen requires a lot of energy to break that bond from the air. Photosynthetic energy in plants and chemical energy in soil microorganisms also can originated from industrial fertilizer production since the early 1900s, when the Nobel Prize-winning German

  17. Toward Institutional Sustainability: A Nitrogen Footprint for the Marine Biological Maggie Notopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    amounts of resources including electricity and food to maintain their daily activities. Food purchases of reactive nitrogen (Nr), all nitrogen compounds other than N2, associated with their use. Most of the Nr: Reactive Nitrogen, Nitrogen Footprint, Sustainability, Fertilizer, Nitrogen Uptake Factors, Virtual

  18. Effect of nitrogen source, rate and time of application on soil nitrogen status and on the characteristics of the plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadik, Mohamed Kamal

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on July Z4. A sumxnary of the analysis of variance on soil nitrogen (NO3 and NH+4) as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application. 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on the dry weight of the plant organs and the yield of seed... cotton as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application, 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on ni- trogen (T. N. , NO3 and NH4) content of the different parts of the plant as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application...

  19. Continuous improvement in nitrogen rejection unit design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Brien, J.V. [Process Systems International, Inc., Westborough, MA (United States); Maloney, J.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and fabrication of Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) has advanced considerably over the past 15 years. Improvements have been made in all aspects of producing an NRU plant and cold box. This paper presents the primary areas involved that have seen these improvements. (1) Process design: the two-column process has been superseded by an approach which utilizes multiple flash drums and one column. This leads to a smaller and lower cost cold box. With low nitrogen content feeds, the prefractionater recovers half the methane as a high pressure residue gas and reduces the cold box size. (2) Mechanical Design: improved software enables the design process to be more accurate, eliminate piping and equipment interferences, reduce the size of the box and save design time. (3) Manufacturing: the interfacing of the 3D software design tools and the manufacturing process enables the shop floor personnel to reduce the manufacturing time by 10%. All of these individual improvements have reduced the real cost of an NRU substantially over the past 15 years.

  20. Supplying LNG markets using nitrogen rejection units at Exxon Shute Creek Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanus, P.M.; Kimble, E.L. [Exxon Co. USA, Midland, TX (United States)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest is growing in the United States for using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative transportation fuel for diesel and as a source of heating fuel. For gas producers, LNG offers a premium price opportunity versus conventional natural gas sales. To supply this developing market, two existing Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) at the Exxon Shute Creek Facility in Wyoming were modified allowing LNG extraction and truck loading for transport to customers. The modifications involved adding heat exchanger capacity to the NRUs to compensate for the refrigeration loss when LNG is removed. Besides allowing for LNG extraction, the modifications also debottlenecked the NRUs resulting in higher methane recovery and lower compression costs. With the modifications, the NRUs are capable of producing for sale 60,000 gpd (5 MMscfd gas equivalent) of high purity LNG. Total investment has been $5 million with initial sales of LNG occurring in September 1994.

  1. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  2. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  3. Surface Damage and Treatment by Impact of a Low Temperature Nitrogen Jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laribou, Hicham; Fressengeas, Claude; Entemeyer, Denis; Jeanclaude, Veronique [LPMM - Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz / CNRS, Ile du Saulcy, Metz, 57045 (France); Tazibt, Abdel [CRITT TJF and U, Laboratoire Jet Fluide Tres Hautes Pressions, Bar-le-Duc, 55000 (France)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen jets under high pressure and low temperature have been introduced recently. The process consists in projecting onto a surface a low temperature jet obtained from releasing the liquid nitrogen stored in a high pressure tank (e.g. 3000 bars) through a nozzle. It can be used in a range of industrial applications, including surface treatment or material removal through cutting, drilling, striping and cleaning. The process does not generate waste other than the removed matter, and it only releases neutral gas into the atmosphere. This work is aimed at understanding the mechanisms of the interaction between the jet and the material surface. Depending on the impacted material, the thermo-mechanical shock and blast effect induced by the jet can activate a wide range of damage mechanisms, including cleavage, crack nucleation and spalling, as well as void expansion and localized ductile failure. The test parameters (standoff distance, dwell time, operating pressure) play a role in selecting the dominant damage mechanism, but combinations of these various modes are usually present. Surface treatment through phase transformation or grain fragmentation in a layer below the surface can also be obtained by adequate tuning of the process parameters. In the current study, work is undertaken to map the damage mechanisms in metallic materials as well as the influence of the test parameters on damage, along with measurements of the thermo-mechanical conditions (impact force, temperature) in the impacted area.

  4. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  5. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  6. Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices at the pump continue to climb above $ 3.00/gallon, fertilizer prices, especially Nitrogen (N) are doing the same. As of spring 2008, the price of one ton of urea ammonium nitrate was $420, or $0.67 per lb N

  7. Electrochemical process for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aulich, Ted R. (Grand Forks, ND); Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Jiang, Junhua (Grand Forks, ND)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia, at low temperature and pressure, preferably at ambient temperature and pressure, utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen or hydrogen equivalent. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source or a hydrogen equivalent such as carbon monoxide or a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be aqueous, non-aqueous, or solid.

  8. Quantum optics with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yiwen Chu; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the electronic level structure of the nitrogen-vacancy in diamond and some common experimental techniques to study its optical properties at low temperatures. We then summarize several recent experiments and advances in using nitrogen-vacancy centers for quantum optics.

  9. How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How extensive are the impacts of nitrogen pollution in Great Britain's forests? Protecting our forests from pollutant deposition is and has been a topical issue for some time. Nitrogen, as well as being an essential nutrient for trees, is one of the most important of these pollutants. This article

  10. Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Nitrogen modification of highly porous carbon for improved supercapacitor performance Stephanie L for supercapacitor applications. Surface modification increases the amount of nitrogen by four times when compared elements in highly porous carbon used for electric double-layer supercapacitors.1 These elements modify

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics of Temperate and Subarctic Heath Ecosystems with Emphasis on Cold-season cycling of carbon and nitrogen in temperate and subarctic heath ecosystems. Over the last three years, I spend many hours introducing me to modeling carbon exchange, thank you. Also thanks to Karina Clemmensen

  12. Nitrogen Dynamics in Sandy Freshwater Sediments (Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of added 15NH4 + from lake water passing over dark sediment cores. Sediment-water fluxes of nitrogen at the sediment- water interface is derived from ammonium pro- duced from organic matter mineralization in surface ABSTRACT. Sediment-water nitrogen fluxes and transformations were examined at two sites in Sagi- naw Bay

  13. Ecological Modelling 192 (2006) 143159 Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    model; Transformation; Transport; Nitrification; Denitrification; RT3D 1. Introduction Nitrogen of this paper are to develop a nitro- gen transport and transformation model for saturated groundwater systemsEcological Modelling 192 (2006) 143­159 Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling

  14. Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuzzy predictive control for nitrogen removal in biological wastewater treatment S. Marsili predictive control; wastewater treatment plant Introduction The problem of improving the nitrogen removal wastewater is too low, full denitrification is difficult to obtain and an additional source of organic carbon

  15. Nitrogen Loading and Attenuation in the West Falmouth Harbor Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    in nitrogen loading due to the opening of the wastewater treatment plant and increased septic inputs Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and septic tanks arrive in the form of plumes of higher nitrogen. The treatment plant provides secondary treatment to the incoming wastewater but is not designed to provide

  16. Process for separating nitrogen from methane using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Marysville, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Dublin, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Pagnotto, Kristina M. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for separating methane or nitrogen from a fluid mixture comprising methane and nitrogen, the process comprising: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator, the microchannel separator comprising a plurality of process microchannels containing a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the methane or nitrogen is sorbed by the sorption medium, and removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing the methane or nitrogen from the sorption medium and removing the desorbed methane or nitrogen from the microchannel separator. The process is suitable for upgrading methane from coal mines, landfills, and other sub-quality sources.

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) nitrogen trailers propane tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, P.C.

    1998-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is the evaluation and authorization of the onsite transport of propane tanks that are mounted on the Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Characterization Project`s nitrogen trailers. This SEP authorizes onsite transport of the nitrogen trailers, including the propane tanks, until May 31, 1998. The three nitrogen trailers (HO-64-4966, HO-64-4968, and HO-64-5170) are rated for 1,361 kg (30,000 lb) and are equipped with tandem axles and pintel hitches. Permanently mounted on each trailer is a 5,678 L (1,500 gal) cryogenic dewar that is filled with nitrogen, and a propane fired water bath vaporizer system, and a 454 L (1 20 gal) propane tank. The nitrogen trailer system is operated only when it is disconnected from the tow vehicle and is leveled and stabilized. When the trailers are transported, the propane tanks are isolated via closed supply valves.

  18. Nitrogen addition to bcc-Fe by attrition milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawers, J.; Krabbe, R.; Cook, D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To enhance the nitrogen solubility in bcc-Fe, iron powder and blends of iron and iron nitride powders were attrition-milled in nitrogen gas. X-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to characterize the milled microstructure and to characterize the nitrogen distribution. After processing for 150 hours, the infused nitrogen was determined to be interstitial (locally deforming the bcc-Fe lattice to a bct-Fe lattice) and associated with the outer layer of the bcc-Fe nanograin. Nitrogen stabilized the milled grain structure but at elevated temperatures rapidly came to thermodynamical equilibrium, transforming from bcc-Fe(N) to bcc-Fe and Fe{sub 4}N.

  19. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  20. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface...

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  2. Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen fertilizers Michael Nicodemus and Douglass F. Jacobs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response of photosynthesis and nitrogen nutrition in Juglans nigra L. with different nitrogen INTRODUCTION N fertilization has been shown to positively affect photosynthesis in most studies N fertilization and photosynthesis is largely due to ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO

  3. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  4. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High Performance Supercapacitors. In Situ One-Step Synthesis of Hierarchical Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon for High...

  5. Development of a vacuum compatible rotary dynamic seal for cryogenic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanchon, J.; Maurel, N.; Charignon, T.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A. [Absolut-System, Meylan, 38240 (France); Allemand, Y.; Hervieu, M. [APCO Technologies SA, Aigle, CH-1860 (Switzerland); Messing, R. [European Space Agency, Noordwijk, 2201 AZ (Netherlands)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid nitrogen is commonly circulating through radiative panels which cover satellite supporting structure inside thermal vacuum test chamber. In the Large Space Simulator (LSS) located in the ESA* ESTEC** Test Centre, there is the need to move the satellite specimen inside the vacuum chamber to modify its relative orientation vis-à-vis the artificial sun beam. Re-orientation of the radiative panels is then required. ESA is currently developing a New Motion System (NMS) allowing dynamic motion from Gimbal to the Yoke Stand without any reconfiguration of the test. To do so, a nitrogen supply is required which can follow the rotation of the thermal shrouds under vacuum. Nitrogen flexible hoses are not anymore suitable due to their volume and mass constraints and due to the limitation in the rotation range. This paper describes the design, manufacturing and tests of a new compact multi-turn Rotary Nitrogen Joint (RNJ) compliant with thermal vacuum conditions used for spacecraft thermal testing. This prototype development is funded by the ESA Technology and Research Program. *European Space Agency **European Space Research and Technology Centre.

  6. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  7. Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

  8. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  9. Liquid measurement - Techniques and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, B.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews a few liquid measurement techniques and their associated problems. In measuring liquid petroleum gas, the first obstacle to overcome is accomodating some form of volumetric measurement. This is usually accomplished by orifice, positive displacement, or turbine meters. Each of the three established methods is covered extensively by industry standards in the API Manual of Petroleum Standards. If the operator follows these standards, very accurate results can be achieved.

  10. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  11. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  12. Nitrogen-doped Graphene and Its Electrochemical Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Sheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Li, Guosheng; Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-graphene) is obtained by exposing graphene to nitrogen plasma. N-graphene exhibits much higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction and H2O2 reduction than graphene, and much higher durability and selectivity than the widely-used expensive Pt. The excellent electrochemical performance of N-graphene is attributed to nitrogen functional groups and the specific properties of graphene. This indicates that N-graphene is promising for applications in electrochemical energy devices (fuel cells, metal-air batteries) and biosensors.

  13. Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

  14. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  15. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  16. Nitrogen dioxide and respiratory illnesses in infants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samet, J.M.; Lambert, W.E.; Skipper, B.J.; Cushing, A.H.; Hunt, W.C.; Young, S.A.; McLaren, L.C.; Schwab, M.; Spengler, J.D. (Univ. of New Mexico Medical Center, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen dioxide is an oxidant gas that contaminates outdoor air and indoor air in homes with unvented gas appliances. A prospective cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that residential exposure to NO2 increases incidence and severity of respiratory illnesses during the first 18 months of life. A cohort of 1,205 healthy infants from homes without smokers was enrolled. The daily occurrence of respiratory symptoms and illnesses was reported by the mothers every 2 wk. Illnesses with wheezing or wet cough were classified as lower respiratory tract. Indoor NO2 concentrations were serially measured with passive samplers place in the subjects' bedrooms. In stratified analyses, illness incidence rates did not consistently increase with exposure to NO2 or stove type. In multivariate analyses that adjusted for potential confounding factors, odds ratios were not significantly elevated for current or lagged NO2 exposures, or stove type. Illness duration, a measure of illness severity, was not associated with NO2 exposure. The findings can be extended to homes with gas stoves in regions of the United States where the outdoor air is not heavily polluted by NO2.

  17. Mapping the location and configuration of nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, A. S.; Sternberg, M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Oxford

    2007-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding how impurities such as nitrogen are included in diamond nanoparticles is expected to be important for use in future nanodevices, such as qubits for quantum computing. Most commercial diamond nanoparticles contain approximately 2-3% nitrogen, but it is difficult to determine experimentally whether it is located within the core or at the surface of the nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration and potential energy surface of substitutional nitrogen in diamond nanoparticles, directly comparing results of different sizes, shapes and surface chemistry. The results predict that nitrogen is metastable within the core of both hydrogenated and dehydrogenated particles, but that the binding energy, coordination and preferred location is dependent upon the structure of the nanoparticle as a whole.

  18. The nitrogen specific uptake of three strains of Prochlorococcus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Eli

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nitrogen uptake of Prochlorococcus under a range of light conditions was investigated. Strains of Prochlorococcus isolated from three locations were used: Mediterranean Sea (CCMP 1378), Sargasso Sea (CCMP 1375), and Pacific Ocean (H36-16). Cultures grown...

  19. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  20. Prochlorococcus genetic transformation and genomics of nitrogen metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolonen, Andrew Carl

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prochlorococcus, a unicellular cyanobacterium, is the most abundant phytoplankton in the oligotrophic, oceanic gyres where major plant nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are at nanomolar concentrations. ...

  1. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  2. The nitrogen cycle and ecohydrology of seasonally dry grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parolari, Anthony Joseph

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the coupling of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes and, specifically, the organization of ecosystem traits with the water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles. Observations from a factorial irrigation- ...

  3. Spin properties of very shallow nitrogen vacancy defects in diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofori-Okai, Benjamin Kwasi

    We investigate spin and optical properties of individual nitrogen vacancy centers located within 1–10 nm from the diamond surface. We observe stable defects with a characteristic optically detected magnetic-resonance ...

  4. Variable energy positron measurements at nitrogen ion bombarded steel surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, G.; Kolitsch, A. [Research Centre Rossendorf, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schut, H.; Veen, A. van [TU Delft (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen ion bombardment of steel samples has been studied by utilizing the Delft variable energy positron beam facility. The energy of the beam was varied between 250 eV and 25 keV and a line-shape parameter S describing the annihilation radiation has been measured. By use of the VEPFIT fitting program, up to five different layers, each having different densities, could be identified and characterized. The results show that carbon layers deposited during nitrogen implantation can be observed. A relation between the measured depth profiles of nitrogen, carbon and oxygen by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and the results of positron annihilation is given and discussed. The wear and friction properties of the steel surfaces before and after nitrogen implantation are presented.

  5. The relationship between iron and nitrogen fixation in Trichodesmium spp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappell, Phoebe Dreux

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Trichodesmium spp. are considered the dominant nitrogen (N) fixing cyanobacteria in tropical and subtropical oceans, regimes frequently characterized by low iron (Fe). Limited information exists about what levels of Fe ...

  6. Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McCluskey, M.D. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tarun, M.C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Iqbal, M. Zafar [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc oxide is a promising material for blue and UV solid-state lighting devices, among other applications. Nitrogen has been regarded as a potential p-type dopant for ZnO. However, recent calculations [Lyons, Janotti, and Van de Walle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 252105 (2009)] indicate that nitrogen is a deep acceptor. This paper presents experimental evidence that nitrogen is, in fact, a deep acceptor and therefore cannot produce p-type ZnO. A broad photoluminescence (PL) emission band near 1.7 eV, with an excitation onset of ~2.2 eV, was observed, in agreement with the deep-acceptor model of the nitrogen defect. The deep-acceptor behavior can be explained by the low energy of the ZnO valence band relative to the vacuum level.

  7. atomic nitrogen doping: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chris Greene 3:30 - 3:50 Nick Brewer, Wisconsin, Left-handed electromagnetic waves in rare-earth doped Kemner, Ken 154 4, 26412665, 2007 Nitrogen retention Physics Websites...

  8. anthropogenous nitrogen deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. J. Mazac Jr. 1,3 , R. L. Jahn 3 and J. R. Stapper 3 1 Department of Soil...- 9, 2004, San Antonio, TX. (In press). Gerwing, J. Soil test to save nitrogen costs. The Corn &...

  9. anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. J. Mazac Jr. 1,3 , R. L. Jahn 3 and J. R. Stapper 3 1 Department of Soil...- 9, 2004, San Antonio, TX. (In press). Gerwing, J. Soil test to save nitrogen costs. The Corn &...

  10. Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nitrogen Atmospheric Pressure Post Discharges for Surface Biological Decontamination inside Small) (PET) capillary tubes of different shapes and lengths and decontamination of flow tubes, both for several years at the Orsay Plasma Lab. Its biological decontamination efficiency has been demonstrated

  11. A Search for Nitrogen Enriched Quasars in the Sloan EDR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, M C; Bentz, Misty C.; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for nitrogen-rich quasars in the Sloan EDR catalog has yielded 16 candidates, including four with very prominent emission, but no cases with nitrogen emission as strong as in Q0353-383. The quasar Q0353-383 has long been known to have extremely strong nitrogen intercombination lines at lambda 1486 and lambda 1750 Angstroms, implying an anomalously high nitrogen abundance of about 15 times solar. It is still the only one of its kind known. A preliminary search through the EDR using the observed property of the weak C IV emission seen in Q0353-383 resulted in a sample of 23 objects with unusual emission or absorption-line properties, including one very luminous redshift 2.5 star-forming galaxy. We present descriptions, preliminary emission-line measurements, and spectra for all the objects discussed here.

  12. Tropical Pacific nutrient dynamics in the modern and pleistocene ocean : insights from the nitrogen isotope system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafter, Patrick Anthony

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen isotopes, an enrichment that is conventionallyisotopes upon denitrification also imparts a strong isotopic enrichment

  13. Liquid Cooling in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cader, Tahir; Sorell,, Vali; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor manufacturers have aggressively attacked the problem of escalating microprocessor power consumption levels. Today, server manufacturers can purchase microprocessors that currently have power consumption levels capped at 100W maximum. However, total server power levels continue to increase, with the increase in power consumption coming from the supportin chipsets, memory, and other components. In turn, full rack heat loads are very aggressivley climbing as well, and this is making it increasingly difficult and cost-prohibitive for facility owners to cool these high power racks. As a result, facilities owners are turning to alternative, and more energy efficient, cooling solutions that deploy liquids in one form or another. The paper discusses the advent of the adoption of liquid-cooling in high performance computing centers. An overview of the following competing rack-based, liquid-cooling, technologies is provided: in-row, above rack, refrigerated/enclosed rack, rear door heat exchanger, and device-level (i.e., chip-level). Preparation for a liquid-cooled data center, retroft and greenfield (new), is discussed, with a focus on the key issues that are common to all liquid-cooling technologies that depend upon the delivery of water to the rack (or in some deployments, a Coolant Distribution Unit). The paper then discusses, in some detail, the actual implementation and deployment of a liquid device-level cooled (spray cooled) supercomputer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Initial results from a successful 30 day compliance test show excellent hardware stability, operating system (OS) and software stack stability, application stability and performance, and an availability level that exceeded expectations at 99.94%. The liquid-cooled supercomputer achieved a peak performance of 9.287 TeraFlops, which placed it at number 101 in the June 2007 Top500 fastest supercomputers worldwide. Long-term performance and energy efficiency testing is currently underway, and detailed results will be reported in upcoming publications.

  14. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  15. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM University in partial i'ulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1981 Major Subject: Chemistry DETERMINATION OF CARBON, NITROGEN, AND OXYGEN IN HIGH PURITY MAGNESIUM A Thesis by NEIL GERARD ROCHE Approved as to style and content by: E. A. Schweikert (Chairman of Committee) G. J. Bastiaans (Member) L...

  16. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides (90%-95%) present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. A practical strategy for nitrogen oxides removal might utilize a solid support that has been impregnated with an active transition metal complex. Some supported transition metals are expected to remove NO/sub x/ by sorption, with regeneration of the sorbent being a necessary property. Others catalyze NO oxidation to the more soluble NO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which has been demonstrated for certain transition metal species. These activated nitrogen oxides can be more efficiently removed along with SO/sub 2/ in conventional scrubbing or spray-drying processes, in which an aqueous slurry of sorbent, such as hydrated lime, is injected into the hot flue gas. We present here preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. This work is the first step in the development of supported metal species for enhanced nitrogen oxides removal.

  17. Effect of Increasing Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Shengmu; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; VanNostrand, Joy D.; Liu, Jianshe; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Reich, Peter B.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure impact soil microbial communities, 12 samples were collected from the BioCON plots in which nitrogenous fertilizer was added to simulate the effect of increasing nitrogen deposition and 12 samples from without added fertilizer. DNA from the 24 samples was extracted using a freeze-grind protocol, amplified, labeled with a fluorescent dye, and then hybridized to GeoChip, a functional gene array containing probes for genes involved in N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all genes detected was performed to analyze microbial community patterns. The first two axes accounted for 23.5percent of the total variation. The samples fell into two major groups: fertilized and non-fertilized, suggesting that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure and diversity. The functional gene numbers detected in fertilized samples was less that detected in non-fertilizer samples. Functional genes involving in the N cycling were mainly discussed.

  18. Nitrogen isotope effects on glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abell, L.M.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1988-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The nitrogen isotope effect on the decarboxylation of glutamic acid by glutamate decarboxylase from Escherichia coli has been measured by comparison of the isotopic composition of the amino nitrogen of the product ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid isolated after 10-20% reaction with that of the starting glutamic acid. At pH 4.7, 37 /sup 0/C, the isotope effect is k/sup 14//k/sup 15/ = 0.9855 +/- 0.0006 when compared to unprotonated glutamic acid. Interpretation of this result requires knowledge of the equilibrium nitrogen isotope effect for Schiff base formation. This equilibrium isotope effect is K/sup 14//K/sup 15/ - 0.9824 for the formation of the unprotonated Schiff base between unprotonated valine and salicylaldehyde. Analysis of the nitrogen isotope effect on decarboxylation of glutamic acid and of the previously measured carbon isotope effect on this same reaction shows that decarboxylation and Schiff base formation are jointly rate limiting. The enzyme-bound Schiff base between glutamate and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate partitions approximately 2:1 between decarboxylation and return to the starting state. The nitrogen isotope effect also reveals that the Schiff base nitrogen is protonated in this intermediate.

  19. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.; Miller, Michael A.

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  20. Measurement of nitrogen content in a gas mixture by transforming the nitrogen into a substance detectable with nondispersive infrared detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E. (Helotes, TX); Miller, Michael A. (San Antonio, TX)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the amount of nitrogen in a gas mixture. The constituent gases of the mixture are dissociated and transformed to create a substance that may measured using nondispersive infrared adsorption techniques.

  1. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  2. Are polar liquids less simple?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fragiadakis; C. M. Roland

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong correlation between equilibrium fluctuations of the potential energy, U, and the virial, W, is a characteristic of a liquid that implies the presence of certain dynamic properties, such as density scaling of the relaxation times and isochronal superpositioning of the relaxation function. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations (mds) on methanol and two variations, lacking hydrogen bonds and a dipole moment, to assess the connection between the correlation of U and W and these dynamic properties. We show, in accord with prior results of others [T.S. Ingebrigtsen, T.B. Schroder, J.C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. X 2, 011011 (2012).], that simple van der Waals liquids exhibit both strong correlations and the expected dynamic behavior. However, for polar liquids this correspondence breaks down - weaker correlation between U and W is not associated with worse conformance to density scaling or isochronal superpositioning. The reason for this is that strong correlation between U and W only requires their proportionality, whereas the expected dynamic behavior depends primarily on constancy of the proportionality constant for all state points. For hydrogen-bonded liquids, neither strong correlation nor adherence to the dynamic properties is observed; however, this nonconformance is not directly related to the concentration of hydrogen bonds, but rather to the greater deviation of the intermolecular potential from an inverse power law (IPL). Only (hypothetical) liquids having interactions governed strictly by an IPL are perfectly correlating and exhibit the consequent dynamic properties over all thermodynamic conditions.

  3. Nitrate movement in soils and nitrogen uptake efficiency as affected by nitrogen source, time of application, and a nitrification inhibitor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Kenneth Phanon

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITRATE MOVEMENT IN SOILS AND NITROGEN UPTAKE EFFICIENCY AS AFFECTED BY NITROGEN SOURCEs TINE OF APPLICATIONs AIJD A NITRIFICATION INHIBITOR A Thesis by KENNETH PHAIJON BANKS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University..., Norwood silt loam (Typic Udifluvent) and Houston Black clay (Udic Pellustert) to determine the amount of N03-N leaching from various N fertilizer sources. Nitrate N movement, as affected by time of application, was determined for (NHq)2 Sop, urea...

  4. Low-Afterglow, High-Refractive-Index Liquid Scintillators for Fast-Neutron Spectrometry and Imaging Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauck, Ronald; Bromberger, Benjamin; Dangendorf, Volker; Goldberg, Mark B; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Vartsky, David

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For ion and neutron spectrometry and imaging applications at a high intensity pulsed laser facility, fast liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are required. Furthermore, neutron imaging with fiber (or liquid-core) capillary arrays calls for scintillation materials with high refractive index. To this end, we have examined various combinations of established mixtures of fluors and solvents, that were enriched alternatively with nitrogen or oxygen. Dissolved molecular oxygen is known to be a highly effective quenching agent, that efficiently suppresses the population of the triplet states in the fluor, which are primarily responsible for the afterglow. For measuring the glow curves of scintillators, we have employed the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique, characterized by high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. In this paper we outline the application for the fast scintillators, briefly present the scintillation mechanism in liquids, describe our specif...

  5. Low-Afterglow, High-Refractive-Index Liquid Scintillators for Fast-Neutron Spectrometry and Imaging Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald Lauck; Michal Brandis; Benjamin Bromberger; Volker Dangendorf; Mark B. Goldberg; Ilan Mor; Kai Tittelmeier; David Vartsky

    2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For ion and neutron spectrometry and imaging applications at a high intensity pulsed laser facility, fast liquid scintillators with very low afterglow are required. Furthermore, neutron imaging with fiber (or liquid-core) capillary arrays calls for scintillation materials with high refractive index. To this end, we have examined various combinations of established mixtures of fluors and solvents, that were enriched alternatively with nitrogen or oxygen. Dissolved molecular oxygen is known to be a highly effective quenching agent, that efficiently suppresses the population of the triplet states in the fluor, which are primarily responsible for the afterglow. For measuring the glow curves of scintillators, we have employed the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) technique, characterized by high dynamic range of several orders of magnitude in light intensity. In this paper we outline the application for the fast scintillators, briefly present the scintillation mechanism in liquids, describe our specific TCSPC method and discuss the results.

  6. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  7. Liquid soap film generates electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  8. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  9. New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New airport liquid analysis system New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque International Sunport A new tool that distinguishes potential-threat liquids...

  10. THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

  11. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  12. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  13. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  14. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  15. ELECTRONS ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, David Kay

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert (Ph. D.ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert Materialsthe potential well near a helium surface, The charge density

  16. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

  17. Hydrotreating the bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid produced in a fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.; Tsai, C.H.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone produces three primary product streams: C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons gases, a C{sub 5}{sup +} total liquid product, and a carbonaceous residue on the spent sand. The bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid was significantly upgraded relative to the native bitumen: it had a higher API gravity, lower Conradson carbon residue, asphaltene content, pour point and viscosity and a reduced distillation endpoint relative to the native bitumen. The elemental composition was little different from that of the native bitumen except for the hydrogen content which was lower. The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variables. The extent of denitrogenation and desulfurization of the bitumen-derived liquid was used to monitor catalyst activity as a function of process operating variables and to estimate the extent of catalyst deactivation as a function of time on-stream. The apparent kinetics for the nitrogen and sulfur removal reactions were determined. Product distribution and yield data were also obtained.

  18. Hydrotreating the bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid produced in a fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.; Tsai, C.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone produces three primary product streams: C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbons gases, a C{sub 5}{sup +} total liquid product, and a carbonaceous residue on the spent sand. The bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquid was significantly upgraded relative to the native bitumen: it had a higher API gravity, lower Conradson carbon residue, asphaltene content, pour point and viscosity and a reduced distillation endpoint relative to the native bitumen. The elemental composition was little different from that of the native bitumen except for the hydrogen content which was lower. The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variables. The extent of denitrogenation and desulfurization of the bitumen-derived liquid was used to monitor catalyst activity as a function of process operating variables and to estimate the extent of catalyst deactivation as a function of time on-stream. The apparent kinetics for the nitrogen and sulfur removal reactions were determined. Product distribution and yield data were also obtained.

  19. Method for enhanced atomization of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

  20. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

  1. Heterophase liquid states: Thermodynamics, structure, dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Bakai

    2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of theoretical results and experimental data on the thermodynamics, structure and dynamics of the heterophase glass-forming liquids is presented. The theoretical approach is based on the mesoscopic heterophase fluctuations model (HPFM) developed within the framework of the bounded partition function approach. The Fischer cluster phenomenon, glass transition, liquid-liquid transformations, parametric phase diagram, cooperative dynamics and fragility of the glass-forming liquids is considered.

  2. Ionic Liquids for Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to develop ionic liquids for two geothermal energy related applications.

  3. Cooperative motions in supercooled liquids and glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Jacob D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Heat capacity and entropy of an equilibrium liquid fromliquids should correlate inversely with the con?gurational heat capacity,

  4. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  5. Response functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    speci¿c heat capacity CP and the isothermal compressibility KT . We use two different methods: (i) fromResponse functions near the liquid-liquid critical point of ST2 water Erik Lascaris , T. A, and for four different system sizes, N = 63, 73, 83, and 93. We locate the liquid-liquid phase transition line

  6. Erasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    compressibility KT and the isobaric heat capacity CP . In the LLCP hypothesis, the density anomalies of waterErasing no-man's land by thermodynamically stabilizing the liquid-liquid transition in tetrahedral, Sapienza, Universit´a di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185, Roma, Italy. EFFECTS OF THE LIQUID-LIQUID

  7. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  8. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social Impacts Panel on Alternative Liquid Transportation Fuels DOE LDV Workshop 7-26-10 Mike Ramage and Jim

  9. Touch sensors based on planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Jooyeok; Lee, Chulyeon; Han, Hyemi; Lee, Sooyong; Nam, Sungho; Kim, Youngkyoo, E-mail: ykimm@knu.ac.kr [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwajeong [Organic Nanoelectronics Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Priority Research Center, Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon-Hyung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo-Young; Kang, Inn-Kyu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and Graduate School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a tactile touch sensor based on a planar liquid crystal-gated-organic field-effect transistor (LC-g-OFET) structure. The LC-g-OFET touch sensors were fabricated by forming the 10 ?m thick LC layer (4-cyano-4{sup ?}-pentylbiphenyl - 5CB) on top of the 50 nm thick channel layer (poly(3-hexylthiophene) - P3HT) that is coated on the in-plane aligned drain/source/gate electrodes (indium-tin oxide - ITO). As an external physical stimulation to examine the tactile touch performance, a weak nitrogen flow (83.3 ?l/s) was employed to stimulate the LC layer of the touch device. The LC-g-OFET device exhibited p-type transistor characteristics with a hole mobility of 1.5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, but no sensing current by the nitrogen flow touch was measured at sufficiently high drain (V{sub D}) and gate (V{sub G}) voltages. However, a clear sensing current signal was detected at lower voltages, which was quite sensitive to the combination of V{sub D} and V{sub G}. The best voltage combination was V{sub D} = ?0.2 V and V{sub G} = ?1 V for the highest ratio of signal currents to base currents (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). The change in the LC alignment upon the nitrogen flow touch was assigned as the mechanism for the present LC-g-OFET touch sensors.

  10. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  11. Direct visualization of atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfang; Li, Geng; Lu, Jianchen; Du, Shixuan, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Gao, Hong-Jun [Institute of Physics and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Xiao [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Berger, Reinhard; Feng, Xinliang, E-mail: sxdu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: feng@mpip-mainz.mpg.de; Müllen, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated atomically precise nitrogen-doped chevron-type graphene nanoribbons by using the on-surface synthesis technique combined with the nitrogen substitution of the precursors. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy indicate that the well-defined nanoribbons tend to align with the neighbors side-by-side with a band gap of 1.02?eV, which is in good agreement with the density functional theory calculation result. The influence of the high precursor coverage on the quality of the nanoribbons is also studied. We find that graphene nanoribbons with sufficient aspect ratios can only be fabricated at sub-monolayer precursor coverage. This work provides a way to construct atomically precise nitrogen-doped graphene nanoribbons.

  12. Statistical investigations on nitrogen-vacancy center creation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonov, D., E-mail: d.antonov@physik.uni-stuttgart.de; Häußermann, T.; Aird, A.; Wrachtrup, J. [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [3. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Roth, J.; Trebin, H.-R. [Institut für Theoretische und Angewandte Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische und Angewandte Physik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Müller, C.; McGuinness, L.; Jelezko, F. [Institut für Quantenoptik, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany)] [Institut für Quantenoptik, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Yamamoto, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Isoya, J. [Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Library, Information and Media Studies, University of Tsukuba, 1-2 Kasuga, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8550 (Japan); Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J. [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)] [Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Linnéstrasse 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum information technologies require networks of interacting defect bits. Color centers, especially the nitrogen vacancy (NV{sup ?}) center in diamond, represent one promising avenue, toward the realisation of such devices. The most successful technique for creating NV{sup ?} in diamond is ion implantation followed by annealing. Previous experiments have shown that shallow nitrogen implantation (<10?keV) results in NV{sup ?} centers with a yield of 0.01%–0.1%. We investigate the influence of channeling effects during shallow implantation and statistical diffusion of vacancies using molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Energy barriers for the diffusion process were calculated using density functional theory. Our simulations show that 25% of the implanted nitrogens form a NV center, which is in good agreement with our experimental findings.

  13. Computation of liquid-liquid equilibrium in multicomponent electrolyte systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vianna, R.F.; d`Avila, S.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational algorithm for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data, based on a generalization of the maximum likelihood method applied to implicit constraints, is presented. The algorithm accepts multicomponent data and binary interaction parameters. A comparative study of the models NRTL and electrolyte-NRTL, used for estimating activity coefficients in a quaternary electrolyte system, is presented and discussed. Results show that both models give accurate predictions and the algorithm presents a good performance without convergence or initialization problems. This suggests that the basic NRTL model can be used for describing phase behavior in weak electrolyte systems and the procedure can be of great use for design and optimization of processes involving multicomponent electrolyte systems. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  15. Determination of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen in high purity magnesium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Neil Gerard

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the determination of low Z impurities (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) is a prerequisite for gaining an understanding of the effects of chemical imperfections on the physical, metallurgical, and chemical properties of magnesium (2). The purpose of this study... of nitrogen was accomplished with a 7. 8 MeV Be beam and 9 3 some modifications of the preceeding He procedure were necessary due to the nature of the ion beam. Sam les and Standards Eleven magnesium ingots were received from Dow Chemical Co. , Texas...

  16. TETRAALKYLPHOSPHONIUM POLYOXOMETALATES AS NOVEL IONIC LIQUIDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIETZ,M.L.; RICKERT, P.G.; ANTONIO, M.R.; FIRESTONE, M.A.; WISHART, J.F.; SZREDER, T.

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The pairing of a Lindqvist or Keggin polyoxometalate (POM) anion with an appropriate tetraalkylphosphonium cation, [R{sub 3}R{prime}P]{sup +}, has been shown to yield an original family of ionic liquids (POM-ILs), among them salts liquid at or near ambient temperature. The physicochemical properties of several such 'inorganic liquids', in particular their thermal properties, suggests the possible application of these compounds as robust, thermally-stable solvents for liquid-liquid extraction. A preliminary evaluation of the potential of POM-ILs in this application is presented.

  17. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E. (Frederick, MD); Long, Frederick G. (Ijamsville, MD)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  18. Alien liquid detector and control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, B.M.

    1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

  19. Plasma-Surface Interactions on Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Bastasz; W. Eckstein

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid plasma-facing surfaces have been suggested as an option for advanced fusion devices, particularly in regions where solid materials may not survive over long operating periods. Because liquid surfaces can be replenished, they offer the possibility of tolerating intense particle bombardment and of recovering from off-normal events. As a preliminary step in understanding the nature of plasma-surface interactions on liquids, the authors consider some of the surface processes occurring in liquids undergoing irradiation by energetic particles. These include (1) sputtering, (2) segregation of liquid component species and impurities, (3) evaporation, and (4) trapping and release of incident particles. Aspects of these processes are examined for several candidate liquids, which represent three types of low-Z liquids: pure metals (Li), metallic alloys (Sn-Li), and compound insulators (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}).

  20. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  1. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  2. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  3. Scanning localized magnetic fields in a microfluidic device with a single nitrogen vacancy center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kangmook Lim; Chad Ropp; Benjamin Shapiro; Jacob M. Taylor; Edo Waks

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond have emerged as highly versatile optical emitters that exhibit room temperature spin properties. These characteristics make NV centers ideal for magnetometry, which plays an important role in chemical and biological sensing applications. The integration of NV magnetometers with microfluidic systems could enable the study of isolated chemical and biological samples in a fluid environment with high spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate a method to perform localized magnetometry with nanometer spatial precision using a single NV center in a microfluidic device. We manipulate a magnetic particle within a liquid environment using a combination of planar microfluidic flow control and vertical magnetic actuation to achieve 3-dimensional manipulation. A diamond nanocrystal containing a single NV center is deposited in the microfluidic channels and acts as a local magnetic field probe. We map out the magnetic field distribution of the magnetic particle by varying its position relative to the diamond nanocrystal and performing optically resolved electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. We control the magnetic particle position with a 48 nm precision and attain a magnetic field sensitivity of 17.5 microTesla/Hz^1/2. These results open up the possibility for studying local magnetic properties of biological and chemical systems with high sensitivity in an integrated microfluidic platform.

  4. Personal exposure to nitrogen dioxide and its association with respiratory illness in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koo, L.C.; Ho, J.H.; Ho, C.Y.; Matsuki, H.; Shimizu, H.; Mori, T.; Tominaga, S. (Nam Long Hospital (Hong Kong))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1985, 362 primary schoolchildren and their 319 mothers were surveyed in Hong Kong to study the possible relationship of air pollution to respiratory illnesses. Using nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) measured by personal samplers as a measure of air pollution, the study aimed to identify the major sources of NO{sub 2} in the indoor environment and see whether its increased presence was associated with respiratory symptoms. The levels of NO{sub 2} among the mothers was found to increase by 21% if dust exposure was reported from the workplace, 18% if they used such cooking fuels as liquid petroleum gas or kerosene, 11% when kitchens did not have ventilating fans, and 10% when incense was burned at home. In terms of respiratory symptoms, an increase in NO{sub 2} levels of 19% was reported among those with allergic rhinitis and 18% among those with chronic cough. The levels of NO2 among children were correlated with levels measured in classrooms, all of which had opened windows so that the NO{sub 2} came from outdoors. No association was found between children's NO{sub 2} levels and respiratory symptoms. With the exception of smoking by the father and the children's NO{sub 2} levels, no association was found between smoking at home and NO{sub 2} levels.

  5. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M. [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Kleinsasser, N., E-mail: Kleinsasser_N@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.d [Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO{sub 2} in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2}, 0.1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 1 ppm NO{sub 2}, 10 ppm NO{sub 2} and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO{sub 2} in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO{sub 2} in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  6. Partitioning of assimilated nitrogen in beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Analyses Soluble and insoluble nitrogen compounds were extracted in a methanol-water mixture as described of beech (F. sylvatica L.) were germinat- ed in the dark on peat moistened with water at 20°C and 98 [15N]NH+4(50% 15N atom excess). Two cultures (4 plants each) were harvested at regular inter- vals

  7. NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Thomas H.

    NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS by Haifeng Zhang DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS Haifeng Zhang Department of Chemical Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Economical NOx control techniques used in pulverized coal furnaces, such as air/fuel staging, promote

  8. Screening Prosopis (mesquite) germplasm for biomass production and nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nitrogen-fixing trees of the genus Prosopis (mesquite or algaroba) are well adapted to the semi-arid and often saline regions of the world. These trees may produce firewood or pods for livestock food, they may stabilize sand dunes and they may enrich the soil by production of leaf litter supported by nitrogen fixation. A collection of nearly 500 Prosopis accessions representing North and South American and African germplasm has been established. Seventy of these accessions representing 14 taxa are being grown under field conditions where a 30-fold range in biomass productivity among accessions has been estimated. In a greehouse experiment, 13 Prosopis taxa grew on nitrogen-free medium nodulated, and had a 10-fold difference in nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction). When Prosopis is propagated by seed the resulting trees are extremely variable in growth rate and presence or absence of thorns. Propagation of 6 Prosopis taxa by stem cuttings has been achieved with low success (1 to 10%) in field-grown plants and with higher success (50 to 100%) with young actively growing greenhouse plants.

  9. Preparation of high nitrogen compound and materials therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huynh, My Hang V. (Los Alamos, NM); Hiskey, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-nitrogen compound of the formula ##STR00001## was prepared. Pyrolysis of the compound yields carbon nitrides C.sub.2N.sub.3 and C.sub.3N.sub.5. The carbon nitrides vary in their density, texture, and morphology.

  10. Nitrogen and Sulfur in Rocky Mountain National Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    a variety of air pollution sources, including automobiles, power plants, industry, agriculture, and fires in nitrogen deposition in mountain ecosys- tems. Power plants and other point sources 26% Motor vehicles 25 threats to aquatic and terrestrial resources in the park. Lakes and streams have low concentrations

  11. Patterns of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tim

    Patterns of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Dynamics in Decomposing Foliar Litter in Canadian Group 1 Department of Geography and Centre for Climate and Global Change Research, McGill University, Montre´al, Quebec, Canada; 2 Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, British Columbia

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are influ- encedORIGINAL PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen transformation patterns in forest carbon release under broadleaved forest floors may explain this difference. Spruce forest floor exhibited

  13. CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enrichment increases carbon and nitrogen input from fine roots in a deciduous forest Colleen2 Ecological Society of America, 2008 #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;+ [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] #12;+ Net primary production + [CO2] + C and N storage in biomass #12;+ Net primary production

  14. Activation of flue gas nitrogen oxides by transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.E.; Finseth, D.H.; Pennline, H.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur and nitrogen oxides are major flue gas pollutants released by coal-fired electric power plants. In the atmosphere these oxides are converted to sulfuric and nitric acids, which contribute to the acid rain problem. Most of the nitrogen oxides present in coal-derived flue gas exist as the relatively inert and water-insoluble nitric oxide (NO), thus presenting a difficult removal problem. We present preliminary studies intended to establish basic homogeneous chemistry of transition metal complexes with nitrogen oxides. The transition metals considered in this work are volatile carbonyl complexes. The metal carbonyls took up nitric oxide homogeneously in the gas phase. Iron required uv light for reaction with NO, but the same result is expected with the application of heat. Metal carbonyls also reacted with nitrogen dioxide but produced polynuclear metal species. Oxygen did not attack the carbonyl or nitrosyl complexes. Results indicate high potential for NO/sub x/ removal from stack gases by sorption onto supported metal carbonyl complexes. The solid form allows ease in separation from the flue gas. Regeneration of the sorbent might be achieved by treating with CO to liberate NO/sub x/ by displacement or by heating to decompose and drive off NO/sub x/.

  15. Instructions for use Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Niobium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachizawa, Kazuya

    Instructions for use #12;------ Removal of Oxygen and Nitrogen from Niobium by External Gettering External Gettering, Purification of Niobium, Thermodynamics of Impurities, Oxygen Diffusion, Purity niobium even below 1500K. The oxygen concentration in the deposit and the Nb bulk is evaluated

  16. Nitrogen oxidizing in modeling of diesel engine operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulakov, V.; Merker, G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer model of diesel engine operation based on the interconnected calculation of diesel fuel spray and the processes in the combustion chamber is extended for the calculation of Nitrogen oxidizing. A number of chemical reactions with O{sub 2}, O, N{sub 2}, N, NO, OH, H, H{sub 2} are included in the model.

  17. Original article Effect of abomasal infusion of aspartate on nitrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Effect of abomasal infusion of aspartate on nitrogen balance and plasma amino) Abstract - We investigated the effect of abomasally infused aspartate (Asp) on N balance and plasma amino infusions of water or water containing 40 or 80 g Asp/d. Steers were fed twice daily a diet containing 473 g

  18. Nitrogen Contamination in Elastic Neutron Scattering Songxue Chi,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynn, Jeffrey W.

    Nitrogen Contamination in Elastic Neutron Scattering Songxue Chi,ab Jeffrey W. Lynn,a* Ying Chen a neutron scattering measurement is a contribution to the background, especially in inelastic measurements of having N2 in the sample environment system during elastic neutron scattering measurements on a single

  19. Carbon and nitrogen allocation in trees R.E. Dickson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon and nitrogen allocation in trees R.E. Dickson USDA-Forest Service, NCFES, Rhinelander, WI, U.S.A. Introduction Growth of trees and all plants depends up- on maintaining a positive carbon balance despite to multiple environ- mental stresses (Chapin et aL, 1987; Osmond et al., 1987). Light, carbon, water

  20. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  1. ORIGINAL PAPER Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    ORIGINAL PAPER Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases biological N2 fixation (BNF) by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) through bio-char additions (charcoal- tox cropped to a potentially nodulating bean variety (CIAT BAT 477) in comparison to its non

  2. Nitrogen, Water, Weeds and Applying Science to the Art of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Nitrogen, Water, Weeds and Beetles: Applying Science to the Art of Vegetable Gardening 2009 LRES and Beans 6 2. Bait Cropping Experiment 14 3. Effects of mulching in a small scale vegetable garden 18 4 challenges in the management of insect pests, soil nutrients, water, and weeds. This paper presents

  3. Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Nitrogen Dioxide Absorption and Sulfite Oxidation in Aqueous Sulfite C H E N H . S H E N A N D G by absorption in sulfite solution in existing scrubbers for desulfurization. Rates of NO2 absorption and sulfite absorption initiates sulfite oxidation in the presence of oxygen, and this study quantified the effect

  4. Visible light photocatalytic activity in nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanobelts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Nyago Tafen; Lewis, James P. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Wang Jin; Wu Nianqiang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the electronic properties and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanobelts. UV-visible spectra show enhanced absorption in the visible light range for nitrogen-doped nanobelts compared to the pristine sample. The nitrogen-doped nanobelts exhibit improved photocatalytic activity compared to the pristine sample upon visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the incorporation of nitrogen introduces localized states in the band gap.

  5. The Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Bioenergy Sorghum Yield and Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zilahi-Sebess, Szilvia

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................... 77 Economics of fertilizing biomass feedstocks ................................................. 77 Biomass feedstock yield response to applied nitrogen: An example ........... 79 CONCLUSIONS...

  6. Per-plant eco-physiological responses of maize to varied nitrogen availability at low and high plant densities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boomsma, Christopher R; Vyn, Tony J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and low nitrogen availability. Agron. J. 2009; forthcoming.the impacts of nitrogen (N) availability on intra-specificgenotypes to varied N availability at both low and high

  7. Profiling nitrogen in ultrathin silicon oxynitrides with angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    medium energy ion scattering and secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. Preferential nitrogen by low energy ion (15 N2) implantation. The nitrogen profile and nitrogen chemical bonding states only minor in- crease in the dielectric constant compared to SiO2 but is still favored over other high

  8. Methods of detection and identificationoc carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhalivyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for detecting and identifying carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials are disclosed. The methods may comprise detection of photo-nuclear reaction products of nitrogen and carbon to detect and identify the carbon- and/or nitrogen-containing materials.

  9. Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    of hypersonic reentry vehicles. In the Earth's atmosphere, oxygen and nitrogen atoms are generated in the shock1 Nitric Oxide Production from Surface Recombination of Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms Dusan A. Pejakovi from the recombination of oxygen and nitrogen atoms on quartz. The experiments employ two-photon laser

  10. Large atomic displacements associated with the nitrogen antisite in GaN T. Mattila*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Large atomic displacements associated with the nitrogen antisite in GaN T. Mattila* Laboratory of an extensive theoretical study of the nitrogen antisite in GaN. The neutral antisite in c-GaN is reported the nitrogen antisite and the yellow luminescence commonly observed in GaN is discussed. S0163-1829 96 05824

  11. Nitrogen cycling, plant biomass, and carbon dioxide evolution in a subsurface flow wetland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, Jeffrey J

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to ascertain the fate of nitrogen in a constructed wetland and the rate of bioremediation as indicated by carbon dioxide evolution. Research included a study of nitrogen uptake by plants and nitrification. A tracer isotope of nitrogen,¹?N, was used to follow...

  12. Cooking with Rice (not instant) (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de...

  13. Instant Messaging with Jabber | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    use the generic connection instructions below: Server Name: jabber.it.anl.gov Require SSLTLS communication (port 5222) Username is:

  14. Cooking with Rice (not instant) (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de...?a del Hogar, Leyes del Congreso del 8 de mayo de 1914 con sus reformas y del 30 de junio de 1914 junto con el Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos, Edward G. Smith, Director, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, El Sistema Texas A&M. Revisi?n ...

  15. The effect of temperature during processing of rape seed meal on nitrogen and total amino acid nitrogen degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nitrogen degradation in the rumen and digestion in the intestine P Dakowski MR Weisbjerg T Hvelplund 1 degradability of protein, but heating above the optimal temperature may overprotect the protein to a degree where it is neither degraded in the rumen nor digested in the intestine. Commercially processed rapeseed

  16. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Liquid Argon scintillation light quenching due to Nitrogen impurities : measurements performed for the MicroBooNE vertical slice test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu, Christie Shinglei

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutrino experiment MicroBooNE is currently under construction. To expedite the physics output of MicroBooNE, a smaller version of its optical detection system has been implemented. To demonstrate full operability of ...

  18. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Two dynamic temperature sweep tests, 25 to -100 C and 25 to -70 to 0 C (ramp rate = 1 C/min), were conducted at a frequency of 6.28 rad/s (1 Hz) using a torsion rectangular test geometry. A strain of 0.1% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on an initial dynamic strain sweep test. Storage (G{prime}) and loss (G{double_prime}) moduli, the ratio G{double_prime}/G{prime} (tan {delta}), and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}) were determined as a function of temperature. Crystallization occurred between -40 and -60 C, with G{prime} increasing from {approx}6 x 10{sup 6} to {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} Pa. The value of {alpha} was fairly constant before ({approx}4 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) and after ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) the transition, and peaked during the transition ({approx}3 x 10{sup -3} mm/mm- C). Melting occurred around -30 C upon heating.

  19. Hindered diffusion of coal liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsotsis, T.T.; Sahimi, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Webster, I.A. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The molecules comprising coal liquids can range from less than 10 to several hundred [angstrom] in diameter. Their size is, therefore, comparable to the average pore size of most hydroprocessing catalysts. Thus, during processing, transport of these molecules into the catalyst occurs mainly by configurational'' or hindered diffusion,'' which is the result of two phenomena occurring in the pores; the distribution of solute molecules in the pores is affected by the pores and the solute molecules experience an increased hydrodynamic drag. The field of hindered diffusion has been reviewed by Deen [16]. The earliest studies in the filed were by Renkin et al. [17].

  20. Orifice mixing of immiscible liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonough, Joseph Aloysius

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution (7). The present study of orif1ce mixing is a continuation of previous research on this project which yielded a relationship explaining the effect of operating conditions upon the format1on of 1nterfacial area for the system water-kerosene.... The experimental technique evolved by Helch (18), Vesselhoff (19), McNair (8), and Scott (IA) was changed only slightly. Their work on water-kerosene was repeated for the liquid pairs trichloroethylene-water, heptanol-water, 20 per oent aqueous sucrose-kerosene...

  1. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400,Information Administration22)May£661.DataNov-14Liquids

  2. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, W.A.

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A biofilter is described for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method is described of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described. 6 figs.

  3. Biofilter for removal of nitrogen oxides from contaminated gases under aerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Apel, William A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A biofilter for reducing concentrations of gaseous nitrogen oxides in a polluted gas comprises a porous organic filter bed medium disposed in a housing, the filter bed medium including a mixed culture of naturally occurring denitrifying bacteria for converting the nitrogen oxides to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water. A method of reducing concentrations of nitrogen oxides in polluted gas comprises conducting the polluted gas through the biofilter so that the denitrifying bacteria can degrade the nitrogen oxides. A preferred filter medium is wood compost, however composts of other organic materials are functional. Regulation of pH, moisture content, exogenous carbon sources, and temperature are described.

  4. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA); Schaffer, Michael J. (San Diego, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  5. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  6. Early Events in Ionic Liquid Radiation Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.; Cook, A.; Rimmer, R.D.; Gohdo, M.

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids are interesting and useful materials whose solvation time scales are up to thousands of times longer than in conventional solvents. The extended lifetimes of pre-solvated electrons and other energetic species in ionic liquids has profound consequences for the radiolytic product distributions and reactivity patterns. We use a newly developed, multiplexed variation of pulse-probe spectroscopy to measure the kinetics of the early dynamical and reactive events in ionic liquids.

  7. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  8. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  9. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  10. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  11. Hazardous Liquid Pipelines and Storage Facilities (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute regulates the permitting, construction, monitoring, and operation of pipelines transporting hazardous liquids, including petroleum products and coal slurries. The definition used in...

  12. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  13. Interfacial ionic liquids: connecting static and dynamic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structures separated by an energy barrier (0.15 eV). Keywords: ionic liquid, supercapacitor, electric double layer, epitaxial graphene, x-ray reflectivity, RTIL, interfacial...

  14. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Liquid Chlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Richard; Lesikar, Bruce J.; Richter, Amanda; O'Neill, Courtney

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains the process, components, legal requirements, factors affecting performance, and maintenance needs of liquid chlorination systems for onsite wastewater treatment....

  15. Fully automated multifunctional ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatograp...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phase liquid chromatography, or SCXRPLC) separations, and online phosphopeptides enrichment using a single binary nano-flow pump has been developed. With a simple operation of...

  16. Control of work function of graphene by plasma assisted nitrogen doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akada, Keishi; Terasawa, Tomo-o; Imamura, Gaku; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro, E-mail: saiki@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen doping is expected to provide several intriguing properties to graphene. Nitrogen plasma treatment to defect-free and defective highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples causes doping of nitrogen atom into the graphene layer. Nitrogen atoms are initially doped at a graphitic site (inside the graphene) for the defect-free HOPG, while doping to a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site (edge of the graphene) is dominant for the defective HOPG. The work function of graphene correlates strongly with the site and amount of doped nitrogen. Nitrogen atoms doped at a graphitic site lower the work function, while nitrogen atoms at a pyridinic or a pyrrolic site increase the work function. Control of plasma treatment time and the amount of initial defect could change the work function of graphite from 4.3?eV to 5.4?eV, which would open a way to tailor the nature of graphene for various industrial applications.

  17. Method for reducing nitrogen oxides in combustion effluents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zauderer, Bert (Merion Station, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for reducing nitrogen oxides (NO.sub.x) in the gas stream from the combustion of fossil fuels is disclosed. In a narrow gas temperature zone, NO.sub.x is converted to nitrogen by reaction with urea or ammonia with negligible remaining ammonia and other reaction pollutants. Specially designed injectors are used to introduce air atomized water droplets containing dissolved urea or ammonia into the gaseous combustion products in a manner that widely disperses the droplets exclusively in the optimum reaction temperature zone. The injector operates in a manner that forms droplet of a size that results in their vaporization exclusively in this optimum NO.sub.x -urea/ammonia reaction temperature zone. Also disclosed is a design of a system to effectively accomplish this injection.

  18. Method for selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  19. Method For Selective Catalytic Reduction Of Nitrogen Oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery-Evans, Deborah L. (Broomfield, CO); Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxide compounds (NO.sub.x, defined as nitric oxide, NO, +nitrogen dioxide, NO.sub.2) in a gas by a material comprising a base metal consisting essentially of CuO and Mn, and oxides of Mn, on an activated metal hydrous metal oxide support, such as HMO:Si. A promoter, such as tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide, can be added and has been shown to increase conversion efficiency. This method provides good conversion of NO.sub.x to N.sub.2, good selectivity, good durability, resistance to SO.sub.2 aging and low toxicity compared with methods utilizing vanadia-based catalysts.

  20. Yield Optimization of Nitrogen Vacancy Centers in Diamond 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jeson

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    /nmg2870 ………………………………………………………………. 21 3-7 The minimum implantation time to prevent graphitization versus temperature for various doses of 2 MeV nitrogen implantation………… 22 x FIGURE... is feasible and allows removal of most dirt, some amorphous carbon, and graphite on surface without eroding the diamond. The bond strength of diamond also allows heating in vacuum to high temperature up to 1700°C and can be baked in air up to 700°C...

  1. Oxygen and Nitrogen in Isolated Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. van Zee; M. P. Haynes

    2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present long slit optical spectroscopy of 67 HII regions in 21 dwarf irregular galaxies to investigate the enrichment of oxygen, nitrogen, neon, sulfur, and argon in low mass galaxies. Oxygen abundances are obtained via direct detection of the temperature sensitive emission lines for 25 HII regions; for the remainder of the sample, oxygen abundances are estimated from strong line calibrations. The direct abundance determinations are compared to the strong-line abundance calibrations of both McGaugh (1991) and Pilyugin (2000). Global oxygen and nitrogen abundances for this sample of dwarf irregular galaxies are examined in the context of open and closed box chemical evolution models. While several galaxies are consistent with closed box chemical evolution, the majority of this sample have an effective yield ~1/4 of the expected yield for a constant star formation rate and Salpeter IMF, indicating that either outflow of enriched gas or inflow of pristine gas has occurred. The effective yield strongly correlates with M_H/L_B in the sense that gas-rich galaxies are more likely to be closed systems. However, the effective yield does not appear to correlate with other global parameters such as dynamical mass, absolute magnitude, star formation rate or surface brightness. A correlation is found between the observed nitrogen-to-oxygen ratio and the color of the underlying stellar population; redder dwarf irregular galaxies have higher N/O ratios than blue dwarf irregular galaxies. The relative abundance ratios are interpreted in the context of delayed release of nitrogen and varied star formation histories.

  2. Cytosine as an indicator of microbial nitrogen in the rumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hegerle, Kelly Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (1970) or Mathison and Milligan (1971), it is based on the incorporation of nitrogen from ammonia and thus would not account for microbial protein synthesized directly from amino acids. Smith and coworkers (1976) observed...). It involves several extractions and a column purification step which could result in only partial recovery of the nucleic acids. Nucleic acid base analysis is much simpler and the potential for error considerably lower. Sample preparation involves oven...

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Nitrogen ebullition in a Colorado plains river

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, T.K.

    as potent as CO2), N2O fluxes account for only a small proportion (\\1%) of the total nitrate conversion reduction of nitrate (NO3 - ) primarily to N2 (but also some N2O), is an important component of the nitrogen with N2O (median N2O-emission rate, 1.49 9 10-3 g N m-2 d-1 ). Although such N2O emissions

  4. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  5. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  6. Characterization of nitrogen- and phosphorus-regulated cell-surface proteins in the marine coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Dori M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen metabolism of microalgae. Canadian Bulletin ofin many species of microalgae and, possibly, the major route

  7. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  8. Nitrogen containing shielding gases for GTAW duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creffield, G.K.; Cole, M.H.; Paciej, R.; Huang, W.; Urmston, S. [BOC Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The duplex stainless steel are alloys characterized as consisting of two phases; austenite and ferrite. As such, they combine the benefits of both phases i.e. good ductility and general corrosion resistance of austenite, but with improved stress corrosion cracking resistance and strength associate with ferrite. Carefully controlled manufacturing techniques are employed to produce this combination in roughly equal proportions to ensure optimum properties. The range of duplex alloys studied in this work covered both the standard grade (2205) and the latest generation of super duplex (2507) alloys; typical compositions are shown in Table 1. Although the standard duplex is the most commonly available and widely used, super duplexes, which are characterized by higher chromium, nickel, molybdenum and nitrogen contents, have even better corrosion properties and are finding increasing applications in the offshore industry. To benefit from the superior properties of duplex, it is vital that these alloys can be welded effectively and that the properties of the welded joint match those of the parent weld. The objective of the current investigation was to study the effect of nitrogen, in both the shielding and purge gas, on the weld metal nitrogen content, microstructure and corrosion resistance, with the eventual aim of recommending an effective shielding gas mixture for duplex stainless steels.

  9. CMD-3 Liquid Xenon Calorimeter's signals processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CMD-3 Liquid Xenon Calorimeter's signals processing for timing measurements. Leonid Epshtein Budker connected to constitute 264 «towers»; signal of each tower is processed by electronic channel. Liquid Xenon functional channel scheme and signal's shapes in the typical point. Digital Signal Processing ADCCSALXe

  10. QUANTUM STATISTICS OF METASTABLE LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    QUANTUM STATISTICS OF METASTABLE LIQUID HELIUM FR´ED´ERIC CAUPIN AND S´EBASTIEN BALIBAR Laboratoire in the spinodal line of liquid helium 3, for which experimental evidence has been reported. The calculations in the case of superfluid helium 4; we also consider the overpressurized region, and the location

  11. Remarks on Liquid Wall Research Mohamed Abdou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    rrr ×= BJF rrr ×= BJF rrr ×= BJF rrr ×= J r V r+- g r B r J r #12;· Magnetic Propulsion Liquid Metal Forces" · Gravity-Momentum Drive (GMD) · GMD with Swirl Flow · Electromagnetically Restrained · Magnetic Propulsion Plasma-Liquid Interface · Fluids with low vapor pressure at high temperature (e.g. Sn

  12. Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    June 2011 Liquid Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries A review of some of the challenges, activities and policy options for liquid biofuels Prepared for PISCES by Practical Action Biofuels Strategies and Policies in selected African Countries Although this research is funded by DFID

  13. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dweikat, Ismail [University of Nebraska; Clemente, Thomas [University of Nebrask

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the completion of the proposed work, we will have: 1) identified novel alleles in wild sorghum germplasm that is useful to improve both cultivated grain and sweet sorghum; 2) been able to select individuals plants that exhibit high NUE within a breeding population on the basis of these markers; 3) acquired essential information necessary to examine the roles of GS and GOGAT, AlaT, along with impact of transcription factor Dof1, on N assimilation in sweet sorghum; and 4) The information learned will provide new opportunities for improving NUE in sorghum and other cereals.

  14. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  15. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  16. Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes for Gas Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, C.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids have been rapidly gaining attention for various applications including solvent separation and gas capture. These substances are noted for extremely low vapor pressure and high CO2 solubility making them ideal as transport or capture media for CO2 abatement in power generation applications. Ionic liquids, combined with various supports to form membranes, have been proven selective in CO2 separation. Several ionic liquids and a variety of polymer supports have been studied over a temperature range from 37°C to 300°C and have been optimized for stability. The membranes have demonstrated high permeability and high selectivity since the supported ionic liquid membranes incorporate functionality capable of chemically complexing CO2. A study aimed at improving supported ionic liquid membranes will examine their durability with greater transmembrane pressures and the effects on CO2 permeance, CO2/H2 selectivity and thermal stability.

  17. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  18. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  19. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  20. LECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ÉLECTRISATION ET CONDUCTION ÉLECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES par L. BRUNINGHAUS. Sommaire. - I. Electrisation des hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides s'électrisent (négativement) lorsqu'ils s hydrocarbures. - Les hydrocarbures liquides mani- festent trois régimes de conduction : 1° En couches épaisses

  1. Essays on Bank Optimal Portfolio Choice under Liquidity Constraint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eul Jin

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    portfolio choices under liquidity constraints. Our theory predicts that liquidation plays an important role in a bank's portfolio model. Even though liquidation is an off-equilibrium phenomenon, banks can have rich loan portfolios due to the possibility...

  2. On the Fluctuations that Order and Frustrate Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limmer, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most nonpolar liquids have heat capacities that range from 8the maximum liquid state heat capacity[173]. ExperimentallyLIQUID AND SOLID WATER (a) Density (b) Compressibility (c) Heat Capacity

  3. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

  4. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm...

  5. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly...

  6. Dielectric liquid ionization chambers for detecting fast neutrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, Erin M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three ionization chambers with different geometries have been constructed and filled with dielectric liquids for detection of fast neutrons. The three dielectric liquids studied were Tetramethylsilane (TMS), Tetramethylpentane ...

  7. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

  8. Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid solutions of methanol and ethanol at temperatures near the glass Mixing it up - Measuring diffusion in supercooled liquid...

  9. Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed...

  10. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well...

  11. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Elucidating graphene - Ionic Liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and...

  12. New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization New lithium-based ionic liquid electrolytes that resist salt concentration polarization...

  13. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries....

  14. Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication Ionic Liquids as Multifunctional Ashless Additives for Engine Lubrication A group of oil-miscible ionic liquids has been...

  15. Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional Laboratory Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Adds Multi-Functional Laboratory January 28, 2015 -...

  16. Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility Transfer Lines to Connect Liquid Waste Facilities and Salt Waste Processing Facility October...

  17. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport...

  18. antiferroelectric liquid crystals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

  19. antiferroelectric liquid crystal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

  20. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for...

  1. alcohol liquid diet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    biodiesel. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??The most widely used process technology for biodiesel manufacture is the base-catalysed liquid-liquid...

  2. alkaline radioactive liquid: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that is, their capital and the margins charged by their financiers. In times of crisis, reductions in market liquidity and funding liquidity are mutually reinforcing,...

  3. Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid chromatography-MS by incorporating peptide sequence Improved peptide elution time prediction for reversed-phase liquid...

  4. Lubricants or lubricant additives composed of ionic liquids containing ammonium cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qu, Jun (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Truhan, Jr.,; John J. (Cookeville, TN) [Cookeville, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Blau, Peter J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A lubricant or lubricant additive is an ionic liquid alkylammonium salt. The alkylammonium salt has the structure R.sub.xNH.sub.(4-x).sup.+,[F.sub.3C(CF.sub.2).sub.yS(O).sub.2].sub.2N.sup- .- where x is 1 to 3, R is independently C.sub.1 to C.sub.12 straight chain alkyl, branched chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, alkyl substituted cycloalkyl, cycloalkyl substituted alkyl, or, optionally, when x is greater than 1, two R groups comprise a cyclic structure including the nitrogen atom and 4 to 12 carbon atoms, and y is independently 0 to 11. The lubricant is effective for the lubrication of many surfaces including aluminum and ceramics surfaces.

  5. Liquid-liquid equilibria of fuel oxygenate + water + hydrocarbon mixtures. 3: Effect of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, G. [Universitaet Karlsruhe (Germany). Institut fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik; Sandler, S.I. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have measured the ternary liquid-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol mixtures with, separately, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane and toluene at 5 and 40 C, water + tert-amyl alcohol (TAOH) mixtures with, separately, toluene and hexane at 5 and 40 C, and of water + TAOH + pentane mixtures at 5 C. The ethanol-containing systems exhibit type 1 liquid-liquid phase behavior, and the TAOH-containing systems exhibit type 2 behavior. These data, together with the data they have previously reported at 25 C, provide information on how the liquid-liquid equilibria of these systems change as a function of temperature. While the addition of ethanol is found to increase the solubility of hydrocarbons in the aqueous phase, the concentration of the hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase decreases with increasing temperature. With the exception of hydrocarbon in the water-rich phase, the experimental data could be correlated quite well with either the UNIQUAC or NRTL models. For most of the systems considered here the predictions of the phase behavior with the liquid-liquid UNIFAC group-contribution model are only qualitatively correct. However, the liquid-liquid UNIFAC model erroneously predicts type 2 phase behavior to occur for water + ethanol + 2,2,4-trimethylpentane system at 5 C.

  6. Reduction of nitrogen oxides with catalytic acid resistant aluminosilicate molecular sieves and ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Thomas R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noxious nitrogen oxides in a waste gas stream such as the stack gas from a fossil-fuel-fired power generation plant or other industrial plant off-gas stream is catalytically reduced to elemental nitrogen and/or innocuous nitrogen oxides employing ammonia as reductant in the presence of a zeolite catalyst in the hydrogen or sodium form having pore openings of about 3 to 10 A.

  7. Viscosity of a nanoconfined liquid during compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Shah H. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120 (Pakistan); Kramkowski, Edward L.; Ochs, Peter J.; Wilson, David M.; Hoffmann, Peter M., E-mail: hoffmann@wayne.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscous behavior of liquids under nanoconfinement is not well understood. Using a small-amplitude atomic force microscope, we found bulk-like viscosity in a nanoconfined, weakly interacting liquid. A further decrease in viscosity was observed at confinement sizes of a just few molecular layers. Overlaid over the continuum viscous behavior, we measured non-continuum stiffness and damping oscillations. The average stiffness of the confined liquid was found to scale linearly with the size of the confining tip, while the damping scales with the radius of curvature of the tip end.

  8. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  9. Shearing Flows in Liquid Crystal Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Timothy

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The director field is the realization of local averaging to de- scribe the natural state in a nematic liquid crystal, Figure 1.1. For any natural alignment of the liquid crystal, n?, one prescribes that W (n?,?n?) = 0. Since the director field is used... derivative of h by the formula D Dt h(t,x) = ?h? t +(u · ~?)h. The acceleration is of the liquid crystal material through the point x is given by a(t,x) = Du Dt . Following the classical approach one assumes that for every open subset Wt ??, trav- eling along...

  10. Development of photocatalyst by combined nitrogen and yttrium doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Matiullah [Department of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China); Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Bannu, 28100 Bannu (Pakistan); Cao, Wenbin, E-mail: wbcao@ustb.edu.cn [Department of Inorganic Nonmetallic Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The simulated compensated YN{sub SUB} co-doped TiO{sub 2} model can reasonably explain the experimental observations. Calculation results show that substitutional Y at Ti sites and substitutional N at O sites with an oxygen vacancy give stable configuration, reduced band gap, better visible light absorption and enhance separations of photoexcited charge carriers. The experimental observations confirmed the theoretical findings. - Highlights: • (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} was synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method. • The Y doping concentration was varied from 0.01 to 1.38 at%. • 0.05% (Y, N) codoped TiO{sub 2} shows enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. • Compensated and noncompensated ab-initio calculations were performed. • Calculation results reasonably explained the experimental findings. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide co-doped with yttrium and nitrogen with different yttrium doping concentration has been synthesized by mild one pot hydrothermal method without any post calcination for crystallization. Irrespective of the yttrium doping concentration, all the synthesized samples were composed of pure anatase phase with good crystallinity. And the synthesized co-doped samples have spherical morphology with uniform particle size distribution. The absorption edge of the co-doped TiO{sub 2} was shifted toward visible light region depicting that the intrinsic band gap of TiO{sub 2} was affected by the co-doping. Among the different samples, the co-doped sample with 0.05% yttrium doping concentration exhibits enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity by degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. Compensated and non-compensated yttrium–nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} models were simulated using density functional theory to explain the experimental findings. The calculation results show that the compensated yttrium–nitrogen co-doped TiO{sub 2} model may reasonably explain the experimental observations due to its stable configuration, narrowed band gap and enhanced separation of photoexcited carriers.

  11. Nitrogen oxides reduction by staged combustion of LCV gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabrera Sixto, Jose Manuel

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the high nitrogen content (1-2%) of the agricultural wastes, burning of the LCV gas derived from them can result in NO?emissions in excess of 2000 ppm. NO?emissions during combustion of LCV gas derived from gasification of cotton gin trash have been... and the life. In second place, to Luci, Maria Luz, and Jose Manuel for att the love and happiness they have tpven to me, and for all their patience during the time that I was working on this research. Finally, I also dedicate this work to my mother, sisters...

  12. Electron kinetics in a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, Dmitry [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)] [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron kinetics during a microdischarge in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure is studied using the one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collisions model. It is obtained that the electron energy distribution function can be divided into three parts, namely, the non-equilibrium low-energy part, the Maxwellian function at moderate energies, and the high-energy tail. Simulation results showed that the role of the high-energy tail of electron energy distribution increases, when the distance between electrodes increases.

  13. Patterns of Nitrogen Utilization in Deep-Sea Syntrophic Consortia (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wiegel, Detlef

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Victoria Orphan from Caltech discusses "Patterns of nitrogen utilization in deep-sea syntrophic consortia" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  14. A study of the changes occurring in the nitrogenous constituents of cottonseed meats during cooking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robert Solomon

    1936-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    p ~ g* ?slated ~ 'fhe poroontags of nitrogen obtained by substraoting the oolerimetrio nitrogen from the total nitnogea is repnrtod as nitrogen by differonoei Tho coast forms of this nitrogen are sot determinsdn The Writer rOPOrte aa Onlnrimetrtn... ot rofreocloo ot t&~ other a@Create o(ere fo((. tar lneblao TAB@8 lX 'dt "dRT108 OF T "8 i(KATR SXTF?CTC' Sf VRRlOV?8. LVRRT~ Tt??e Coohad itnmtos Meats C?OLed dt R12 dog?F 2. ". I de{{ ~ F?233 de?g?F Fotroleua Ether" RO 40 60 80 100 l...

  15. Hydrogen adsorption and anomalous electronic properties of nitrogen-doped graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Yoshitaka, E-mail: fujimoto@stat.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Saito, Susumu [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); International Research Center for Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Materials Research Center for Element Strategy, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate hydrogen adsorption effects on stabilities and electronic properties of nitrogen defects in graphene using first-principles electronic-structure calculations within the density-functional theory. We find that the adsorption of hydrogen atoms on the pyridine-type nitrogen defects in graphene becomes energetically favorable, whereas in the case of the substitutional nitrogen defect the hydrogen adsorption becomes unfavorable. We also find that a transition from p-type to n-type doping properties occurs by hydrogen adsorption on the pyridine-type defects, suggesting that even the carrier type is controllable in nitrogen-doped graphene.

  16. Photocatalytic activity of nitrogen doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Songwang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Gao Lian [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: liangaoc@online.sh.cn

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work provides the design and synthesis of nitrogen doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles working as efficient photocatalysts under visible light irradiation. Nitrogen doped rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are synthesized through the surface nitridation of rutile nanoparticles, which have been prepared in advance. The experimental results show that the nitrogen element is easily doped into the lattice of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and its doping amount increases with the decrease of nanocrystallite size. The photocatalytic activity of the nanoparticles under visible light irradiation is correlated not only with the amount of doped nitrogen element but also with the morphology and crystallinity of nanoparticles.

  17. Nitrogen doping of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene on 4H-SiC (0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, J. M.; Binder, J.; Wysmo?ek, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); D?browski, P.; Strupi?ski, W. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Kopciuszy?ski, M.; Ja?ochowski, M. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sk?odowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sk?odowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of ?ód?, ul. Pomorska 149/153, 90-236 ?ód? (Poland); Baranowski, J. M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Ho?a 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczy?ska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical, electrical, and structural properties of nitrogen-doped graphene grown on the Si face of 4H-SiC (0001) by chemical vapor deposition method using propane as the carbon precursor and N{sub 2} as the nitrogen source. The incorporation of nitrogen in the carbon lattice was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows carrier behavior characteristic for massless Dirac fermions and confirms the presence of a graphene monolayer in the investigated nitrogen-doped samples. The structural and electronic properties of the material were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A systematical analysis of the graphene Raman spectra, including D, G, and 2D bands, was performed. In the case of nitrogen-doped samples, an electron concentration on the order of 5–10 × 10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2} was estimated based upon Raman and Hall effect measurements and no clear dependence of the carrier concentration on nitrogen concentration used during growth was observed. This high electron concentration can be interpreted as both due to the presence of nitrogen in graphitic-like positions of the graphene lattice as well as to the interaction with the substrate. A greater intensity of the Raman D band and increased inhomogeneity, as well as decreased electron mobility, observed for nitrogen-doped samples, indicate the formation of defects and a modification of the growth process induced by nitrogen doping.

  18. SEARCH OF MUNGBEAN (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) GENOTYPES FOR OPTIMAL AND SUB-OPTIMAL NITROGEN LEVELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Md. Altaf

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ghildiyal, M.C. and G.S. Sirohi. 1986. Nitrogen utilizationand Voss, 1981; Ghildiyal and Sirohi, 1986). Table 1. N use

  19. Air Quality Responses to Changes in Black Carbon and Nitrogen Oxide Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millstein, Dev

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005). Particulate emissions from construction activities.M. S. , (2000b). In-use emissions from heavy- duty dieseland nitrogen dioxide emissions from gasoline- and diesel-

  20. and-or nitrogen fixative: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    forests may be among the highest on earth. However, data supporting this contention are rare Cleveland, Cory 68 Nitrogen Controls on Climate Model Evapotranspiration University...

  1. Soil type, crop and irrigation technique affect nitrogen leaching to groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letey, John; Vaughan, Peter

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Addressing Nitrates in Groundwater. Report to theSources and Loading to Groundwater, Technical Report 2,nitrogen leaching to groundwater by John Letey and Peter

  2. Annulation strategies for the synthesis of azulenes and polycyclic nitrogen heterocycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crombie, Aimee Lynn, 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly convergent annulation strategies have been developed for the synthesis of azulenes and polycyclic nitrogen heterocycles. Specifically, substituted azulenes have been synthesized via a ring expansion-annulation ...

  3. SciTech Connect: Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and geographic soil-forming factors. Therefore, information is included on location, soil nitrogen content, climate, and vegetation along with carbon density and variation....

  4. Proton Electrodynamics in Liquid Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Volkov; V. G. Artemov; A. V. Pronin

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The dielectric spectrum of liquid water, $10^{4} - 10^{11}$ Hz, is interpreted in terms of diffusion of charges, formed as a result of self-ionization of H$_{2}$O molecules. This approach explains the Debye relaxation and the dc conductivity as two manifestations of this diffusion. The Debye relaxation is due to the charge diffusion with a fast recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{2}$, while the dc conductivity is a manifestation of the diffusion with a much slower recombination rate, $1/\\tau_{1}$. Applying a simple model based on Brownian-like diffusion, we find $\\tau_{2} \\simeq 10^{-11}$ s and $\\tau_{1} \\simeq 10^{-6}$ s, and the concentrations of the charge carriers, involved in each of the two processes, $N_{2} \\simeq 5 \\times 10^{26}$ m$^{-3}$ and $N_{1} \\simeq 10^{14}$ m$^{-3}$. Further, we relate $N_{2}$ and $N_{1}$ to the total concentration of H$_{3}$O$^{+}$--OH$^{-}$ pairs and to the pH index, respectively, and find the lifetime of a single water molecule, $\\tau_{0} \\simeq 10^{-9}$ s. Finally, we show that the high permittivity of water results mostly from flickering of separated charges, rather than from reorientations of intact molecular dipoles.

  5. Electron localization in liquid acetonitrile.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkrob, I. A.; Sauer, M. C.; Chemistry

    2002-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-resolved one- and two-pulse laser dc photoconductivity has been used to observe two kinds of reducing species, anion-1 and anion-2, in liquid acetonitrile. At 25 C, the standard enthalpy of conversion from anion-1 to anion-2 is -44.3 {+-} 3.6 kJ/mol and the conversion time is 3 ns. The high-temperature form, anion-1, absorbs in the IR and migrates >3.3 times faster than any other ion in acetonitrile. This rapid migration has a low activation energy of 3.2 kJ/mol (vs 7.6 kJ/mol for other ions). Anion-1 rapidly transfers the electron to acceptors with high electron affinity, with rate constant up to 10{sup 11} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The low-temperature form, anion-2, absorbs in the visible and exhibits normal mobility and electron-transfer rates, ca. 1.5 x 10{sup 10} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. It reacts, by proton transfer, with two hydrogen-bonded molecules of water and/or aliphatic alcohols. Laser photoexcitation of these two solvent anions in their respective absorption bands leads to the formation of CH{sub 3} and CN{sup -}. We present arguments indicating that anion-2 is a dimer radical anion of acetonitrile, whereas anion-1 is a multimer radical anion that may be regarded as a 'solvated electron'.

  6. Laser Micromachining: Advantages of Liquid Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Laser Micromachining: Advantages of Liquid Environments Marc J. Palmeri Princeton University Arnold Lab #12;Outline · Motivation ­ Applications of laser micromachining ­ Problems with laser micromachining · How do lasers work? · What is laser micromachining? · Micromachining assembly · Methods

  7. Liquid Lithium Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; R. Doerner; R. Kaita; G. Antar; J. Timberlake; et al

    2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial results of experiments involving the use of liquid lithium as a plasma facing component in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) are reported. Studies of the interaction of a steady-state plasma with liquid lithium in the Plasma Interaction with Surface and Components Experimental Simulator (PISCES-B) are also summarized. In CDX-U a solid or liquid lithium covered rail limiter was introduced as the primary limiting surface for spherical torus discharges. Deuterium recycling was observed to be reduced, but so far not eliminated, for glow discharge-cleaned lithium surfaces. Some lithium influx was observed during tokamak operation. The PISCES-B results indicate that the rates of plasma erosion of lithium can exceed predictions by an order of magnitude at elevated temperatures. Plans to extend the CDX-U experiments to large area liquid lithium toroidal belt limiters are also described.

  8. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  9. Experimental investigation on liquid behaviors in nanopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Weiyi

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an nd as an ex xternal pressu ure is applie ed, the liquid d1–90 mm/min. Wh hen the pressu ure reached ab bout 50 MPa, ,

  10. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

  11. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  12. The effect of sources of nitrogen on nitrate formation and nitrogen uptake by cotton plants growing on Miller clay loam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcos, Zilmar Ziller

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 4 82 e a a 89 Eitrogen Content of' Cotton Leaves. . . . . . . . 4$ Phosphorus Content of Cotton Ieaves. . . . ~ . . 50 Potassium Content of Cott, on Ieaves . DXSCVSSXOE o o ~ a a e a ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 60 Effect of' Bate and, Source of...' Nitrogen on Bitte CcnoentI'Stion e e o e o ~ ~ ~ o a a o o Effect of Bate and. Source of Eitxogen on Soil pB. 62 Effect of Bate and. Source of' Of Eitl'Ogeno a o e e e o Eitrogen on ~ ~ 0 the Uptake 62 Effect of Bate and Source of Of Phosphorusi...

  13. Liquid crystal variable retarders in atomic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, J.E.; Yu, D.H.; Hayes, P.A.; DSouza, C.M.; Williams, J.F. [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)] [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applications of liquid crystal variable retarders in the production of spin-polarized electrons and in the determination of the polarization of optical radiation from atoms excited by polarized electrons are discussed. The advantages of using liquid crystal variable retarders in the measurement of Stokes parameters are insensitivity to the incident photon direction, large transmission diameter, variable retardation over large wavelength range without mechanical movement, and {ital in} {ital situ} calibration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  15. Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Wheaton, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

  16. Equilibration of a spinless Luttinger liquid.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matveev, K. A.; Andreev, A. V. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Washington)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how a Luttinger liquid of spinless particles in one dimension approaches thermal equilibrium. Full equilibration requires processes of backscattering of excitations, which occur at energies of the order of the bandwidth. Such processes are not accounted for by the Luttinger-liquid theory. We treat the high-energy excitations as mobile impurities and derive an expression for the equilibration rate in terms of their spectrum. Our results apply at any interaction strength.

  17. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  18. Behavior of Supercooled Aqueous Solutions Stemming from Hidden Liquid-Liquid Transition in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Biddle; Vincent Holten; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A popular hypothesis that explains the anomalies of supercooled water is the existence of a metastable liquid-liquid transition hidden below the line of homogeneous nucleation. If this transition exists and if it is terminated by a critical point, the addition of a solute should generate a line of liquid-liquid critical points emanating from the critical point of pure metastable water. We have analyzed thermodynamic consequences of this scenario. In particular, we consider the behavior of two systems, H2O-NaCl and H2O-glycerol. We find the behavior of the heat capacity in supercooled aqueous solutions of NaCl, as reported by Archer and Carter, to be consistent with the presence of the metastable liquid-liquid transition. We suggest an interpretation of the liquid-liquid transition in aqueous solutions of glycerol, recently observed by Murata and Tanaka, elucidating the non-conserved nature of the order parameter, its coupling with density and concentration, and the peculiarity of "spinodal decomposition without phase separation". We also show how the shape of the critical line in a solution controls the difference in concentration of the coexisting liquid phases.

  19. Theory of nitrogen doping of carbon nanoribbons: Edge effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Jie; Turnbull, Joseph; Lu, Wenchang; Boguslawski, Piotr; Bernholc, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen doping of a carbon nanoribbon is profoundly affected by its one-dimensional character, symmetry, and interaction with edge states. Using state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, including hybrid exact-exchange density functional theory, we find that, for N-doped zigzag ribbons, the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon sublattice effects due to the non-equivalence of the two sublattices. For armchair ribbons, N-doping effects are different depending upon the ribbon family: for families 2 and 0, the N-induced levels are in the conduction band, while for family 1 the N levels are in the gap. In zigzag nanoribbons, nitrogen close to the edge is amore »deep center, while in armchair nanoribbons its behavior is close to an effective-mass-like donor with the ionization energy dependent on the value of the band gap. In chiral nanoribbons, we find strong dependence of the impurity level and formation energy upon the edge position of the dopant, while such site-specificity is not manifested in the magnitude of the magnetization.« less

  20. Theory of nitrogen doping of carbon nanoribbons: Edge effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Jie [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Yale Univ, New Haven, CT (United States); Turnbull, Joseph [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Lu, Wenchang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boguslawski, Piotr [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Institute of Physics, Warsaw, and Bydgoszcz (Poland); Bernholc, J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States) and Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen doping of a carbon nanoribbon is profoundly affected by its one-dimensional character, symmetry, and interaction with edge states. Using state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, including hybrid exact-exchange density functional theory, we find that, for N-doped zigzag ribbons, the electronic properties are strongly dependent upon sublattice effects due to the non-equivalence of the two sublattices. For armchair ribbons, N-doping effects are different depending upon the ribbon family: for families 2 and 0, the N-induced levels are in the conduction band, while for family 1 the N levels are in the gap. In zigzag nanoribbons, nitrogen close to the edge is a deep center, while in armchair nanoribbons its behavior is close to an effective-mass-like donor with the ionization energy dependent on the value of the band gap. In chiral nanoribbons, we find strong dependence of the impurity level and formation energy upon the edge position of the dopant, while such site-specificity is not manifested in the magnitude of the magnetization.

  1. Boiling of nuclear liquid in the micro-canonical ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy and the critical temperature of 1 #12;Boiling of nuclear liquid in the microBoiling of nuclear liquid in the micro-canonical ensemble K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro@rio.odn.ne.jp Abstract New calculus of the liquid-gas phase transition is developed for the boiling of nuclear liquid

  2. FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FULLY INTEGRATED ONE PHASE LIQUID COOLING SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC BOARDS D. May1 , B. Wunderle1 , F approach: A liquid cooling system has to be cus- tomised to its application. Further, it requires many dis in designing liquid cooling solu- tions are performance, reliability and price. To that end a one-phase liquid

  3. Semiconductor liquid crystal composition and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Li, Liang-shi

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor liquid crystal compositions and methods for making such compositions are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention is directed to a liquid crystal composition including a solvent and semiconductor particles in the solvent. The solvent and the semiconductor particles are in an effective amount in the liquid crystal composition to form a liquid crystal phase.

  4. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  5. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  6. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alban Sauret; François Boulogne; Jean Cappello; Emilie Dressaire; Howard A. Stone

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.

  7. The defect chemistry of nitrogen in oxides: A review of experimental and theoretical studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polfus, Jonathan M.; Norby, Truls [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway)] [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Haugsrud, Reidar, E-mail: reidarha@kjemi.uio.no [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway)] [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Gaustadalleen 21, FERMiO, NO-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Incorporation of nitrogen into oxides has in recent years received increased attention as a variable for tuning their functional properties. A vast number of reports have been devoted to improving the photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2}, p-type charge carrier concentration in ZnO and the ionic transport properties of ZrO{sub 2} by nitrogen doping. In comparison, the fundamentals of the nitrogen related defect chemistry for a wider range of oxides have been less focused upon. In the present contribution, we review experimental and computational investigations of the nitrogen related defect chemistry of insulating and semiconducting oxides. The interaction between nitrogen and protons is important and emphasized. Specifically, the stability of nitrogen defects such as N{sub O}{sup /}, NH{sub O}{sup Multiplication-Sign} and (NH{sub 2}){sub O}{sup Bullet} is evaluated under various conditions and their atomistic and electronic structure is presented. A final discussion is devoted to the role of nitrogen with respect to transport properties and photocatalytic activity of oxides. - Graphical abstract: Experimental and theoretical investigations of the nitrogen related defect chemistry of a range of wide band gap oxides is reviewed. The interaction between nitrogen dopants and protons is emphasized and described through the atomistic and electronic structure as well as defect chemical processes involving NH and NH{sub 2} defects. Consequently, the physical properties of oxides containing such species are discussed with respect to e.g., diffusion and photocatalytic properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental and theoretical investigations of the nitrogen and hydrogen related defect chemistry of wide band gap oxides is reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between nitrogen dopants and protons is important and emphasized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion and photocatalytic properties of N-doped oxides are discussed.

  8. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  9. Gas-phase synthesis of nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanorods by microwave plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Kim, Jong Hun; Bang, Chan Uk; Uhm, Han Sup [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Ajou University, San 5, Wonchon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen (N)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanorods were directly synthesized via decomposition of gas-phase titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) by an atmospheric microwave plasma torch. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, field-emission transmission electron microscope, and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been employed to investigate fraction of the anatase and rutile phases, diameter and length, and chemical composition of the nanorods, respectively. The diameters of the nanorods are approximately 30-80 nm and the length is several micrometers. EELS data show that incorporation of N into the O site of TiO{sub 2} nanorods was enhanced in N{sub 2} gas by the microwave plasma torch. Also, a growth model of the rods was proposed on the basis of vapor-liquid-solid mechanism.

  10. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  11. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  12. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  13. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

  14. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

  15. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  16. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F. (Loudon, TN); Burtis, Carl A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Walker, William A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  17. Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models and spreader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Assessing nitrogen losses after sewage sludge spreading: A method based on simulation models performances. We define 45 sewage sludge spreading scenarios covering a wide range of situations in France. Several models are used to (i) assess nitrogen losses due to sewage sludge spreading and (ii) calculate

  18. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  19. Lipid digestion and effects of diets rich in lipids on carbohydrate and nitrogen digestion. A review *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lipid digestion and effects of diets rich in lipids on carbohydrate and nitrogen digestion-Genès-Champanelle, France This review deals with ruminal metabolism and intestinal digestion of lipids, and with the conse- quences of lipid supplementation on carbohy- drate and nitrogen digestion. Ruminal hydrolysis of lipids

  20. Abstract.-Stable nitrogen (/ll5Nl and carbon (/ll3CI isotope measure-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and growth rate, an isotopic enrichment of+3.4 1 GulfofMexico and South Atlantic Fishery Management Councils for nitrogen isotopes (Minagawa and Wada, 1984). Macko et al. (1984) also demonstrated that stepwise enrichment540 Abstract.-Stable nitrogen (/ll5Nl and carbon (/ll3CI isotope measure- ments were used

  1. Late Quaternary variability of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Late Quaternary variability of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean), Late Quaternary variability of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean) in the water columns of the Arabian Sea (AS) and the eastern North and South Pacific oceans (ENP; ESP) holds

  2. Thermal conductivity of nitrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond films M. Shamsa,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , polycrystalline diamond PCD , diamondlike carbon DLC , carbon nanotubes, and single-layer graphene, have recentlyThermal conductivity of nitrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond films on silicon M. Shamsa,1,a S of nitrogenated ultrananocrystalline diamond UNCD films on silicon. For better accuracy, the thermal conductivity

  3. modifications in the river, in climate and in nitrogen-management practice. Continued

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    of riverine nitrogen and NANI will refine our understanding of nitrogen dynamics in river basins and will facilitate adaptive management of conservation poli- cies and programmes. Gregory F. McIsaac*, Mark B. David://usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/nassr/other/pcu-bb 13.Taylor, H. H. Stat. Bull. 893 (Econ. Res. Service, US Dept Agric., Washington DC, 1994). 14

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal plant disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crews, Stephen

    Effects of elevated CO2 , nitrogen deposition, and decreased species diversity on foliar fungal Three components of global change, elevated CO2 , nitrogen addition, and decreased plant species increasing more in pathogen load. Elevated CO2 increased pathogen load of C3 grasses, perhaps by decreasing

  5. Sediment Respiration and Nitrogen Cycling along a Eutrophic Gradient in a Shallow, Coastal Estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Sediment Respiration and Nitrogen Cycling along a Eutrophic Gradient in a Shallow, Coastal Estuary Respiration and Nitrogen Cycling along a Eutrophic Gradient in a Shallow, Coastal Estuary Semester and denitrification potentials. We found that the more eutrophic sites had higher respiration and ammonification. Our

  6. www.cerf-jcr.org Benthic Nitrogen Fixation in an Eutrophic Estuary Affected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    www.cerf-jcr.org Benthic Nitrogen Fixation in an Eutrophic Estuary Affected by Groundwater.A., 2012. Benthic nitrogen fixation in an eutrophic estuary affected by groundwater discharge. Journal- derived nutrient loading is known to initiate coastal eutrophication, hypoxia, and harmful algal blooms

  7. Rocky Mountain NP, Colorado Nitrogen emissions from a variety of human made sources, including ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Lee

    sources. Sources of human made or excess atmospheric nitrogen include power plants, vehicle exhaust, oil are working with industry to reduce significant sources of nitrogen emissions. The State of Colorado will use at CSU is focused on identifying and refining voluntary best management practices (BMPs) for agricultural

  8. LOW ENERGYHIGH FLUX NITROGEN IMPLANTATION OF AN OXIDE-DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED FeAl INTERMETALLIC ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 LOW ENERGY­HIGH FLUX NITROGEN IMPLANTATION OF AN OXIDE- DISPERSION-STRENGTHENED Fe countercurrent diffusion of nitrogen and aluminium seems to proceed. As a result, segregation of -Fe is observed alloys, the nitridation of titanium aluminides have received most of the attention concerning

  9. Design of a nitrogen-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy with optimized properties for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Design of a nitrogen-implanted titanium-based superelastic alloy with optimized properties-based biomedical alloy was treated in surface by implantation of nitrogen ions for the first time. The N osteoblasts. After implantation, surface analysis methods revealed the formation of a titanium-based nitride

  10. A MOLECULAR SIMULATION STUDY OF ADSORPTION OF NITROGEN AND METHANE IN TITANIUM SILICATE (ETS-4)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    A MOLECULAR SIMULATION STUDY OF ADSORPTION OF NITROGEN AND METHANE IN TITANIUM SILICATE (ETS-4 titanium silicate ETS-4 (Engelhard titanium silicate) are calculated using grand canonical Monte Carlo. Commun. 2010, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp. 145­164 Adsorption of Nitrogen and Methane in Titanium Silicate 145

  11. Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fierer, Noah

    Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous sequestration of plant-carbon (C) inputs to soil may mitigate rising atmo- spheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and related climate change but how this sequestration will respond to anthropogenic nitrogen (N

  12. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest, the availability of light and nitrogen (N) limits the rate of woody plant growth in the forest understory and N to the availability of these resources could affect the species composition of forest communities. While many studies

  13. agronomie: agriculture and environment Nitrogen uptake capacities of maize and sorghum crops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    agronomie: agriculture and environment Nitrogen uptake capacities of maize and sorghum crops to a larger quantity of intercepted radiation. The efficiency of transforming intercepted energy into aerial nitrogen input should enable this species to grow in extensive cropping conditions. Moreover, the higher N

  14. Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Concentrations and Snow-Atmosphere Fluxes of Reactive Nitrogen at Summit, Greenland J. W. Munger AT SUMMIT, GREENLAND 2 Abstract. Concentrations and fluxes of NOy (total reactive nitrogen), ozone concentra at Summit, Greenland. Median NOy concentrations declined from 947 ppt in May to 444 ppt by July. NOy fluxes

  15. Production of nitrogen rich ingredients from fish waste by a biotechnological process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    silage in different diets (Raa and Gildberg, 1982, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 16, 383-419 ; Espe et al, 1992 and/or farmers despite the severe lack of animal feed ingredients. Biotransformation of fish waste matter (DM), ash, fat, reducing sugars (RS), total nitrogen (TN), non protein nitrogen (NPN), total

  16. Device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karev, Alexander Ivanovich; Raevsky, Valery Georgievich; Dzhilavyan, Leonid Zavenovich; Laptev, Valery Dmitrievich; Pakhomov, Nikolay Ivanovich; Shvedunov, Vasily Ivanovich; Rykalin, Vladimir Ivanovich; Brothers, Louis Joseph; Wilhide, Larry K

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.

  17. COMPARISON OF FIVE ORGANIC WASTES REGARDING THEIR BEHAVIOUR DURING1 COMPOSTING: PART 2, NITROGEN DYNAMIC2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 COMPARISON OF FIVE ORGANIC WASTES REGARDING THEIR BEHAVIOUR DURING1 COMPOSTING: PART 2, NITROGEN nitrogen dynamic during composting. For each waste, three3 composting simulations were performed applied were comprised between 100 and 1100 L/h. The initial waste and the5 compost were characterized

  18. Nitrogenated porous carbon electrodes for supercapacitors Betzaida Batalla Garcia Stephanie L. Candelaria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Nitrogenated porous carbon electrodes for supercapacitors Betzaida Batalla Garcia · Stephanie L characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photo- electron spectroscopy, the nitrogen­5]. An example can be seen in supercapacitors that use an aqueous electrolyte to promote redox reactions [2

  19. Nitrogen isotopic evolution of carbonaceous matter during metamorphism: Methodology and preliminary results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cartigny, Pierre

    their extraction from the rock. In view of that, a preliminary sealed-tube investigation of the organic nitrogen). However, with kerogen maturation and following carbonaceous matter (CM) metamorphism, a significant; Sucha et al., 1994). 15 N of this neo-formed mineral nitrogen can be different from its organic source

  20. Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Clathrate hydrate equilibrium data for the gas mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen and nitrogen gas separation is achieved through clathrate hydrate formation in the presence of cyclopentane the corresponding mole fraction in the gas mixture amounts to 0.507. When compared to the three phase hydrate

  1. Regulation of Development and Nitrogen Fixation in Anabaena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Golden

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The regulation of development and cellular differentiation is important for all multicellular organisms. The nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena (also Nostoc) sp. PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena) provides a model of multicellular microbial development and pattern formation. Anabaena reduces N2 to ammonia in specialized terminally differentiated cells called heterocysts. A one-dimensional developmental pattern of single heterocysts regularly spaced along filaments of photosynthetic vegetative cells is established to form a multicellular organism composed of these two interdependent cell types. This multicellular growth pattern, the distinct phylogeny of cyanobacteria, and the suspected antiquity of heterocyst development make this an important model system. Our long-term goal is to understand the regulatory network required for heterocyst development and nitrogen fixation. This project is focused on two key aspects of heterocyst regulation: one, the mechanism by which HetR controls the initiation of differentiation, and two, the cis and trans acting factors required for expression of the nitrogen-fixation (nif) genes. HetR is thought to be a central regulator of heterocyst development but the partners and mechanisms involved in this regulation are unknown. Our recent results indicate that PatS and other signals that regulate heterocyst pattern cannot interact, directly or indirectly, with a R223W mutant of HetR. We plan to use biochemical and genetic approaches to identify proteins that interact with the HetR protein, which will help reveal the mechanisms underlying its regulation of development. Our second goal is to determine how the nif genes are expressed. It is important to understand the mechanisms controlling nif genes since they represent the culmination of the differentiation process and the essence of heterocyst function. The Anabaena genome lacks the genes required for expression of nif genes present in other organisms such as rpoN (sigma 54) and nifA. We will use nifH-gfp reporter fusions to define the upstream sequences that are required for nifH expression and for genetic experiments to identify the trans-acting factors required for nifH regulation.

  2. SEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    /L. Extraction. The extraction procedure is the same for the sample, standards and blank (water between sample extractions with water. The chloroform extracts at this point will normally be cloudySEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION Background Reading: Harris

  3. Quaternary liquid-liquid equilibrium of n-heptane-toluene-o-xylene-propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salem, A.B.S.H.; Hamad, E.Z.; Al-Naafa, M.A. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the system n-heptane/toluene/o-xylene/propylene carbonate were obtained at 25 OC. Experimental tie line data were measured by gas chromatographic analysis. The UNIQUAC and NRTL models were used to predict the quaternary data from the corresponding ternary data. Agreement between the predictions and the experimental data was satisfactory.

  4. Liquid-liquid equilibria for ternary systems containing hydrocarbons and propylene carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annesini, M.C.; Gironi, F.; Marrelli, L.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental data of liquid-liquid equillibrium at 20/sup 0/C are reported for six ternary systems containing propylene carbonate with n-hexane-benzene, n-hexane-ethylbenzene, n-heptane-toluene, n-heptane-ethylbenzene, n-octane-o-xylene, and n-octane-ethylbenzene. The data are correlated by means of NRTL and UNIQUAC models and relative parameters are given.

  5. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  6. Geomicrobiology of nitrogen in a coastal aquifer : isotopic and molecular methods to examine nitrification and denitrification in groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Daniel Richard

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Excess nitrogen input is deleterious to coastal waters, resulting in deterioration of the water quality, increases in harmful algal blooms and disease in commercial fish stocks. A significant portion of this nitrogen enters ...

  7. Effect of N level on rice yield, nitrogen accumulation and rice blast occurrence under rice intercropping system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Li; Lu, Guoli; Cu, Yiou; Zhang, Chaochun; Zhang, Fusuo; Zheng, Yi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Effects of nitrogen levels on incidence of leaf blast andal. Effects of nitrogen and silicon nutrition on rice blastsame column. Effect of high N rate on rice blast High N rate

  8. Oxygen and nitrogen abundances in Virgo and field spirals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; Mercedes Molla; Federico Ferrini; Jose M. Vilchez

    2001-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen and nitrogen abundances in the HII regions of the nine Virgo spirals of the sample from Skillman et al (1996) and in nine field spiral galaxies are re-determined with the recently suggested P - method. We confirm that there is an abundance segregation in the sample of Virgo spirals in the sense that the HI deficient Virgo spirals near the core of the cluster have higher oxygen abundances in comparison to the spirals at the periphery of the Virgo cluster. At the same time both the Virgo periphery and core spirals have counterparts among field spirals. We conclude that if there is a difference in the abundance properties of the Virgo and field spirals, this difference appears to be small and masked by the observational errors.

  9. Method of removing nitrogen oxides from exhaust gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batha, H.D.; Mason, J.H.; Thompson, S.R.

    1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing nitrogen oxides (NOX) from exhaust gas mixtures is described. The removal of NOX from exhaust gas mixtures is accomplished by exposing the exhaust gas mixture, in a manner that does not substantially impede the gas flow, to a ceramic material containing from about 75% to about 95% by weight silicon carbide and from about 0.3% to about 10.0% silica. A reduction of at least 85% of NOX from the mixture is to be expected and reductions up to 95 to 100% are attainable. Ceramic mixtures containing silicon nitride in amounts between about 10% and about 30% are found to reduce the amount of NOX in exhaust gases at temperatures as low as 200* C.

  10. Adsorption configurations of two nitrogen atoms on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rani, Babita, E-mail: babitabaghla15@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala- 147 002 and Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India); Jindal, V. K.; Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh- 160 014 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present calculations for different possible configurations of two nitrogen adatoms on graphene using the code VASP, based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Two N atoms adsorbed on the graphene sheet can share a bond in two ways. They take positions either just above two adjacent carbon atoms or they form a bridge across opposite bonds of a hexagon in the graphene sheet. Both these configurations result into structural distortion of the sheet. Another stable configuration involving two N atoms consists of an N{sub 2} molecule which is physisorbed at a distance 3.69 Å on the graphene sheet. Two N atoms can also be adsorbed on alternate bridge sites of neighbouring hexagons of graphene. This configuration again leads to distortion of the sheet in perpendicular direction.

  11. Hydrogen generation under visible light using nitrogen doped titania anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, H.; Rumaiz, A.; Schulz, M.; Huang, C.P.; Sha, S. I.

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is among several energy sources that will be needed to replace the quickly diminishing fossil fuels. Free hydrogen is not available naturally on earth and the current processes require a fossil fuel, methane, to generate hydrogen. Electrochemical splitting of water on titania proposed by Fujishima suffers from low efficiency. The efficiency could be enhanced if full sun spectrum can be utilized. Using pulsed laser deposition technique we synthesized nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}) thin films with improved visible light sensitivity. The photoactivity was found to be N concentration dependent. Hydrogen evolution was observed under visible light irradiation (wavelength > 390 nm) without the presence of any organic electron donor.

  12. On the relationship between stratospheric aerosols and nitrogen dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, M.J.; Langford, A.O.; O'Leary, T.J.; Arpag, K.; Miller, H.L.; Proffitt, M.H.; Sanders, R.W.; Solomon, S. (Aeronomy Laboratory, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States) Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States))

    1993-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report measurements of stratospheric column abundances of nitrogen dioxide above the Colorado mountains during Jan, Feb, and Mar 1992, following the arrival of the aerosol loading injected by Mt. Pinatubo. The column abundance data was correlated with concurrent lidar measurements which provided vertical aerosol profiles at the same site. Chemical reactions within polar stratospheric clouds have been shown to play a major role in ozone chemistry in the polar regions, and one could ask whether such clouds at mid latitudes could play a similar role. The sulfur dioxide loading due to the volcanic eruption provides an abrupt increase in sulfuric acid aerosol surface area in mid latitude areas, providing a convenient test of this question. Column NO[sub 2] densities are observed to fall, but also found to saturate at a certain stratospheric aerosol density.

  13. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  14. Global cloud liquid water path simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemus, L. [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)] [Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Rikus, L. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Martin, C.; Platt, R. [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)] [CSIRO, Aspendale, Victoria (Australia)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new parameterization of cloud liquid water and ice content has been included in the Bureau of Meteorology Global Assimilation and Prediction System. The cloud liquid water content is derived from the mean cloud temperatures in the model using an empirical relationship based on observations. The results from perpetual January and July simulations are presented and show that the total cloud water path steadily decreases toward high latitudes, with two relative maxima at midlatitudes and a peak at low latitudes. To validate the scheme, the simulated fields need to be processed to produce liquid water paths that can be directly compared with the corresponding field derived from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. This requires the identification of cloud ice water content within the parameterization and a prescription to account for the treatment of strongly precipitating subgrid-scale cloud. The resultant cloud liquid water paths agree qualitatively with the SSM/I data but show some systematic errors that are attributed to corresponding errors in the model`s simulation of cloud amounts. Given that a more quantitative validation requires substantial improvement in the model`s diagnostic cloud scheme, the comparison with the SSM/I data indicates that the cloud water path, derived from the cloud liquid water content parameterization introduced in this paper, is consistent with the observations and can be usefully incorporated in the prediction system. 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  16. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  17. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  18. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1984-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

  19. Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

  20. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.