National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for insight macroeconomic model

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Macro Bridge Procedure to Update Regional Macroeconomic Forecasts with National Macroeconomic Forecasts

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) uses macroeconomic variables such as income, employment, industrial production and consumer prices at both the national and regional1 levels as explanatory variables in the generation of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). This documentation explains how national macroeconomic forecasts are used to update regional macroeconomic forecasts through the RSTEM Macro Bridge procedure.

  2. Alternative Measures of Welfare in Macroeconomic Models

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... To the extent that policy changes require forecasting, a CGE model may not be the ... it can incorporate the direct and indirect costs and benefits of different policies. ...

  3. Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    are covered in order to meet client needs regarding investment and financial allocation strategies. (See Table A10.) Inflation: Inflation (VI) is modeled as a...

  4. Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System May 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module Documentation Report i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  5. Model developer`s appendix to the model documentation report: NEMS macroeconomic activity module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-15

    The NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) tested here was used to generate the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94). MAM is a response surface model, not a structural model, composed of three submodules: the National Submodule, the Interindustry Submodule, and the Regional Submodule. Contents of this report are as follows: properties of the mathematical solution; NEMS MAM empirical basis; and scenario analysis. Scenario analysis covers: expectations for scenario analysis; historical world oil price scenario; AEO94 high world oil price scenario; AEO94 low world oil price scenario; and immediate increase world oil price scenario.

  6. Model documentation report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 1994 (AEO94). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS MAM used for the AEO 1994 production runs for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, section 57.b.2). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  7. Evaluation of the St. Lucia geothermal resource: macroeconomic models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burris, A.E.; Trocki, L.K.; Yeamans, M.K.; Kolstad, C.D.

    1984-08-01

    A macroeconometric model describing the St. Lucian economy was developed using 1970 to 1982 economic data. Results of macroeconometric forecasts for the period 1983 through 1985 show an increase in gross domestic product (GDP) for 1983 and 1984 with a decline in 1985. The rate of population growth is expected to exceed GDP growth so that a small decline in per capita GDP will occur. We forecast that garment exports will increase, providing needed employment and foreign exchange. To obtain a longer-term but more general outlook on St. Lucia's economy, and to evaluate the benefit of geothermal energy development, we applied a nonlinear programming model. The model maximizes discounted cumulative consumption.

  8. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  9. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2016 (AEO2016). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  10. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2014 (AEO2014). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  11. Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Macroeconomic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    in this module. A detailed description of the MAM is provided in the EIA publication, Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) of the National Energy...

  12. Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation ...

  13. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign Title: Insights from modeling and ...

  14. AEO2017 Preliminary Macroeconomic Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AEO2017 Preliminary Macroeconomic Results For Macroeconomic Working Group July 28, 2016 | Washington, DC By Vipin Arora, Elizabeth Sendich, and Russ Tarver Macroeconomic Analysis Team Economic growth in major trading partners slows over the projection period while the dollar gradually depreciates Macroeconomic Working Group, Washington DC, July 28, 2016 2 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024 2029 2034 2039 real trade-weighted GDP of major trading

  15. Methodology for the Assessment of the Macroeconomic Impacts of Stricter CAFE Standards - Addendum

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This assessment of the economic impacts of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standards marks the first time the Energy Information Administration has used the new direct linkage of the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) in a policy setting. This methodology assures an internally consistent solution between the energy market concepts forecast by NEMS and the aggregate economy as forecast by the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy.

  16. NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation in the Eastern Power Grid | Grid Modernization | NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid NREL opens data to help planners and regulators understand implications of higher wind and solar generation August 31, 2016 A new study from the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used high-performance computing capabilities and innovative visualization tools to model, in

  17. NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation in the Eastern Power Grid | Energy Systems Integration | NREL NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid NREL opens data to help planners and regulators understand implications of higher wind and solar generation August 31, 2016 A new study from the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used high-performance computing capabilities and innovative visualization tools to

  18. NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation in the Eastern Power Grid - News Releases | NREL Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar Generation in the Eastern Power Grid NREL opens data to help planners and regulators understand implications of higher wind and solar generation August 31, 2016 NREL's David Palchak, co-author of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, examines data visualizations developed with computing resources in NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility. NREL's

  19. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.

    2011-03-22

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  20. Macroeconomic aspects of a petroleum boom: Ecuador, 1972-1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Torre, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes Ecuador's macroeconomic experience during the period of petroleum bonanza (1972-1980). The first chapter describes salient adjustments to a booming-sector phenomenon in the context of a formal, two-sector model of a small open economy, adapted to the stylized facts of the Ecuadorean case. The remainder of the dissertation is a historical case study that reviews actual macroeconomic developments and policies in Ecuador. The review of Ecuador's experience is organized as follows. Chapter 2 analyzes the adjustments in income, absorption, and the current account to the oil boom. Chapter 3 examines the monetary implications of the sudden influx of foreign exchange and the nature of the policy responses to it. Chapter 4 turns to the fiscal and credit areas, focusing on how the boom gave rise to, on the one hand, a significant increase in the State's allocative and developmental roles and, on the other, a relaxation of domestic resource-mobilization efforts. Chapter 5 emphasizes the distinction between exposed (or traded) and sheltered (or nontraded) sectors in order to clarify the nature of the linkages between the oil boom, the real exchange-rate appreciation, and the observed pattern of change in sectoral output and employment during the 1970s.

  1. Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module of...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of employment by industry is industry output. Both current and lagged output values enter in the employment specification, reflecting the tendency for hiring to lag output...

  2. Model Documentation Report: Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gross State Product The MAM projects regional gross regional product in real per capita terms. The equations are in log form. There is an estimated equation for each of the nine...

  3. Petroleum Data, Natural Gas Data, Coal Data, Macroeconomic Data, Petroleum Import Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Supplemental tables to the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 for petroleum, natural gas, coal, macroeconomic, and import data

  4. Energy Production and Trade: An Overview of Some Macroeconomic Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Production and Trade: An Overview of Some Macroeconomic Issues Vipin Arora November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES November 2014 Vipin Arora | U.S. Energy Information

  5. Water versus DNA: New insights into proton track-structure modeling in radiobiology and radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Champion, Christophe; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojon, Omar A.; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2015-09-25

    Water is a common surrogate of DNA for modelling the charged particle-induced ionizing processes in living tissue exposed to radiations. The present study aims at scrutinizing the validity of this approximation and then revealing new insights into proton-induced energy transfers by a comparative analysis between water and realistic biological medium. In this context, a self-consistent quantum mechanical modelling of the ionization and electron capture processes is reported within the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state framework for both isolated water molecules and DNA components impacted by proton beams. Their respective probability of occurrence-expressed in terms of total cross sections-as well as their energetic signature (potential and kinetic) are assessed in order to clearly emphasize the differences existing between realistic building blocks of living matter and the controverted water-medium surrogate. Thus the consequences in radiobiology and radiotherapy will be discussed in particular in view of treatment planning refinement aiming at better radiotherapy strategies.

  6. Water versus DNA: New insights into proton track-structure modeling in radiobiology and radiotherapy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele A.; Monti, Juan M.; Galassi, Mariel E.; Weck, Philippe F.; Fojon, Omar A.; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2015-09-25

    Water is a common surrogate of DNA for modelling the charged particle-induced ionizing processes in living tissue exposed to radiations. The present study aims at scrutinizing the validity of this approximation and then revealing new insights into proton-induced energy transfers by a comparative analysis between water and realistic biological medium. In this context, a self-consistent quantum mechanical modelling of the ionization and electron capture processes is reported within the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state framework for both isolated water molecules and DNA components impacted by proton beams. Their respective probability of occurrence-expressed in terms of total cross sections-as well asmore » their energetic signature (potential and kinetic) are assessed in order to clearly emphasize the differences existing between realistic building blocks of living matter and the controverted water-medium surrogate. Thus the consequences in radiobiology and radiotherapy will be discussed in particular in view of treatment planning refinement aiming at better radiotherapy strategies.« less

  7. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, Erik A.; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set ({approx} 10{sup 5} galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy H{alpha} equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M{sub {circle_dot}} is {Lambda} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around M{sub r,0.1} = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has M{sub r,0.1} {approx} -21) are well fit by a universal {Lambda} {approx} 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf

  8. Macroeconomic Activity Module of the National Energy Modeling...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of employment by industry is industry output. Both current and lagged output values enter in the employment specification, reflecting the tendency for hiring to lag output...

  9. An Evaluation of Macroeconomic Models for Use at EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Using OLS for estimation with such trending variables leads to biased test statistics ... Neither of these approaches validates test statistics estimated on trending variables, but ...

  10. Macroeconomic consequences of energy supply shocks in Ukraine. Discussion paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, H.Q.; Grais, W.

    1994-07-01

    In exploring the short-term macroeconomic effects of energy-supply shocks in Ukraine, the paper relies on the simplifying assumption that enterprises face economic regulation but not ownership uncertainty that would adversely affect their behavior. In a sense, it assumes that Ukraine's economy is already at the second stage of reform, when ownership and contract-enforcement questions are less of an issue. Under these assumptions and if real wages are protected, the analysis yields clear messages. The conclusion is that Ukraine must clarify ownership and contract-enforcement issues as rapidly as possible, liberalize nonenergy prices at a minimum, and begin adjusting domestic energy prices to reflect the opportunity cost of these resources.

  11. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction of a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.

  12. Recent advances in biosynthetic modeling of nitric oxide reductases and insights gained from nuclear resonance vibrational and other spectroscopic studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chakraborty, Saumen; Reed, Julian; Sage, Timothy; Branagan, Nicole C.; Petrik, Igor D.; Miner, Kyle D.; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Alp, E. Ercan; Lu, Yi

    2015-08-14

    This Forum Article focuses on recent advances in structural and spectroscopic studies of biosynthetic models of nitric oxide reductases (NORs). NORs are complex metalloenzymes found in the denitrification pathway of Earth's nitrogen cycle where they catalyze the proton-dependent twoelectron reduction of nitric oxide (NO) to nitrous oxide (N2O). While much progress has been made in biochemical and biophysical studies of native NORs and their variants, a. clear mechanistic understanding of this important metalloenzyme related to its function is still elusive. We report herein UV vis and nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) studies of mononitrosylated intermediates of the NOR reaction ofmore » a biosynthetic model. The ability to selectively substitute metals at either heme or nonheme metal sites allows the introduction of independent 57Fe probe atoms at either site, as well as allowing the preparation of analogues of stable reaction intermediates by replacing either metal with a redox inactive metal. Together with previous structural and spectroscopic results, we summarize insights gained from studying these biosynthetic models toward understanding structural features responsible for the NOR activity and its mechanism. As a result, the outlook on NOR modeling is also discussed, with an emphasis on the design of models capable of catalytic turnovers designed based on close mimics of the secondary coordination sphere of native NORs.« less

  13. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  14. Swelling in light water reactor internal components: Insights from computational modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, Roger E.; Barashev, Alexander V.; Golubov, Stanislav I.

    2015-08-01

    A modern cluster dynamics model has been used to investigate the materials and irradiation parameters that control microstructural evolution under the relatively low-temperature exposure conditions that are representative of the operating environment for in-core light water reactor components. The focus is on components fabricated from austenitic stainless steel. The model accounts for the synergistic interaction between radiation-produced vacancies and the helium that is produced by nuclear transmutation reactions. Cavity nucleation rates are shown to be relatively high in this temperature regime (275 to 325°C), but are sensitive to assumptions about the fine scale microstructure produced under low-temperature irradiation. The cavity nucleation rates observed run counter to the expectation that void swelling would not occur under these conditions. This expectation was based on previous research on void swelling in austenitic steels in fast reactors. This misleading impression arose primarily from an absence of relevant data. The results of the computational modeling are generally consistent with recent data obtained by examining ex-service components. However, it has been shown that the sensitivity of the model s predictions of low-temperature swelling behavior to assumptions about the primary damage source term and specification of the mean-field sink strengths is somewhat greater that that observed at higher temperatures. Further assessment of the mathematical model is underway to meet the long-term objective of this research, which is to provide a predictive model of void swelling at relevant lifetime exposures to support extended reactor operations.

  15. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  16. Macroeconomic consequences of energy supply shocks in Ukraine. Studies of Economies in Transformation 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, H.Q.; Grais, W.

    1994-08-01

    Analyzes the macroeconomic implications of the economic shock the Ukraine has experienced in its transition to a market economy. This study analyzes the short-term macroeconomic implications of the energy crisis for Ukraine, the largest energy-dependent successor state of the former Soviet Union. The framework assumes, for the sake of analysis, that Ukraine`s economy is already at the second stage of reform, in which ownership and contract enforcement are an increasingly minor issue. The authors point out that the synergy between economic liberalization and adjustment to the shock allows a recovery of activity. They conclude that Ukraine should clarify as rapidly as possible ownership and contract enforcement issues, liberalize nonenergy prices, and adjust domestic energy prices to reflect the opportunity cost of using these resources elsewhere.

  17. Uncertainty quantification and validation of combined hydrological and macroeconomic analyses.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Parks, Mancel Jordan; Jennings, Barbara Joan; Kaplan, Paul Garry; Brown, Theresa Jean; Conrad, Stephen Hamilton

    2010-09-01

    Changes in climate can lead to instabilities in physical and economic systems, particularly in regions with marginal resources. Global climate models indicate increasing global mean temperatures over the decades to come and uncertainty in the local to national impacts means perceived risks will drive planning decisions. Agent-based models provide one of the few ways to evaluate the potential changes in behavior in coupled social-physical systems and to quantify and compare risks. The current generation of climate impact analyses provides estimates of the economic cost of climate change for a limited set of climate scenarios that account for a small subset of the dynamics and uncertainties. To better understand the risk to national security, the next generation of risk assessment models must represent global stresses, population vulnerability to those stresses, and the uncertainty in population responses and outcomes that could have a significant impact on U.S. national security.

  18. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  19. Land-use change trajectories up to 2050: insights from a global agro-economic model comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Christoph; van Meijl, Hans; Kyle, G. Page; Nelson, Gerald C.; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Gurgel, Angelo; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Popp, Alexander; Sands, Ronald; Tabeau, Andrzej; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; von Lampe, Martin; Wise, Marshall A.; Blanc, Elodie; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kavallari, Aikaterini; Valin, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in agricultural land use have important implications for environmental services. Previous studies of agricultural land-use futures have been published indicating large uncertainty due to different model assumptions and methodologies. In this article we present a first comprehensive comparison of global agro-economic models that have harmonized drivers of population, GDP, and biophysical yields. The comparison allows us to ask two research questions: (1) How much cropland will be used under different socioeconomic and climate change scenarios? (2) How can differences in model results be explained? The comparison includes four partial and six general equilibrium models that differ in how they model land supply and amount of potentially available land. We analyze results of two different socioeconomic scenarios and three climate scenarios (one with constant climate). Most models (7 out of 10) project an increase of cropland of 1025% by 2050 compared to 2005 (under constant climate), but one model projects a decrease. Pasture land expands in some models, which increase the treat on natural vegetation further. Across all models most of the cropland expansion takes place in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. In general, the strongest differences in model results are related to differences in the costs of land expansion, the endogenous productivity responses, and the assumptions about potential cropland.

  20. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  1. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination frommore » both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 ± 4)% at 530 K, (55 ± 11)% at 600 K, and (86 ± 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zádor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and shows satisfactory agreement for products

  2. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 ± 4)% at 530 K, (55 ± 11)% at 600 K, and (86 ± 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zádor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well

  3. New insights into low-temperature oxidation of propane from synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry and multi-scale informatics modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welz, Oliver; Burke, Michael P.; Antonov, Ivan O.; Goldsmith, C. Franklin; Savee, John David; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Klippenstein, Stephen J.; Sheps, Leonid

    2015-04-10

    We studied low-temperature propane oxidation at P = 4 Torr and T = 530, 600, and 670 K by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS), which probes the reactants, intermediates, and products with isomeric selectivity using tunable synchrotron vacuum UV ionizing radiation. The oxidation is initiated by pulsed laser photolysis of oxalyl chloride, (COCl)2, at 248 nm, which rapidly generates a ~1:1 mixture of 1-propyl (n-propyl) and 2-propyl (i-propyl) radicals via the fast Cl + propane reaction. At all three temperatures, the major stable product species is propene, formed in the propyl + O2 reactions by direct HO2 elimination from both n- and i-propyl peroxy radicals. The experimentally derived propene yields relative to the initial concentration of Cl atoms are (20 4)% at 530 K, (55 11)% at 600 K, and (86 17)% at 670 K at a reaction time of 20 ms. The lower yield of propene at low temperature reflects substantial formation of propyl peroxy radicals, which do not completely decompose on the experimental time scale. In addition, C3H6O isomers methyloxirane, oxetane, acetone, and propanal are detected as minor products. Our measured yields of oxetane and methyloxirane, which are coproducts of OH radicals, suggest a revision of the OH formation pathways in models of low-temperature propane oxidation. The experimental results are modeled and interpreted using a multiscale informatics approach, presented in detail in a separate publication (Burke, M. P.; Goldsmith, C. F.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Welz, O.; Huang H.; Antonov I. O.; Savee J. D.; Osborn D. L.; Zdor, J.; Taatjes, C. A.; Sheps, L. Multiscale Informatics for Low-Temperature Propane Oxidation: Further Complexities in Studies of Complex Reactions. J. Phys. Chem A. 2015, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.5b01003). Additionally, we found that the model predicts the time profiles and yields of the experimentally observed primary products well, and

  4. Molecular Theory of Detonation Initiation: Insight from First Principles Modeling of the Decomposition Mechanisms of Organic Nitro Energetic Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tsyshevsky, Roman; Sharia, Onise; Kuklja, Maija

    2016-02-19

    Our review presents a concept, which assumes that thermal decomposition processes play a major role in defining the sensitivity of organic energetic materials to detonation initiation. As a science and engineering community we are still far away from having a comprehensive molecular detonation initiation theory in a widely agreed upon form. However, recent advances in experimental and theoretical methods allow for a constructive and rigorous approach to design and test the theory or at least some of its fundamental building blocks. In this review, we analyzed a set of select experimental and theoretical articles, which were augmented by our ownmore » first principles modeling and simulations, to reveal new trends in energetic materials and to refine known existing correlations between their structures, properties, and functions. Lastly, our consideration is intentionally limited to the processes of thermally stimulated chemical reactions at the earliest stage of decomposition of molecules and materials containing defects.« less

  5. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mechem, David B.; Giangrande, Scott E.; Wittman, Carly S.; Borque, Paloma; Toto, Tami; Kollias, Pavlos

    2015-03-13

    A case of shallow cumulus and precipitating cumulus congestus sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) supersite is analyzed using a multi-sensor observational approach and numerical simulation. Observations from a new radar suite surrounding the facility are used to characterize the evolving statistical behavior of the precipitating cloud system. This is accomplished using distributions of different measures of cloud geometry and precipitation properties. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with size-resolved (bin) microphysics is employed to determine the forcings most important in producing the salient aspects of the cloud system captured in the radar observations. Our emphasis ismore » on assessing the importance of time-varying vs. steady-state large-scale forcing on the model's ability to reproduce the evolutionary behavior of the cloud system. Additional consideration is given to how the characteristic spatial scale and homogeneity of the forcing imposed on the simulation influences the evolution of cloud system properties. Results indicate that several new scanning radar estimates such as distributions of cloud top are useful to differentiate the value of time-varying (or at least temporally well-matched) forcing on LES solution fidelity.« less

  6. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechem, David B.; Giangrande, Scott E.; Wittman, Carly S.; Borque, Paloma; Toto, Tami; Kollias, Pavlos

    2015-03-13

    A case of shallow cumulus and precipitating cumulus congestus sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) supersite is analyzed using a multi-sensor observational approach and numerical simulation. Observations from a new radar suite surrounding the facility are used to characterize the evolving statistical behavior of the precipitating cloud system. This is accomplished using distributions of different measures of cloud geometry and precipitation properties. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with size-resolved (bin) microphysics is employed to determine the forcings most important in producing the salient aspects of the cloud system captured in the radar observations. Our emphasis is on assessing the importance of time-varying vs. steady-state large-scale forcing on the model's ability to reproduce the evolutionary behavior of the cloud system. Additional consideration is given to how the characteristic spatial scale and homogeneity of the forcing imposed on the simulation influences the evolution of cloud system properties. Results indicate that several new scanning radar estimates such as distributions of cloud top are useful to differentiate the value of time-varying (or at least temporally well-matched) forcing on LES solution fidelity.

  7. ImSET 3.1: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies Model Description and User's Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Michael J.; Livingston, Olga V.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2009-05-22

    This 3.1 version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the next generation of the previously-built ImSET model (ImSET 2.0) that was developed in 2005 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. In particular, a special-purpose version of the Benchmark National Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)–developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version features the use of the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis 2002 national input-output table and the central processing code has been moved from the FORTRAN legacy operating environment to a modern C++ code. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act. While it does not include the ability to model certain dynamic features of markets for labor and other factors of production featured in the more complex models, for most purposes these excluded features are not critical. The analysis is credible as long as the assumption is made that relative prices in the economy would not be substantially affected by energy efficiency investments. In most cases, the expected scale of these investments is small enough that neither labor markets nor production cost relationships should seriously affect national prices as the investments are made. The exact timing of impacts on gross product, employment, and national wage income from energy efficiency investments is not well-enough understood that much special insight can be gained from the additional dynamic sophistication of a macroeconomic simulation model. Thus, we believe that this version of ImSET is a cost-effective solution to estimating the economic

  8. Energy Insight | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Insight Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Insight AgencyCompany Organization: Tendril Connect Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency...

  9. Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate Analyzing ocean mixing reveals insight on climate LANL scientists have developed a computer model that clarifies the complex processes driving ocean mixing in the vast eddies that swirl across hundreds of miles of open ocean. June 24, 2015 A three-dimensional spatial structure of mixing in an idealized ocean simulation, computed using Lagrangian particle statistics. A three-dimensional spatial structure of mixing in an idealized ocean simulation,

  10. Insights from a Developer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INSIGHTS FROM A DEVELOPER JENNIFER BREDT DEVELOPMENT MANAGER RES Americas Inc. OCTOBER 26, 2010 AGENDA * INTRODUCTION AND RES OVERVIEW * GROWTH OF THE WIND INDUSTRY IN THE US * CHALLENGES CURRENTLY FACING THE INDUSTRY * WHERE WE ARE HEADED ABOUT - RES Americas Inc. CURRENT CHALLENGES THE FUTURE GROWTH YEARS OVERVIEW * Leader in wind power development and construction  Established in US in 1997 in Tehachapi, CA; UK parent active in wind since 1982  3,946 MW of completed construction

  11. New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design Scientists have created a computational model that could change the way that researchers look at possibilities for an HIV-1 vaccine. September 17, 2015 An HIV virus attacking a T cell An HIV virus attacking a T cell Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Nick Njegomir Communications Office (505) 665-9394 Email "An effective HIV-1 vaccine has proven elusive, partly due to the difficulty of causing an immune

  12. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Interesting Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DNA Interesting Insights Atom Neat Stuff a pre-Pong video game (Tennis for Two) [Video game] why dinosaurs are extinct [Alvarez] BuckyBall 'optical tweezers' [Chu] the molecule named Buckminsterfullerene (Buckyball) [Curl, Smalley] femtochemistry [Zewail] the structure of protein [Deisenhofer] the maser and the laser [Townes] Gaussian Code [Pople] biological computer modeling [Levitt] chemical computer modeling [Karplus] the Manhattan Project brings an end to World War II an anti-jet-lag diet

  13. Insights on STEM Careers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  14. Insights on the binding of thioflavin derivative markers to amyloid fibril models and A?{sub 1-40} fibrils from computational approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Torres, Jorge; Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Rodriguez-Rodrguez, Cristina

    2014-10-06

    The present contribution analyzes the binding of ThT and neutral ThT derivatives to a ?-sheet model by means of quantum chemical calculations. In addition, we study the properties of four molecules: (2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBX), 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole (HBT) and their respective iodinated compounds, HBXI and HBTI, in binding to amyloid fibril models and A?{sub 1-40}fibrils by using a combination of docking, molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics calculations.

  15. The Inforum LIFT Model

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Inforum LIFT Model U.S. Energy and Economic Outlook Douglas S. Meade 2011 EIA Energy Conference Overview  The Inforum LIFT Model  Treatment of energy flows and emissions in LIFT.  Calibrating to AEO  Model extensions  U.S. Energy and Macroeconomic Outlook  Modeling of energy and environmental regulation April 26, 2011 2 2011 EIA Energy Conference LIFT: An Interindustry Macro (IM) Model  Input-Output (IO) relationships form the core of LIFT, both for output and price

  16. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Retailer Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Retailer Business Model Conclusion, Summary of Retailer Insights.

  17. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Remodeler Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Remodeler Business Model Conclusion, Summary of Remodeler Insights.

  18. Toward a comprehensive model for feedback by active galactic nuclei: New insights from M87 observations by LOFAR, Fermi, and H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfrommer, Christoph

    2013-12-10

    Feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be critical in balancing radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters and in mitigating the star formation of elliptical galaxies. New observations of M87 enable us to put forward a comprehensive model for the physical heating mechanism. Low-frequency radio observations by LOFAR revealed the absence of fossil cosmic-ray (CR) electrons in the radio halo surrounding M87. This puzzle can be resolved by accounting for the CR release from the radio lobes and the subsequent mixing of CRs with the dense ambient intracluster gas, which thermalizes the electrons on a timescale similar to the radio halo age of 40 Myr. Hadronic interactions of similarly injected CR protons with the ambient gas should produce an observable gamma-ray signal in accordance with the steady emission of the low state of M87 detected by Fermi and H.E.S.S. Hence, we normalize the CR population to the gamma-ray emission, which shows the same spectral slope as the CR injection spectrum probed by LOFAR, thereby supporting a common origin. We show that CRs, which stream at the Alfvn velocity with respect to the plasma rest frame, heat the surrounding thermal plasma at a rate that balances that of radiative cooling on average at each radius. However, the resulting global thermal equilibrium is locally unstable and allows for the formation of the observed cooling multi-phase medium through thermal instability. Provided that CR heating balances cooling during the emerging 'cooling flow', the collapse of the majority of the gas is halted around 1 keVin accordance with X-ray data. We show that both the existence of a temperature floor and the similar radial scaling of the heating and cooling rates are generic predictions of the CR heating model.

  19. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  20. How Anion Chaotrope Changes the Local Structure of Water. Insights from Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Modeling of SCN- Water Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiev, Marat; Deng, Shihu; Wang, Xue B.

    2015-09-09

    The behavior of charged solute molecules in aqueous solutions is often classified using the concept of kosmotropes (“structure makers”) and chaotropes (“structure breakers”). There is a growing consensus that the key to kosmotropic/chaotropic behaviors lies in the local solvent region, but the exact microscopic basis for such differentiation is not well understood. This issue is examined in this work by analyzing size selective solvation of a well-known chaotrope, negatively charged SCN- molecule. Combining experimental photoelectron spectroscopy measurements with theoretical modeling we examine evolution of solvation structure up to eight waters. We observe that SCN- indeed fits the description of weakly hydrated ion and its solvation is heavily driven by stabilization of water-water interaction network. However, the impact on water structure is more subtle than that associated with “structure breaker”. In particular, we observe that the solvation structure of SCN- preserves the “packing” structure of the water network but changes local directionality of hydrogen bonds in the local solvent region. The resulting effect closer to that of “structure weakener”, where solute can be readily accommodated into the native water network, at the cost of compromising its stability due to constraints on hydrogen bonding.

  1. Understanding heat and groundwater flow through continental flood basalt provinces: insights gained from alternative models of permeability/depth relationships for the Columbia Plateau, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Voss, Clifford I.; Spane, Frank A.; DeAngelo, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Heat-flow mapping of the western USA has identified an apparent low-heat-flow anomaly coincident with the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System, a thick sequence of basalt aquifers within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). A heat and mass transport model (SUTRA) was used to evaluate the potential impact of groundwater flow on heat flow along two different regional groundwater flow paths. Limited in situ permeability (k) data from the CRBG are compatible with a steep permeability decrease (approximately 3.5 orders of magnitude) at 600–900 m depth and approximately 40°C. Numerical simulations incorporating this permeability decrease demonstrate that regional groundwater flow can explain lower-than-expected heat flow in these highly anisotropic (kx/kz ~ 104) continental flood basalts. Simulation results indicate that the abrupt reduction in permeability at approximately 600 m depth results in an equivalently abrupt transition from a shallow region where heat flow is affected by groundwater flow to a deeper region of conduction-dominated heat flow. Most existing heat-flow measurements within the CRBG are from shallower than 600 m depth or near regional groundwater discharge zones, so that heat-flow maps generated using these data are likely influenced by groundwater flow. Substantial k decreases at similar temperatures have also been observed in the volcanic rocks of the adjacent Cascade Range volcanic arc and at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, where they result from low-temperature hydrothermal alteration.

  2. Space-Time Insight | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Space-Time Insight Jump to: navigation, search Name: Space-Time Insight Address: 45680 Northport Loop East Place: Fremont, California Zip: 94538 Region: Bay Area Sector: Efficiency...

  3. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and InnovativeAtmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Carbon Flux ...

  4. Macroeconomic Activity Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of employment by industry is industrial output. Both current and lagged output values enter in the employment specification, reflecting the tendency of firms to hire employees in...

  5. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential

  6. Insight Gained from Simplified Dynamic Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insight Gained from Simplified Dynamic Analysis ... or Everything Old is New Again October 21, 2014 Greg Mertz Consultant

  7. AVTA: 2010 Honda Insight HEV Testing Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Honda Insight hybrid-electric vehicle. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  8. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion, Summary of HVAC Contractor Insights.

  9. Decision insight into stakeholder conflict for ERN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siirola, John; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Benz, Zachary O.; Stansbury, Melanie; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Warrender, Christina E.; Morrow, James Dan

    2012-02-01

    Participatory modeling has become an important tool in facilitating resource decision making and dispute resolution. Approaches to modeling that are commonly used in this context often do not adequately account for important human factors. Current techniques provide insights into how certain human activities and variables affect resource outcomes; however, they do not directly simulate the complex variables that shape how, why, and under what conditions different human agents behave in ways that affect resources and human interactions related to them. Current approaches also do not adequately reveal how the effects of individual decisions scale up to have systemic level effects in complex resource systems. This lack of integration prevents the development of more robust models to support decision making and dispute resolution processes. Development of integrated tools is further hampered by the fact that collection of primary data for decision-making modeling is costly and time consuming. This project seeks to develop a new approach to resource modeling that incorporates both technical and behavioral modeling techniques into a single decision-making architecture. The modeling platform is enhanced by use of traditional and advanced processes and tools for expedited data capture. Specific objectives of the project are: (1) Develop a proof of concept for a new technical approach to resource modeling that combines the computational techniques of system dynamics and agent based modeling, (2) Develop an iterative, participatory modeling process supported with traditional and advance data capture techniques that may be utilized to facilitate decision making, dispute resolution, and collaborative learning processes, and (3) Examine potential applications of this technology and process. The development of this decision support architecture included both the engineering of the technology and the development of a participatory method to build and apply the technology

  10. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation Carolyn Davidson and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL...

  11. Insights from UT Austin Energy Poll

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insights from UT Austin Energy Poll on U.S. Consumer Attitudes, July 24, 2013, Sheril Kirshenbaum, director of The Energy Poll.

  12. Network-based Analysis and Insights | NISAC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NISACNetwork-based Analysis and Insights content top Chemical Supply Chain Analysis Posted by Admin on Mar 1, 2012 in | Comments 0 comments Chemical Supply Chain Analysis NISAC has...

  13. Structural insights into electron transfer in caa[subscript 3...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Structural insights into electron transfer in caasubscript 3-type cytochrome oxidase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural insights into electron ...

  14. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Insight...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Insight Homes, Seaford, Delaware Case study of Insight Homes, who worked with the Building America research partner IBACOS to ...

  15. Diesel Engine Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities Diesel Engine Oil Technology Insights and Opportunities Perrformance of API CJ-4 diesel engine lubricating oil and emerging lubricant ...

  16. Fundamental New Insight Into Material for Optical-Switching ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Fundamental New Insight Into Material for Optical-Switching Basic Energy Sciences (BES) ... Fundamental New Insight Into Material for Optical-Switching A triple point, where three ...

  17. Study Builds Knowledge of Nuclear Waste Glass, Provides Insight...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Study Builds Knowledge of Nuclear Waste Glass, Provides Insight to Facility Design Study Builds Knowledge of Nuclear Waste Glass, Provides Insight to Facility Design April 14, 2016 ...

  18. Neutrons provide new insights into human cell behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons provide new insights into human cell behavior Community Connections: Your link to ... All Issues submit Neutrons provide new insights into human cell behavior Physics and ...

  19. Neutrons provide new insights into human cell behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrons provide new insights into human cell behavior Alumni Link: Opportunities, News ... All Issues submit Neutrons provide new insights into human cell behavior Physics and ...

  20. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Non-Utility Program Administrator Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Conclusion, Summary of Non-utility Program Administrator Insights.

  1. Economic Model For a Return on Investment Analysis of United States Government High Performance Computing (HPC) Research and Development (R & D) Investment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Earl C.; Conway, Steve; Dekate, Chirag

    2013-09-30

    This study investigated how high-performance computing (HPC) investments can improve economic success and increase scientific innovation. This research focused on the common good and provided uses for DOE, other government agencies, industry, and academia. The study created two unique economic models and an innovation index: 1 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in economic advancements in the form of ROI in revenue (GDP), profits (and cost savings), and jobs. 2 A macroeconomic model that depicts the way HPC investments result in basic and applied innovations, looking at variations by sector, industry, country, and organization size.  A new innovation index that provides a means of measuring and comparing innovation levels. Key findings of the pilot study include: IDC collected the required data across a broad set of organizations, with enough detail to create these models and the innovation index. The research also developed an expansive list of HPC success stories.

  2. Role of positive ions on the surface production of negative ions in a fusion plasma reactor type negative ion sourceInsights from a three dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fubiani, G.; Boeuf, J. P. [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France) [Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2013-11-15

    Results from a 3D self-consistent Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC MCC) model of a high power fusion-type negative ion source are presented for the first time. The model is used to calculate the plasma characteristics of the ITER prototype BATMAN ion source developed in Garching. Special emphasis is put on the production of negative ions on the plasma grid surface. The question of the relative roles of the impact of neutral hydrogen atoms and positive ions on the cesiated grid surface has attracted much attention recently and the 3D PIC MCC model is used to address this question. The results show that the production of negative ions by positive ion impact on the plasma grid is small with respect to the production by atomic hydrogen or deuterium bombardment (less than 10%)

  3. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  4. Insights from an overview of four PRAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Arrieta, L.; Teichmann, T.; Davis, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings of an investigation of four probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), those for Millstone 3, Seabrook, Shoreham, and Oconee 3, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Reliability and Risk Assessment Branch of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This group of four PRAs was subjected to an overview process with the basic goal of ascertaining what insights might be gained (beyond those already documented within the individual PRAs) by an independent evaluation of the group with respect to nuclear plant safety and vulnerability. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (1) to identify and rank initiators, systems, components, and failure modes from dominant accident sequences according to their contribution to core melt probability and public risk; and (2) to derive from this process plant-specific and generic insights. The effort was not intended to verify the specific details and results of each PRA but rather - having accepted the results - to see what they might mean in a more global context. The NRC had previously sponsored full detailed reviews of each of these PRAs, but only two, those for Millstone 3 and Shoreham, were completed and documented in time to allow their consideration within the study. This paper also presents some comments and insights into the amenability of certain features of these PRAs to this type of overview process.

  5. A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes A Minnesota Blizzard Provides Insight into Utility-Scale Wind Turbine Wakes September 12, 2014 - 11:22am ...

  6. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 XPD helicase is an enzyme...

  7. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies in Solar 2 (PREDICTS 2) | Department of Energy Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar 2 (PREDICTS 2) Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar 2 (PREDICTS 2) Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar 2 (PREDICTS 2) The SunShot Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar 2 (PREDICTS 2) program funds

  8. Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion Energy By Argonne ... Davis; Stephane Ethier, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Simulation of ...

  9. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Funding Opportunity | Department of Energy Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Funding Opportunity Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Funding Opportunity The Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) program supports projects that evaluate the degradation and failure mechanisms of

  10. Supercomputing Model Provides Insights from Higher Wind and Solar

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    About Us » Jobs & Internships » Summer Programs Summer Programs Minority Educational Institution Summer Partnership Program The DOE Minority Educational Institutions Student Partnership Program provides talented college students attending minority institutions who are pursuing academic degrees in the areas of science and technology opportunities to further develop skills and expand their knowledge base through work experiences relative to their academic studies. For more information on how

  11. Insights on activation enthalpy for non-Schmid slip in body-centered cubic metals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hale, Lucas M.; Lim, Hojun; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Battaile, Corbett C.; Weinberger, Christopher R.

    2014-12-18

    We use insights gained from atomistic simulation to develop an activation enthalpy model for dislocation slip in body-centered cubic iron. Furthermore, using a classical potential that predicts dislocation core stabilities consistent with ab initio predictions, we quantify the non-Schmid stress-dependent effects of slip. The kink-pair activation enthalpy is evaluated and a model is identified as a function of the general stress state. Thus, our model enlarges the applicability of the classic Kocks activation enthalpy model to materials with non-Schmid behavior.

  12. Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the environment: Insights into plutonium's longest-lived isotope Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anthropogenic plutonium-244 in the ...

  13. Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and Characteristics That Drive Savings in Behavior-Based Programs In this report, we use smart meter data to ...

  14. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The SunShot Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar 2 (PREDICTS 2) program funds research in physics, chemistry, and advanced data ...

  15. Voices of Experience: New Guide Offers Utilities' Insights on...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The resulting Voices of Experience | Insights on Smart Grid Customer Engagement guide, which was introduced today at the National Town Meeting on Demand Response and the Smart ...

  16. Bob Jaffe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Insights from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bob Jaffe, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Insights from the Energy Critical Elements Policy Study by the American Physical Society and Material Research Society Bob Jaffe, ...

  17. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Technical Report Technical Report Appendix More Documents & Publications Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and Characteristics That Drive Savings ...

  18. Recent advances in modeling stellar interiors (u) (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    three-dimensional evolution and hydrodynamic models; (3) insights from oscillation data used to infer stellar interior structure and validate model predictions (asteroseismology). ...

  19. Economic evolutions and their resilience: a model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breitenecker, M.; Gruemm, H.

    1981-04-01

    The report designs a highly aggregated macroeconomic model that can be formulated in terms of a system of ordinary differential equations. The report consists of two parts supplementing each other in a sort of symbiosis. One part is the abstract structure of the equations - that is, the individual dependence of the time variations of the state variables (which span the state space) on the variables themselves (which in this model are E, K, and L). The other part is the parameter space, each point of which is a set of parameter values that have a well-defined economic meaning and thereby endow the system with economic content. (Copyright (c) 1981, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.)

  20. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  1. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Uses lessons learned from Better Buildings grantees, existing data, and private sector insights to highlight business models that can help develop a sustainable residential energy efficiency market.

  2. CBEI Competency Model and Career Map

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... and basic competency model format and enhanced with unique insights such as performance competencies (e.g. what makes someone particularly good at their job) * Visual, user ...

  3. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  4. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  5. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling & Analysis, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solar Newsletter, SunShot, Systems Analysis Sandia Develops Stochastic ...

  6. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monte Carlo modeling it was found that for noisy signals with a significant background component, accuracy is improved by fitting the total emission data which includes the...

  7. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science and Actuarial Practice" Read More Permalink New Project Is the ACME of Computer Science to Address Climate Change Analysis, Climate, Global Climate & Energy, Modeling, ...

  8. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Sandia Labs Releases New Version of PVLib Toolbox Sandia has released version 1.3 of PVLib, its widely used Matlab toolbox for modeling photovoltaic (PV) power ...

  9. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Sandia Will Host PV Bankability Workshop at Solar Power International (SPI) 2013 Computational Modeling & Simulation, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Facilities, Grid ...

  10. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Though adequate for modeling mean transport, this approach does not address ... Microphysics such as diffusive transport and chemical kinetics are represented by ...

  11. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with application in modeling NDCX-II experiments Wangyi Liu 1 , John Barnard 2 , Alex Friedman 2 , Nathan Masters 2 , Aaron Fisher 2 , Alice Koniges 2 , David Eder 2 1 LBNL, USA, 2...

  12. Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NASA Earth at Night Video EC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, Videos NASA Earth at Night Video Have you ever wondered what the ...

  13. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manne, A.S.; Wene, C.O.

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled ``top-down macroeconomic`` and ``bottom-up engineering`` perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system`s costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  14. MARKAL-MACRO: A linked model for energy-economy analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manne, A.S. ); Wene, C.O. Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg )

    1992-02-01

    MARKAL-MACRO is an experiment in model linkage for energy and economy analysis. This new tool is intended as an improvement over existing methods for energy strategy assessment. It is designed specifically for estimating the costs and analyzing the technologies proposed for reducing environmental risks such as global climate change or regional air pollution. The greenhouse gas debate illustrates the usefulness of linked energy-economy models. A central issue is the coupling between economic growth, the level of energy demands, and the development of an energy system to supply these demands. The debate is often connected with alternative modeling approaches. The competing philosophies may be labeled top-down macroeconomic'' and bottom-up engineering'' perspectives. MARKAL is a systems engineering (physical process) analysis built on the concept of a Reference Energy System (RES). MARKAL is solved by means of dynamic linear programming. In most applications, the end use demands are fixed, and an economically efficient solution is obtained by minimizing the present value of energy system's costs throughout the planning horizon. MACRO is a macroeconomic model with an aggregated view of long-term economic growth. The basis input factors of production are capital, labor and individual forms of energy. MACRO is solved by nonlinear optimization.

  15. Thermal Evaluation of the Honda Insight Battery Pack: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolot, M.D.; Kelly, K.; Keyser, M.; Mihalic, M.; Pesaran, A.; Hieronymus, A.

    2001-06-18

    The hybrid vehicle test efforts at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with a focus on the Honda Insight's battery thermal management system, are presented. The performance of the Insight's high voltage NiMH battery pack was characterized by conducting in-vehicle dynamometer testing at Environmental Testing Corporation's high altitude dynamometer test facility, on-road testing in the Denver area, and out-of-car testing in NREL's Battery Thermal Management Laboratory. It is concluded that performance does vary considerably due to thermal conditions the pack encounters. The performance variations are due to both inherent NiMH characteristics, and the Insight's thermal management system.

  16. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  17. Ventana's Energy, Environment, Economy-Society (E3S) Model |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Organization: Ventana Systems Inc. Partner: United States Department of Energy Sector: Climate, Energy Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Macroeconomic, Pathways analysis...

  18. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the...

  19. Worldwide Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from International Energy Agency (IEA) Indicator Analysis in Support of the Group of Eight (G8) Plan of Action Jump to:...

  20. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism...

  1. Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems report is the result of a one-day meeting held at CenterPoint Energy in Houston, Texas, in May ...

  2. Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar wind samples Solar wind samples give insight into birth of solar system Most of the Genesis payload consisted of fragile solar-wind collectors, which had been exposed to the ...

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 Fingerprint of element found by LANL/Japanese team. May 29, 2012 How would the detonation of a nuclear energy source afffect an incoming asteroid? Georgios Koutroulakis and H. Yasuoka in the condensed-matter NMR lab at Los Alamos National Laboratory after having observed the magnetic resonance signal of Pu 239 for the first time. Get Expertise Scientist Eric Bauer Condensed

  4. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is

  5. ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance Print Thursday, 25 July 2013 13:44 In the chemical environments common in energy production plants, steel pipes and equipment can accumulate layers of iron sulfide, some of which are corrosion resistant and provide protection to the steel surface. Understanding how operating conditions affect steel surface layers can improve corrosion rate estimates, decreasing

  6. Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 11:21 For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research. Hewlett Packard Labs researchers, including Suhas Kumar, Catherine Graves, and John Paul Strachan,

  7. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Monday, 11 July 2016 00:00 Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain

  8. Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems (February 2015) | Department of Energy Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems (February 2015) Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems (February 2015) The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 spurred investments in smart grid technology and programs at utilities across the country. The Smart Grid Investment Grant program and Smart Grid Demonstration projects that it funded provided unprecedented

  9. Voices of Experience: New Guide Offers Utilities' Insights on Engaging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Smart Grid Customers | Department of Energy Voices of Experience: New Guide Offers Utilities' Insights on Engaging with Smart Grid Customers Voices of Experience: New Guide Offers Utilities' Insights on Engaging with Smart Grid Customers July 11, 2013 - 10:44am Addthis Eric Lightner Eric Lightner Director of the Federal Smart Grid Task Force in the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability The smart grid is creating numerous new opportunities for consumers to better manage

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Global Insight, Inc. / Department of Labor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Working with Sandia Global Insight, Inc. / Department of Labor Global Insight, Inc. (GII), was created by combining DRI (formerly Data Resources, Inc.) and WEFA (formerly Wharton Econometric Forecasting Associates). Due to copyright/distribution laws being derived from a proprietary service that Sandia pays for, Sandia can no longer provide GII factor information at this website. However, Sandia will continue to supply the DOL and the "combined key

  11. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Wednesday, 26 February 2014 00:00 Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate

  12. Jefferson Lab holds educational, insightful science lectures in June |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab holds educational, insightful science lectures in June Jefferson Lab holds educational, insightful science lectures in June June 11, 2007 Jefferson Lab is hosting two free, public lectures on consecutive evenings in June. The Monday, June 18, presentation highlights the genius and scientific discoveries of Benjamin Franklin. By establishing that lightning is electrical and that electricity involves charge, Franklin's research opened the way for many new discoveries. Fred Dylla,

  13. Katharine Page: Atomic-level insights for better materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Katharine Page: Atomic-level insights for better materials Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Katharine Page: Atomic-level insights for better materials Page's research supports materials' advances that could have wide-ranging impact, investigating, manipulating and manufacturing nano-particles. May 1, 2014 Katherine Page Katherine Page Contact Linda Anderman Email A Love for Science Impassioned by

  14. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print Wednesday, 25 February 2009 00:00 XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight

  15. Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Tryggvason, G.; Tsuji, Y.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Crowe, Clayton T.; Berlemont, A.; Reeks, M.; Simonin, O.; Frank, Th; Onishi, Yasuo; Van Wachem, B.

    2005-09-01

    Slurry flows occur in many circumstances, including chemical manufacturing processes, pipeline transfer of coal, sand, and minerals; mud flows; and disposal of dredged materials. In this section we discuss slurry flow applications related to radioactive waste management. The Hanford tank waste solids and interstitial liquids will be mixed to form a slurry so it can be pumped out for retrieval and treatment. The waste is very complex chemically and physically. The ARIEL code is used to model the chemical interactions and fluid dynamics of the waste.

  16. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Executive Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Uses lessons learned from Better Buildings grantees, existing data, and private sector insights to highlight business models that can help develop a sustainable residential energy efficiency market.

  17. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Uses lessons learned from Better Buildings grantees, existing data, and private sector insights to highlight business models that can help develop a sustainable residential energy efficiency market.

  18. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Modeling for Accelerated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling for Accelerated Design of EV Batteries Shriram Santhanagopalan, Chao Zhang, ... provide insight to design improved batteries for electric vehicles III. Work funded ...

  19. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Jun, Se Ran; Nookaew, Intawat; Leuze, Michael Rex; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Lund, Ole; Kora, Guruprasad H; Wassenaar, Trudy; Poudel, Suresh; Ussery, David W

    2015-01-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome

  20. Deep Insights from Thin Layers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deep Insights from Thin Layers Deep Insights from Thin Layers March 13, 2014 - 4:08pm Addthis The Linac Coherent Light Source will create 3D images of single molecules using ultrafast pulses of very intense hard X-rays. | Image courtesy of SLAC. The Linac Coherent Light Source will create 3D images of single molecules using ultrafast pulses of very intense hard X-rays. | Image courtesy of SLAC. Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Communications Specialist (detailee) How does it work? A

  1. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period of 1990 to 2010. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system. The second chapter describes the modeling structure. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. Additional background on the development of the system is provided in Appendix A of this report, which describes the EIA modeling systems that preceded NEMS. More detailed model documentation reports for all the NEMS modules are also available from EIA.

  2. Energy Information Administration NEMS Macroeconomic Activity...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of employment by industry is industrial output. Both current and lagged output values enter in the employment specification, reflecting the tendency of firms to hire employees in...

  3. Microsoft Word - macroeconomic_aeo2012.docx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gross State Product The MAM projects regional gross regional product in real per capita terms. The equations are in log form. There is an estimated equation for each of the nine...

  4. National Energy Modeling System (NEMS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors, world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavioral and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. NEMS was designed and implemented by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). NEMS can be used to analyze the effects of existing and proposed government laws and regulations related to energy production and use; the potential impact of new and advanced energy production, conversion, and consumption technologies; the impact and cost of greenhouse gas control; the impact of increased use of renewable energy sources; and the potential savings from increased efficiency of energy use; and the impact of regulations on the use of alternative or reformulated fuels. NEMS has also been used for a number of special analyses at the request of the Administration, U.S. Congress, other offices of DOE and other government agencies, who specify the scenarios and assumptions for the analysis. Modules allow analyses to be conducted in energy topic areas such as residential demand, industrial demand, electricity market, oil and gas supply, renewable fuels, etc.

  5. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  6. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  7. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  8. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  9. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  10. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in fusion experiments | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma in fusion experiments By John Greenwald December 9, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. A key issue for the

  11. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in fusion experiments | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma in fusion experiments By John Greenwald December 9, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. A key issue for the

  12. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  13. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  14. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  15. Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion Energy |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion Energy By Argonne National Laboratory March 31, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Simulation of microturbulence in a tokamak fusion device. (Credit: Chad Jones and Kwan-Liu Ma, University of California, Davis; Stephane Ethier, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Simulation of microturbulence in a tokamak fusion device. (Credit: Chad Jones and Kwan-Liu Ma, University of

  16. Design Principles of Coherent Photosynthetic Energy Transport: Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Two Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Design Principles of Coherent Photosynthetic Energy Transport: Insights from Two Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy November 10, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Greg Engel Department of Chemistry, The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago engel abstract: Life on earth is effectively solar powered, yet how energy moves through photosynthetic complexes prior to the biochemical steps of photosynthesis is still not

  17. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  18. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  19. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity Print Researchers working at the ALS have recently made new discoveries in understanding the nature of charge storage in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, opening up possibilities for new battery designs with significantly improved capacity. Looking at a popular Li-rich cathode material, the researchers used soft x-ray techniques to quantifiably explain oxygen's role in Li-ion charge capacity. Lithium: The Star of Battery Chemistry The

  20. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight promotes cancer; Cockayne syndrome (CS) involves stunted growth and premature aging;

  1. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight promotes cancer; Cockayne syndrome (CS) involves stunted growth and premature aging;

  2. Synchrotron plus Mass Spectrometer equals New Insights Into Combustion

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Chemistry | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Synchrotron plus Mass Spectrometer equals New Insights Into Combustion Chemistry Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E:

  3. Mechanistic Insight into the Formation of Cationic Naked Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generated Under Equilibrium Control - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research October 24, 2014, Research Highlights Mechanistic Insight into the Formation of Cationic Naked Nanocrystals Generated Under Equilibrium Control Pre-JCESR stripping chemistries (for cationic NC): NOBF4 (strong oxidant, not suitable for many compositions, ~$600/mol) Et3OBF4 (mild, but still causes adatom desorption for some sensitive compositions, ~$800/mol) New ligand-stripping chemistry developed within JCESR:

  4. Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures for Three Membrane Transport Proteins Yield Functional Insights Print Cells depend on contact with their outside environment in order to thrive. Two examples illustrate why: In one, information needed to guide cellular processes is constantly transmitted across cell membranes by specialized proteins, and in the other, maintaining the right gradient of ions across the membrane is a process critical to the life and death of a cell. Membrane transport proteins-functioning either as

  5. Solvation Properties of Microhydrated Sulfate Anion Clusters: Insights from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    abInitio Calculations | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Solvation Properties of Microhydrated Sulfate Anion Clusters: Insights from abInitio Calculations Authors: Wan, Q., Spanu, L., Galli, G. Sulfate-water clusters play an important role in environmental and industrial processes, yet open questions remain on their physical and chemical properties. We investigated the smallest hydrated sulfate anion clusters believed to have a full solvation shell, with 12 or 13 water molecules. We

  6. Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research. Hewlett Packard Labs researchers, including Suhas Kumar, Catherine Graves, and John Paul Strachan, recently made the cover of Applied Physics Letters with an ALS-based project that revealed key

  7. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  8. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  9. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  10. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  11. High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure MOF Research Yields Structural Insights Print Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a remarkable class of relatively new materials that exist as a subclass of a larger group called coordination networks. MOFs have shown promise in a variety of applications ranging from gas storage to ion exchange. The materials are comprised of organic linkers that bridge discrete metal building units. Accurate structural knowledge is key to the understanding of the applicability of these materials,

  12. Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characteristics That Drive Savings in Behavior-Based Programs | Department of Energy Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and Characteristics That Drive Savings in Behavior-Based Programs Insights from Smart Meters: Identifying Specific Actions, Behaviors, and Characteristics That Drive Savings in Behavior-Based Programs In this report, we use smart meter data to analyze specific actions, behaviors, and characteristics that drive energy savings in a BB program. Specifically, we examine a

  13. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight promotes cancer; Cockayne syndrome (CS) involves stunted growth and premature aging;

  14. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight promotes cancer; Cockayne syndrome (CS) involves stunted growth and premature aging;

  15. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight promotes cancer; Cockayne syndrome (CS) involves stunted growth and premature aging;

  16. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism that maintains the integrity of DNA. XPD is unique, however, in that pinpoint mutations of this single protein are responsible for three different human diseases: in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), extreme sensitivity to sunlight promotes cancer; Cockayne syndrome (CS) involves stunted growth and premature aging;

  17. Katharine Page-Atomic-level insights for better materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Katharine Page Katharine Page-Atomic-level insights for better materials Page's research supports materials' advances that could have wide-ranging impact, investigating, manipulating and manufacturing nano-particles. March 26, 2014 Katharine Page Katharine Page "Page advises young women to be unafraid of exploring new career options and to always ask questions and learn from others along the way." A Love for Science Impassioned by materials science, Katharine Page told her college

  18. Structural insight into the regulation of MOF in the male-specific...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural insight into the regulation of MOF in the male-specific lethal complex and the non-specific lethal complex Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural insight ...

  19. Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion all-solid-state...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion all-solid-state batteries with Al anodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Insights into capacity loss mechanisms in...

  20. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Insight Homes,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seaford, Delaware | Department of Energy Insight Homes, Seaford, Delaware Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Insight Homes, Seaford, Delaware Case study of Insight Homes, who worked with the Building America research partner IBACOS to design HERS-49 homes with high-efficiency HVAC, ducts in insulated crawl spaces, raised heel trusses, dehumidifiers, and central manifold plumbing. Insight Homes: Deep Creek - Seaford, Delaware (651.43 KB) More Documents & Publications

  1. Supramolecular polymerization of a prebiotic nucleoside provides insights into the creation of sequence-controlled polymers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Jun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Rangel, E.; Vallejo, E.; Sanchez-Castillo, Ariadna; Cleaves, II, H. James; Baddorf, Arthur P; Sumpter, Bobby G; Pan, Minghu; Maksymovych, Petro; et al

    2016-01-04

    The self-assembly of a nucleoside on Au(111) was studied to ascertain whether polymerization on well-defined substrates constitutes a promising approach for making sequence-controlled polymers. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory were used to investigate the self-assembly on Au(111) of (RS)-N9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine (DHPA), a plausibly prebiotic nucleoside analog of adenosine. It is found that DHPA molecules self-assemble into a hydrogen-bonded polymer that grows almost exclusively along the herringbone reconstruction pattern, has a two component sequence that is repeated over hundreds of nanometers, and is erasable with electron-induced excitation. Although the sequence is simple, more complicated ones are envisioned if two ormore » more nucleoside types are combined. Because polymerization occurs on a substrate in a dry environment, the success of each combination can be gauged with high-resolution imaging and accurate modeling techniques. The resulting characteristics make nucleoside self-assembly on a substrate an attractive approach for designing sequence-controlled polymers. Moreover, by choosing plausibly prebiotic nucleosides, insights may be provided into how nature created the first sequence-controlled polymers capable of storing information. Such insights, in turn, can inspire new ways of synthesizing sequence-controlled polymers.« less

  2. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  3. Insight into Alzheimer's, cancer, anemia gleaned from ribosome...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and (B) computer-generated atomic-resolution model ... Color bar indicates the amount of motion during rolling. ... for modeling the structure and dynamic aspects of ...

  4. "Omics of the mammalian gut new insights into function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamendella, Regina; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Jansson, Janet

    2012-01-01

    To understand the role of gut microbes in host health, it is imperative to probe their genetic potential, expression, and ecological status. The current high-throughput sequencing revolution, in addition to advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, have recently enabled deep access to these complex environments, and are revealing important insights into the roles of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota in host physiology and health. This review discusses examples of how the integration of cutting-edge meta-omics technologies are providing new knowledge about the relationships between host health status in mammals and the microbes inhabiting the GI tract. In addition, we address some promises that these techniques hold for future therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  5. Structural Insights into the Mechanism of PEPCK Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holyoak,T.; Sullivan, S.; Nowak, T.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase catalyzes the reversible decarboxylation of oxaloacetic acid with the concomitant transfer of the {gamma}-phosphate of GTP to form PEP and GDP as the first committed step of gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. The three structures of the mitochondrial isoform of PEPCK reported are complexed with Mn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}-PEP, or Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP and provide the first observations of the structure of the mitochondrial isoform and insight into the mechanism of catalysis mediated by this enzyme. The structures show the involvement of the hyper-reactive cysteine (C307) in the coordination of the active site Mn{sup 2+}. Upon formation of the PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-PEP or PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP complexes, C307 coordination is lost as the P-loop in which it resides adopts a different conformation. The structures suggest that stabilization of the cysteine-coordinated metal geometry holds the enzyme as a catalytically incompetent metal complex and may represent a previously unappreciated mechanism of regulation. A third conformation of the mobile P-loop in the PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP complex demonstrates the participation of a previously unrecognized, conserved serine residue (S305) in mediating phosphoryl transfer. The ordering of the mobile active site lid in the PEPCK-Mn{sup 2+}-malonate-Mn{sup 2+}GDP complex yields the first observation of this structural feature and provides additional insight into the mechanism of phosphoryl transfer.

  6. Macro-Industrial Working Group: meeting 1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    July 24, 2012 Macroeconomic team: Kay Smith, Russ Tarver, Elizabeth Sendich and Vipin Arora WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Joint Macro-Industrial Working Group: Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Macroeconomic Modeling Plans Presentation Goals 2 July 24 2012 Joint Macroeconomics and Industrial Working Group * Highlight proposed macroeconomic AEO2013 modeling changes * Description of Proposed Reference Case - Highlight short-term

  7. Molecular-Level Insights into Photocatalysis from Scanning Probe Microscopy Studies on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, Michael A.; Lyubinetsky, Igor

    2013-06-12

    The field of heterogeneous photocatalysis has grown considerably in the decades since Fujishima and Honda's ground-breaking publications of photoelectrochemistry on TiO2. Numerous review articles continue to point to both progress made in the use of heterogeneous materials (such as TiO2) to perform photoconversion processes, and the many opportunities and challenges in heterogeneous photocatalysis research such as solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. The past decade has also seen an increase in the use of molecular-level approaches applied to model single crystal surfaces in an effort to obtain new insights into photocatalytic phenomena. In particular, scanning probe techniques (SPM) have enabled researchers to take a nanoscale approach to photocatalysis that includes interrogation of the reactivities of specific sites and adsorbates on a model photocatalyst surface. The rutile TiO2(110) surface has become the prototypical oxide single crystal surface for fundamental studies of many interfacial phenomena. In particular, TiO2(110) has become an excellent model surface for probing photochemical and photocatalytic reactions at the molecular level. A variety of experimental approaches have emerged as being ideally suited for studying photochemical reactions on TiO2(110), including desorption-oriented approaches and electronic spectroscopies, but perhaps the most promising techniques for evaluating site-specific properties are those of SPM. In this review, we highlight the growing use of SPM techniques in providing molecular-level insights into surface photochemistry on the model photocatalyst surface of rutile TiO2(110). Our objective is to both illustrate the unique knowledge that scanning probe techniques have already provided the field of photocatalysis, and also to motivate a new generation of effort into the use of such approaches to obtain new insights into the molecular level details of photochemical events occurring at interfaces. Discussion

  8. Advanced Modeling & Simulation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Modeling & Simulation Advanced Modeling & Simulation Advanced Modeling & Simulation ADVANCING THE STATE OF THE ART Innovation advances science. Historically, innovation resulted almost exclusively from fundamental theories combined with observation and experimentation over time. With advancements in engineering, computing power and visualization tools, scientists from all disciplines are gaining insights into physical systems in ways not possible with traditional approaches

  9. Structural and mechanistic insights into Mcm2-7 double-hexamer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and mechanistic insights into Mcm2-7 double-hexamer assembly and function Sun, Jingchuan Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Li, Huilin Brookhaven...

  10. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Funding Opportunity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) program supports projects that evaluate the degradation and failure mechanisms of concentrating...

  11. Structural Insight into HIV-1 Restriction by MxB (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Structural Insight into HIV-1 Restriction by MxB Authors: Fribourgh, Jennifer L. ; Nguyen, Henry C. ; Matreyek, Kenneth A. ; Alvarez, Frances Joan D. ; Summers, Brady J. ; ...

  12. ROBUSTNESS OF DECISION INSIGHTS UNDER ALTERNATIVE ALEATORY/EPISTEMIC UNCERTAINTY CLASSIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unwin, Stephen D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Johnson, Kenneth I.

    2013-09-22

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A key technical challenge is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, would be founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance. Evaluation of probabilistic safety margins will in general entail the uncertainty characterization both of the prospective challenge to the performance of an SSC ("load") and of its "capacity" to withstand that challenge. The RISMC framework contrasts sharply with the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) structure in that the underlying models are not inherently aleatory. Rather, they are largely deterministic physical/engineering models with ambiguities about the appropriate uncertainty classification of many model parameters. The current analysis demonstrates that if the distinction between epistemic and aleatory uncertainties is to be preserved in a RISMC-like modeling environment, then it is unlikely that analysis insights supporting decision-making will in general be robust under recategorization of input uncertainties. If it is believed there is a true conceptual distinction between epistemic and aleatory uncertainty (as opposed to the distinction being primarily a legacy of the PRA paradigm) then a consistent and defensible basis must be established by which to categorize input uncertainties.

  13. Verification and validation of the decision analysis model for assessment of tank waste remediation system waste treatment strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awadalla, N.G.; Eaton, S.C.F.

    1996-09-04

    This document is the verification and validation final report for the Decision Analysis Model for Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Treatment Strategies. This model is also known as the INSIGHT Model.

  14. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water/Land Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    This periodic publication summarizes insights from the body of NREL analysis work. In this issue of Analysis Insights, we examine the implications of our energy choices on water, land use, climate, developmental goals, and other factors. Collectively, NREL's work helps policymakers and investors understand and evaluate energy choices within the complex web of connections, or nexus, between energy, water, and land.

  15. Delivering Insight The History of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larzelere II, A R

    2007-01-03

    The history of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) tells of the development of computational simulation into a third fundamental piece of the scientific method, on a par with theory and experiment. ASCI did not invent the idea, nor was it alone in bringing it to fruition. But ASCI provided the wherewithal - hardware, software, environment, funding, and, most of all, the urgency - that made it happen. On October 1, 2005, the Initiative completed its tenth year of funding. The advances made by ASCI over its first decade are truly incredible. Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, along with leadership provided by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs Headquarters, fundamentally changed computational simulation and how it is used to enable scientific insight. To do this, astounding advances were made in simulation applications, computing platforms, and user environments. ASCI dramatically changed existing - and forged new - relationships, both among the Laboratories and with outside partners. By its tenth anniversary, despite daunting challenges, ASCI had accomplished all of the major goals set at its beginning. The history of ASCI is about the vision, leadership, endurance, and partnerships that made these advances possible.

  16. Molecular Insights into the Biosynthesis of the F420 Coenzyme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forouhar,F.; Abashidze, M.; Xu, H.; Grochowski, L.; Seetharaman, J.; Hussain, M.; Kuzin, A.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, W.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Coenzyme F420, a hydride carrier, is found in Archaea and some bacteria and has crucial roles in methanogenesis, antibiotic biosynthesis, DNA repair, and activation of antitubercular compounds. CofD, 2-phospho-l-lactate transferase, catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of F420-0 (F420 without polyglutamate), by transferring the lactyl phosphate moiety of lactyl(2)diphospho-(5')guanosine to 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin ribitol (Fo). CofD is highly conserved among F420-producing organisms, and weak sequence homologs are also found in non-F420-producing organisms. This superfamily does not share any recognizable sequence conservation with other proteins. Here we report the first crystal structures of CofD, the free enzyme and two ternary complexes, with Fo and Pi or with Fo and GDP, from Methanosarcina mazei. The active site is located at the C-terminal end of a Rossmann fold core, and three large insertions make significant contributions to the active site and dimer formation. The observed binding modes of Fo and GDP can explain known biochemical properties of CofD and are also supported by our binding assays. The structures provide significant molecular insights into the biosynthesis of the F420 coenzyme. Large structural differences in the active site region of the non-F420-producing CofD homologs suggest that they catalyze a different biochemical reaction.

  17. Modeling of laser interactions with composite materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Boley, Charles D.

    2013-05-07

    In this study, we develop models of laser interactions with composite materials consisting of fibers embedded within a matrix. A ray-trace model is shown to determine the absorptivity, absorption depth, and optical power enhancement within the material, as well as the angular distribution of the reflected light. We also develop a macroscopic model, which provides physical insight and overall results. We show that the parameters in this model can be determined from the ray trace model.

  18. Ribosome research in atomic detail offers potential insights...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A groundbreaking study of the human ribosome is revealing that the tiny molecular machine ... atomic-resolution model of the human ribosome consistent with microscopy. A). ...

  19. Time-Resolved In Situ Measurements During Rapid Alloy Solidification: Experimental Insight for Additive Manufacturing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McKeown, Joseph T.; Zweiacker, Kai; Liu, Can; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Clarke, Amy J.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Gibbs, John W.; Roehling, John D.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; et al

    2016-01-27

    In research and industrial environments, additive manufacturing (AM) of metals and alloys is becoming a pervasive technology, though significant challenges remain before widespread implementation of AM can be realized. In situ investigations of rapid alloy solidification with high spatial and temporal resolutions can provide unique experimental insight into microstructure evolution and kinetics that are relevant for AM processing. Hypoeutectic thin-film Al–Cu and Al–Si alloys were investigated using dynamic transmission electron microscopy to monitor pulsed-laser-induced rapid solidification across microsecond timescales. Solid–liquid interface velocities measured from time-resolved images revealed accelerating solidification fronts in both alloys. We observed microstructure evolution, solidification product, andmore » presence of a morphological instability at the solid–liquid interface in the Al–4 at.%Cu alloy are related to the measured interface velocities and small differences in composition that affect the thermophysical properties of the alloys. These time-resolved in situ measurements can inform and validate predictive modeling efforts for AM.« less

  20. Insights into the structure of mixed CO2/CH4 in gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Keffer, David J.; Huq, Ashfia; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2015-01-01

    The exchange of CO2 for CH4 in natural gas hydrates is an attractive approach to methane for energy production while simultaneously sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental implications, the solid solution of clathrate hydrate (CH4)1-x(CO2)x 5.75H2O provides a model system to study how the distinct bonding and shapes of CH4 and CO2 influence the structure and properties of the compound. High-resolution neutron diffraction was used to examine mixed CO2/CH4 gas hydrates. CO2-rich hydrates had smaller lattice parameters, which were attributed to the higher affinity of the CO2 molecule interacting with H2O molecules that form the surrounding cages, and resulted in a reduction in the unit cell volume. Experimental nuclear scattering densities illustrate how the cage occupants and energy landscape change with composition. These results provide important insights on the impact and mechanisms for exchanging CH4 and CO2.

  1. Insights into the structure of mixed CO2/CH4 in gas hydrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Everett, S. Michelle; Rawn, Claudia J.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Keffer, David J.; Huq, Ashfia; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2015-05-12

    The exchange of carbon dioxide for methane in natural gas hydrates is an attractive approach to harvesting CH4 for energy production while simultaneously sequestering CO2. In addition to the energy and environmental implications, the solid solution of clathrate hydrate (CH4)1-x(CO2)x·5.75H2O provides a model system to study how the distinct bonding and shapes of CH4 and CO2 influence the structure and properties of the compound. In this paper, high-resolution neutron diffraction was used to examine mixed CO2/CH4 gas hydrates. CO2-rich hydrates had smaller lattice parameters, which were attributed to the higher affinity of the CO2 molecule interacting with H2O molecules thatmore » form the surrounding cages, and resulted in a reduction in the unit-cell volume. Experimental nuclear scattering densities illustrate how the cage occupants and energy landscape change with composition. Finally, these results provide important insights on the impact and mechanisms for the structure of mixed CH4/CO2 gas hydrate.« less

  2. Molecular Theory of Detonation Initiation: Insight from First...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Figure 4. The structure of (a) an HMX molecule; (b) an HMX ideal crystal; and (c) a model ... to the 3-phase) was attributed to a growing number of voids during the phase ...

  3. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a physics- and chemistry-based approach to identifying failure modes for solar products. ... We propose to use novel physics- and chemistry-based modeling techniques to predict the ...

  4. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  5. New Insights into the RNA-Binding and E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: New Insights into the RNA-Binding and E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activities of Roquins Authors: Zhang, Qi ; Fan, Lixin ; Hou, Feng ; Dong, Aiping ; Wang, Yun-Xing ; Tong, Yufeng ...

  6. New insights from in-situ electron microscopy into capacity loss...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-ion batteries with Al anodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New insights from in-situ electron microscopy into capacity loss mechanisms in Li-ion batteries with Al ...

  7. New insights from in-situ electron microscopy into capacity loss...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    batteries with Al anodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New insights from in-situ electron microscopy into capacity loss mechanisms in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries ...

  8. Structure of the FANCI-FANCD2 Complex: Insights into the Fanconi...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Structure of the FANCI-FANCD2 Complex: Insights into the Fanconi Anemia DNA Repair Pathway Fanconi anemia is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by defects in the repair ...

  9. Insights On The Thermal History Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Insights On The Thermal History Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Evidence From Zircon Fission-Track Analysis Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  10. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SunShot Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) program is taking a physics- and chemistry-based approach to identifying failure modes...

  11. Closer to HIV vaccine goal with new insight into viral factors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closer to HIV vaccine goal with new insight into viral factors New insight into viral factors that facilitate HIV transmission Understanding viral factors that facilitate transmission of HIV infection is critical to developing vaccines. February 14, 2012 Scientists work at the National Stable Isotope Resource LANL scientists found that the infected donor's predominant virus subpopulation in the genital tract differed from that in the blood. Comparing the HIV sequence population in each newly

  12. Nuclear Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fossion, Ruben [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, Mexico D. F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)

    2010-09-10

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction).Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  13. Viscoelastic Model for Lung Parenchyma for Multi-Scale Modeling of Respiratory System, Phase II: Dodecahedral Micro-Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, Alan D.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.; Jacob, Rick E.

    2012-03-01

    In the first year of this contractual effort a hypo-elastic constitutive model was developed and shown to have great potential in modeling the elastic response of parenchyma. This model resides at the macroscopic level of the continuum. In this, the second year of our support, an isotropic dodecahedron is employed as an alveolar model. This is a microscopic model for parenchyma. A hopeful outcome is that the linkage between these two scales of modeling will be a source of insight and inspiration that will aid us in the final year's activity: creating a viscoelastic model for parenchyma.

  14. New Insights into Oxygen's Role in Lithium Battery Capacity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water New Infographic and Projects to Keep Your Energy Bills Out of Hot Water April 19, 2013 - 3:21pm Addthis New Energy Saver 101 infographic lays out the different types of water heaters on the market and will help you figure out how to select the best model for your home. Download a high-resolution version of the <a href="/node/612506">infographic</a>. | Infographic by Sarah Gerrity.

  15. New insight on global QCD fits using Regge theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soyez, G.

    2005-06-14

    In global QCD fits, one has to choose an initial parton distribution at Q{sup 2} = Q{sub 0}{sup 2}. I shall argue that the initial condition chosen in usual standard sets is inconsistent with analytic S-matrix theory. I shall show how one can combine these two approaches, leading to a Regge-compatible next-to-leading order global QCD fit. This allows one to extend the parametrisation in the low-Q2 region. Finally, I shall discuss how it it possible to use the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equation to obtain information on Regge models at high Q2.

  16. Palm: Easing the Burden of Analytical Performance Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tallent, Nathan R.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-06-01

    Analytical (predictive) application performance models are critical for diagnosing performance-limiting resources, optimizing systems, and designing machines. Creating models, however, is difficult because they must be both accurate and concise. To ease the burden of performance modeling, we developed Palm, a modeling tool that combines top-down (human-provided) semantic insight with bottom-up static and dynamic analysis. To express insight, Palm defines a source code modeling annotation language. By coordinating models and source code, Palm's models are `first-class' and reproducible. Unlike prior work, Palm formally links models, functions, and measurements. As a result, Palm (a) uses functions to either abstract or express complexity (b) generates hierarchical models (representing an application's static and dynamic structure); and (c) automatically incorporates measurements to focus attention, represent constant behavior, and validate models. We discuss generating models for three different applications.

  17. Hybrid Electric Vehicle End-Of-Life Testing On Honda Insights, Gen I Civics And Toyota Gen I Priuses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort; Donald Karner; Ryan Harkins; Joseph Tardiolo

    2006-02-01

    This technical report details the end-of-life fuel efficiency and battery testing on two model year 2001 Honda Insight hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), two model year 2003 Honda Civic HEVs, and two model year 2002 Toyota Prius HEVs. The end-of-life testing was conducted after each vehicle has been operated for approximately 160,000 miles. This testing was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). The AVTA is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. SAE J1634 fuel efficiency testing was performed on the six HEVs with the air conditioning (AC) on and off. The AC on and off test results are compared to new vehicle AC on and off fuel efficiencies for each HEV model. The six HEVs were all end-of-life tested using new-vehicle coast down coefficients. In addition, one of each HEV model was also subjected to fuel efficiency testing using coast down coefficients obtained when the vehicles completed 160,000 miles of fleet testing. Traction battery pack capacity and power tests were also performed on all six HEVs during the end-of-life testing in accordance with the FreedomCAR Battery Test Manual For Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles procedures. When using the new-vehicle coast down coefficients (Phase I testing), 11 of 12 HEV tests (each HEV was tested once with the AC on and once with the AC off) had increases in fuel efficiencies compared to the new vehicle test results. The end-of-life fuel efficiency tests using the end-of-life coast down coefficients (Phase II testing) show decreases in fuel economies in five of six tests (three with the AC on and three with it off). All six HEVs experienced decreases in battery capacities, with the two Insights having the highest remaining capacities and the two Priuses having the lowest remaining capacities. The AVTA’s end-of-life testing activities discussed in this report were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory; the AVTA testing partner Electric

  18. Insight from Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 Investigations using MELCOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robb, Kevin R.; Francis, Matthew W.; Ott, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    During the emergency response period of the accidents that took place at Fukushima Daiichi in March of 2011, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a number of studies using the MELCOR code to help understand what was occurring and what had occurred. During the post-accident period, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) jointly sponsored a study of the Fukushima Daiichi accident with collaboration among Oak Ridge, Sandia, and Idaho national laboratories. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, reconstruct the accident progression using computer codes, assess the codes predictive capabilities, and identify future data needs. The current paper summarizes some of the early MELCOR simulations and analyses conducted at ORNL of the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 accident. Extended analysis and discussion of the Unit 3 accident is also presented taking into account new knowledge and modeling refinements made since the joint DOE/NRC study.

  19. Insight in the Brain: The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Eureka Moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeman, Mark

    2013-04-03

    Where do new ideas come from? Although all new ideas build on old, this can happen in different ways. Some new ideas, or solutions to old problems, are achieved through methodical, analytical processing. Other new ideas come about in a sudden burst of insight, often based on or generating a restructured view of the problem itself. Behavioral, brain imaging, and eye-tracking results all reveal distinct cortical networks contributing to insight solving, as contrasted with analytic solving. Consistently, the way in which people solve problems appears to relate to the way they engage attention and cognitive control: across time, across moods, and across individuals. Insight is favored when people can disengage from strong stimuli and associations - figuratively and literally looking "outside the box" of the problem to suddenly solve with a new idea.

  20. U.S. Solar Market Insight®: 2014 Year In Review (Executive Summary)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Solar Market Insight is a quarterly publication of the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA)® and GTM Research. Each quarter, they survey nearly 200 installers, manufacturers, utilities, and state agencies to collect granular data on photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar. These data provide the backbone of the Solar Market Insight report, in which they identify and analyze trends in U.S. solar demand, manufacturing, and pricing by state and market segment. This analysis also forecasts demand over the next five years. As the U.S. solar market expands, it is the hope that Solar Market Insight will provide an invaluable decision-making tool for installers, suppliers, investors, policymakers, and advocates alike.

  1. Insights to Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity Processing from First Principles Calculations and Spectroscopic Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise Christine

    2013-03-01

    Insights to the fundamental processes that occur during the manufacturing of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are provided via analyses of density functional theory calculations and Raman, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. I show that during electropolishing fluorine is bound and released by the reaction of the acid components in the solution: HF + H2SO4 <-> HFSO3 + H2O. This result implies that new recipes can possibly be developed on the principle of controlled release of fluorine by a chemical reaction. I also show that NMR or Raman spectroscopy can be used to monitor the free fluorine when polishing with the standard electropolishing recipe. Density functional theory was applied to calculate the properties of common processing impurities – hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon – in the niobium. These impurities lower the superconducting transition temperature of niobium, and hydride precipitates are at best weakly superconducting. I modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities, and explain the phase changes in the niobium hydrogen system based on the charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen and the strain field inside of the niobium. I also present evidence for a niobium lattice vacancy serving as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. In considering the other chemical impurities in niobium, I show that the absorption of oxygen into a niobium lattice vacancy is preferred over the absorption of hydrogen, which indicates that oxygen can block these phase nucleation centers. I also show that dissolved oxygen atoms can trap dissolved hydrogen atoms to prevent niobium hydride phase formation. Nitrogen and carbon were studied in less depth, but behaved similarly to oxygen. Based on these results and a literature survey, I propose a mechanism for the success of the low-temperature anneal applied to niobium SRF cavities. Finally, I

  2. Study Builds Knowledge of Nuclear Waste Glass, Provides Insight to Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design | Department of Energy Study Builds Knowledge of Nuclear Waste Glass, Provides Insight to Facility Design Study Builds Knowledge of Nuclear Waste Glass, Provides Insight to Facility Design April 14, 2016 - 12:40pm Addthis Simulated low-activity waste is cooled in a prototypic steel container as part of ORP-sponsored testing at a Columbia, Md., facility in September 2003. Simulated low-activity waste is cooled in a prototypic steel container as part of ORP-sponsored testing at a

  3. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Behavior-Based Programs | Department of Energy The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs This report focuses on one example of the value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether BB efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings. This is important because there is increasing interest in using BB programs as a stand-alone peak

  4. Sodium channel activation mechanisms. Insights from deuterium oxide substitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alicata, D.A.; Rayner, M.D.; Starkus, J.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Schauf and Bullock, using Myxicola giant axons, demonstrated that solvent substitution with deuterium oxide (D2O) significantly affects both sodium channel activation and inactivation kinetics without corresponding changes in gating current or tail current rates. They concluded that (a) no significant component of gating current derives from the final channel opening step, and (b) channels must deactivate (during tail currents) by a different pathway from that used in channel opening. By contrast, Oxford found in squid axons that when a depolarizing pulse is interrupted by a brief (approximately 100 microseconds) return to holding potential, subsequent reactivation (secondary activation) is very rapid and shows almost monoexponential kinetics. Increasing the interpulse interval resulted in secondary activation rate returning towards control, sigmoid (primary activation) kinetics. He concluded that channels open and close (deactivate) via the same pathway. We have repeated both sets of observations in crayfish axons, confirming the results obtained in both previous studies, despite the apparently contradictory conclusions reached by these authors. On the other hand, we find that secondary activation after a brief interpulse interval (50 microseconds) is insensitive to D2O, although reactivation after longer interpulse intervals (approximately 400 microseconds) returns towards a D2O sensitivity similar to that of primary activation. We conclude that D2O-sensitive primary activation and D2O-insensitive tail current deactivation involve separate pathways. However, D2O-insensitive secondary activation involves reversal of the D2O-insensitive deactivation step. These conclusions are consistent with parallel gate models, provided that one gating particle has a substantially reduced effective valence.

  5. Modeling & Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facilities, Modeling, Modeling, Modeling & Analysis, Modeling & Analysis, Renewable Energy, Research & Capabilities, Wind Energy, Wind News Virtual LIDAR Model Helps Researchers ...

  6. INSIGHT On Transforming Our Global Energy Economy, 2015 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    From its inception, JISEA has provided critical clarity and insights to inform decision making through leading-edge interdisciplinary research and objective, credible, cross-functional analysis. JISEA, drawing on the unique capabilities of its founding institutions and research affiliates around the world, continues to inform the landscape of transformation.

  7. Best Practices Case Study: Insight Homes - Seaford, DE, Deep Creek, DE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-09-01

    Case Study of Insight Homes who built 36 identical houses, three at a time, with increasing energy-efficiency measures in each generation until they arrived at the most cost-effective mix. Advanced framing and high-efficiency HVAC located in a sealed, insulated crawlspace helped them achieve a HERS scores of 49 to 56 and average utility bills of $93 per year.

  8. The Challenges to Coupling Dynamic Geospatial Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, N

    2006-06-23

    Many applications of modeling spatial dynamic systems focus on a single system and a single process, ignoring the geographic and systemic context of the processes being modeled. A solution to this problem is the coupled modeling of spatial dynamic systems. Coupled modeling is challenging for both technical reasons, as well as conceptual reasons. This paper explores the benefits and challenges to coupling or linking spatial dynamic models, from loose coupling, where information transfer between models is done by hand, to tight coupling, where two (or more) models are merged as one. To illustrate the challenges, a coupled model of Urbanization and Wildfire Risk is presented. This model, called Vesta, was applied to the Santa Barbara, California region (using real geospatial data), where Urbanization and Wildfires occur and recur, respectively. The preliminary results of the model coupling illustrate that coupled modeling can lead to insight into the consequences of processes acting on their own.

  9. Improved computer models support genetics research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February » Simple computer models unravel genetic stress reactions in cells Simple computer models unravel genetic stress reactions in cells Integrated biological and computational methods provide insight into why genes are activated. February 8, 2013 When complete, these barriers will be a portion of the NMSSUP upgrade. This molecular structure depicts a yeast transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA), which carries a single amino acid to the ribosome during protein construction. A combined

  10. modeling-and-simulation-with-ls-dyna

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Modeling and Simulation with LS-DYNA®: INSIGHTS INTO MODELING WITH A GOAL OF PROVIDING CREDIBLE PREDICTIVE SIMULATIONS Feb. 11-12, 2010 Argonne TRACC Dr. Ronald F. Kulak Announcement pdficon small This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Most applications of LS-DYNA are for complex, and often combined, physics where nonlinearities due to large deformations and material response, including failure, are the norm. Often the goal of such

  11. Improved computer models support genetics research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simple computer models unravel genetic stress reactions in cells Simple computer models unravel genetic stress reactions in cells Integrated biological and computational methods provide insight into why genes are activated. February 8, 2013 When complete, these barriers will be a portion of the NMSSUP upgrade. This molecular structure depicts a yeast transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA), which carries a single amino acid to the ribosome during protein construction. A combined experimental and

  12. Structural, functional and immunogenic insights on Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase pathogenic virulence factors from Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pratt, Ashley J.; DiDonato, Michael; Shin, David S.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Bruns, Cami K.; Belzer, Carol A.; Gorringe, Andrew R.; Langford, Paul R.; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Kroll, J. Simon; et al

    2015-10-12

    Bacterial pathogens Neisseria meningitidis and Brucella abortus pose threats to human and animal health worldwide, causing meningococcal disease and brucellosis, respectively. Mortality from acute N. meningitidis infections remains high despite antibiotics, and brucellosis presents alimentary and health consequences. Superoxide dismutases are master regulators of reactive oxygen, general pathogenicity factors and therefore therapeutic targets. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs) localized to the periplasm promote survival by detoxifying superoxide radicals generated by major host antimicrobial immune responses. We discovered that passive immunization with an antibody directed at N. meningitidis SOD (NmSOD) was protective in a mouse infection model. To define the relevant atomicmore » details and solution assembly states of this important virulence factor, we report high-resolution and X-ray scattering analyses of NmSOD and SOD from B. abortus (BaSOD). The NmSOD structures revealed an auxiliary tetrahedral Cu-binding site bridging the dimer interface; mutational analyses suggested that this metal site contributes to protein stability, with implications for bacterial defense mechanisms. Biochemical and structural analyses informed us about electrostatic substrate guidance, dimer assembly and an exposed C-terminal epitope in the NmSOD dimer. In contrast, the monomeric BaSOD structure provided insights for extending immunogenic peptide epitopes derived from the protein. These collective results reveal unique contributions of SOD to pathogenic virulence, refine predictive motifs for distinguishing SOD classes and suggest general targets for anti-bacterial immune responses. The identified functional contributions, motifs, and targets distinguishing bacterial and eukaryotic SOD assemblies presented here provide a foundation for efforts to develop SOD-specific inhibitors or vaccines against these harmful pathogens. IMPORTANCE By protecting microbes against reactive oxygen

  13. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  14. Decision Impact Assessment Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-08-01

    DIAMOND represents the decision-making environment that utility planners and executives face. Users interact with the model after every year or two of simulation, which provides an opportunity to modify past decisions as well as to make new decisions. For example, construction of a power plant can be started one year, and if circumstances change, the plant can be accelerated, mothballed, cancelled, or continued as originally planned. Similarly, the marketing and financial incentives for demand-side managementmore » programs can be changed from year to year. This frequent user interaction with the model, an operational game, should build greater understanding and insights among utility planners about the risks associated with different types of resources.« less

  15. Analysis Insights, August 2015: Sustainable Transportation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    NREL Analysis Insights mines our body of analysis work to synthesize topical insights and key findings. In this issue, we examine transportation systems, alternative fuels, and implications of increasing electrification of transit. Moving people and goods from point A to B has never been easier, but our current transportation systems also take a toll on our environment. Transportation currently accounts for 71% of total U.S. petroleum use and 33% of the nation’s total carbon emissions. With new technology, can we make our transportation system cleaner and more cost effective? NREL is applying its analytical expertise and imagination to do just that. Solutions start with systems thinking. Connecting the dots between physical components - vehicles, fueling stations, and highways - and institutional components - traffic laws, regulations, and vehicle standards - helps illuminate solutions that address the needs of the transportation system's many stakeholders.

  16. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC`s Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-12-31

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.

  17. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC's Maintenance Team Inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.

    1992-01-01

    A plant's maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of sixty-seven of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections have been reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Relevant information has been extracted from these inspection reports sorted into several categories; including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified.

  18. Structural Insight into the Regulation of the SNARE Assembly by the Cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarity Protein Sro7 Insight into the Regulation of the SNARE Assembly by the Cell Polarity Protein Sro7 The cells that comprise many tissues are polarized, meaning that they have distinct 'sides' with different membrane identities. For example, in the cells that line the intestine, the membrane that faces the space in the gut has special proteins responsible for uptake of nutrients, whereas the sides that contact neighboring cells have different proteins on their surfaces. Cell polarity is

  19. Structure of an Unusually Small RNA Switch Provides Insight into the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minimal Requirements for Microbial Gene Regulation Structure of an Unusually Small RNA Switch Provides Insight into the Minimal Requirements for Microbial Gene Regulation The emergence of drug-resistant microbes represents a major impediment in the treatment of bacterial infections. Resistance to first-choice drugs has become problematic for respiratory infections, AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and diarrheal diseases, which are top killers among infectious agents. When second- and third-choice

  20. Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    origin of the universe | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the origin of the universe Like "detecting a heartbeat in an arena" full of people By John Greenwald March 11, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Princeton physicist Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY laboratory. Behind him are powerful superconducting magnets on either side of the vacuum chamber. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications)

  1. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J.

    1993-12-01

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  2. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry

  3. Break-out Discussion i: Modeling Consumer Behavior Residential Scale

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Break-out Discussion I: Modeling Consumer Behavior Residential Scale  Are we asking the right questions?  What is a question we could ask about modeling consumer behavior that might lead to deeper insights into how to spur innovation? Why Are We Here? 2 Opower: visual comparison 3 opower 4 EERE Home Energy Score 5 * Similar comparison model * Adds climate context * Simple, visual  Data: - How much - What type  Data: - What is actionable today? - What is bodacious, over-the-top

  4. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  5. Biofuel-Food Market Interactions:A Review of Modeling Approaches and Findings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A; Msangi, Siwa

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between biofuels and food markets remains a policy issue for a number of reasons. There is a continuing need to understand the role of biofuels in the recent spikes in global food prices. Also, there is an ongoing discussion of changes to biofuel policy as a means to cope with severe weather-induced crop losses. Lastly, there are potential interactions between food markets and advanced biofuels, although most of the latter are expected to be produced from non-food feedstocks. This study reviews the existing literature on the food market impacts of biofuels. Findings suggest that initial conclusions attributing most of the spike in global food prices between 2005 and 2008 to biofuels have been revised. Instead, a multitude of factors, in addition to biofuels, converged during the period. Quantitative estimates of the impacts of biofuels on food markets vary significantly due to differences in modeling approaches, geographical scope, and assumptions about a number of crucial factors. In addition, many studies do not adequately account for the effects of macroeconomic changes, adverse weather conditions and direct market interventions during the recent food price spikes when evaluating the role of biofuels.

  6. Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    origin of the universe | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Hunting for Big Bang neutrinos that could provide fresh insight on the origin of the universe Like "detecting a heartbeat in an arena" full of people By John Greenwald March 14, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY laboratory. Behind him are powerful superconducting magnets on either side of the vacuum chamber. (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Chris Tully in the PTOLEMY

  7. Wild Fire Computer Model Helps Firefighters

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Canfield, Jesse

    2014-06-02

    A high-tech computer model called HIGRAD/FIRETEC, the cornerstone of a collaborative effort between U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station and Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides insights that are essential for front-line fire fighters. The science team is looking into levels of bark beetle-induced conditions that lead to drastic changes in fire behavior and how variable or erratic the behavior is likely to be.

  8. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  9. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided by Fundamental Atomistics Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2006-08-31

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a novel hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, Sn/Ni alloy as a potential carbon tolerant reforming catalyst. Sn/Ni alloy was synthesized and tested in steam reforming of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalyst is carbon-tolerant under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by a few characteristics: (a) Knowledge-based, bottom-up approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) The focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  10. INSIGHTS INTO PRE-ENRICHMENT OF STAR CLUSTERS AND SELF-ENRICHMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES FROM THEIR INTRINSIC METALLICITY DISPERSIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leaman, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Star clusters are known to have smaller intrinsic metallicity spreads than dwarf galaxies due to their shorter star formation timescales. Here we use individual spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of stars in 19 Local Group dwarf galaxies, 13 Galactic open clusters, and 49 globular clusters to show that star cluster and dwarf galaxy linear metallicity distributions are binomial in form, with all objects showing strong correlations between their mean linear metallicity Z-bar and intrinsic spread in metallicity {sigma}(Z){sup 2}. A plot of {sigma}(Z){sup 2} versus Z-bar shows that the correlated relationships are offset for the dwarf galaxies from the star clusters. The common binomial nature of these linear metallicity distributions can be explained with a simple inhomogeneous chemical evolution model, where the star cluster and dwarf galaxy behavior in the {sigma}(Z){sup 2}- Z-bar diagram is reproduced in terms of the number of enrichment events, covering fraction, and intrinsic size of the enriched regions. The inhomogeneity of the self-enrichment sets the slope for the observed dwarf galaxy {sigma}(Z){sup 2}- Z-bar correlation. The offset of the star cluster sequence from that of the dwarf galaxies is due to pre-enrichment, and the slope of the star cluster sequence represents the remnant signature of the self-enriched history of their host galaxies. The offset can be used to separate star clusters from dwarf galaxies without a priori knowledge of their luminosity or dynamical mass. The application of the inhomogeneous model to the {sigma}(Z){sup 2}- Z-bar relationship provides a numerical formalism to connect the self-enrichment and pre-enrichment between star clusters and dwarf galaxies using physically motivated chemical enrichment parameters. Therefore we suggest that the {sigma}(Z){sup 2}- Z-bar relationship can provide insight into what drives the efficiency of star formation and chemical evolution in galaxies, and is an important prediction for galaxy