Sample records for insight ihsgi produces

  1. CUISINE AND INSIGHTS ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liley, David

    industry. 8 FUEL THE FIRE Fuel-sensor technologies have been developed using artificial intelligence to give drivers accurate fuel readings. 12 LEAF MATTER New insights into the highly efficient energy Chern. 15 MEASURED RESPONSE Working with Credit Union Foundation Australia to create a poverty

  2. Threat Insight Quarterly Regulatory Compliance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-Force ® Threat Insight Quarterly Regulatory Compliance www.iss.netwww.iss.net October 2006 #12 Risk Index ..............................................11 Future X-Force Threat Insight Quarterly Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Quarterly > October 2006 ©2006 Internet Security Systems

  3. Threat Insight Quarterly Browser Exploitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-Force ® Threat Insight Quarterly Browser Exploitation www.iss.netwww.iss.net January 2007 #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Previous X-Force Threat Insight Quarterly Topics . . . . . . . . . . 15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Contents IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force® Threat Insight Quarterly > January 2007

  4. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  5. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  6. Threat Insight Quarterly Wireless Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-Force ® Threat Insight Quarterly Wireless Technology April 2006 #12;X - F O R C E T H R E A T I N the Wireless Threat ..................................................3 Wireless Threats-Force Catastrophic Risk Index...................................... 13 Future X-Force Threat Insight Quarterly Topics

  7. Threat Insight Quarterly Vulnerability Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-Force ® Threat Insight Quarterly Vulnerability Management July 2006 #12;X - F O R C E T H R E.................. 7 X-Force Catastrophic Risk Index.............................. 10 Future X-Force Threat Insight Introduction There is a wide range of threats that can exist in any network. The presence of unpatched

  8. Hyperons: Insights into baryon structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lach, J.

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The baryon octet is composed mainly of hyperons. Modern high energy hyperon beams provide a tool for the study of hyperon static properties and interactions. Experiments with these beams have provided new insights into hyperon rare decays, magnetic moments, and interactions. These experiments provide us with insights into the strong, weak, and electromagnetic structure of the baryons. 65 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Insights from UT Austin Energy Poll

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insights from UT Austin Energy Poll, Insights from UT Austin Energy Poll on U.S. Consumer Attitudes, July 24, 2013, Sheril Kirshenbaum, director of The Energy Poll.

  10. Earth Insights By Phil Rawlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earth Insights By Phil Rawlings If you have a question about geothermal installation, design some portion of the water elsewhere) rates are typically 10-30% and may reduce depth per nominal ton is shallow, pipe returning to the heat pump is deep. Mr. Rawlings has over twenty-five years experience

  11. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Insight...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Insight Homes, Seaford, Delaware Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: Insight Homes, Seaford, Delaware Case study of Insight Homes, who worked with the Building...

  12. IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net February 2007 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly February 2007 #12;X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly > February 2007 www.iss.netwww.iss.net About this report

  13. IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net June 2007 #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly June 2007 #12;X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly > June 2007 www.iss.netwww.iss.net About this report

  14. Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems (February 2015) Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems...

  15. Insight Homes | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia,IDGWPIndiantown,Innoferm GmbH Jump to:EnergyInsight Homes

  16. IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net May 2007 #12 The Emerging Threat Landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Mobile Security Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly May

  17. IBM Internet Security Systems Threat Insight Monthly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of cryptography as it relates to the computer security industry. We will look at some of the underlying technologyIBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www.iss.netwww.iss.net September . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net IBM Internet Security Systems X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly

  18. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    geothermal, wood, wood waste, all municipal waste, landfill gas, other biomass, solar, wind, pumped storage, and fuel cells. h IHSGI cumulative capacity retirements are...

  19. Produce syngas for methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.L. (Foster Wheeler International Corp., Milan (IT))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined reforming, in which an oxygen reforming reactor is added downstream from a conventional tubular reactor to produce syngas for methanol, achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption with the least impact on the environment. This paper reports that the advantages of this process scheme are as follows: 8% to 10% reduction in the consumption of natural gas per ton of methanol, The size of the primary reformer is reduced, Reduction of syngas compression requirement due to increased syngas pressure, Reduced steam consumption, Production of syngas with the stoichiometric composition required by methanol synthesis. Synthesis gases for the production of methanol and synfuels are basically mixtures of hydrogen and carbon oxides. They have been produced from natural gas by steam reforming, autothermal reforming and noncatalytic partial oxidation.

  20. The Inhibitor DBMIB Provides Insight into the Functional Architecture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Inhibitor DBMIB Provides Insight into the Functional Architecture of the Qo Site in the Cytochrome b(6)f Complex . The Inhibitor DBMIB Provides Insight into the Functional...

  1. Insight into Alzheimer's, cancer, anemia gleaned from ribosome...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Insights from ribosome research Insight into Alzheimer's, cancer, anemia gleaned from ribosome research Groundbreaking study of the human ribosome reveals tiny molecular machine is...

  2. ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance ALS Gives Chevron Scientists New Insights into Corrosion Resistance Print Thursday, 25 July 2013 13:44 In the...

  3. RCx Insights and Best Practices from Utilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the RCx Insights and Best Practices from Utilities and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Rapid City, South Dakota.

  4. Method for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, J.L.

    1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

  5. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure ofIndustrialSupporting Data-Producing Facilities and

  6. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Lynn (Austin, TX); Kinney, Kerry (Austin, TX); Bowman, Robert S. (Lemitar, NM); Kwon, Soondong (Kyungbuk, KR)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  7. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2013/14 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  8. BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    WELCOME TO BLUE VIEW VISION INSIGHT! Good news--your vision plan is flexible and easy to use, your discounts, and much more! Blue View Vision InsightSM University of California Student Health Insurance Plan (UC SHIP) 2012/13 Your Blue View Vision Insight Network Blue View Vision Insight offers you

  9. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  10. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure & Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  11. Insights from US ITER: Strategies for Accelerating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insights from US ITER: Strategies for Accelerating Fusion Energy as a Project Ned Sauthoff US ITER Project Manager SOFE Town Hall Meeting | June 27, 2011 #12;1. Treat fusion energy as a project, rather than a program. Mission: ·Rapid materials and fusion systems development, leading

  12. Academy Insights Vol. 4, No. 9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsson, Johan

    findings and for advancing one's own career through scholarship. Medical educators, for whom the classroom likely published. The investigators concluded that advances in medical education will dependAcademy Insights Vol. 4, No. 9 Medical Education Grand Rounds Presenting Our Annual Medical Student

  13. Academy Insights Vol. 4, No. 10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodrich, Lisa V.

    Academy Insights Vol. 4, No. 10 Medical Education Fellows Selected for 2014-2015 Twenty HMS faculty-2015. They were selected on a competitive basis by four fellowship programs: the HMS Academy Fellowships, curriculum development, assessment, and feedback. The Academy Fellowship in Medical Education, sponsored

  14. Producing Quail for Home Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornberry, Fredrick D.

    1998-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Hobby and backyard producers are becoming interested in producing quail for home consumption. This publication gives tips on housing and brooding, nutrition, lighting, cannibalism, health and slaughter. It includes three recipes....

  15. Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company Threat Insight Monthly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company X-Force ® Threat Insight Monthly www . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Contents www.iss.netwww.iss.net Internet Security Systems, an IBM Company X-Force Threat Insight Monthly April 2007 #12;X-Force® Threat Insight Monthly > April 2007 www.iss.netwww.iss.net About

  16. On the heat flux and entropy produced by thermal fluctuations S. Ciliberto1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by an elastic force. Our results set strong constrains on the energy exchanged between coupled nano-systems held kept at different temperatures and coupled by an elastic force [13, 19]. Thus it gives more insight into the properties of the heat flux produced by mechanical coupling, in the famous Feymann ratchet [22­24] widely

  17. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  18. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  19. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  20. Methods of producing cesium-131

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  1. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  2. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  3. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  4. Applying insights from repository safety assessments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Peter N.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite decades of international consensus that deep geological disposal is the best option for permanent management of long-lived high-level radioactive wastes, no repositories for used nuclear fuel or high-level waste are in operation. Detailed long-term safety assessments have been completed worldwide for a wide range of repository designs and disposal concepts, however, and valuable insights from these assessments are available to inform future decisions about managing radioactive wastes. Qualitative comparisons among the existing safety assessments for disposal concepts in clay, granite, salt, and unsaturated volcanic tuff show how different geologic settings can be matched with appropriate engineered barrier systems to provide a high degree of confidence in the long-term safety of geologic disposal. Review of individual assessments provides insights regarding the release pathways and radionuclides that are most likely to contribute to estimated doses to humans in the far future for different disposal concepts, and can help focus research and development programs to improve management and disposal technologies. Lessons learned from existing safety assessments may be particularly relevant for informing decisions during the process of selecting potential repository sites.

  5. atoll kiritimati insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 387 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  6. achilles insight qus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 386 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  7. accretionary orogens insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 447 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  8. aminotransferase ehpsat insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 359 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  9. alsophila spinulosa insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 355 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  10. acacia tortilis insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 426 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  11. australopithecus africanus insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 365 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  12. acorn weevil insight: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Research in Environmental Sciences, University Sun, Dezheng 452 Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Computer Technologies and Information...

  13. Radiation tolerance of ceramics—Insights from atomistic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    different radiation response as the damage accumulates. Citation: Devanathan R, WJ Weber, and JD Gale.2010."Radiation tolerance of ceramicsInsights from atomistic simulation...

  14. Ecofys-Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions: Insights from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Actions: Insights from Example Development1 "Ecofys elaborated in several projects, concrete examples of NAMAs to understand the issues arising from this concept. This report...

  15. AVTA: Honda Insight HEV 2010 Testing Results | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Honda Insight hybrid-electric vehicle. The baseline performance testing provides a point of comparison...

  16. Improved understanding of protein complex offers insight into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved understanding of protein complex offers insight into DNA replication initiation mechanism basics By Angela Hardin * March 18, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Argonne, Ill. - A...

  17. Worldwide Trends in Energy Use and Efficiency: Key Insights from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Efficiency: Key Insights from International Energy Agency (IEA) Indicator Analysis in Support of the Group of Eight (G8) Plan of Action Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary...

  18. aldehydes mechanistic insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Decho, Alan 55 MODELING AND MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALLERGIC AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??...

  19. Current Producers of Developed Grasses Producers Contact Phone Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rod 979-543-0121 Trinity Turf Nursery* Doug O'Conner 800-290-8873 Wharton Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979 Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979-532-4340 Wittig Grass Farms Allan Wittig 979-657-4496 Diamond Producers Contact Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979-532-4340 Winstead Turf Farms* (AR, MS, TN) Bobby Winstead 800-624-8873 Wittig

  20. AVTA: 2010 Honda Insight HEV Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Honda Insight hybrid-electric vehicle. Baseline and other data collected at Idaho National Laboratory is in the attached documents. Baseline and battery testing data collected at Argonne National Laboratory is available in summary and CSV form on the Argonne Downloadable Dynometer Database site (http://www.anl.gov/energy-systems/group/downloadable-dynamometer-databas...). Taken together, these reports give an overall view of how this vehicle functions under extensive testing.

  1. Producing and Detecting Correlated atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph I. Westbrook; Martijn Schellekens; Aurélien Perrin; Valentina Krachmalnicoff; Jose Carlos Viana Gomes; Jean-Baptiste Trebbia; Jérôme Estève; Hong Chang; Isabelle Bouchoule; Denis Boiron; Alain Aspect; Tom Jeltes; John McNamara; Wim Hogervorst; Wim Vassen

    2006-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss experiments to produce and detect atom correlations in a degenerate or nearly degenerate gas of neutral atoms. First we treat the atomic analog of the celebrated Hanbury Brown Twiss experiment, in which atom correlations result simply from interference effects without any atom interactions.We have performed this experiment for both bosons and fermions. Next we show how atom interactions produce correlated atoms using the atomic analog of spontaneous four-wavemixing. Finally, we briefly mention experiments on a one dimensional gas on an atom chip in which correlation effects due to both interference and interactions have been observed.

  2. Additive manufacturing method of producing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

  3. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  4. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, Rommel (Westminster, CO); Chen, Yih-Wen (Omaha, NE)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  5. Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

  6. DEGRADATION OF TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE OXIDES: MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS AND INTERFACIAL ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    DEGRADATION OF TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE OXIDES: MECHANISTIC INSIGHTS AND INTERFACIAL ENGINEERING;Degradation of Transparent Conductive Oxides: Mechanistic insights and Interfacial engineering Case Western;Dedicated to the science and engineering of photovoltaics, in an effort to make a better world. #12;Table

  7. Evolution of the Bohemian Massif: Insights from numerical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Evolution of the Bohemian Massif: Insights from numerical modeling Petra Maierová Supervisor: Doc of Geophysics Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University in Prague #12;February 4, 2013Evolution Conclusions Outline #12;February 4, 2013Evolution of the Bohemian Massif: Insights from numerical modeling 3

  8. Insights from twenty years of bacterial genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Jun, Se Ran [ORNL; Nookaew, Intawat [ORNL; Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Lund, Ole [Technical University of Denmark; Kora, Guruprasad H [ORNL; Wassenaar, Trudy [Molecular Microbiology & Genomics Consultants, Zotzenheim, Germany; Poudel, Suresh [ORNL; Ussery, David W [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome sequencing? There are many practical applications, such as genome-scale metabolic modeling, biosurveillance, bioforensics, and infectious disease epidemiology. In the near future, high-throughput sequencing of patient metagenomic samples could revolutionize medicine in terms of speed and accuracy of finding pathogens and knowing how to treat them.

  9. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  10. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing (Tuscaloosa, AL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  11. Method for producing monodisperse aerosols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Lawrence W. (Los Alamos, NM); Soderholm, Sidney C. (Pittsford, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerosol generator is described which is capable of producing a monodisperse aerosol within narrow limits utilizing an aqueous solution capable of providing a high population of seed nuclei and an organic solution having a low vapor pressure. The two solutions are cold nebulized, mixed, vaporized, and cooled. During cooling, particles of the organic vapor condense onto the excess seed nuclei, and grow to a uniform particle size.

  12. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  13. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  14. Molecular modeling gives insight into nonionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gdanski, R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the study of a nonionic surfactant through the use of molecular modeling software. The surfactant was decyl alcohol capped with 8 moles of ethylene oxide. This nonionic surfactant is a strong water-wetting agent as well as a good aqueous foaming agent. Four molecular dynamics studies of a single surfactant molecule were conducted under the following conditions: at a water surface at 80 F; in bulk water at 260 F; in bulk hexane at 80 F; at a hexane/water interface at 80 F. The conformations of the surfactant were observed and compared to known solubility data. The results from molecular modeling dynamics calculations will provide new insights into the behavior of surfactant molecules at surfaces and interfaces. This methodology was also extended to aggregates of surfactants to promote understanding of wetting behavior and non-emulsification behavior. In this paper, two studies were performed involving aggregates: one in bulk water at 80 F and another in bulk water at 260 F.

  15. The ADVANCE project: Insights and achievments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ADVANCE [Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation ConcEpt] was a public/private partnership conceived and developed by four founding parties. The founding parties include the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University operating together under the auspices of the Illinois Universities Transportation Research Consortium (IUTRC), and Motorola, Inc. The major responsibilities of each party are fully described in the Project agreement. Subsequently, these four were joined on the Steering Committee by the American Automobile Association (AAA). This unique blending of public sector, private sector and university interests, augmented by more than two dozen other private sector participants, provided a strong set of resources for ADVANCE. The ADVANCE test area covered over 300 square miles including portions of the City of Chicago and 40 northwest suburban communities. The Project encompasses the high growth areas adjacent to O`Hare International Airport, the Schaumburg/Hoffman Estates office and retail complexes, and the Lake-Cook Road development corridor. It also includes major sports and entertainment complexes such as the Arlington International Racecourse and the Rosemont Horizon. The population in the area is more than 750,000. The Insights and Perspectives Compendium is intended to provide useful information to project managers, system developers, and system integrators of future similar ITS implementations. It is intended for those that are technically interested in the ADVANCE Project and have a basic understanding of the project.

  16. Insights from the downhole dynamometer database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, J.R.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Downhole Dynamometer Database is a compilation of test data collected with a set of five downhole tools built by Albert Engineering under contract to Sandia National Laboratories. The downhole dynamometer tools are memory tools deployed in the sucker rod string with sensors to measure pressure, temperature, load, and acceleration. The acceleration data is processed to yield position, so that a load vs. position dynagraph can be generated using data collected downhole. With five tools in the hole at one time, all measured data and computed dynagraphs from five different positions in the rod string are available. The purpose of the Database is to provide industry with a complete and high quality measurement of downhole sucker rod pumping dynamics. To facilitate use of the database, Sandia has developed a Microsoft Windows-based interface that functions as a visualizer and browser to the more than 40 MBytes of data. The interface also includes a data export feature to allow users to extract data from the database for use in their own programs. Following a brief description of the downhole dynamometer tools, data collection program, and database content, this paper will illustrate a few of the interesting and unique insights gained from the downhole data.

  17. Velocity-selected molecular pulses produced by an electric guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, C.; Motsch, M.; Chervenkov, S.; Buuren, L. D. van; Zeppenfeld, M.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Rempe, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatic velocity filtering is a technique for the production of continuous guided beams of slow polar molecules from a thermal gas. We extended this technique to produce pulses of slow molecules with a narrow velocity distribution around a tunable velocity. The pulses are generated by sequentially switching the voltages on adjacent segments of an electric quadrupole guide synchronously with the molecules propagating at the desired velocity. This technique is demonstrated for deuterated ammonia (ND{sub 3}), delivering pulses with a velocity in the range of 20-100 m/s and a relative velocity spread of (16{+-}2)% at full width at half maximum. At velocities around 60 m/s, the pulses contain up to 10{sup 6} molecules each. The data are well reproduced by Monte Carlo simulations, which provide useful insight into the mechanisms of velocity selection.

  18. Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Fortini, O.; Paxton, H.W.; Brindle, R.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy used to produce liquid steel in today's integrated and electric arc furnace (EAF) facilities is significantly higher than the theoretical minimum energy requirements. This study presents the absolute minimum energy required to produce steel from ore and mixtures of scrap and scrap alternatives. Additional cases in which the assumptions are changed to more closely approximate actual operating conditions are also analyzed. The results, summarized in Table E-1, should give insight into the theoretical and practical potentials for reducing steelmaking energy requirements. The energy values have also been converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in order to indicate the potential for reduction in emissions of this greenhouse gas (Table E-2). The study showed that increasing scrap melting has the largest impact on energy consumption. However, scrap should be viewed as having ''invested'' energy since at one time it was produced by reducing ore. Increasing scrap melting in the BOF mayor may not decrease energy if the ''invested'' energy in scrap is considered.

  19. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  20. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  1. Number of Producing Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi"site. IfProved(Million Barrels)21 4.65per9 0 1 2 3 4 5Producing Gas

  2. Thermal Evaluation of the Honda Insight Battery Pack: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolot, M.D.; Kelly, K.; Keyser, M.; Mihalic, M.; Pesaran, A.; Hieronymus, A.

    2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid vehicle test efforts at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with a focus on the Honda Insight's battery thermal management system, are presented. The performance of the Insight's high voltage NiMH battery pack was characterized by conducting in-vehicle dynamometer testing at Environmental Testing Corporation's high altitude dynamometer test facility, on-road testing in the Denver area, and out-of-car testing in NREL's Battery Thermal Management Laboratory. It is concluded that performance does vary considerably due to thermal conditions the pack encounters. The performance variations are due to both inherent NiMH characteristics, and the Insight's thermal management system.

  3. Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations with an Evidence-Based Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations with an Evidence-5 August 2009 #12;Multimodal Transport Modeling for Nairobi, Kenya: Insights and Recommendations

  4. Novel Insights into the Downstream Pathways and Targets Controlled by Transcription Factors CREM in the Testis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    proteins in spermatids: Downstream targets and implicationsNovel Insights into the Downstream Pathways and TargetsNovel Insights into the Downstream Pathways and Targets

  5. Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Abstract: The reduction of...

  6. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles....

  7. Methods for producing secreted polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maiyuran, Suchindra (Gold River, CA); Fidantsef, Ana (Davis, CA); Brody, Howard (Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for producing a polypeptide, comprising: (a) cultivating a fungal host cell in a medium conducive for the production of the polypeptide, wherein the fungal host cell comprises a nucleic acid construct comprising a first nucleotide sequence encoding a signal peptide operably linked to a second nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide, wherein the first nucleotide sequence is foreign to the second nucleotide sequence and the 3' end of the first nucleotide sequence is immediately upstream of the initiator codon of the second nucleotide sequence. The present invention also relates to the isolated signal peptide sequences and to constructs, vectors, and fungal host cells comprising the signal peptide sequences operably linked to nucleotide sequences encoding polypeptides.

  8. New Insights on congested part of the FD calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    New Insights on congested part of the FD calibration from Loop Detector Data Nicolas Chiabaut an automatic method that will permits efficient on-line calibration procedure #12;Outline of the paper

  9. Maintenance Records for 2010 Honda Insight EX vin 0141

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Insight EX VIN JHMZE2H78AS010141 Date Mileage Description Cost 12102009 5,947 Changed oil and filter and inspected brake system 30.44 252010 11,011 Changed oil and filter and...

  10. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Mathew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  11. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  12. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachter, Lior

    Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution Rat Genome Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality `draft' covering over 90% of the genome

  13. Advancing healthcare technology through insight, innovation, and leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, David

    Advancing healthcare technology through insight, innovation, and leadership Master of Translational medical technologies and improving healthcare delivery? Successful medical innovation requires more than of medical innovators. Applications are open to engineers, scientists, and clinicians with a passion

  14. Suppressions and cascades : insights from gauge/gravity dualities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ejaz, Qudsia Jabeen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present, there are no non-perturbative analytic methods available for investigating gauge theories at large couplings. Consequently, it is desirable to explore more avenues to gain qualitative and quantitative insights. ...

  15. Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enzyme Structure Provides Insights into Cancer and Aging Print XPD helicase is an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix; it is one component of an essential repair mechanism...

  16. Social network theory: new insights and issues for behavioral ecologists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sih, Andrew; Hanser, Sean F.; McHugh, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    interactions using social network theory (SNT; reviewed inShen W, Jordan W (2007) Social network analysis of animal009-0725-6 REVIEW Social network theory: new insights and

  17. active site insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    disassembly of C-site. Our current results Lee, Keun Woo 2 Theoretic Insight into CO2 Reduction at Active Sites of Molybdenum and Tungsten Enzymes: a pi Interaction between CO2...

  18. Decision insight into stakeholder conflict for ERN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siirola, John; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Benz, Zachary O.; Stansbury, Melanie; Richards, Elizabeth H.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting); Warrender, Christina E.; Morrow, James Dan

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Participatory modeling has become an important tool in facilitating resource decision making and dispute resolution. Approaches to modeling that are commonly used in this context often do not adequately account for important human factors. Current techniques provide insights into how certain human activities and variables affect resource outcomes; however, they do not directly simulate the complex variables that shape how, why, and under what conditions different human agents behave in ways that affect resources and human interactions related to them. Current approaches also do not adequately reveal how the effects of individual decisions scale up to have systemic level effects in complex resource systems. This lack of integration prevents the development of more robust models to support decision making and dispute resolution processes. Development of integrated tools is further hampered by the fact that collection of primary data for decision-making modeling is costly and time consuming. This project seeks to develop a new approach to resource modeling that incorporates both technical and behavioral modeling techniques into a single decision-making architecture. The modeling platform is enhanced by use of traditional and advanced processes and tools for expedited data capture. Specific objectives of the project are: (1) Develop a proof of concept for a new technical approach to resource modeling that combines the computational techniques of system dynamics and agent based modeling, (2) Develop an iterative, participatory modeling process supported with traditional and advance data capture techniques that may be utilized to facilitate decision making, dispute resolution, and collaborative learning processes, and (3) Examine potential applications of this technology and process. The development of this decision support architecture included both the engineering of the technology and the development of a participatory method to build and apply the technology. Stakeholder interaction with the model and associated data capture was facilitated through two very different modes of engagement, one a standard interface involving radio buttons, slider bars, graphs and plots, while the other utilized an immersive serious gaming interface. The decision support architecture developed through this project was piloted in the Middle Rio Grande Basin to examine how these tools might be utilized to promote enhanced understanding and decision-making in the context of complex water resource management issues. Potential applications of this architecture and its capacity to lead to enhanced understanding and decision-making was assessed through qualitative interviews with study participants who represented key stakeholders in the basin.

  19. Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

  20. Friction versus dilation revisited: Insights from theoretical and numerical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    Friction versus dilation revisited: Insights from theoretical and numerical models N. Makedonska,1 controlled by the frictional strength of the fault gouge, a granular layer that accumulates between the fault friction coefficient) of such granular layers is the systems resistance to dilation, a byprocess

  1. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Nuclear magnetic resonance offers new insights into Pu 239 May 29, 2012 Nuclear magnetic signal of plutonium 239's unique nuclear magnetic resonance signature has been detected by scientists on the subject, "Observation of 239 Pu Nuclear Magnetic Resonance," was published in the May 18 issue of Science

  3. Uncertainty and Predictability in Geophysics: Chaos and Multifractal Insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Uncertainty and Predictability in Geophysics: Chaos and Multifractal Insights Daniel Schertzer Department, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Uncertainty and error growth are crosscutting geophysical extremes. The focus is now on time-space geophysical scaling behavior: their multifractality. It is found

  4. Insights from Machine Learning Applied to Human Visual Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insights from Machine Learning Applied to Human Visual Classification Arnulf B. A. Graf and Felix A to understand visual classification in humans using both psy- chophysical and machine learning techniques). On an algorithmic level, however, methods and understanding of brain processes are still limited. Here we report

  5. Insights from Machine Learning Applied to Human Visual Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Insights from Machine Learning Applied to Human Visual Classification Arnulf B. A. Graf and Felix A both psy- chophysical and machine learning techniques. Frontal views of human faces were used processes are still limited. Here we report on a study combining psychophysical and ma- chine learning

  6. Optimization of California's Water Supply System: Results and Insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    headings: Optimization; California; Water supply; Water shortage. Introduction Water is scarceOptimization of California's Water Supply System: Results and Insights Marion W. Jenkins1 ; Jay R-engineering optimization model of California's water supply system. The results of this 4-year effort illustrate the value

  7. Social Networks in Health Care: Communication, collaboration and insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Ophir

    Social Networks in Health Care: Communication, collaboration and insights Foreword At Chirp, Facebook boasts 400 million users and has created its own unique cyber culture. Social networking is accessed and shared. In this issue brief, we provide a snapshot of social networking's evolution

  8. adolescent brain insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    adolescent brain insights First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 NEW UNDERSTANDING OF...

  9. Groundwater and global hydrological change current challenges and new insight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Groundwater and global hydrological change ­ current challenges and new insight R. TAYLOR1 , L Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands 11 Federal Institute for Geosciences, groundwater plays a critical role in enabling communities to adapt to freshwater shortages derived from low

  10. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  11. Spatio-temporal mapping of ablated species in ultrafast laser-produced graphite plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Shboul, K. F.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the spatial and temporal distributions of ionic, neutral, and molecular species generated by femtosecond laser produced plasma under varying ambient nitrogen gas pressures. Plasmas were generated by irradiating planar graphite targets using 40 fs pulses of 800 nm radiation from a Ti:Sapphire laser. The results show that in the presence of an ambient gas, the molecular species spatial extension and lifetime are directly correlated to the evolution of excited ions. The present studies also provide valuable insights into the evolution history of various species and their excitation during ultrafast laser ablation.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: produce and deliver hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produce and deliver hydrogen High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production On July 9, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI),...

  13. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, Annika

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2014.  Insights from Smart  Meters: The Potential for Peak available data captured by smart meters and other sources,series Insights from Smart Meters. DRAFT – DO NOT CIRCULATE

  14. Understanding Clusters in Multidimensional Spaces: Making Meaning by Combining Insights from Coordinated Views of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    - 1 - Understanding Clusters in Multidimensional Spaces: Making Meaning by Combining Insights from: Cluster Analysis, Interactive Design, Information Visualization, Coordination, Domain Knowledge, Graphical. #12;- 2 - Understanding Clusters in Multidimensional Spaces: Making Meaning by Combining Insights from

  15. Method for producing microporous metal bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danko, Joseph C. (Danville, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten is vapor-deposited by hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) to produce a tungsten body having from 40 to 100 ppm fluorine. The tungsten is then heated under vacuum to produce grain boundary porosity for a sufficient period of time to allow the pores along the grain boundaries to become interconnected.

  16. PRODUCER -SCROUNGER GAME n-Person Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraco, Thomas

    size, ESS frequency of scrounging Assumptions of Producer-Scrounger Game Fix group (or population size Producer invades Scrounger n-Person Game with ESS q* : 0 ESS ** q P q S dq dW dq dW ESS frequency of scrounger

  17. Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points: Module 1, Lesson 4: An Introduction to Climate Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points: Module 1, Lesson 4: An Introduction to Climate Modelling 1 Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 4: An Introduction to Climate Modelling Available at http://pics.uvic.ca/education/climate-insights-101 Updated May

  18. DNA MOLECULAR WIRE-BASED NANOELECTRONICS: NEW INSIGHT AND HIGH FREQUENCY AC ELECTRICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kassegne, Samuel Kinde

    DNA MOLECULAR WIRE-BASED NANOELECTRONICS: NEW INSIGHT AND HIGH FREQUENCY AC ELECTRICAL the Thesis of Denni Ari Wibowo: DNA Molecular Wire-Based Nanoelectronics: New Insight and High Frequency AC alone. #12;v ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS DNA Molecular Wire-Based Nanoelectronics: New Insight and High

  19. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photosynthetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels Euntaek Lee,Photosyn- thetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels”, Journal of

  20. Model year 2010 Honda insight level-1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Honda Insight was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer data). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles and A/C usage cycles were tested. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database (D3). The major results are shown here in this report. Given the preliminary nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and seeks to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current and voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation when available. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Insight and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  1. Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

  2. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  3. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Schmidt, Andrew J. (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA), Franz; James A. (Kennewick, WA), Alnajjar; Mikhail S. (Richland, WA), Neuenschwander; Gary G. (Burbank, WA), Alderson; Eric V. (Kennewick, WA), Orth; Rick J. (Kennewick, WA), Abbas; Charles A. (Champaign, IL), Beery; Kyle E. (Decatur, IL), Rammelsberg; Anne M. (Decatur, IL), Kim; Catherine J. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  4. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  5. Clean Energy Producing and Exporting Countries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atighetchi, K.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fitting structure are being investigated. The model developed will be presented to various Natural Gas producing countries such as Iran, Iraq, Russia, and Saudi to name a few and will ultimately be set up the same way that OPEC was....

  6. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  7. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  8. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  9. Texas producers attitudes on agricultural policy issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewell, Frank David

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    !!is Chapter dealing with income qroups producers were oiv. :: ', 'o: . '1 thr. ?e ?"', th less $25, 000 gross income, {2) those with gr! '. . . ; ". -', 525, 000 cross into!te, but less than $100, 000, and {3) +hose with gros. 'nrome greater than $100, 000... of export embargoes, (3) Producer promotional and advertising programs, (4) Land use and problems connected with the urbanization of rural lands, (5) Who should receive food stamps and questions concerning the usefulness of the program itself, (6...

  10. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  11. Air bubbles clean produced water for reinjection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reuse of produced water in a waterflood may be hazardous to the health and wealth of the reservoir. Disposal of produced water and finding a new source of water for a waterflood can double your costs. Air flotation is being tested to rehabilitate produced water on a lease in eastern Kansas. The use of air flotation in the oil field is at least forty years old. However, many operators are reluctant to spend the capital for surface equipment to assure a supply of good quality water for their waterflood operation. Before the installation of the air flotation unit only the produced water was filtered through a 75-micron bag and the filter water was then added to the make-up water. Seventy-five micron cartridge filters were used at the wellhead. Both the plant and wellhead filters required frequent replacement. Injection wells averaged more than one cleaning and acidization per year. Since installation of the air flotation unit, the combined produced and makeup water is passed through either a 25-or 10-micron bag filter in the plant and a 10-micron cartridge at the wellhead. The results of the test being conducted by an independent oil operator show a reduction in the cost for the water injection system. This study is part of the Department of Energy Class I PONS with independent oil operators.

  12. acid anew insights: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is the sequence of amino acids produced, and because amino acids average about Texas at San Antonio, University of 290 Combined Acid Catalysis for Asymmetric Synthesis Chemistry...

  13. Insights into C4 metabolism from comparative deep sequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burgess, Steven J.; Hibberd, Julian M.

    2015-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    subtypes: insights from comparative transcriptome analysis of NAD-ME, NADP-219 ME, and PEP-CK C4 species. J. Exp. Bot. 2014, 65:3579–93. 220 12. Brautigam A, Kajala K, Wullenweber J, Sommer M, Gagneul D, Weber KL, Carr KM, Gowik U, Mass J, 221 Lercher... 11 16. Wang Y, Bräutigam A, Weber APM, Zhu X-G: Three distinct biochemical subtypes of C4 235 photosynthesis? A modelling analysis. J. Exp. Bot. 2014, 65:3567–78. 236 17. Sommer M, Bräutigam A, Weber APM: The dicotyledonous NAD malic enzyme C4...

  14. Qualification for PowerInsight accuracy of power measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeBonis, David; Laros, James H.,; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accuracy of component based power measuring devices forms a necessary basis for research in the area of power-e cient and power-aware computing. The accuracy of these devices must be quanti ed within a reasonable tolerance. This study focuses on PowerInsight, an out- of-band embedded measuring device which takes readings of power rails on compute nodes within a HPC system in realtime. We quantify how well the device performs in comparison to a digital oscilloscope as well as PowerMon2. We show that the accuracy is within a 6% deviation on measurements under reasonable load.

  15. Los Alamos offers new insights into radiation damage evolution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is YourAwardspublicexceeds wasteNew insights into radiation

  16. Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowery, Kirby

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ CTC1 + HC1 (2) The CTC1 once formed was shown to react with olefins to produce tri- tium-labeled chlorocyclopropanes. For instance, in the case of CTC1 reacting with ethylene, monochlorocyclopropane-t is formed as shown: /6, CTC1 + H O'=CH2 ~ H2C...) Ma&or Subject 1968 (year) Che !is try CARBENE REACTIONS PRODUCED BY RECOIL EXCITATION METHODS A Thesis by Kirby Lowery, Jr. Approved as to style and content by: (Head of Department) (Memb er ) (iMember ) (Member) (iM err:b e r ) (Member...

  17. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  18. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  19. Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 spurred investments in smart grid technology and programs at utilities across the country. In 2011, the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), in partnership with electric utilities that received ARRA funds, convened a series of Regional Smart Grid Peer-to-Peer Workshops. These were designed to bring together utilities to engage in dialogues about the most compelling smart grid topics in each region. In February 2014, OE formed the Advanced Distribution Management Systems (ADMS) Working Group by assembling a leadership team of representatives from the utility industry with the mission to collect the experiences, insights, and lessons learned from implementing these systems. This Voices of Experience | Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems report is the result of a one-day meeting held at CenterPoint Energy in Houston, Texas, in May 2014 that was followed by a series of conference calls about specific aspects of ADMS, interviews with individuals leading ADMS projects at their utilities, and a final small group meeting at San Diego Gas & Electric in California in October 2014.

  20. Metrics for a Sustainable Produced By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Metrics for a Sustainable EcoVillage #12;2 Produced By: Nam Nguyen Master of Urban and Regional Project Manager Project for Pride in Living (PPL) Jeffrey Skrenes Housing Director Hawthorne Neighborhood Council Photo source: Unless otherwise noted, photos are provided by People for Pride in Living

  1. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Sheffield Science Gateway. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity for homes materials to a wide range of optoelectronic devices, including solar panels. This project was one of 10 of renewable energy generated by solar panels. As a country with ambitious targets for renewable energy at both

  2. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Delivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for transportation and stationary power. DOE Milestone #12;Hydrogen Delivery Options · Gaseous hydrogen - Pipelines, corrosion Gaseous hydrogen pipeline delivery program would share similar technology R&D areasDelivery of Hydrogen Produced from Natural Gas Christopher Freitas Office of Natural Gas

  4. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  5. Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , hydrogen produced from fossil fuels (like natural gas) can help to build early markets and infrastructure Natural Gas Reforming ....................8 Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming...........................9 Coal, nitrogen oxides). Economic Vitality The United States can secure a share of future global energy markets

  6. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  7. Assignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    ). They are commonly used in calculations relating to the energy consumption required to heat buildings. We will use-weather-dependent consumption is the amount of energy used when none is devoted to heating. Estimate this using the regressionAssignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data Math 363 September 19, 2013 1. The life span in days

  8. Assignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    ). They are commonly used in calculations relating to the energy consumption required to heat buildings. We will use-weather-dependent consumption is the amount of energy used when none is devoted to heating. Estimate this using the regressionAssignment 2 Organizing and Producing Data Math 363 February 6, 2014 1. The life span in days of 88

  9. Why does gravitational radiation produce vorticity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Herrera; W. Barreto; J. Carot; A. Di Prisco

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the vorticity of world--lines of observers at rest in a Bondi--Sachs frame, produced by gravitational radiation, in a general Sachs metric. We claim that such an effect is related to the super--Poynting vector, in a similar way as the existence of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is related to the vorticity in stationary electrovacum spacetimes.

  10. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biochemical composition of microalgae from the green algalof Selected Photosynthetic Microalgae Producing Biofuelsof Selected Photosyn- thetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels”,

  11. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  12. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  13. Test Results and Modeling of the Honda Insight Using ADVISOR: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K. J.; Zolot, M. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Glinsky, G.; Hieronymus, A. (Environmental Testing Corporation)

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper describing a series of chassis dynamometer and road tests that NREL conducted on the 2000 model-year Honda Insight.

  14. Roofline: An Insightful Visual Performance Model for Floating-Point Programs and Multicore Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Samuel; Waterman, Andrew; Patterson, David

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an easy-to-understand, visual performance model that offers insights to programmers and architects on improving parallel software and hardware for floating point computations.

  15. Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) Funding Opportunity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Physics of Reliability: Evaluating Design Insights for Component Technologies in Solar (PREDICTS) program supports projects that evaluate the degradation and failure mechanisms of concentrating...

  16. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  17. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  18. Method of producing .sup.67 Cu

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Jr., Harold A. (Los Alamos, NM); Barnes, John W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bentley, Glenn E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing carrier-free .sup.67 Cu by proton spallation combined with subsequent chemical separation and purification is disclosed. A target consisting essentially of pressed zinc oxide is irradiated with a high energy, high current proton beam to produce a variety of spallogenic nuclides, including .sup.67 Cu and other copper isotopes. The irradiated target is dissolved in a concentrated acid solution to which a palladium salt is added. In accordance with the preferred method, the spallogenic copper is twice coprecipitated with palladium, once with metallic zinc as the precipitating agent and once with hydrogen sulfide as the precipitating agent. The palladium/copper precipitate is then dissolved in an acid solution and the copper is separated from the palladium by liquid chromatography on an anion exchange resin.

  19. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  20. Sounds energetic: the radio producer's energy minibook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Minibook will be expanded into the final Radio Producer's Energy Sourcebook. Radio producers and broadcasters are asked to contribute ideas for presenting energy knowledge to the public and to be included in the Sourcebook. Chapter One presents a case study suggesting programming and promotion ideas and sample scripts for a radio campaign that revolves around no-cost or low-cost steps listeners can take to increase their home energy efficiency and save money. A variety of other energy topics and suggestions on ways to approach them are addressed in Chapter Two. Chapter Three contains energy directories for Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, and Washington, DC. The directories will be expanded in the Sourcebook and will consist of a selection of local public and private sector energy-related organizations and list local experts and organizations and the best Federal, state, and local government programs that can provide consumers and citizens groups with information, technical assistance, and financial support. (MCW)

  1. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, J.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1984-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers. 6 figs.

  2. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing cryogenic targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, James T. (Los Alamos, NM); Miller, John R. (Penfield, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus are given for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets in the fast isothermal freezing (FIF) method. Improved coupling efficiency and greater availability of volume near the target for diagnostic purposes and for fusion driver beam propagation result. Other embodiments include a new electrical switch and a new explosive detonator, all embodiments making use of a purposeful heating by means of optical fibers.

  4. Method of producing microchannel and nanochannel articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Urso, Brian R.

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an article having channels therethrough includes the steps of: providing a ductile structure defining at least one macro-channel, the macro-channel containing a salt; drawing the ductile structure in the axial direction of the at least one macro-channel to reduce diameter of the macro-channel; and contacting the salt with a solvent to dissolve the salt to produce an article having at least one microchannel.

  5. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  6. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  7. Nonclassicality Phase-Space Functions: More Insight with Fewer Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Luis; J. Sperling; W. Vogel

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems of on-off detectors are well established for measuring radiation fields in the regime of small photon numbers. We propose to combine these detector systems with unbalanced homodyning with a weak local oscillator. This approach yields phase-space functions, which represent the click counterpart of the s parametrized quasiprobabilities of standard photoelectric detection theory. This introduced class of distributions can be directly sampled from the measured click counting statistics. Therefore, our technique visualizes nonclassical effects without further data processing. Surprisingly, a small number of on-off diodes can yield more insight than perfect photon number resolution. Quantum signatures in the particle and wave domain of the quantized radiation field, as shown by photon number and squeezed states, respectively, will be uncovered in terms of negativities of the sampled phase-space functions. Application in the vast fields of quantum optics and quantum technology will benefit from our efficient nonclassicality characterization approach.

  8. BAYESIAN INSIGHTS ON DISCLOSURE LIMITATION: MASK OR IMPUTE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. KELLER-MCNULTY; G. DUNCAN

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Statistical agencies seek to disseminate useful data while keeping low the risk of statistical confidentiality disclosure. Recognizing that reidentification of data is generally inadequate to protect its confidentiality against attack by a data snooper, agencies restrict the data they release for general use. Typically, these restricted data procedures have involved transformation or masking of the original, collected data through such devices as adding noise, topcoding, data swapping, and recoding. Recently, proposals have been put forth for the release of synthetic data, simulated from models constructed from the original data. This paper gives a framework for the comparison of masking and synthetic data as two approaches to disclosure limitation. Particular attention is paid to data utility and disclosure risk. Examples of instantiation of masking and of synthetic data construction are provided to illustrate the concepts. Particular attention is paid to data swapping. Insights drawn from the Bayesian paxadigm are provided.

  9. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  10. Method of producing a cellulase-containing cell-free fermentate produced from microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulose-containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualities for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  11. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Hf4+, Sn4+, Zr4+, Nb5+, W6+, Pr3+, Er3+, Nd3+, Ce3+, U3+ and Y3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of FexOy gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  12. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  14. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  16. Method of producing .beta.-spodumene bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chyung, Kenneth (Painted Post, NY); Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY); Holleran, Louis M. (Big Flats, NY); Olszewski, Anthony R. (Bath, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beta-spodumene bodies and method of preparing the bodies that involves providing a uniform plastic batch of inorganic raw materials, organic binder, and vehicle, wherein the inorganic raw materials are composed of, in percent by weight, about 75% to 95% minerals, and about 5% to 25% glass. The batch is formed into a green body that is fired to produce a body composed substantially of beta-spodumene, and having a thermal expansion coefficient of <10.times.10.sup.-7 /.degree.C.(0-800.degree. C.), and a strength of .gtoreq.4 Ksi.

  17. Apparatus for producing voltage and current pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirbie, Hugh (Los Alamos, NM); Dale, Gregory E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus having one or more modular stages for producing voltage and current pulses. Each module includes a diode charging means to charge a capacitive means that stores energy. One or more charging impedance means are connected to the diode charging means to provide a return current pathway. A solid-state switch discharge means, with current interruption capability, is connected to the capacitive means to discharge stored energy. Finally, a control means is provided to command the switching action of the solid-state switch discharge means.

  18. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Carriera, Laura H. (Athens, GA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  19. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Argetsinger, Edward R. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  20. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  1. Carbene reactions produced by recoil excitation methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowery, Kirby

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a very electronegative fluorine atom and a double bond with high electron density. In the case of its trans- counterpart, these rwo effects roughly cancel out each other due to its more balanced geom- Sample No Gas Pressure cm Hg TkRK I I I...) (month) 1968 (year) ABSTRACT Carbene Reactions Produced by Recoil Excitation Methods. (August 1968) Kirby Lowery, Jr. , B. S. , Stephen F. Austin State College; Directed by: Dr. Yi-Noo Tang Using the separation technique of radio-gas chromatography...

  2. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  3. Method of producing particulate-reinforced composites and composties produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, Qingyou; Liu, Zhiwei

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing particle-reinforced composite materials through utilization of an in situ reaction to produce a uniform dispersion of a fine particulate reinforcement phase. The process includes forming a melt of a first material, and then introducing particles of a second material into the melt and subjecting the melt to high-intenisty acoustic vibration. A chemical reaction initiates between the first and second materials to produce reaction products in the melt. The reaciton products comprise a solide particulate phase, and the high-intensity acoustic vibration fragments and/or separates the reaction products into solid particles that are dispersed in the melt and are smaller than the particles of the second material. Also encompassed are particles-reinforced composite materials produced by such a process.

  4. MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER Black beans #1 class produced

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;MICHIGAN IS #1 ORGANIC DRY BEAN PRODUCER ¢ Black beans #1 class produced ¢ Need to maximize Lansing, MI) ¢ Split plot design Main plot= Cover crop (4) Sub-plot= Bean variety (4) IMPACT OF COVER CROPS ON ORGANIC DRY BEANS #12;2010 2011 J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D Clover Radish

  5. Sudhakar Yedla* and Sarika Kansal Economic insight into municipal solid waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Sudhakar Yedla* and Sarika Kansal Economic insight into municipal solid waste management in Mumbai: a critical analysis 511 " Economic insight into solid waste management Conventional MSW management fails metropolitan city in India, presents the most critical solid waste management system in India. The present

  6. The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rain and cloud water isotope collectors in the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico were isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico, Water ResourThe stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto

  7. Thunderstorm lightning and radar characteristics: insights on electrification and severe weather forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiger, Scott Michael

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    THUNDERSTORM LIGHTNING AND RADAR CHARACTERISTICS: INSIGHTS ON ELECTRIFICATION AND SEVERE WEATHER FORECASTING A Dissertation by SCOTT MICHAEL STEIGER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2005 Major Subject: Atmospheric Sciences THUNDERSTORM LIGHTNING AND RADAR CHARACTERISTICS: INSIGHTS ON ELECTRIFICATION AND SEVERE WEATHER...

  8. Some insight on why Bam (Iran) was destroyed by an earthquake of relatively moderate size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatzfeld, Denis

    Some insight on why Bam (Iran) was destroyed by an earthquake of relatively moderate size Michel March 2006; accepted 29 March 2006; published 13 May 2006. [1] The Bam (Iran) earthquake of 2003. Hatzfeld, J. A. Jackson, and E. Haghshenas (2006), Some insight on why Bam (Iran) was destroyed

  9. NREL Highlights SCIENCE Research provides insight for exploring use of Earth-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NREL Highlights SCIENCE Research provides insight for exploring use of Earth- abundant quaternary, it is critical to find new material that is Earth abundant and easily manufactured. Previous experimental studies This research provides insight for exploring use of Earth-abundant quaternary semiconductors for large

  10. Making Sustainable Energy Choices: Insights on the Energy/Water/Land Nexus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This periodic publication summarizes insights from the body of NREL analysis work. In this issue of Analysis Insights, we examine the implications of our energy choices on water, land use, climate, developmental goals, and other factors. Collectively, NREL's work helps policymakers and investors understand and evaluate energy choices within the complex web of connections, or nexus, between energy, water, and land.

  11. Method for producing and treating coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Calderon, Albert (P.O. Box 126, Bowling Green, OH 43402)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of generating a de-sulphurized volatile matter and a relatively low Btu gas includes the initial step of pyrolyzing coal to produce volatile matter and a char. The volatile matter is fed to a first de-sulphurizer containing a de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. At the same time, the char is gasified to produce a relatively low Btu gas. The low Btu gas is fed to a second de-sulphurizer containing the de-sulphurizing agent to remove sulphur therefrom. A regenerator is provided for removing sulphur from the de-sulphurizing agent. Portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved among the first de-sulphurizer, the second de-sulphurizer, and the regenerator such that the regenerator regenerates the de-sulphurizing agent. Preferably, the portions of the de-sulphurizing agent are moved from the second de-sulphurizer to the first de-sulphurizer, from the first de-sulphurizer to the regenerator, and from the regenerator to the second de-sulphurizer.

  12. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  13. Intense ultraviolet perturbations on aquatic primary producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guimarais, Mayrene; Horvath, Jorge

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade, the hypothesis that one or more biodiversity drops in the Phanerozoic eon, evident in the geological record, might have been caused by the most powerful kind of stellar explosion so far known (Gamma Ray Bursts) has been discussed in several works. These stellar explosions could have left an imprint in the biological evolution on Earth and in other habitable planets. In this work we calculate the short-term lethality that a GRB would produce in the aquatic primary producers on Earth. This effect on life appears as a result of ultraviolet (UV) re-transmission in the atmosphere of a fraction of the gamma energy, resulting in an intense UV flash capable of penetrating ~ tens of meters in the water column in the ocean. We focus on the action of the UV flash on phytoplankton, as they are the main contributors to global aquatic primary productivity. Our results suggest that the UV flash could cause an hemispheric reduction of phytoplankton biomass in the upper mixed layer of the World Ocean o...

  14. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine Determine...

  15. active oil producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were investigated and the evolution of oil-producing structures 14 Ris Energy Report 2 Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils that have been Multidisciplinary Databases and...

  16. Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and Geopressured Resources (Fact Sheet), Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) Geothermal Energy Production with Co-produced and...

  17. Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer therapy gets a boost from new isotope Isotope production facility produces cancer-fighting actinium A new medical isotope project shows promise for rapidly producing major...

  18. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microalgae Producing Biofuels Euntaek Lee, Ri-Liang Heng,Microalgae Producing Biofuels”, Journal of Quantitativeconverted into liquid biofuels [50–53]. On the other hand,

  19. ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000 ITP Steel: Theoretical Minimum Energies to Produce Steel for Selected Conditions, March 2000...

  20. Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion Operation in a...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1 Particulate Produced From Advanced Combustion Operation in a Compression Ignition Engine P-1...

  1. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L; Englund, David J; Iwasaki, Iwao; Fosnacht, Donald R; Brandon, Mark M; True, Bradford G

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearth furnace for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing having a drying/preheat zone, a conversion zone, a fusion zone, and optionally a cooling zone, the conversion zone is between the drying/preheat zone and the fusion zone. A moving hearth is positioned within the furnace housing. A hood or separation barrier within at least a portion of the conversion zone, fusion zone or both separates the fusion zone into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  3. Plasma treatment for producing electron emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coates, Don Mayo (Santa Fe, NM); Walter, Kevin Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma treatment for producing carbonaceous field emission electron emitters is disclosed. A plasma of ions is generated in a closed chamber and used to surround the exposed surface of a carbonaceous material. A voltage is applied to an electrode that is in contact with the carbonaceous material. This voltage has a negative potential relative to a second electrode in the chamber and serves to accelerate the ions toward the carbonaceous material and provide an ion energy sufficient to etch the exposed surface of the carbonaceous material but not sufficient to result in the implantation of the ions within the carbonaceous material. Preferably, the ions used are those of an inert gas or an inert gas with a small amount of added nitrogen.

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  5. New policy imperatives for energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Mallakh, R.; El Mallakh, D.H. (eds.)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conferences sponsored by the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development are organized toward increasing the understanding of the multifaceted problems in energy - economic, technical, and political - that confront not just the consuming industrial powers but the developing OPEC and non-OPEC producers and, in particular, the Third World countries whose plight is extreme. All types were represented at this 6th conference, and the 21 papers mirror the diversity of ideas and, at the same time, the very real areas where cooperation and coordination are clearly both possible and desirable. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA); one abstract was selected for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA).

  6. Superheater Corrosion Produced By Biomass Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William (Sandy) [SharpConsultant] [SharpConsultant; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations; Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    About 90% of the world's bioenergy is produced by burning renewable biomass fuels. Low-cost biomass fuels such as agricultural wastes typically contain more alkali metals and chlorine than conventional fuels. Although the efficiency of a boiler's steam cycle can be increased by raising its maximum steam temperature, alkali metals and chlorine released in biofuel boilers cause accelerated corrosion and fouling at high superheater steam temperatures. Most alloys that resist high temperature corrosion protect themselves with a surface layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, this Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be fluxed away by reactions that form alkali chromates or volatilized as chromic acid. This paper reviews recent research on superheater corrosion mechanisms and superheater alloy performance in biomass boilers firing black liquor, biomass fuels, blends of biomass with fossil fuels and municipal waste.

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  8. System and method for producing metallic iron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Fosnacht, Donald R. (Hermantown, MN); Brandon, Mark M. (Charlotte, NC); True, Bradford G. (Charlotte, NC)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A hearth furnace 10 for producing metallic iron material has a furnace housing 11 having a drying/preheat zone 12, a conversion zone 13, a fusion zone 14, and optionally a cooling zone 15, the conversion zone 13 is between the drying/preheat zone 12 and the fusion zone 14. A moving hearth 20 is positioned within the furnace housing 11. A hood or separation barrier 30 within at least a portion of the conversion zone 13, fusion zone 14 or both separates the fusion zone 14 into an upper region and a lower region with the lower region adjacent the hearth 20 and the upper region adjacent the lower region and spaced from the hearth 20. An injector introduces a gaseous reductant into the lower region adjacent the hearth 20. A combustion region may be formed above the hood or separation barrier.

  9. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  10. Generic risk insights for General Electric boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis, R.; Taylor, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Chung, J. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation)

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology has been developed to extract generic risk-based information from probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of General Electric boiling water rectors and applying the insights gained to plants that have not been subjected to a PRA. The available risk assessments (six plants) were examined to identify the most probable, i.e., dominant accident sequences at each plants. The goal was to include all sequences which represented at least 80% of core damage frequency. If the same plant specific dominant accident sequence appeared within this boundary in at least two plant PRAs, the sequence was considered to be a representative sequence. Eight sequences met this definition. From these sequences, the most important component failures and human error that contributed to each sequence have been prioritized. Guidance is provided to prioritize the representative sequences and modify selected basic events that have been shown to be sensitive to the plant specific design or operating variations of the contributing PRAs. This risk-based guidance can be used for utility and NRC activities including operator training, maintenance, design review, and inspections. 13 refs., 6 tabs.

  11. Delivering Insight The History of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larzelere II, A R

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) tells of the development of computational simulation into a third fundamental piece of the scientific method, on a par with theory and experiment. ASCI did not invent the idea, nor was it alone in bringing it to fruition. But ASCI provided the wherewithal - hardware, software, environment, funding, and, most of all, the urgency - that made it happen. On October 1, 2005, the Initiative completed its tenth year of funding. The advances made by ASCI over its first decade are truly incredible. Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories, along with leadership provided by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs Headquarters, fundamentally changed computational simulation and how it is used to enable scientific insight. To do this, astounding advances were made in simulation applications, computing platforms, and user environments. ASCI dramatically changed existing - and forged new - relationships, both among the Laboratories and with outside partners. By its tenth anniversary, despite daunting challenges, ASCI had accomplished all of the major goals set at its beginning. The history of ASCI is about the vision, leadership, endurance, and partnerships that made these advances possible.

  12. New insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Urs Gerber; Wolfgang Bietenholz; Fernando G Rejón-Barrera

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the 2d XY model by using the constraint angle action, which belongs to the class of topological lattice actions. These actions violate important features usually demanded for a lattice action, such as the correct classical continuum limit and the applicability of perturbation theory. Nevertheless, they still lead to the same universal quantum continuum limit and show excellent scaling behavior. By using the constraint angle action we gain new insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition of the 2d XY model. This phase transition is of special interest since it is one of the few examples of a phase transition beyond second order. It is of infinite order and therefore an essential phase transition. In particular, we observe an excellent scaling behavior of the helicity modulus, which characterizes this phase transition. We also observe that the mechanism of (un)binding vortex--anti-vortex pairs follows the usual pattern, although free vortices do not require any energy in the formulation of the 2d XY model using the constraint angle action.

  13. Intuition and Insight: A New Job Description for the Battered Woman's Prosecutor and Other More Modest Proposals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Linda G.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PROSECUTOR AND OTHER MORE MODEST PROPOSALS Linda G. Mills*insight suggested by the more modest proposal. Instead, it

  14. Management of produced water in oil and gas operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Chirag V.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Produced water handling has been an issue of concern for oil and gas producers as it is one of the major factors that cause abandonment of the producing well. The development of effective produced water management strategies poses a big challenge...

  15. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

  16. Method for producing ceramic particles and agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Gleiman, Seth S. (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for generating spherical and irregularly shaped dense particles of ceramic oxides having a controlled particle size and particle size distribution. An aerosol containing precursor particles of oxide ceramics is directed into a plasma. As the particles flow through the hot zone of the plasma, they melt, collide, and join to form larger particles. If these larger particles remain in the hot zone, they continue melting and acquire a spherical shape that is retained after they exit the hot zone, cool down, and solidify. If they exit the hot zone before melting completely, their irregular shape persists and agglomerates are produced. The size and size distribution of the dense product particles can be controlled by adjusting several parameters, the most important in the case of powder precursors appears to be the density of powder in the aerosol stream that enters the plasma hot zone. This suggests that particle collision rate is responsible for determining ultimate size of the resulting sphere or agglomerate. Other parameters, particularly the gas flow rates and the microwave power, are also adjusted to control the particle size distribution.

  17. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  18. Energy metabolism in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough: insights from transcriptome analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Valente, Filipa M.A.; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are important players in the global sulphur and carbon cycles, with considerable economical and ecological impact. However, the process of sulphate respiration is still incompletely understood. Several mechanisms of energy conservation have been proposed, but it is unclear how the different strategies contribute to the overall process. In order to obtain a deeper insight into the energy metabolism of sulphate-reducers whole-genome microarrays were used to compare the transcriptional response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough grown with hydrogen/sulphate, pyruvate/sulphate, pyruvate with limiting sulphate, and lactate/thiosulphate, relative to growth in lactate/sulphate. Growth with hydrogen/sulphate showed the largest number of differentially expressed genes and the largest changes in transcript levels. In this condition the most up-regulated energy metabolism genes were those coding for the periplasmic [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, followed by the Ech hydrogenase. The results also provide evidence for the involvement of formate cycling and the recently proposed ethanol pathway during growth in hydrogen. The pathway involving CO cycling is relevant during growth on lactate and pyruvate, but not during growth in hydrogen as the most down-regulated genes were those coding for the CO-induced hydrogenase. Growth on lactate/thiosulphate reveals a down-regulation of several energymetabolism genes similar to what was observed in the presence of nitrite. This study identifies the role of several proteins involved in the energy metabolism of D. vulgaris and highlights several novel genes related to this process, revealing a more complex bioenergetic metabolism than previously considered.

  19. Technology and society : some insights on the development of metallurgy in the Southern Levant in the light of new dates of slag deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Yosef, Erez

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Technology and Society: Some InsightsOF THE THESIS Technology and Society: Some insights on theinteraction between technology and society in the past. For

  20. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  1. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  2. Complexity within the Air Force acquisition system gaining insight from a theory of collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marticello, Daniel Nicholas, Jr

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Joseph Tainter's theory of societal collapse is applied in an examination of the U.S. Air Force's aircraft acquisition system in order to gain insight into the enterprise's lagging performance. Theories of collapse at both ...

  3. Structure and evolution of the Australian continent : insights from seismic and mechanical heterogeneity and anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Frederik Jozef Maurits, 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I explore the geophysical structure and evolution of the Australian continental lithosphere. I combine insights from isotropic and anisotropic seismic surface-wave tomography with an analysis of the anisotropy ...

  4. Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests: the diversification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olson, Mark

    Insights into the historical construction of species-rich Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical, Mesoamerica, niche conservatism, seasonally dry tropical forests. Summary · Mesoamerican arid biomes epitomize the vast species richness of Meso- american seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs), and to evaluate

  5. Insights into the Mechanism of Fe(II) Adsorption and Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanism of Fe(II) Adsorption and Oxidation at Fe-Clay Mineral Surfaces from First-Principles Calculations. Insights into the Mechanism of Fe(II) Adsorption and Oxidation at...

  6. Insights On The Thermal History Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Insights On The Thermal History Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico- Evidence From Zircon Fission-Track Analysis Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  7. GTPase Catalysis by Ras and Other G-proteins: Insights from Substrate Directed SuperImposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosloff, Mickey

    GTPase Catalysis by Ras and Other G-proteins: Insights from Substrate Directed Super usage of similar approaches to comparison of enzyme catalytic machineries. We applied SDSI to various G catalysis; GTPase; guanine nucleotides; conformational rearrangement; structure comparison

  8. The nature of fire-cracked rock: new insights from ethnoarchaeological and laboratory experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Michael A

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thermal weathering better than metamorphic or sedimentary rock types. Ethnoarchaeological results are applied to six archaeological FCR features, and provide new insights on the use-history of five of the features. Microscopic observations...

  9. Methods for producing partially digested restriction DNA fragments and for producing a partially modified PCR product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an improved method of making a partially modified PCR product from a DNA fragment with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In a standard PCR process, the DNA fragment is combined with starting deoxynucleoside triphosphates, a primer, a buffer and a DNA polymerase in a PCR mixture. The PCR mixture is then reacted in the PCR producing copies of the DNA fragment. The improvement of the present invention is adding an amount of a modifier at any step prior to completion of the PCR process thereby randomly and partially modifying the copies of the DNA fragment as a partially modified PCR product. The partially modified PCR product may then be digested with an enzyme that cuts the partially modified PCR product at unmodified sites thereby producing an array of DNA restriction fragments.

  10. Hippocampal network oscillations — recent insights from in vitro experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, James L.; Paulsen, Ole

    2014-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    ripples. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013, 110:4398-4403. This paper reports that inputs to O-LM interneurons, along with their firing, was phase locked to SWRs in acute hippocampal slices. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2015, 31:40–44 29. Norimoto H... from the rodent brain they can spontaneously produce SWRs originating in the CA3, under control conditions or conditions with slightly elevated excitability [19–21]. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2015, 31:40–44 www.sciencedirect.comHippocampal network...

  11. ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    ANALYSIS OF METHANE PRODUCING COMMUNITIES WITHIN UNDERGROUND COAL BEDS by Elliott Paul Barnhart.........................................................................................8 Coal and Metabolite Enrichment Studies ..................................................................................14 Ability of the Consortium to Produce Methane from Coal and Metabolites ................16

  12. Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotty, Peter J.

    Influences of climate on aflatoxin producing fungi and aflatoxin contamination Peter J. Cotty a human exposure, crop contamination with aflatoxins causes significant economic loss for producers, marketers, and processors of diverse susceptible crops. Aflatoxin contamination occurs when specific fungi

  13. From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels From Processing Juice to Producing Biofuels June 25, 2010 - 4:00pm Addthis Lindsay Gsell INEOS Bio -- one of the 17 global companies of...

  14. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A...

  15. Multi-echelon inventory optimization for fresh produce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limvorasak, Saran

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For fresh produce, the product freshness is a key value to end consumers. Retailers try to maximize product freshness at retail stores while maintaining high product availability. Fresh produce that is close to the end of ...

  16. Ion emission and expansion in laser-produced tin plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burdt, Russell Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale length laser-produced tin plasmas, PhD dissertation,and Expansion in Laser-Produced Tin Plasma A dissertationof a CO 2 laser pulse with tin-based plasma for an extreme

  17. SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's First 3D-Printed Vehicle at IMTS 2014 SABIC's Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Material used to Produce the World's...

  18. alloy surfaces produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    includes the production of the mold. Let us look at an example: To produce a curved glass-fibre reinforced con- crete panel, a mold is produced from styrofoam. The cheapest way of...

  19. affected surface produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    includes the production of the mold. Let us look at an example: To produce a curved glass-fibre reinforced con- crete panel, a mold is produced from styrofoam. The cheapest way of...

  20. Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Fresnel zone plate that can produce an approximate Gaussian focal spot is proposed for the focusing of 7.7 nm can be produced by a modified Fresnel zone plate with a minimum structure size of 30 nm

  1. Lift producing device exhibiting low drag and reduced ventilation potential and method for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Richard A. (115 Wimico Dr., Indian Harbour Beach, FL 32937)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lift producing device is disclosed which is adapted to be connected to a vehicle to provide lift to the vehicle when the vehicle is moved relative to a first fluid medium having a first density and viscosity and being in contact with a second fluid medium adjacent the vehicle. The second fluid medium has a second fluid density which is different from the first fluid density. The lift producing device comprises opposed first and second major surfaces joined at a longitudinally extending leading edge and at a longitudinally extending trailing edge, with at least a portion of the longitudinally extending leading edge being spaced from the longitudinally extending trailing edge by a predetermined mean chord length. When the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within a range of predetermined velocities, with each of the velocities having a direction inclined from a plane extending through the leading edge and the trailing edge within a predetermined angular range, a region of high pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the first major surface and a region of low pressure is generated in the first fluid medium adjacent the second major surface. The lift producing device has a cross-sectional shape which will generate a pressure distribution around the device when the vehicle is moved relative to the first fluid medium at a velocity within the range of predetermined velocities such that the first fluid medium exhibits attached laminar flow along the device for a portion of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge and will neither form a laminar separation bubble adjacent the second major surface of the device, nor exhibit turbulent separation adjacent the second major surface for substantially all of the predetermined mean chord length from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The portion along which attached laminar flow is maintained is the longest portion which will still fulfill the flow separation requirements. A method for producing the foil is also disclosed.

  2. Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  3. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

  4. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  5. EAF steel producers and the K061 dilemma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The scrap based steel producers in the United States generate an estimated 650,000 tons of electric arc furnace (EAF) dust annually which is classified as hazardous waste, K061. These scrap based producers commonly referred to as mini-mills represented 39% of the steel produced in 1994. Based upon the EAF plants being installed or planned today, it is a reasonable projection to anticipate 50% of the steel produced in the United States will be by EAF`S. Using a straight line projection of percent of steel produced to tonnage of EAF dust generated, this will result in 833,000 tons of dust being generated upon the completion of these new EAF producing plants, presumably by the year 2000. Because the United States is a capitalistic economy, a steel producer is in business to make a profit therefore dust management becomes a very important variable in the cost of making steel.

  6. Method of producing Pb-stabilized superconductor precursors and method of producing superconductor articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, D.M.; Hsu, H.S.; Brynestad, J.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide superconductor powder precursors are prepared in an aerosol pyrolysis process. A solution of the metal cations is introduced into a furnace at 600--1,000 C for 0.1 to 60 seconds. The process produces micron to submicron size powders without the usual loss of the lead stabilizer. The resulting powders have a narrow particle size distribution, a small grain size, and are readily converted to a superconducting composition upon subsequent heat treatment. The precursors are placed in a metal body deformed to form a wire or tape and heated to form a superconducting article. The fine powders permit a substantial reduction in heat treatment time, thus enabling a continuous processing of the powders into superconducting wire, tape or multifilamentary articles by the powder-in-tube process. 3 figs.

  7. Method of producing Pb-stabilized superconductor precursors and method of producing superconductor articles therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Hsu, Huey S. (Knoxville, TN); Brynestad, Jorulf (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide superconductor powder precursors are prepared in an aerosol pyrolysis process. A solution of the metal cations is introduced into a furnace at 600.degree.-1000.degree. C. for 0.1 to 60 seconds. The process produces micron to submicron size powders without the usual loss of the lead stabilizer. The resulting powders have a narrow particle size distribution, a small grain size, and are readily converted to a superconducting composition upon subsequent heat treatment. The precursors are placed in a metal body deformed to form a wire or tape and heated to form a superconducting article. The fine powders permit a substantial reduction in heat treatment time, thus enabling a continuous processing of the powders into superconducting wire, tape or multifilamentary articles by the powder-in-tube process.

  8. Pioneering work, economic factors provide insights into Russian drilling technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaddy, D.E.

    1998-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In Russia and America, individual ingenuity and economic forces have produced a variety of drilling technologies, resulting in the development of disparate drilling systems. Endeavors by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Sandia Laboratories, and private industry have promoted exchanges of knowledge since the 1980s, and now that the barriers to technology transfer are being lifted, engineers from both countries have the opportunity to exchange knowledge and incorporate the best of both. The Russian drilling industry, like the Russian space program, has achieved tremendous success in implementing product and process innovations including the first directional (1940s), horizontal (1950s), and multilateral (1950s) wells. In addition, Russian engineers built the first turbodrills, electrodrills, novel drills (lasers, explosives), aluminum drill pipe, downhole electric submersible pumps, and mud hammers. This first part of a two-part series describes the achievements of Russian engineers in horizontal and multilateral drilling technologies followed by a discussion of the economic differences that led Russian and American drillers to develop dissimilar drilling systems. The second part describes a variety of innovative Russian technologies and provides details on the technical advantages they offer for the drilling process.

  9. Insight in the Brain: The Cognitive and Neural Bases of Eureka Moments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beeman, Mark [Northwestern University

    2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Where do new ideas come from? Although all new ideas build on old, this can happen in different ways. Some new ideas, or solutions to old problems, are achieved through methodical, analytical processing. Other new ideas come about in a sudden burst of insight, often based on or generating a restructured view of the problem itself. Behavioral, brain imaging, and eye-tracking results all reveal distinct cortical networks contributing to insight solving, as contrasted with analytic solving. Consistently, the way in which people solve problems appears to relate to the way they engage attention and cognitive control: across time, across moods, and across individuals. Insight is favored when people can disengage from strong stimuli and associations - figuratively and literally looking "outside the box" of the problem to suddenly solve with a new idea.

  10. U.S. Solar Market Insight®: 2014 Year In Review (Executive Summary)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Solar Market Insight is a quarterly publication of the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA)® and GTM Research. Each quarter, they survey nearly 200 installers, manufacturers, utilities, and state agencies to collect granular data on photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar. These data provide the backbone of the Solar Market Insight report, in which they identify and analyze trends in U.S. solar demand, manufacturing, and pricing by state and market segment. This analysis also forecasts demand over the next five years. As the U.S. solar market expands, it is the hope that Solar Market Insight will provide an invaluable decision-making tool for installers, suppliers, investors, policymakers, and advocates alike.

  11. New insights into uranium (VI) sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) investigations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been extremely useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sup 17}O NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, ((UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}){sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results will be presented to illustrate that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} ((UO{sub 2}){sub 8} O{sub 4} (OH){sub 10}) {center dot} 8H{sub 2}O. This compound is the precursor to sintered UO{sub 2} ceramic fuel. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Expression of HPV16 E5 produces enlarged nuclei and polyploidy through endoreplication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Lulin [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Potapova, Tamara A. [Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Li Shibo [Department of Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Rankin, Susannah; Gorbsky, Gary J. [Cell Cycle and Cancer Biology, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Angeletti, Peter C. [Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian-ceresa@oushc.ed [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers are causally associated with infection by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV). The mechanism by which high-risk HPVs contribute to oncogenesis is poorly understood. HPV16 encodes three genes (HPV16 E5, E6, and E7) that can transform cells when expressed independently. HPV16 E6 and E7 have well-described roles causing genomic instability and unregulated cell cycle progression. The role of HPV16 E5 in cell transformation remains to be elucidated. Expression of HPV16 E5 results in enlarged, polyploid nuclei that are dependent on the level and duration of HPV16 E5 expression. Live cell imaging data indicate that these changes do not arise from cell-cell fusion or failed cytokinesis. The increase in nuclear size is a continual process that requires DNA synthesis. We conclude that HPV16 E5 produces polyploid cells by endoreplication. These findings provide insight into how HPV16 E5 can contribute to cell transformation.

  13. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  14. acinetobacter baumannii producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    part of this thesis, the objective is to identify optimal bidding strategies in the wholesale electricity market. We consider asymmetric producers submitting bids to a system...

  15. adrenal pheochromocytoma producing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    part of this thesis, the objective is to identify optimal bidding strategies in the wholesale electricity market. We consider asymmetric producers submitting bids to a system...

  16. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp 2 hybridized carbon, is an outstanding material...

  17. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved. Citation: Edmondson PD, WJ Weber, F Namavar, and Y Zhang.2011."Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in...

  18. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: wind turbines produce rated power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind turbines produce rated power Increasing the Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility's Power Production On April 7, 2014, in Energy, Facilities, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  20. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, January 30, 2015 Graphene, a two dimensional semi-metal made of sp2 hybridized carbon, is...

  1. alternative splicing produces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feasible, Alternative, Renewable, Electrical Energy Producing Ocean Floor System Mark, alternative energy system to convert the circular motion of ocean waves as they propagate...

  2. From Producer Innovation to User and Open Collaborative Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Carliss

    In this paper we assess the economic viability of innovation by producers relative to two increasingly important alternative models: innovations by single user individuals or firms, and

  3. Biochar Produced from Anaerobically Digested Fiber Reduces Phosphorus...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagoons. Abstract: This study evaluated the use of biochar produced from anaerobic digester dairy fiber (ADF) to sequester phosphorus (P) from dairy lagoons. The ADF was...

  4. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    expression  profiles.   Mol.   Genet.   Genomics  279: Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus2006.  Aspergillus niger genomics: past, present and into 

  5. The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to A Global Coal Production Forecast with Multi's most important coal-producing area is North-Central China. The provinces of Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi together accounted for 83 percent of China's proven coal reserves in 2000, and Shanxi

  6. Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balzs Arat1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Magnetic minerals produced by magnetotactic bacteria Balázs Arató1 , Mihály Pósfai1 and Rafal E-controlled mineralization Abstract. Magnetotactic bacteria produce intracellular magnetic minerals that have distinct for studying the biological membrane around the mineral grains. Our goals were to deduce the possible growth

  7. UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    UNL Researchers Determine Costs of Producing Switchgrass for Ethanol By Sandi Alswager Karstens, IANR News Service On-farm cost of producing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol averages about $60 per ethanol from switchgrass because that industry is not really born yet." Researchers offered a speculative

  8. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  9. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  10. Methods and apparatus for producing and storing positrons and protons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for producing and storing positrons may include a trap that defines an interior chamber therein and that contains an electric field and a magnetic field. The trap may further include a source material that includes atoms that, when activated by photon bombardment, become positron emitters to produce positrons. The trap may also include a moderator positioned adjacent the source material. A photon source is positioned adjacent the trap so that photons produced by the photon source bombard the source material to produce the positron emitters. Positrons from the positron emitters and moderated positrons from the moderator are confined within the interior chamber of the trap by the electric and magnetic fields. Apparatus for producing and storing protons are also disclosed.

  11. INTERACTION BETWEEN PRESSURE SOLUTION AND CLAYS IN STYLOLITE DEVELOPMENT: INSIGHTS FROM MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    INTERACTION BETWEEN PRESSURE SOLUTION AND CLAYS IN STYLOLITE DEVELOPMENT: INSIGHTS FROM MODELING are strongly correlated both with the surrounding stress and with the distribution of clays within the host-solution with and without the presence of clays, where clays play a role of enhancing pressure solution. We use our model

  12. ERDC/EL TN-11-1 Flood Risk Management: Insights from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDC/EL TN-11-1 March 2011 Flood Risk Management: Insights from an Expert Modeling Process by M. D preparedness planning that harmonizes efforts of implementing agencies and stakeholders. Risk management are essential for effective risk management policy. Formal (versus ad hoc) analyses of risk manager and stake

  13. @scale: Insights from a Large, Long-Lived Appliance Stephen Dawson-Haggerty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Design, Measurement, Performance Keywords Energy, Audit, Building, Power, Wireless, Sensor Network 1@scale: Insights from a Large, Long-Lived Appliance Energy WSN Stephen Dawson-Haggerty , Steven Lanzisera , Jay Taneja , Richard Brown , and David Culler Computer Science Division Environmental Energy

  14. Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights from first-principles theoretical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Isotopic fractionations associated with phosphoric acid digestion of carbonate minerals: Insights for oxygen- and carbon-isotope analysis of carbonate minerals since 1950, and was recently established of oxygen isotope acid digestion fractionations among different carbonate minerals. We suggest these results

  15. The central Kenya peralkaline province: Insights into the evolution of peralkaline salic magmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    The central Kenya peralkaline province: Insights into the evolution of peralkaline salic magmas Ra rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans cedex 2, France Abstract The central Kenya peralkaline processes is summarized. Keywords: Kenya; Petrogenesis; Peralkaline magmas 1. Introduction In the central

  16. Welding processes in volcanology: insights from field, experimental, and modeling studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Kelly

    Welding processes in volcanology: insights from field, experimental, and modeling studies Anita This volume is a collection of ten papers largely derived from a special session, Welding Processes, experimental, and modeling studies. We briefly review advances in understanding welding as represented

  17. Welding: insights from high-temperature analogue experiments Steven L. Quane, J.K. Russell*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Kelly

    Welding: insights from high-temperature analogue experiments Steven L. Quane, J.K. Russell* Igneous of pyroclastic deposits during welding is incompletely understood and is based on a surprisingly small number roles of emplacement temperature, load and glass transition temperature in welding of pyroclastic

  18. Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppola, Laurent

    Thorium isotopes in the western Mediterranean Sea: an insight into the marine particle dynamics M rights reserved. Keywords: thorium; isotopes; sea water; particles; sedimentation; Mediterranean Sea 1 physical, chemical and biological processes and sometimes non-steady-state condi- tions [1^4]. Thorium

  19. Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kruegel, Christopher

    Is the Internet for Porn? An Insight Into the Online Adult Industry Gilbert Wondracek1 , Thorsten Introduction "The Internet is for Porn" is the title of a satirical song that has been viewed several million at work. With a total worth of more than 97 billion USD in 2006 [14], the Internet porn industry yields

  20. 13The Role of Insight in Perceptual Learning: Evidence from Illusory Contour Perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Nava

    theoretical framework. In terms of brain mechanisms, this means that all types of learning may involve13The Role of Insight in Perceptual Learning: Evidence from Illusory Contour Perception Nava Rubin in performance is commonly made in behavioral studies of learning. The learning of perceptual and motor skills

  1. Behavioural insights into the Modelling of Freight Transportation and Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    fuelled the extension of supply chains and the globalization of the world economy. At the micro-step modelling paradigm cannot provide adequate answers in the twenty-first century global customer-driven economy. This special issue is dedicated to innovative modelling efforts that provide new insights

  2. New Insight into Photoalignment of Liquid Crystals on Coumarin-Containing Polymer Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shaw H.

    and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UniVersity of Rochester, 240 East RiVer Road, Rochester, New York 14623New Insight into Photoalignment of Liquid Crystals on Coumarin-Containing Polymer Films Chunki Kim order predicted by the kinetic model, and the energetics of molecular interaction. Introduction

  3. Bioenergetics Modeling in the 21st Century: Reviewing New Insights and Revisiting Old Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bioenergetics Modeling in the 21st Century: Reviewing New Insights and Revisiting Old Constraints.--The development and application of fish bioenergetics models have flourished in recent years, due in part of bioenergetics models can be hampered by uncertainty in model parameters. A review of the literature showed

  4. Formation of bands and ridges on Europa by cyclic deformation: Insights from analogue wax experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manga, Michael

    Formation of bands and ridges on Europa by cyclic deformation: Insights from analogue wax perform a set of analogue wax experiments aimed at understanding the processes and conditions that lead to lineament formation on Europa. We heat a layer of wax from below and cool it from above so that a solid

  5. Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrodesulfurization of Biphenyl-2-thiol with Nickel Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Mechanistic Insights on the Hydrodesulfurization of Biphenyl-2-thiol with Nickel Compounds Jorge@servidor.unam.mx Abstract: The reactivity of the nickel(I) dimer [(dippe)Ni(µ-H)]2 (1) with biphenyl-2-thiol was explored evolves to the terminal nickel-hydride [(dippe)Ni (1 -C-2-biphenyl)(H)] (4) and transient [(dippe)NiS] (5

  6. LETTER Communicated by Christopher Williams Prototype Classification: Insights from Machine Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTER Communicated by Christopher Williams Prototype Classification: Insights from Machine-of-class prototype classification using algorithms from machine learning that satisfy a set of invariance properties. We report a simple yet general approach to express different types of linear classification

  7. Oxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights from atomistic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    to drive fast ionic transport. 1. Introduction The interest in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technologyOxygen diffusion in solid oxide fuel cell cathode and electrolyte materials: mechanistic insights. Current targets of cost and durability necessitate solid oxide fuel cells to operate in the intermediate

  8. The Chaotic Nature of Human Experience: Insights on the Subject Matter of Design towards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutlu, Bilge

    The Chaotic Nature of Human Experience: Insights on the Subject Matter of Design towards," as Design has no fixed subject matter but the entire scope of human experience. I argue that human" of the subject matter of design that is #12;iv "human experience." My thesis essay is an attempt to explore

  9. The Anatomy of a Memory: Insights Into How Information is Stored in the Brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    The Anatomy of a Memory: Insights Into How Information is Stored in the Brain Maria Concetta, to the ability of our brains to record and to store our experiences. Memory is the glue that binds our mental and biologists have joined forces to open up the "black box" to study how the brain and behavior allows us

  10. Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Bruce A. McCarl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University, College Station TX This work benefited from support largely from of the Energy Modeling Forum activities that are partially supported by EPRI. #12;Insights from Agricultural favorable to production of southern pine, while others allow production of redwoods and douglas fir

  11. The Rock Varnish Revolution: New Insights from Microlaminations and the Contributions of Tanzhuo Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    in potential source materials. In the ensuing two centu- ries, investigations into rock varnish have beenThe Rock Varnish Revolution: New Insights from Microlaminations and the Contributions of Tanzhuo Liu Ronald I. Dorn* School of Geographical Sciences, Arizona State University Abstract Rock varnish

  12. Applicability of InSAR to tropical volcanoes: insights from Central AmericaQ1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biggs, Juliet

    volcanoes: insights from Central AmericaQ1 S. K. EBMEIER1*, J. BIGGS2,3, T. A. MATHER1 & F. AMELUNG3 1 COMET. 2009; Biggs et al. 2010), as well as a variety of shallower surface processes. These include previously thought to be quiescent (e.g. on the East African Rift: Biggs et al. 2009) and at locations

  13. The FASEB Journal Research Communication Structural insight into acute intermittent porphyria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhijie, Liu

    Gaojie Song,* Yang Li,* Chongyun Cheng,* Yu Zhao,* Ang Gao,* Rongguang Zhang, Andrzej Joachimiak, Neil-regulation of PBGD activity in AIP.--Song, G., Li, Y., Cheng, C., Zhao, Y., Gao, A., Zhang, R., Joachimiak, A., Shaw, N., Liu, Z.-J. Structural insight into acute intermittent porphyria. FASEB J. 23, 396­404 (2009) Key

  14. Carbon Footprint and the Management of Supply Chains: Insights from Simple Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjaafar, Saifallah

    Carbon Footprint and the Management of Supply Chains: Insights from Simple Models Saif Benjaafar1, we illustrate how carbon emission concerns could be integrated into operational decision-making with regard to procurement, production, and inventory management. We show how, by associating carbon emission

  15. Size effects in bimetallic nickelgold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansoz, Frederic

    Size effects in bimetallic nickel­gold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy the local plastic behavior and hardness properties of electrodeposited bimetallic Ni­Au NWs ranging from 60 rights reserved. Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Nanowire; Nickel; Gold; Nanoindentation 1

  16. The water-benzene interaction: Insight from electronic structure theories Jie Ma,1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    The water-benzene interaction: Insight from electronic structure theories Jie Ma,1,2,3 Dario Alfè,2 theories is challenging. Here we assess the ability of a variety of theories to describe a water-benzene- tween water and benzene. Water benzene is an interesting model system because it is a reasonably small

  17. New Insights into the Mechanisms of Water-Stress-Induced Cavitation in Conifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    New Insights into the Mechanisms of Water-Stress-Induced Cavitation in Conifers Herve´ Cochard of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JN, United Kingdom (M.M.) Cavitation resistance is a key parameter to understand at a pressure sufficient to aspirate pit tori and well above the pressure for cavitation induction we failed

  18. New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jrmy Jacob1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 New insights into the chemical composition of chitinozoans Jérémy Jacob1, , Florentin Paris2 dominated by aromatic groups with a low contribution of aliphatics and oxygen- or nitrogen-bearing compounds-GC/MS, chitin, Lower Palaeozoic Corresponding author: jeremy.jacob@univ-orleans.fr #12;2 1. Introduction

  19. Branching morphogenesis of the lung: new molecular insights into an old

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Pao-Tien

    Branching morphogenesis of the lung: new molecular insights into an old problem Pao-Tien Chuang1 It has been known for decades that branching morpho- genesis of the lung is mediated through reciprocal between major signaling path- ways during branching morphogenesis of the lung in mice. It has been known

  20. Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Temporal and spatial scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from investigate the hydraulic response to recharge of a fractured aquifer, using a frequency domain approach scaling of hydraulic response to recharge in fractured aquifers: Insights from a frequency domain analysis

  1. Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 1: CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    Effect 1 Climate Insights 101 Questions and Discussion Points Module 1, Lesson 1: CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect Available at http://pics.uvic.ca/education/climate-insights-101 1. CO2 and the Greenhouse Effect Questions: How did the term "greenhouse effect" originate? Why did it stick in the public imagination? Why

  2. When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel, Howard E.

    ABSTRACT When fish die, bacteria or the enzymes they produce invade the flesh of fish. This process produces toxic compounds in the fish and the fish becomes spoiled. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy neural network (ANN) for the development of an ANN based FT-IR Screening System for fish

  3. Producing a trimethylpentanoic acid using hybrid polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the trimethylpentanoic acid. The present invention also provides for a method of producing the trimethylpentanoic acid, comprising: providing a host cell of the present invention, and culturing said host cell in a suitable culture medium such that the trimethylpentanoic acid is produced, optionally isolating the trimethylpentanoic acid, and optionally, reducing the isolated trimethylpentanoic acid into a trimethylpentanol or an iso-octane.

  4. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  5. Applications Received by DOE/FE to Export Domestically Produced...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications Received by DOEFE to Export Domestically Produced LNG from the Lower-48 States (as of March 5, 2014) All Changes Since February 11, 2014 Update Are In Red 1 Company...

  6. aspergillus ochraceus produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    source of energy like wind. In this project by using a small fan blade, electric power is produced by utilizing the drag force of the wind in a moving vehicle. This project...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Characterization of the cellulolytic and hydrogen-producing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or acid rain (Nath and Das 2004). Moreover, H2 can be produced biologically from renew- able resources this efficiently through physicochemical techniques such as steam explo- sion and dilute-acid pretreatment, as well

  8. anaerobic ethanol producer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attractive to both male and female M. sutor beetles Hanks, Lawrence M. 4 Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest...

  9. Using Virtual Teamwork to Produce an Information Technology Magazine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berkley, Travis J.

    2006-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The fast paced world of Information Technology is constantly changing. News magazines are one frequently used resource in the never-ending battle to stay current. While it takes a large company to produce a nationally-recognized ...

  10. USDA Webinar: Value-Added Producer Grants for Tribal Entities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development, this tribal-specific training will provide an overview of the FY14 Funding Opportunity and the Value-Added Producer Grants ...

  11. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  12. Micro-mechanical logic for field produceable gate arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prakash, Manu

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A paradigm of micro-mechanical gates for field produceable logic is explored. A desktop manufacturing system is sought after which is capable of printing functional logic devices in the field. A logic scheme which induces ...

  13. Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists propose a solution to a critical barrier to producing fusion By John Greenwald April 23, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook From left: physicists Luis...

  14. Treating and Reusing Produced Water | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers at OGTC Seek Sustainable Produced Water Management Solutions Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to...

  15. RPSEA Final Report Small Producers Program Development Strategies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have increased the reservoir pressure and improved oil recovery. The South Kilgore Unit and the South Pilot area are two of the best producing areas in the ETOF in the last 10...

  16. How Much Energy Does Your State Produce? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Much Energy Does Your State Produce? November 10, 2014 - 2:52pm Addthis Energy Production in Trillion Btu: 2012 Click on each state to learn more about how much energy it...

  17. DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Plants DOE Seeks Industry Proposals for Feasibility Study to Produce Greenhouse Gas-Free Hydrogen at Existing Nuclear Power Plants April 13, 2006 - 10:19am Addthis...

  18. SaskPower Small Power Producers Program (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Small Power Producers Program accommodates customers who wish to generate up to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity for the purpose of offsetting power that would otherwise be purchased from...

  19. Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Thin films Tearing Graphene Sheets From Adhesive Substrates Produces Tapered Nanoribbons Dipanjan Sen, Kostya S. Novoselov, Pedro M. Reis, and Markus J. Buehler* Graphene is a truly two- film materials have been studied extensively, the key mechanical properties of graphene

  20. Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Helen Jean

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...

  1. New Methane-Producing Microbe Found in Thawing Permafrost | U...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    the metabolic pathway for methanogenesis, the process by which microbes consume hydrogen and CO2 and produce CH4. Measurements of CH4 flux at the thawing permafrost site and...

  2. Confined Thermal Multicharged Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.; Kravis, S. D.; Sellin, I. A.; Levin, J. C.; Short, R. T.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the accelerated schedule publication is not delayed for receipt of corrections unless requested by the author or noted by the editor Confined thermal multlcharged lons produced by synchrotron radiation D. A. Church and S. D. Kravis Physics Department, Texas... M. Meron, B. M. Johnson, and K. W. Jones Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (Received 2 April 1987) Synchrotron x rays have been used to produce a confined multicharged ion gas near room tem- perature. Comparison of charge-state-number...

  3. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chum, H.L.; Palasz, P.D.; Ratcliff, M.A.

    1984-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing peracids from lactic acid-containing solutions derived from biomass processing systems. It consists of adjusting the pH of the solution to about 8 to 9 and removing alkaline residue fractions therefrom to form a solution comprised substantially of lower aliphatic hydroxy acids. The solution is oxidized to produce volatile lower aliphatic aldehydes. The aldehydes are removed as they are generated and converted to peracids.

  4. Analysis of alternative marketing organizations for improving rice producer income

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillot, Patrick Dale

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Depart nt) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) December 1975 ABSTRACT Analysis of Alternative Marketing Organizations for Improving Rice Producer income. (December 1975) Patrick Dale Guillot, B. S. , Louisiana State University Chairman of Advisory... of the Blue Ribbon Rice Mills, Inc. This gives ARI milling and storage facilities. Also, AGA has acquired control and ownership of the MGC facilities. Both of these actions are definite moves toward a fully integrated and producer operated organization...

  5. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  6. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  7. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  8. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  9. Structural and Mechanistic Insights into C-P Bond Hydrolysis by Phosphonoacetate Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Vinayak; Borisova, Svetlana A.; Metcalf, William W.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC)

    2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria have evolved pathways to metabolize phosphonates as a nutrient source for phosphorus. In Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, 2-aminoethylphosphonate is catabolized to phosphonoacetate, which is converted to acetate and inorganic phosphate by phosphonoacetate hydrolase (PhnA). Here we present detailed biochemical and structural characterization of PhnA that provides insights into the mechanism of C-P bond cleavage. The 1.35 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure reveals a catalytic core similar to those of alkaline phosphatases and nucleotide pyrophosphatases but with notable differences, such as a longer metal-metal distance. Detailed structure-guided analysis of active site residues and four additional cocrystal structures with phosphonoacetate substrate, acetate, phosphonoformate inhibitor, and a covalently bound transition state mimic provide insight into active site features that may facilitate cleavage of the C-P bond. These studies expand upon the array of reactions that can be catalyzed by enzymes of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

  10. Wing Shape of Four New Bee Fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) Provides Insights to Bee Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Nel, André Engel, Michael S.; De Meulemeester, Thibaut

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    insights into more recent phenomena among bee evolution, such as changing patterns of biogeography and responses to Paleogene and Neogene geological events. Four of the most important deposits with bee fossils are the Eckfeld/Messel oil shales of Germany... compressions in oil shale. The flora found in this section of the basin suggests a tropical to subtropical climate with a distinct dry season [37], and occurred at a paleoelevation of ,1500–2900 m [38]. The Oligocene lacustrine beds (‘calcaire de Campagne...

  11. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  12. Managing aging in nuclear power plants: Insights from NRC maintenance team inspection reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresco, A.; Subudhi, M.; Gunther, W.; Grove, E.; Taylor, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A plant`s maintenance program is the principal vehicle through which age-related degradation is managed. From 1988 to 1991, the NRC evaluated the maintenance program of every nuclear power plant in the United States. Forty-four out of a total of 67 of the reports issued on these in-depth team inspections were reviewed for insights into the strengths and weaknesses of the programs as related to the need to understand and manage the effects of aging on nuclear plant systems, structures, and components. Relevant information was extracted from these inspection reports and sorted into several categories, including Specific Aging Insights, Preventive Maintenance, Predictive Maintenance and Condition Monitoring, Post Maintenance Testing, Failure Trending, Root Cause Analysis and Usage of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in the Maintenance Process. Specific examples of inspection and monitoring techniques successfully used by utilities to detect degradation due to aging have been identified. The information also was sorted according to systems and components, including: Auxiliary Feedwater, Main Feedwater, High Pressure Injection for both BWRs and PWRs, Service Water, Instrument Air, and Emergency Diesel Generator Air Start Systems, and Emergency Diesel Generators Air Start Systems, emergency diesel generators, electrical components such as switchgear, breakers, relays, and motor control centers, motor operated valves and check valves. This information was compared to insights gained from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Attributes of plant maintenance programs where the NRC inspectors felt that improvement was needed to properly address the aging issue also are discussed.

  13. Time-resolved visible and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of laser-produced tin plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shay, Joseph Fred

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of laser-produced tin plasma. Part I: XUVof laser-produced tin plasma. Part II: Radiation-expanding laser-produced tin plasma,” Eighth International

  14. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  15. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeantette, Francisco P. (Albuquerque, NM); Keicher, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Romero, Joseph A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schanwald, Lee P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  16. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  17. Insights from Smart Meters: The Potential for Peak-Hour Savings from Behavior-Based Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Annika; Perry, Michael; Smith, Brian; Sullivan, Michael; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The rollout of smart meters in the last several years has opened up new forms of previously unavailable energy data. Many utilities are now able in real-time to capture granular, household level interval usage data at very high-frequency levels for a large proportion of their residential and small commercial customer population. This can be linked to other time and locationspecific information, providing vast, constantly growing streams of rich data (sometimes referred to by the recently popular buzz word, “big data”). Within the energy industry there is increasing interest in tapping into the opportunities that these data can provide. What can we do with all of these data? The richness and granularity of these data enable many types of creative and cutting-edge analytics. Technically sophisticated and rigorous statistical techniques can be used to pull interesting insights out of this highfrequency, human-focused data. We at LBNL are calling this “behavior analytics”. This kind of analytics has the potential to provide tremendous value to a wide range of energy programs. For example, highly disaggregated and heterogeneous information about actual energy use would allow energy efficiency (EE) and/or demand response (DR) program implementers to target specific programs to specific households; would enable evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of energy efficiency programs to be performed on a much shorter time horizon than was previously possible; and would provide better insights in to the energy and peak hour savings associated with specifics types of EE and DR programs (e.g., behavior-based (BB) programs). In this series, “Insights from Smart Meters”, we will present concrete, illustrative examples of the type of value that insights from behavior analytics of these data can provide (as well as pointing out its limitations). We will supply several types of key findings, including: • Novel results, which answer questions the industry previously was unable to answer; • Proof-of-concept analytics tools that can be adapted and used by others; and • Guidelines and protocols that summarize analytical best practices. This report focuses on one example of the kind of value that analysis of this data can provide: insights into whether behavior-based (BB) efficiency programs have the potential to provide peak-hour energy savings.

  18. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  19. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S. (Corvallis, OR); Alman, David E. (Salem, OR)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  20. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  1. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  2. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  3. Engineered microorganisms capable of producing target compounds under anaerobic conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buelter, Thomas (Denver, CO); Meinhold, Peter (Denver, CO); Feldman, Reid M. Renny (San Francisco, CA); Hawkins, Andrew C. (Parker, CO); Urano, Jun (Irvine, CA); Bastian, Sabine (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Frances (La Canada, CA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is generally provides recombinant microorganisms comprising engineered metabolic pathways capable of producing C3-C5 alcohols under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The invention further provides ketol-acid reductoisomerase enzymes which have been mutated or modified to increase their NADH-dependent activity or to switch the cofactor preference from NADPH to NADH and are expressed in the modified microorganisms. In addition, the invention provides isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes expressed in modified microorganisms. Also provided are methods of producing beneficial metabolites under aerobic and anaerobic conditions by contacting a suitable substrate with the modified microorganisms of the present invention.

  4. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR); Clausen, Edgar C. (Fayetteville, AR)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  5. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  6. Gamma-ray Bursts Produced by Mirror Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Blinnikov

    1999-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    I argue that cosmic Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) may be produced by collapses or mergers of stars made of `mirror' matter. The mirror neutrinos (which are sterile for our matter) produced at these events can oscillate into ordinary neutrinos. The annihilations or decays of the latter create an electron-positron plasma and subsequent relativistic fireball with a very low baryon load needed for GRBs. The concept of mirror matter is able to explain several key problems of modern astrophysics: neutrino anomalies, the missing mass, MACHO microlensing events and GRBs. Thus this concept becomes very appealing and should be considered quite seriously and attentively.

  7. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

    1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

  8. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

  9. Methods for producing monodispersed particles of barium titanate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a low-temperature controlled method for producing high-quality, ultrafine monodispersed nanocrystalline microsphere powders of barium titanate and other pure or composite oxide materials having particles ranging from nanosized to micronsized particles. The method of the subject invention comprises a two-stage process. The first stage produces high quality monodispersed hydrous titania microsphere particles prepared by homogeneous precipitation via dielectric tuning in alcohol-water mixed solutions of inorganic salts. Titanium tetrachloride is used as an inorganic salt precursor material. The second stage converts the pure hydrous titania microsphere particles into crystalline barium titanate microsphere powders via low-temperature, hydrothermal reactions.

  10. Insights on Curriculum, Instruction, and Early Literacy Learning: Student Characteristic by Instruction Interaction Effects on Literacy Outcomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    in focusing students' attention on learning activities within grade, from grade Insights on Curriculum, Instruction, and Early Literacy Learning: Student focused on children's learning in the classroom ­ from preschool through third

  11. Insights into a researcher's attempt to study the mentoring needs of first-year, white, female teachers in diverse schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attaway, Kathy Ann

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    INSIGHTS INTO A RESEARCHER’S ATTEMPT TO STUDY THE MENTORING NEEDS OF FIRST-YEAR, WHITE, FEMALE TEACHERS IN DIVERSE SCHOOLS A Dissertation by KATHY ANN ATTAWAY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2007 Major Subject: Educational Administration INSIGHTS INTO A RESEARCHER’S ATTEMPT TO STUDY THE MENTORING NEEDS OF FIRST-YEAR, WHITE, FEMALE...

  12. A new method for producing molybdenum-99 without the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    worldwide can produce it. When one or more of these facilities shut down for repair or maintenance molybdenum-99. Recoil energy Naturally occurring molybdenum is extracted relatively easily from mines availability. Moreover, the new process is cleaner and safer. Chemical separation of Molybdenum Ref. TU Delft

  13. Factors Affecting Cotton Producers' Choice of Marketing Outlet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Jason 1979-

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies 4 Adoption Studies Employing Multinomial Logistic Regression ?.. 5 Hedging Studies ?????????????????????.. 8 Marketing Studies ????????????????????... 12 Non-cotton and General Commodity Marketing Studies ????. 12 Cotton Marketing Studies... Employing Multinomial Logistic Regression This paper will model the factors that influence several qualitative choices (cash marketing outlets) among cotton producers. The objective of qualitative choice modeling is to determine each explanatory...

  14. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels that are produced from biobased materials are a good alternative to petroleum based fuels. They offer several benefits to society and the environment. Producing second generation biofuels is even more challenging than producing first generation biofuels due the complexity of the biomass and issues related to producing, harvesting, and transporting less dense biomass to centralized biorefineries. In addition to this logistic challenge, other challenges with respect to processing steps in converting biomass to liquid transportation fuel like pretreatment, hydrolysis, microbial fermentation, and fuel separation still exist and are discussed in this review. The possible coproducts that could be producedmore »in the biorefinery and their importance to reduce the processing cost of biofuel are discussed. About $1 billion was spent in the year 2012 by the government agencies in US to meet the mandate to replace 30% existing liquid transportation fuels by 2022 which is 36?billion gallons/year. Other countries in the world have set their own targets to replace petroleum fuel by biofuels. Because of the challenges listed in this review and lack of government policies to create the demand for biofuels, it may take more time for the lignocellulosic biofuels to hit the market place than previously projected.« less

  15. Market Entry Costs, Producer Heterogeneity, and Export Dynamics Sanghamitra Das

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    As the exchange rate, foreign demand, production costs and export promotion policies evolve, manufacturing firms-exporting. Thus, while history and expectations matter for a few marginal producers, most of the aggregate export response to a change in the exchange rate regime comes from volume adjustments among large incumbents

  16. Certification of a weld produced by friction stir welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Obaditch, Chris; Grant, Glenn J

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, devices, and systems for providing certification of friction stir welds are disclosed. A sensor is used to collect information related to a friction stir weld. Data from the sensor is compared to threshold values provided by an extrinsic standard setting organizations using a certification engine. The certification engine subsequently produces a report on the certification status of the weld.

  17. Optimal Inventory Control in Cardboard Box Producing Factories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vuuren, Jan H.

    Optimal Inventory Control in Cardboard Box Producing Factories: A Case Study Catherine D. Black is a case study in optimal inventory control, applied to Clickabox factory, a South African cardboard box replenishment policy, based largely on experience, was implemented at the factory. The inventory model developed

  18. Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Guidelines for the Improvement of Combustion Efficiency for Maple Producers Harry Atkinson to better mixing of combustion gasses. A. An over fire air system should be installed to direct high.c. pressure minimum. Oil burner fans from 1980 on will usually be a good source for a used fan. a. ½ h.p. on 2

  19. Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liska, Richard

    Laser-produced plasma-wall interaction O. RENNER,1 R. LISKA,2 AND F.B. ROSMEJ3,4 1 Institute, France (RECEIVED 30 August 2009; ACCEPTED 21 September 2009) Abstract Jets of laser­generated plasma surfaces (walls). The pilot experiments carried out on the iodine laser system (5­200 J, 0.44 mm, 0

  20. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  1. Temperature Fields Produced by Traveling Distributed Heat Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    Temperature Fields Produced by Traveling Distributed Heat Sources Use of a Gaussian heat distribution in dimensionless form indicates final weld pool shape can be predicted accurately for many welds information about both the size and the shape of arc weld pools. The results indicate that both welding

  2. OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM GRAPHITE AND YBa2Cu30 7 HARILAL. s irradiances, ionization occurs which leads to the plasma formation. Spectroscopic studies of optical emission and the resulting plasma. Optical emission spectroscopy is a technique which analyzes the light emitted from

  3. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  4. Method for producing sintered ceramic, layered, circular fuel pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harlow, John L. (East Berne, NY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compacting die wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  5. This document is produced by the University Print Management Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yi

    University Print Management Team. A Guide To Best Practice Printing #12;This document is produced by the University Print Management Team (UPMT) to raise awareness of printing on campus, and to demonstrate how we managing the print process to reduce cost, waste and to improve the functionality and availability of print

  6. Coevolution Produces an Arms Race Among Virtual Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebner, Marc

    Coevolution Produces an Arms Race Among Virtual Plants Marc Ebner, Adrian Grigore, Alexander He#11 create plants for a virtual environment. The plants are represented as context-free Lin- denmayer systems. OpenGL is used to visualize and evaluate the plants. Our plants have to collect virtual sunlight

  7. Superconducting articles of manufacture and method of producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newkirk, Lawrence R. (Los Alamos, NM); Valencia, Flavio A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk coatings of Nb.sub.3 Ge with high superconducting transition temperatures bonded to metallic substrates and a chemical vapor deposition method for producing such coatings on metallic substrates are disclosed. In accordance with the method, a Nb.sub.3 Ge coating having a transition temperature in excess of 21.5 K may be tightly bonded to a copper substrate.

  8. Pop Up Radio Archive: A Solution for Independent Producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Pop Up Radio Archive: A Solution for Independent Producers Anne Wootton, Bailey Smith, and Christen Penny UC Berkeley School of Information May 4, 2012 #12;Pop Up Radio Archive 2 Abstract Independent" and "dream of a system where [retrieval is easier]" (Silva). Pop Up Radio Archive is a free, open

  9. This Quick Guide was produced by the Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This Quick Guide was produced by the Colorado State Forest Service to promote knowledge transfer. Juniper tends to grow in more arid areas; its scaled foliage allows it to conserve water more effectively. Treatment Methods for Thinning Piñon-Juniper Forests A variety of techniques may be used to manage piñon

  10. C Produced by Nuclear Power Reactors Generation and Characterization of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haviland, David

    14 C Produced by Nuclear Power Reactors ­ Generation and Characterization of Gaseous, Liquid and process water from nuclear reactors ­ A method for quantitative determination of organic and inorganic and Solid Waste �sa Magnusson Division of Nuclear Physics Department of Physics 2007 Akademisk avhandling

  11. Time-to-Produce, Inventory, and Asset Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhanhui

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In a production-based general equilibrium model, I study the impact of time-to-build and time-to-produce technology constraints and inventory on asset prices and macroeconomic quantity dynamics. A time-to-build constraint captures the delay...

  12. Process for producing ceramic nitrides anc carbonitrides and their precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, G.M.; Maya, L.

    1987-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing ceramic nitrides and carbon nitrides in the form of very pure, fine particulate powder. Appropriate precursors is prepared by reaching a transition metal alkylamide with ammonia to produce a mixture of metal amide and metal imide in the form of an easily pyrolyzable precipitate.

  13. Process for producing astatine-211 for radiopharmaceutical use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for reliably and consistently producing astatine-211 in small controlled volumes of a solution, which is selected from a choice of solvents that are useful in selected radiopharmaceutical procedures in which the At-211 activities are to be applied. 4 figures, 1 table.

  14. SUSTAINABLE PRODUCE DEVELOPMENT TRADESHOW Saturday, December 15, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    SUSTAINABLE PRODUCE DEVELOPMENT TRADESHOW Saturday, December 15, 2007 Hearst Mining Building presentations of the students in "Sustainable Product Development." (2-3:45 pm presentations; 3:45-4:45 pm-the-go · Treading Lightly: Style & Sustainability for Pets · CARES: Community Assessment of Renewable Energy

  15. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  16. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers with Meteorological Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannitrapani, Antonello

    bid is computed by exploiting the forecast energy price for the day ahead market, the historical wind renewable energy resources, such as wind and photovoltaic, has grown rapidly. It is well known the problem of optimizing energy bids for an independent Wind Power Producer (WPP) taking part

  17. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

    1999-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  18. Original article Propolis produced in Bulgaria and Mongolia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Propolis produced in Bulgaria and Mongolia: phenolic compounds and plant origin V of Chemistry, Ulan Bator, Mongolia (Received 18 March 1991; accepted 11 July 1991) Summary — Phenolic and to some extent from P italica in Bulgaria, and from P suaveolens in Mongolia. propolis / poplar bud

  19. THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE POSSIBILITY OF PRODUCING THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN A GASEOUS DISCHARGE* I.V. Kurchatov of the energy of thermonuclear reactions. Physicists the world over are attracted by the extraordinarily interest- ing and very difficult task of controlling thermonuclear reactiom. Investigations in this field

  20. Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn Peter R. Birkin,a) Douglas G; accepted 22 September 2011) This paper reports on noninertial cavitation that occurs beyond the zone close to the horn tip to which the inertial cavitation is confined. The noninertial cavitation is characterized

  1. The Metro Map Problem Existing metro maps, produced by professional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong,Seokhee

    optimization methods to find a minimal energy state 20 Force directed method for metro map visualization artists, are excellent examples of network visualization Can we produce good metro maps automatically Virtual Environments Case Study - Stock Market MS-Guidelines MS-Process MS-Taxonomy Software Engineering

  2. Cattle producers' attitudes concerning the issues of producing versus buying hay for cattle in Freestone and Leon Counties of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Troy Allen

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Percentage of Producers that Would Consider Purchasing Hay Types of Hay Preferred by Producers 23 24 26 27 28 Minimum Desirable Protein Levels Importance of Total Digestible Nutrients 30 31 Nutritional Tests Ran on Hay Fed to Cattle in Freestone... and Leon Co. 29 Table 10. Pricing of Hay Sold in Freestone and Leon Counties Table 11. Prices and Quantities of Purchased Hay Table 12. Premiums Paid for Higher Quality Hay Table 13. Delivery of Purchased Hay in Freestone and Leon Counties Table 14...

  3. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Insight Homes, Seaford, Delaware

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForumEngines |New Technology forDepartmentDevotedtheInsight

  4. Closer to HIV vaccine goal with new insight into viral factors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t zManufacturing:DOE National LaboratoryLabNew insight

  5. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

  6. High capacity adsorption media and method of producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mann, Nicholas R. (Blackfoot, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Herbst, Ronald S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises dissolving and/or suspending at least one metal compound in a solvent to form a metal solution, dissolving polyacrylonitrile into the metal solution to form a PAN-metal solution, and depositing the PAN-metal solution into a quenching bath to produce the adsorption medium. The at least one constituent, such as arsenic, selenium, or antimony, is removed from the feed stream by passing the feed stream through the adsorption medium. An adsorption medium having an increased metal loading and increased capacity for arresting the at least one constituent to be removed is also disclosed. The adsorption medium includes a polyacrylonitrile matrix and at least one metal hydroxide incorporated into the polyacrylonitrile matrix.

  7. Method of producing novel silicon carbide articles. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milewski, J.V.

    1982-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity.

  8. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  9. Long-laser-pulse method of producing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Olander, Donald K. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing thin films by means of laser vaporization employs a long-pulse laser (Nd-glass of about one millisecond duration) with a peak power density typically in the range 10.sup.5 -10.sup.6 W/cm.sup.2. The method may be used to produce high T.sub.c superconducting films of perovskite material. In one embodiment, a few hundred nanometers thick film of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x is produced on a SrTiO.sub.3 crystal substrate in one or two pulses. In situ-recrystallization and post-annealing, both at elevated temperature and in the presence of an oxidizing agen The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-C03-76SF0098 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California.

  10. Method of producing gaseous products using a downflow reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D; Rozmiarek, Robert T; Hornemann, Charles C

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactor systems and methods are provided for the catalytic conversion of liquid feedstocks to synthesis gases and other noncondensable gaseous products. The reactor systems include a heat exchange reactor configured to allow the liquid feedstock and gas product to flow concurrently in a downflow direction. The reactor systems and methods are particularly useful for producing hydrogen and light hydrocarbons from biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons using aqueous phase reforming. The generated gases may find used as a fuel source for energy generation via PEM fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells, internal combustion engines, or gas turbine gensets, or used in other chemical processes to produce additional products. The gaseous products may also be collected for later use or distribution.

  11. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  12. Methods developed for detecting hazardous elements in produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, S.; Attari, A. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States))

    1995-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, Ill. has been developing sampling and analytical methods to detect in natural gas various trace constituents that may pose health, safety, or operational risks. The constituents of interest include paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, H[sub 2]S, organic sulfur compounds, arsenic, mercury, radon, and others. Better sampling and analytical techniques for produced natural gas, similar to those developed by IGT for processed gas, will enhance producers and processors' abilities to monitor undesirable constituents in raw gas streams and improve their clean-up processes. The methods developed at IGT were modifications of air sampling and analytical methods that are commonly used for air toxic substances. These monitoring methods, when applied to natural gas, present special challenges because gas has a much more complex matrix than the air. Methods for the analysis of the following are discussed: arsenic, mercury, radon, sulfur compounds, hydrocarbons, and aromatics including BTEX and PAHs.

  13. Z-Pinch Discharge in Laser Produced Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling, E.; Lunney, J. G. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast coaxial electrical discharge, with relatively low current, was used to produce a Z-pinch effect in a laser produced aluminum plasma. The ion flux in the laser plasma was monitored with a Langmuir ion probe. The line density in the plasma column was controlled by using an aperture to select the portion of the laser plasma which enters the discharge cell. The Z-pinch dynamics were recorded using time-resolved imaging of the visible self-emission; the plasma was pinched to about one-third of the initial radius. Both the laser and Z-pinch plasmas were diagnosed using time-and space-resolved spectroscopy; substantial heating was observed. The measured behaviour of the pinch was compared with predictions of the slug model.

  14. Laser produced plasma diagnostics by cavity ringdown spectroscopy and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milosevic, S. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-produced plasmas have many applications for which detailed characterization of the plume is requested. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy is a versatile absorption method which provides data on the plume and its surroundings, with spatial and temporal resolution. The measured absorption line shapes contain information about angular and velocity distributions within the plume. In various plasmas we have observed molecules or metastable atoms which were not present in the emission spectra.

  15. Can Population III Stars at High Redshifts produce GRB's?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma ray bursts are the most luminous physical phenomena in the universe, consisting of flashes of gamma rays that last from seconds to hours. There have been attempts to observe gamma ray bursts, for example, from population III stars of about 500 solar mass at high redshifts. Here we argue that collapse of such high mass stars does not lead to gamma ray burst as their core collapse temperatures are not sufficient to produce gamma rays, leading to GRBs.

  16. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  17. Confined Thermal Multicharged Ions Produced by Synchrotron Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, David A.; Kravis, S. D.; Sellin, I. A.; Levin, J. C.; Short, R. T.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B. M.; Jones, K. W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy transfer. We have used the "white" radiation on the X- 26C beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory to generate multicharged argon ions in a Penning ion trap, using pro- posed methods designed... M. Meron, B. M. Johnson, and K. W. Jones Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (Received 2 April 1987) Synchrotron x rays have been used to produce a confined multicharged ion gas near room tem- perature. Comparison of charge...

  18. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauritzen, T.

    1984-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to apparatus for producing constant tension in cable or the like when it is unreeled and reeled from a drum or spool under conditions of intermittent demand. The invention is particularly applicable to the handling of superconductive cable, but the invention is also applicable to the unreeling and reeling of other strands, such as electrical cable, wire, cord, other cables, fish line, wrapping paper and numerous other materials.

  19. Marketing Practices and Costs of Texas Egg Producer-Wholesalers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Carl E.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the ungraded, loose desirable in order to take advantage of both labor wholesale alternative and the gra(lPr,, specialization in egg processing and market out- lets which require large volumes. Producers cartoned retailer-consumer alternative. Groupretail A, B and C's presence in the market may be outlets at wholesale prices and/or directly to explained in part by their accepting low returnc for their labor and investment and/or the receipt consumers at prices...

  20. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  1. Hybrid materials and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luzzi, David E. (Wallingford, PA); Smith, Brian W. (Schelton, CT)

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid material is provided which comprises a first single-walled nanotube having a lumen, and a fill molecule contained within the lumen of the single-walled nanotube. A method for producing the hybrid material is also provided wherein a single-walled nanotube is contacted with a fill molecule to cause the fill molecule to enter the lumen of the single-walled nanotube.

  2. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C. (La Crescenta, CA); Rohatgi, Naresh K. (W. Corine, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  3. System and method for producing substitute natural gas from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Raymond (Avondale, AZ)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a system and method for producing substitute natural gas and electricity, while mitigating production of any greenhouse gasses. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, to form a gas stream including natural gas and a char stream, and an oxygen burner to combust the char material to form carbon oxides. The system also includes an algae farm to convert the carbon oxides to hydrocarbon material and oxygen.

  4. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  5. Process for producing peracids from aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chum, H.L.; Ratcliff, M.A.; Palasz, P.D.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a wood pulp processing system of the type producing both pulp and a stream of lactic acid-containing black liquor solution, the processor for production of peracid bleaching agents from hydroxy acid contained in the black liquor solution, comprising: adjusting the pH of the black liquor solution to the range of about 8-9 by exposing the solution to CO/sub 2/ carbon dioxide to form an alkaline precipitate; separating solids from the black liquor solution to produce a residual solution containing lower aliphatic hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, glycolic acid, 2-hydroxybutanoic acid, xyloisosaccharinic acid, and glucoisosaccharinic acid; decarboxylating the lower aliphatic hydroxy acids to corresponding gaseous aliphatic aldehydes by admixing a powdered semiconductor with the residual solution to form a slurry; removing the gaseous aldehydes from the residual solution by sweeping gas flow as soon as they are generated to prevent further oxidation to carboxylic acids; reacting the gaseous aldehydes with oxygen to form corresponding peracids; and applying the peracids as bleaching agents to the pulp produced in the pulp processing system.

  6. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, B

    2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a limited, defined region. Using this technique a 460 MeV electron beam was produced with an energy spread of 5%. This technique is directly scalable to multi-GeV electron beam generation with sub-percent energy spreads.

  7. Development of Sulfur and Carbon Tolerant Reforming Alloy Catalysts Aided Fundamental Atomistic Insights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suljo Linic

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current hydrocarbon reforming catalysts suffer from rapid carbon and sulfur poisoning. Even though there is a tremendous incentive to develop more efficient catalysts, these materials are currently formulated using inefficient trial and error experimental approaches. We have utilized a hybrid experimental/theoretical approach, combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and various state-of-the-art experimental tools, to formulate carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. We have employed DFT calculations to develop molecular insights into the elementary chemical transformations that lead to carbon poisoning of Ni catalysts. Based on the obtained molecular insights, we have identified, using DFT quantum calculation, various Ni alloy catalysts as potential carbon tolerant reforming catalysts. The alloy catalysts were synthesized and tested in steam reforming and partial oxidation of methane, propane, and isooctane. We demonstrated that the alloy catalysts are much more carbon-tolerant than monometallic Ni catalysts under nearly stoichiometric steam-to-carbon ratios. Under these conditions, monometallic Ni is rapidly poisoned by sp2 carbon deposits. The research approach is distinguished by two characteristics: (a) knowledge-based, bottomup approach, compared to the traditional trial and error approach, allows for a more efficient and systematic discovery of improved catalysts. (b) the focus is on exploring alloy materials which have been largely unexplored as potential reforming catalysts.

  8. Online Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Arthur

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to create an internet-based Water Treatment Technology Catalog and Decision Tool that will increase production, decrease costs and enhance environmental protection. This is to be accomplished by pairing an operator's water treatment cost and capacity needs to specific water treatments. This project cataloged existing and emerging produced water treatment technologies and allows operators to identify the most cost-effective approaches for managing their produced water. The tool captures the cost and capabilities of each technology and the disposal and beneficial use options for each region. The tool then takes location, chemical composition, and volumetric data for the operator's water and identifies the most cost effective treatment options for that water. Regulatory requirements or limitations for each location are also addressed. The Produced Water Treatment Catalog and Decision Tool efficiently matches industry decision makers in unconventional natural gas basins with: 1) appropriate and applicable water treatment technologies for their project, 2) relevant information on regulatory and legal issues that may impact the success of their project, and 3) potential beneficial use demands specific to their project area. To ensure the success of this project, it was segmented into seven tasks conducted in three phases over a three year period. The tasks were overseen by a Project Advisory Council (PAC) made up of stakeholders including state and federal agency representatives and industry representatives. ALL Consulting has made the catalog and decision tool available on the Internet for the final year of the project. The second quarter of the second budget period, work was halted based on the February 18, 2011 budget availability; however previous project deliverables were submitted on time and the deliverables for Task 6 and 7 were completed ahead of schedule. Thus the application and catalog were deployed to the public Internet. NETL did not provide additional funds and work on the project stopped on February 18, 2011. NETL ended the project on March 31, 2012.

  9. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  10. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  11. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Derbov, V. L. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Krassovitskiy, P. M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  12. Marketing Practices and Costs of Texas Egg Producer-Wholesalers. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafer, Carl E.

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the percentaie of eggs delivered on enterprise on Texas farms. The growth of popu- door-to-door consumer routes. Estimated process- lation and purchasing power and the current ing labor costs per case varied from $1.90 to ?; standing of Texas as a deficit... state in egg pro- cents between groups A and E; delivery labor duction all favor the Texas egg producer. To costs varied from 77 cents to 15 cents per case be take advantage of opportunities in the state tween groups A and G, respectively. market...

  13. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  14. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  15. Method and apparatus for producing high purity silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1983-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing high purity silicon includes forming a copper silicide alloy and positioning the alloy within an enclosure. A filament member is also placed within the enclosure opposite the alloy. The enclosure is then filled with a chemical vapor transport gas adapted for transporting silicon. Finally, both the filament member and the alloy are heated to temperatures sufficient to cause the gas to react with silicon at the alloy surface and deposit the reacted silicon on the filament member. In addition, an apparatus for carrying out this method is also disclosed.

  16. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  17. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  18. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  19. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

    2004-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed journals and five conference presentations.

  20. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Lyon, Richard E. (Absecon, NJ); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  1. Gelcasting polymeric precursors for producing net-shaped graphites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a method for molding complex and intricately shaped high density monolithic carbon, carbon-carbon, graphite, and thermoplastic composites using gelcasting technology. The method comprising a polymeric carbon precursor, a solvent, a dispersant, an anti-foaming agent, a monomer system, and an initiator system. The components are combined to form a suspension which is poured into a mold and heat-treated to form a thermoplastic part. The thermoplastic part can then be further densified and heat-treated to produce a high density carbon or graphite composite. The present invention also discloses the products derived from this method.

  2. Gelcasting polymeric precursors for producing net-shaped graphites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Janney, Mark A.

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a method for molding complex and intricately shaped high density monolithic carbon, carbon-carbon, graphite, and thermoplastic composites using gelcasting technology. The method comprising a polymeric carbon precursor, a solvent, a dispersant, an anti-foaming agent, a monomer system, and an initiator system. The components are combined to form a suspension which is poured into a mold and heat-treated to form a thermoplastic part. The thermoplastic part can then be further densified and heat-treated to produce a high density carbon or graphite composite. The present invention also discloses the products derived from this method.

  3. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, P.R.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Hopper, R.W.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods. 3 figs.

  4. Method for rapidly producing microporous and mesoporous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Hopper, Robert W. (Danville, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved, rapid process is provided for making microporous and mesoporous materials, including aerogels and pre-ceramics. A gel or gel precursor is confined in a sealed vessel to prevent structural expansion of the gel during the heating process. This confinement allows the gelation and drying processes to be greatly accelerated, and significantly reduces the time required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods. Drying may be performed either by subcritical drying with a pressurized fluid to expel the liquid from the gel pores or by supercritical drying. The rates of heating and decompression are significantly higher than for conventional methods.

  5. Electric Power Produced from Nuclear Reactor | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEAWater Use Goal 4:Administration Electric Power Produced

  6. Table 4.1 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel

  7. Table 4.2 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel4.2

  8. Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel4.23

  9. Table 4.3 Offsite-Produced Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota"Dakota" "megawatts" "Item", 2013, 2012,West1 Offsite-Produced Fuel4.233

  10. Financial News for Major Energy Producers, Third Quarter 2010

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.Gas Proved Reserves,Light-DutyProducers, Third

  11. Financial News for Major Energy Producers, Third Quarter 2010

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.Gas Proved Reserves,Light-DutyProducers,

  12. Midwest Ethanol Producers Inc MEPI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio:Menomonee| OpenMickeyDelaware: EnergyMidnightProducers Inc MEPI

  13. Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of a stack of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70 Hg Mercury 35 BrProcurement byProducing Natural Gas

  14. Apparatus for operating a gas and oil producing well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wynn, S. R.

    1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for automatically operating a gas and oil producing well of the plunger lift type, including a comparator for comparing casing and tubing pressures, a device for opening the gas delivery valve when the difference between casing and tubing pressure is less than a selected minimum value, a device for closing the gas discharge valve when casing pressure falls below a selected casing bleed value, an arrival sensor switch for initially closing the fluid discharge valve when the plunger reaches the upper end of the tubing, and a device for reopening the fluid discharge valve at the end of a given downtime period in the event that the level of oil in the tubing produces a pressure difference greater than the given minimum differential value, and the casing pressure is greater than lift pressure. The gas discharge valve is closed if the pressure difference exceeds a selected maximum value, or if the casing pressure falls below a selected casing bleed value. The fluid discharge valve is closed if tubing pressure exceeds a maximum safe value. In the event that the plunger does not reach the upper end of the tubing during a selected uptime period, a lockout indication is presented on a visual display device, and the well is held shut-in until the well differential is forced down to the maximum differential setting of the device. When this occurs, the device will automatically unlock and normal cycling will resume.

  15. Shear exfoliation in liquids : a promising way to produce graphene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mougeot, Maxime

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    My initial project was to install and test a new spectrometer for the solid state physics group. However, due to a delay in the construction of the new photoluminescence laboratory this project had to be abandoned. Graphene is a one atom thick 2D material that presents remarkable physical properties whose applications are very promising. However, the current means of production present several limitations. They are costly in terms of energy consumption and yields are ridiculously low. Thus, to progress from the laboratory to industrial production it will be necessary to find a method to produce large quantities of defect graphene. In April 2014, a paper \\cite{graphene_shear} came out in \\emph{Nature Material} demonstrating that shear exfoliation in liquids would be a scalable way to produce defect-free grahene. The aim of my project was to test this new method by trying to reproduce some of the results published in this article. It involved the setting up of the experiment, the production of samples and fin...

  16. Method for producing microcomposite powders using a soap solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maginnis, Michael A. (Coker, AL); Robinson, David A. (Mobile, AL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing microcomposite powders for use in superconducting and non-superconducting applications. A particular method to produce microcomposite powders for use in superconducting applications includes the steps of: (a) preparing a solution including ammonium soap; (b) dissolving a preselected amount of a soluble metallic such as silver nitrate in the solution including ammonium soap to form a first solution; (c) adding a primary phase material such as a single phase YBC superconducting material in particle form to the first solution; (d) preparing a second solution formed from a mixture of a weak acid and an alkyl-mono-ether; (e) adding the second solution to the first solution to form a resultant mixture; (f) allowing the resultant mixture to set until the resultant mixture begins to cloud and thicken into a gel precipitating around individual particles of the primary phase material; (g) thereafter drying the resultant mixture to form a YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder; and (h) calcining the YBC superconducting material/silver nitrate precursor powder to convert the silver nitrate to silver and thereby form a YBC/silver microcomposite powder wherein the silver is substantially uniformly dispersed in the matrix of the YBC material.

  17. Economical utilization of natural gas to produce synthetic petroleum liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agee, K.L.; Agee, M.A. [Syntroleum Corp., Tulsa, OK (United States); Willingham, F.Y.; Trepper, E.L. [Bateman Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new process for converting pipeline quality or subquality natural gas into liquid fuels and other petroleum products is described. The technology, developed by Syntroleum Corporation, utilizes autothermal reforming with air to produce a nitrogen-diluted synthesis gas having a near ideal ratio for converting into synthetic hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis. A proprietary F-T catalyst system, designed to operate in a nitrogen-diluted atmosphere, achieves conversion rates comparable to conventional F-T processes without the need for recycle and the associated recompression equipment. This results in potential plant capital costs low enough to make conversion of remote and or subquality gas into synthetic fuels economical, based on current oil prices. The process is energy self-sufficient and compact enough to be constructed in 5,000 to 10,000 b/d plants on floating or platform facilities to utilize offshore gas reserves. The liquid fuels produced by the process are free of sulfur and aromatics. The process has been demonstrated at pilot-scale. Numerous engineering studies and cost estimates have been conducted to provide the information needed for economic evaluation and confident scale-up. This paper also outlines improvements to the process currently under development and how the process presents new opportunities for gas processors.

  18. Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  19. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced and Other Oil Field Fluids Co-produced and low-temperature...

  20. Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 1 (to sustain instream #12;Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology Supporting Information 1.0 Produced Water Regulatory Framework for WY and NM

  1. Hydrotreating Pyrolytic Lignin to Produce a Refinery Feedstock (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, R. J.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass followed by water separation to produce pyrolytic lignin and hydrotreating of the lignin could be used to produce a stable volatile low-oxygen intermediate liquid. Such a liquid could be converted into a finished motor-fuel in a refinery, taking advantage of the existing infrastructure and economies of scale of refineries. Hydrotreating just the lignin would consume less hydrogen while preserving about half of the energy of the original oil. The aqueous by-products could be reformed to produce the needed hydrogen and would contain much of the unwanted acids and unstable oxygenates. To assess such intermediate liquids, several pyrolytic lignins were prepared by mixing pyrolysis oil with water at 1:1 and 3:1 ratios. The carboxylic acidity in the pyrolytic lignin was reduced to 24 and 10 mg-KOH/g-lignin compared to 81 in the whole oil. These lignins were hydrotreated using Ni-Mo(S)/alumina, Pt/char, or Pd/C(activated) in a semi-batch 1 L stirred autoclave. The oil was stabilized under hydrogen at 150-280 degrees C, then water and light organics were removed by partial depressurization. Hydrodeoxygenation was then performed at 340-400 degrees C. Total pressure was controlled at 70 or 170 bar with hydrogen gas. Organic liquid yields of 39-56% were obtained. For many experiments the organic oxygen content was <7%, acidity was < 7 mg-KOH/g-oil, the volatility was greater than or equal to 94% and, on a carbon basis, the total yield of organic products miscible in hydrocarbons at a 1:10 ratio was over 50%. These properties are probably acceptable to a refinery.The residual liquids left in the reactor at the end of the experiment comprised 60-85% of the organic-phase product while the rest was condensate. 13C-NMR of the residual liquids showed that they were 50-80% aliphatic. 13C-NMR coupled with GC-MS identified phenolic compounds as the main oxygenates in most residual liquids.

  2. Perceptions of livestock producers, forage producers, wildlife managers, and forage-based service providers concerning extension and technology-transfer activities in south Texas and northeast Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folsom, Wendy Ann

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this bi-national study was to determine the type, nature, and extent of existing extension and technology-transfer activities provided to livestock producers, forage producers, and wildlife managers in south ...

  3. Mechanistic Insights into the Factors Determining Exo-Endo Selectivity in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    ) tert-butyldimethylsilyl, R ) allyl).1 Despite the great potential of such powerful constructions produced keto alcohol 8 which upon reaction with p-toluenesulfonylhydrazine in 96:4 etha- nol-acetic acid

  4. Surface-Induced Dissociation of Ions Produced by Matrix-Assisted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissociation of Ions Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization in a Fourier Transform Ion Surface-Induced Dissociation of Ions Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser...

  5. Extreme-ultraviolet radiation transport in small scale length laser-produced tin plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sequoia, Kevin Lamar Williams

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from laser-produced tin plasmas. Proceedings ofRadiation from Laser- Produced Tin Plasmas. Physical Reviewspectra of xenon and tin discharges. Physical Review E,

  6. Mobilizing Public Markets to Finance Renewable Energy Projects: Insights from Expert Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwabe, P.; Mendelsohn, M.; Mormann, F.; Arent, D. J.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Financing renewable energy projects in the United States can be a complex process. Most equity investment in new renewable power production facilities is supported by tax credits and accelerated depreciation benefits, and is constrained by the pool of potential investors that can fully use these tax benefits and are willing to engage in complex financial structures. For debt financing, non-government lending has largely been provided by foreign banks that may be under future lending constraints due to economic and regulatory conditions. To discuss renewable energy financing challenges and to identify new sources of capital to the U.S. market, two roundtable discussions were held with renewable energy and financing experts in April 2012. This report summarizes the key messages of those discussions and is designed to provide insights to the U.S. market and inform the international conversation on renewable energy financing innovations.

  7. Using Numerical Simulations to Gain Insight into the Structure of Superbubbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip T. Komljenovic; Shantanu Basu; Doug Johnstone

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent high resolution observations of Galactic superbubbles have motivated us to re-examine several classes of superbubble models. We compare three classes of hydrodynamic models (the Kompaneets approximation, the thin shell model, and numerical simulations) in order to understand the structure of superbubbles and to gain insight into observations. In particular, we apply models to the W4 superbubble, which has been observed in the Pilot project of the arcminute resolution Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (Normandeau et al. 1996). Magnetohydrodynamic simulations are also performed and point the way to a fuller understanding of the W4 superbubble. We suggest that the highly collimated bubble and apparent lack of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the superbubble shell can be explained by the presence of a magnetic field.

  8. Collective excitations and thermodynamics of disordered state: new insights into an old problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Brazhkin; K. Trachenko

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Disorder has been long considered as a formidable foe of theoretical physicists in their attempts to understand system's behavior. Here, we review recently accumulated data and propose that from the point of view of calculating thermodynamic properties, the problem of disorder may not be as severe as has been hitherto assumed. We particularly emphasize that contrary to the long-held view, collective excitations do not decay in disordered systems. We subsequently discuss recent experimental, theoretical and modelling results related to collective excitations in disordered media, and show how these results pave the way to understanding thermodynamics of disordered systems: glasses, liquids, supercritical fluids and spin glasses. An interesting insight from the recent work is the realization that most important changes of thermodynamic properties of the disordered system are governed only by its fundamental length, the interatomic separation. We discuss how the proposed theory relates to the previous approaches based on general many-body statistical mechanics framework.

  9. Core damage frequency observations and insights of LWRs based on the IPEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drouin, M.T.; Kolaczkowski, A.; Darby, J.; LaChance, J.L.; Yakle, J.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seventy-eight plants are expected to submit Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) for severe accident vulnerabilities to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The majority of the plants have elected to perform full Level 1 probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to meet the intent of the IPES. Because of this, it is possible to compare the results from the IPE submittals to determine general observations and {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} from the IPES. The IPE Insights Program is performing this evaluation, and preliminary results are presented in this paper. The core damage frequency and core damage sequences are identified and compared for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. Examination of the results indicates that variations among plant results are due to a combination of actual plant design/operational features and analysis approaches. The findings are consistent with previous NRC studies, such as WASH-1400 and NUREG-1 150.

  10. Core damage frequency observations and insights of LWRs based on the IPEs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingman, S.E.; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Drouin, M.T. [and others

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seventy-eight plants are expected to submit Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) for severe accident vulnerabilities to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The majority of the plants have elected to perform full Level 1 probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to meet the intent of the IPEs. Because of this, it is possible to compare the results from the IPE submittals to determine general observations and {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} from the IPEs. The IPE Insights Program is performing this evaluation, and preliminary results are presented in this paper. The core damage frequency and core damage sequences are identified and compared for pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. Examination of the results indicates that variations among plant results are due to a combination of actual plant design/operational features and analysis approaches. The findings are consistent with previous NRC studies, such as WASH-1400 and NUREG-1150.

  11. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H59AS011748). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Development of Integrated Motor Assist Hybrid System: Development of the 'Insight', a Personal Hybrid Coupe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaoru Aoki; Shigetaka Kuroda; Shigemasa Kajiwara; Hiromitsu Sato; Yoshio Yamamoto

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the technical approach used to design and develop the powerplant for the Honda Insight, a new motor assist hybrid vehicle with an overall development objective of just half the fuel consumption of the current Civic over a wide range of driving conditions. Fuel consumption of 35km/L (Japanese 10-15 mode), and 3.4L/100km (98/69/EC) was realized. To achieve this, a new Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) hybrid power plant system was developed, incorporating many new technologies for packaging and integrating the motor assist system and for improving engine thermal efficiency. This was developed in combination with a new lightweight aluminum body with low aerodynamic resistance. Environmental performance goals also included the simultaneous achievement of low emissions (half the Japanese year 2000 standards, and half the EU2000 standards), high efficiency, and recyclability. Full consideration was also given to key consumer attributes, including crash safety performance, handling, and driving performance.

  14. Application of molecular simulations: Insight into liquid bridging and jetting phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Nezbeda; J. Jirsák; F. Mou?ka; W. R. Smith

    2015-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed on pure liquid water, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, and polymer solutions exposed to a strong external electric field with the goal to gain molecular insight into the structural response to the field. Several simulation methodologies have been used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the processes leading to the formation of liquid bridges and jets (in the production of nanofibers). It is shown that in the established nanoscale structures, the molecules form a chain with their dipole moments oriented parallel to the applied field throughout the entire sample volume. The presence of ions may disturb this structure leading to its ultimate disintegration into droplets; the concentration dependence of the threshold field required to stabilize a liquid column has been determined. Conformational changes of the polymer in the jetting process have also been observed.

  15. Crystal Structures of Human and Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase and Molecular Insights into the Carboxyltransfer Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang,S.; Tong, L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent production of oxaloacetate and has important roles in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion and other cellular processes. PC contains the biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains. We report here the crystal structures at 2.8-Angstroms resolution of full-length PC from Staphylococcus aureus and the C-terminal region (missing only the BC domain) of human PC. A conserved tetrameric association is observed for both enzymes, and our structural and mutagenesis studies reveal a previously uncharacterized domain, the PC tetramerization (PT) domain, which is important for oligomerization. A BCCP domain is located in the active site of the CT domain, providing the first molecular insights into how biotin participates in the carboxyltransfer reaction. There are dramatic differences in domain positions in the monomer and the organization of the tetramer between these enzymes and the PC from Rhizobium etli.

  16. System and method for producing metallic iron nodules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bleifuss, Rodney L. (Grand Rapids, MN); Englund, David J. (Bovey, MN); Iwasaki, Iwao (Grand Rapids, MN); Lindgren, Andrew J. (Grand Rapids, MN); Kiesel, Richard F. (Hibbing, MN)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing metallic iron nodules by assembling a shielding entry system to introduce coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh in to the furnace atmosphere at location(s) where the temperature of the furnace atmosphere adjacent at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material is between about 2200 and 2650.degree. F. (1200 and 1450.degree. C.), the shielding entry system adapted to inhibit emission of infrared radiation from the furnace atmosphere and seal the furnace atmosphere from exterior atmosphere while introducing coarse carbonaceous material greater than 6 mesh into the furnace to be distributed over the at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material, and heating the covered at least partially reduced reducible iron bearing material in a fusion atmosphere to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material during fusion to assist in fusion and inhibit reoxidation of the reduced material in forming metallic iron nodules.

  17. Cyclotron Produced Radionuclides for Diagnosis and Therapy of Human Neoplasms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Larson MD

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This project funded since 1986 serves as a core project for cancer research throughout MSKCC, producing key radiotracers as well as basic knowledge about thel physics of radiation decay and imaging, for nuclear medicine applications to cancer diagnosis and therapy. In recent years this research application has broadened to include experiments intended to lead to an improved understanding of cancer biology and into the discovery and testing of new cancer drugs. Advances in immune based radiotargeting form the basis for this project. Both antibody and cellular based immune targeting methods have been explored. The multi-step targeting methodologies (MST) developed by NeoRex (Seattle,Washington), have been adapted for use with positron emitting isotopes and PET allowing the quantification and optimization of targeted delivery. In addition, novel methods for radiolabeling immune T-cells with PET tracers have advanced our ability to track these cells of prolonged period of time.

  18. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  19. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, Janda K. G. (Edgewood, NM); Jellison, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Staley, David J. (Los Lunas, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  20. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  1. Microwave generated electrodeless lamp for producing bright output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Ch. H.; Ury, M. G.

    1985-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave generated electrodeless light source for producing a bright output comprising a lamp structure including a microwave chamber and a plasma medium-containing lamp envelope having a maximum dimension which is substantially less than a wavelength disposed therein. To provide the desired radiation output the interior of the chamber is coated with a UV-reflective material and the chamber has an opening for allowing UV radiation to exit, which is covered with a metallic mesh. The chamber is arranged to be near-resonant at a single wavelength, and the lamp envelope has a fill including mercury at an operating pressure of 1-2 atmospheres, while a power density of at least 250-300 (watts/cm/sup 3/) is coupled to the envelope to result in a relatively high deep UV output at a relatively high brightness.

  2. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  3. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, Jeffrey A. (Woodridge, IL); Rittner, Mindy N. (Des Plaines, IL); Youngdahl, Carl J. (Westmont, IL); Weertman, Julia R. (Evanston, IL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound.

  4. Method for producing nanocrystalline multicomponent and multiphase materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eastman, J.A.; Rittner, M.N.; Youngdahl, C.J.; Weertman, J.R.

    1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing multi-component and multiphase nanophase materials is provided wherein a plurality of elements are vaporized in a controlled atmosphere, so as to facilitate thorough mixing, and then condensing and consolidating the elements. The invention also provides for a multicomponent and multiphase nanocrystalline material of specified elemental and phase composition having component grain sizes of between approximately 1 nm and 100 nm. This material is a single element in combination with a binary compound. In more specific embodiments, the single element in this material can be a transition metal element, a non-transition metal element, a semiconductor, or a semi-metal, and the binary compound in this material can be an intermetallic, an oxide, a nitride, a hydride, a chloride, or other compound. 6 figs.

  5. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  6. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  7. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  8. Weather strip for vehicle and producing method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shigeki, K.; Nakajima, T.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This method describes a method for producing a weather strip composed of a channel shaped base portion, a seal portion projecting from an outer surface of the base portion, and a partially connected core member embedded in the base portion in its longitudinal direction, comprising: supplying a core member made of a strip-shaped thermoplastic synthetic resin sheet and having transversely extending slots at regular intervals in the longitudinal direction of the core member; integrally extruding the core member with rubber material to obtain an extruded body; heating the extruded body to soften the extruded core member and cure the extruded rubber material; bending the extruded core member while the extruded core member remains softened with the rubber material to have a U-shaped cross section to form the base portion and cooling the bent extruded body having the formed base portion.

  9. Method of producing improved microstructure and properties for ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Jitendra P. (Naperville, IL); Guttschow, Rob A. (Bloomington, IL); Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O.sub.2). The density of specimens sintered at 910.degree. C. increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O.sub.2) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O.sub.2) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910.degree. C. resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of approximately 4 .mu.m. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 191 MPa and high critical current density capacity.

  10. Method of producing improved microstructure and properties for ceramic superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Guttschow, R.A.; Dusek, J.T.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic superconductor is produced by close control of oxygen partial pressure during sintering of the material. The resulting microstructure of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} indicates that sintering kinetics are enhanced at reduced p(O{sub 2}). The density of specimens sintered at 910 C increased from 79 to 94% theoretical when p(O{sub 2}) was decreased from 0.1 to 0.0001 MPa. The increase in density with decrease in p(O{sub 2}) derives from enhanced sintering kinetics, due to increased defect concentration and decreased activation energy of the rate-controlling species undergoing diffusion. Sintering at 910 C resulted in a fine-grain microstructure, with an average grain size of approximately 4 {micro}m. Such a microstructure results in reduced microcracking, strengths as high as 191 MPa and high critical current density capacity. 20 figs.

  11. Electrochemical method of producing eutectic uranium alloy and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Hayden, H. Wayne (Oakridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for continuous production of liquid uranium alloys through the electrolytic reduction of uranium chlorides. The apparatus includes an electrochemical cell formed from an anode shaped to form an electrolyte reservoir, a cathode comprising a metal, such as iron, capable of forming a eutectic uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and molten electrolyte in the reservoir comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride. The method of the invention produces an eutectic uranium alloy by creating an electrolyte reservoir defined by a container comprising an anode, placing an electrolyte in the reservoir, the electrolyte comprising a chlorine or fluorine containing salt and uranium chloride in molten form, positioning a cathode in the reservoir where the cathode comprises a metal capable of forming an uranium alloy having a melting point less than the melting point of pure uranium, and applying a current between the cathode and the anode.

  12. Method for producing hard-surfaced tools and machine components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHargue, C.J.

    1981-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention comprises a method for producing tools and machine components having superhard crystalline-ceramic work surfaces. Broadly, the method comprises two steps: a tool or machine component having a ceramic near-surface region is mounted in ion-implantation apparatus. The region then is implanted with metal ions to form, in the region, a metastable alloy of the ions and said ceramic. The region containing the alloy is characterized by a significant increase in hardness properties, such as microhardness, fracture-toughness, and/or scratch-resistance. The resulting improved article has good thermal stability at temperatures characteristic of typical tool and machine-component uses. The method is relatively simple and reproducible.

  13. Apparatus and method for producing fragment-free openings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherry, Christopher R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for explosively penetrating hardened containers such as steel drums without producing metal fragmentation is disclosed. The apparatus can be used singularly or in combination with water disrupters and other disablement tools. The apparatus is mounted in close proximity to the target and features a main sheet explosive that is initiated at least three equidistant points along the sheet's periphery. A buffer material is placed between the sheet explosive and the target. As a result, the metallic fragments generated from the detonation of the detonator are attenuated so that no fragments from the detonator are transferred to the target. As a result, an opening can be created in containers such as steel drums through which access to the IED is obtained to defuse it with projectiles or fluids.

  14. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  15. Producers post increase as prices plumb new depths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.

    1993-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    European polypropylene (PP) producers are gearing up for yet another attempt to raise prices and stem their losses. Despite a string of pricing initiatives throughout 1992, the oversupplied PP market continued to sink. It slipped again in January, with many producers accusing their competitors of price cutting to raise sales volumes. The difference this time is that all the major players have stated their readiness to hike prices, while output has been cut back considerably to reduce stocks. Sentiment in the market is that prices simply cannot be allowed to go any lower. Neste Chemicals (Helsinki) has led the way by announcing a 40-pfennig/kg increase, effective March 1. Sven Svensson, Neste's v.p./PP, says the increase was announced early to allow converters to adjust the prices of their products. Huels (Marl, Germany) has since announced a 30 pfennig-40 pfennig/kg hike for February or March, Hoechst (Frankfurt) says it will go for a similar increase March 1, Amoco Chemical Europe (Geneva) has promised a hike effective February 1, while Himont (Milan) and Brussels-based Petrofina and Solvay confirm they will also be raising prices. There could be a greater sense of urgency now that propylene contracts have been raised for February. The lowest PP price so far reported in Europe has been BF12.50/kg (DM0.61/kg) for raffia-grade material in Belgium. The French market is about F2.20/kg; the UK at [Brit pounds]290/m.t.; German prices are slightly firmer at DM0.70/kg, with injection molding at about DM0.75/kg. PP copolymer prices have fallen precipitously since early December, with German levels dropping by 20 pfennig/kg, to about DM0.90/kg.

  16. Idaho is the nation's largest producer, packer, and processor of potatoes. Idaho has been the number one potato-producing state for the past 50 years. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    HIGHLIGHTS Idaho is the nation's largest producer, packer, and processor of potatoes. Idaho has been the number one potato-producing state for the past 50 years. The state's growers produce about 30% of the U.S. potato crop, but the Idaho potato industry is more than potato fields. Idaho frozen

  17. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available. The whole genome sequence for A. niger ATCC 1015 is available from NBCI under acc. no ACJE00000000. The up-dated sequence for A. niger CBS 513.88 is available from EMBL under acc. no AM269948-AM270415. The sequence data from the phylogeny study has been submitted to NCBI (GU296686-296739). Microarray data from this study is submitted to GEO as series GSE10983. Accession for reviewers is possible through: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi token GSE10983] The dsmM_ANIGERa_coll511030F library and platform information is deposited at GEO under number GPL6758

  18. Cover image: Research within Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Chemical Imaging Initiative is characterizing chemical and physical interactions of biofilms produced by microbes. This information is used to provide insight on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and temporal resolution. These and other advances portend the predictive manipulation of microbial communities leading to key advances in understanding and modeling the atmospheric dynamics driving Earth's climate;Biological systems science encompasses the ability to measure, predict, design, and ultimately control

  19. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The membranes generally exhibited reasonable stable rejection rates over time for chloride for a range of concentrations between 0.01 and 2.5 M. One membrane ran in excess of three months with no apparent loss of usability. This suggests that clay membranes may have a long useable life. Twenty different hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation experiments were either attempted or completed and are reported here. The results of these experiments suggest that hyperfiltration-induced solute precipitation is possible, even for very soluble substances such as NaCl. However, the precipitation rates obtained in the laboratory do not appear to be adequate for commercial application at this time. Future experiments will focus on making the clay membranes more compact and thinner in order to obtain higher flux rates. Two alternative methods of removing solutes from solution, for which the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation is preparing patent applications, are also being investigated. These methods will be described in the next annual report after the patent applications are filed. Technology transfer efforts included two meetings (one in Farmington NM, and one in Hobbs, NM) where the results of this research were presented to independent oil producers and other interested parties. In addition, members of the research team gave seven presentations concerning this research and because of this research project T. M. (Mike) Whitworth was asked to sit on the advisory board for development of a new water treatment facility for the City of El Paso, Texas. Several papers are in preparation for submission to peer-reviewed journals based on the data presented in this report.

  20. A case for variational geomagnetic data assimilation: insights from a one-dimensional, nonlinear, and sparsely observed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    variations of the geomagnetic field have been measured with a continuously im- proving accuracy duringA case for variational geomagnetic data assimilation: insights from a one-dimensional, nonlinear-mentioned coupled system ­ some version being currently under construction ­ the question is debated in this paper

  1. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M.; Zolot, M.

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR).

  2. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of lunar highland soils: Insights into the space weathering of soils on airless bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    Mineralogical and chemical characterization of lunar highland soils: Insights into the space soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. It is these lunar soils that are being, A. Patchen, D.-H. S. Taylor, R. V. Morris, L. P. Keller, and D. S. McKay (2010), Mineralogical

  3. Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans: Insights from ocean color remote 2013. [1] Penetration of solar radiation in the ocean is determined by the attenuation coefficient (Kd. Lewis, R. Arnone, and R. Brewin (2013), Penetration of UV-visible solar radiation in the global oceans

  4. Massive first-principles simulation provides insight into flame anchoring in a hydrogen-rich jet in cross-flow.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in cross-flow. When gas turbine designers want to use gasified biomass for stationary power generation is far more reactive than the methane that is the traditional gas turbine fuel. This reactivity leads Science Simulations Provide New Insights to Aid Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development NREL Highlights SCIENCE

  5. The California rangeland decisionmaking survey provides important insights into defining sustainability on working landscapes. First, there is considerable heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Kenneth

    practices supporting multiple ecosystem service goals. Ranchers and rangeland managers already valueChampaign Sustaining working rangelands: Insights from rancher decision-making surveys and interviews Overview Methods systems in which society demands provisioning of both goods (e.g., livestock, forage production

  6. Folk Labeling: Insights on Improving Usability and Saving Energy Gleaned from After-Market Graffiti on Common Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aragon, Cecilia R.

    Folk Labeling: Insights on Improving Usability and Saving Energy Gleaned from After-Market Graffiti for Energy and Environment Jessica Granderson, Gari Kloss and Alan Meier, Lawrence Berkeley National users often indicates problematic usability, which can affect the device's energy consumption

  7. Soil animal responses to moisture availability are largely scale, not ecosystem dependent: insight from a cross-site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wall, Diana

    Soil animal responses to moisture availability are largely scale, not ecosystem dependent: insight Cruces, NM 88012, USA, 4 USDA ARS Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX 76502, USA, 5 Abstract Climate change will result in reduced soil water availability in much of the world either due

  8. One-Dimensional Barrier-Preserving Free-Energy Projections of a -sheet Miniprotein: New Insights into the Folding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    One-Dimensional Barrier-Preserving Free-Energy Projections of a -sheet Miniprotein: New Insights simulations for a total of 20 µs. The resulting one-dimensional free-energy profiles (FEPs) provide a detailed description of the free-energy basins and barriers for the folding reaction. The similarity of the FEPs

  9. Ahmed, Rose, Figliozzi & Jacob 1 Commuter Cyclist's Sensitivity to Changes in Weather: Insight from Two Cities with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Ahmed, Rose, Figliozzi & Jacob 1 Commuter Cyclist's Sensitivity to Changes in Weather: Insight from between various weather conditions and commuter bicyclist volume in two cities (Portland, USA and Brisbane may condition bicyclist's responsiveness to changes in weather and climate. Temporal variations

  10. NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF 14053 THE ONLY BASALTIC ROCK RETURNED BY APOLLO 14. Rhiannon G. Mayne1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE ORIGIN OF 14053 ­ THE ONLY BASALTIC ROCK RETURNED BY APOLLO 14. Rhiannon G of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, 37996. Introduction: The Apollo 14 to the hy- pothesis that 14053 and other Apollo 14 hi-Al basalts actually had an impact-melt origin

  11. Cambridge's Science Magazine produced in association with Saliva's Secrets . Aubrey de Grey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Appetite Control . Biofuels . Science and the Web Hydrogen Economy The Future of Fuel Hydrogen Economy Sun, Sea and Science in Saudi Arabia Insight into Hydrogen Power Sense about Science When Art Meets and science. This issue's Focus gives an excellent overview of hydrogen as a source of energy, not only

  12. New mud system produces solids-free, reusable water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Corpus Christi, Texas, based Cameron Equipment Co., Inc., has developed a closed-loop mud treating system that removes solids from water-based systems and leaves the separated fluid clean and chemical free enough to be re-used directly on the rig. The system has been successfully applied by a Gulf of Mexico operator in areas where zero discharge is required. The alternative mud conditions program offered by the developers is called the Cameron Fluid Recycling System. Designed for closed-loop water-based fluids, the system is a new method of removing solids from normally discharged fluids such as drilling mud, waste and wash water, or any other water-based fluid that contains undesirable solids. The patented method efficiently produces end products that are (1) dry solids; and (2) essentially 100% solids-free fluid that can be re-used in the same mud system. All excess drilling mud, and all wash water that would normally go to the reserve pit or a cuttings barge are collected in a tank. Recycled fluid is compatible with the mud system fluid, no harmful chemicals are used, and pH is not altered.

  13. Eddy pump dredging: Does it produce water quality impacts?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creek, K.D. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Ramon, CA (United States); Sagraves, T.H. [RESNA Industries, Magalia, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During a prototype demonstration at Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s (PG&E`s) Cresta Reservoir, the feasibility of a new dredging technique was tested for its reported ability to produce only minimal water quality impacts. The technique, developed by PBMK Consultants and Engineers, uses the EDDY Pump, a patented submerged slurry pump system with a higher solids-to-liquid ratio and lower re-suspension of sediment than achieved by conventional suction dredging. Turbidity and total suspended solids concentrations of water samples collected adjacent to and downstream of the pump head were similar to those of samples collected adjacent to and upstream of the pump head. Dissolved oxygen downstream of the pump head remained near saturation. The dredged sediment was pumped 600 m upstream of the pump head and discharged back to the surface of Cresta Reservoir. Increases in turbidity and total suspended solids downstream of the discharge site were minor. Throughout the demonstration, turbidity levels and total suspended solids concentrations remained well below allowable levels set by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board - no more than a 25 NTU turbidity increase over ambient background nor more than 80 mg/I total suspended solids, absolute.

  14. Electric current-producing device having sulfone-based electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Sun, Xiao-Guang (Tempe, AZ)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytic solvents and applications of such solvents including electric current-producing devices. For example, a solvent can include a sulfone compound of R1--SO2--R2, with R1 being an alkyl group and R2 a partially oxygenated alkyl group, to exhibit high chemical and thermal stability and high oxidation resistance. For another example, a battery can include, between an anode and a cathode, an electrolyte which includes ionic electrolyte salts and a non-aqueous electrolyte solvent which includes a non-symmetrical, non-cyclic sulfone. The sulfone has a formula of R1--SO2--R2, wherein R1 is a linear or branched alkyl or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms, and R2 is a linear or branched or partially or fully fluorinated linear or branched oxygen containing alkyl group having 1 to 7 carbon atoms. The electrolyte can include an electrolyte co-solvent and an electrolyte additive for protective layer formation.

  15. Combined dispersive/interference spectroscopy for producing a vector spectrum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, David J. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring the spectral properties of broadband waves that combines interferometry with a wavelength disperser having many spectral channels to produce a fringing spectrum. Spectral mapping, Doppler shifts, metrology of angles, distances and secondary effects such as temperature, pressure, and acceleration which change an interferometer cavity length can be measured accurately by a compact instrument using broadband illumination. Broadband illumination avoids the fringe skip ambiguities of monochromatic waves. The interferometer provides arbitrarily high spectral resolution, simple instrument response, compactness, low cost, high field of view and high efficiency. The inclusion of a disperser increases fringe visibility and signal to noise ratio over an interferometer used alone for broadband waves. The fringing spectrum is represented as a wavelength dependent 2-d vector, which describes the fringe amplitude and phase. Vector mathematics such as generalized dot products rapidly computes average broadband phase shifts to high accuracy. A Moire effect between the interferometer's sinusoidal transmission and the illumination heterodynes high resolution spectral detail to low spectral detail, allowing the use of a low resolution disperser. Multiple parallel interferometer cavities of fixed delay allow the instantaneous mapping of a spectrum, with an instrument more compact for the same spectral resolution than a conventional dispersive spectrometer, and not requiring a scanning delay.

  16. Method for producing pellets for use in a cryoblasting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Christopher A. (Clinton, TN); Fisher, Paul W. (Heiskell, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryoblasting process having a centrifugal accelerator for accelerating frozen pellets of argon or carbon dioxide toward a target area utilizes an accelerator throw wheel designed to induce, during operation, the creation of a low-friction gas bearing within internal passages of the wheel which would otherwise retard acceleration of the pellets as they move through the passages. An associated system and method for removing paint from a surface with cryoblasting techniques involves the treating, such as a preheating, of the painted surface to soften the paint prior to the impacting of frozen pellets thereagainst to increase the rate of paint removal. A system and method for producing large quantities of frozen pellets from a liquid material, such as liquid argon or carbon dioxide, for use in a cryoblasting process utilizes a chamber into which the liquid material is introduced in the form of a jet which disintegrates into droplets. A non-condensible gas, such as inert helium or air, is injected into the chamber at a controlled rate so that the droplets freeze into bodies of relatively high density.

  17. Invasive plant species as potential bioenergy producers and carbon contributors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, S.; Gopalakrishnan, G.; Keshwani, D. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of Nebraska)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current cellulosic bioenergy sources in the United States are being investigated in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil and the associated risks to national security and climate change (Koh and Ghazoul 2008; Demirbas 2007; Berndes et al. 2003). Multiple sources of renewable plant-based material have been identified and include agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste, industrial waste, and specifically grown bioenergy crops (Demirbas et al. 2009; Gronowska et al. 2009). These sources are most commonly converted to energy through direct burning, conversion to gas, or conversion to ethanol. Annual crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.) and sorghum grain, can be converted to ethanol through fermentation, while soybean and canola are transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) by reaction with an alcohol (Demirbas 2007). Perennial grasses are one of the more viable sources for bioenergy due to their continuous growth habit, noncrop status, and multiple use products (Lewandowski el al. 2003). In addition, a few perennial grass species have very high water and nutrient use efficiencies producing large quantities of biomass on an annual basis (Dohleman et al. 2009; Grantz and Vu 2009).

  18. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA); Doshi, Parag (Atlanta, GA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 16.9% have been achieved. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x.

  19. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Doshi, Parag (Altanta, GA); Tate, John Keith (Lawrenceville, GA); Mejia, Jose (Atlanta, GA); Chen, Zhizhang (Duluth, GA)

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime .tau. and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO.sub.x. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure.

  20. Processes for producing low cost, high efficiency silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, A.; Doshi, P.; Tate, J.K.; Mejia, J.; Chen, Z.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes which utilize rapid thermal processing (RTP) are provided for inexpensively producing high efficiency silicon solar cells. The RTP processes preserve minority carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permit selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions, including emitter and back surface field (bsf), within the silicon substrate. In a first RTP process, an RTP step is utilized to simultaneously diffuse phosphorus and aluminum into the front and back surfaces, respectively, of a silicon substrate. Moreover, an in situ controlled cooling procedure preserves the carrier bulk lifetime {tau} and permits selective adjustment of the depth of the diffused regions. In a second RTP process, both simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum as well as annealing of the front and back contacts are accomplished during the RTP step. In a third RTP process, the RTP step accomplishes simultaneous diffusion of the phosphorus and aluminum, annealing of the contacts, and annealing of a double-layer antireflection/passivation coating SiN/SiO{sub x}. In a fourth RTP process, the process of applying front and back contacts is broken up into two separate respective steps, which enhances the efficiency of the cells, at a slight time expense. In a fifth RTP process, a second RTP step is utilized to fire and adhere the screen printed or evaporated contacts to the structure. 28 figs.