National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for injection type dsi

  1. DSI Dipole Shear Sonic Imager | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for DSI Dipole Shear Sonic Imager Citation Schlumberger. DSI Dipole Shear Sonic...

  2. DSI Economic Study (contracts/rd)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Miller at memiller@bpa.gov. Related Page: NW Aluminum Industry Study (links to previous studies conducted in 2000-01) September 8, 2006 - Handouts for Today's DSI Long-Term...

  3. Microsoft Word - Letter to the region on DSI service - 102909...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refer to: A-7 To: Regional Customers, Stakeholders, and Other Interested Parties Re: DSI Service In an August 19 letter to the region, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA)...

  4. Prony Ringdown GUI (CERTS Prony Ringdown, part of the DSI Tool Box)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-02-21

    The PNNL Prony Ringdown graphical user interface is one analysis tool included in the Dynamic System Identification toolbox (DSI Toolbox). The Dynamic System Identification toolbox is a MATLAB-based collection of tools for parsing and analyzing phasor measurement unit data, especially in regards to small signal stability. It includes tools to read the data, preprocess it, and perform small signal analysis. 5. Method of Solution: The Dynamic System Identification Toolbox (DSI Toolbox) is designed to providemore » a research environment for examining phasor measurement unit data and performing small signal stability analysis. The software uses a series of text-driven menus to help guide users and organize the toolbox features. Methods for reading in populate phasor measurement unit data are provided, with appropriate preprocessing options for small-signal-stability analysis. The toolbox includes the Prony Ringdown GUI and basic algorithms to estimate information on oscillatory modes of the system, such as modal frequency and damping ratio.« less

  5. Feasibility study results for dry sorbent furnace injection for SO sub 2 control Prairie Creek No. 4 Iowa Electric Light and Power Company

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.V. ); Rehrauer, H.W. )

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the recent passage of new amendments to the Clean Air Act, many U.S. power plants will be required to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Iowa Electric Light and Power (IELP) was interested in investigating a number of options that will allow Prairie Creek Unit 4 to operate in compliance with these new regulations. One of these options was Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI), a relatively simple and low cost retrofit technique, useful for controlling SO{sub 2} concentrations in coal combustion flue gas. The purpose of the program was to obtain operational data necessary to aid in the identification and assessment of DSI options that have a high potential for successful application. This paper contains a summary and analysis of the data obtained during the test effort. It also contains a discussion of the results of each of the major tasks undertaken to accomplish this feasibility study.

  6. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection Systems Webpage Author Oregon Department of...

  7. GaInN light-emitting diodes using separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region to attain polarization-inverted electron-blocking layer, reduced electron leakage, and improved hole injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyaard, David S., E-mail: meyaad@rpi.edu; Lin, Guan-Bo; Ma, Ming; Fred Schubert, E. [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Cho, Jaehee [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States) [Future Chips Constellation, Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Semiconductor Physics Research Center, School of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Heon; Kim, Min-Ho; Shim, HyunWook; Sun Kim, Young [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)] [LED Business, Samsung Electronics, Yongin 446-920 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-11

    A GaInN light-emitting diode (LED) structure is analyzed that employs a separate epitaxial growth for the p-type region, i.e., the AlGaN electron-blocking layer (EBL) and p-type GaN cladding layer, followed by wafer or chip bonding. Such LED structure has a polarization-inverted EBL and allows for uncompromised epitaxial-growth optimization of the p-type region, i.e., without the need to consider degradation of the quantum-well active region during p-type region growth. Simulations show that such an LED structure reduces electron leakage, reduces the efficiency droop, improves hole injection, and has the potential to extend high efficiencies into the green spectral region.

  8. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15, 2001, Grout Injection Operator Injury at the Cold Test Pit South, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report is an independent product of the Type B Accident Investigation Board appointed by Mark W. Frei, Acting Manager, Idaho Operations Office, U. S. Department of Energy.

  9. Direct Service Industries (DSI) (pbl/contracts)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process (June 8, 2015) Record of Decision - Amendment to Increase Contract Demand in Port Townsend Paper Corporation's Power Sales Agreement (April 09, 2014) Draft Amendment to...

  10. letter and agenda - DSI Workshop.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15, 2008 In reply refer to: PS-6 To Regional Customers and Other Stakeholders: The Bonneville Power Administration and Alcoa have signed a Memorandum of Understanding on a...

  11. Denmark Solar Industry DSI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Copenhagen, Denmark Zip: DK-1550 Sector: Solar Product: Manufactures and distributes solar panels and systems. Coordinates: 55.67631, 12.569355 Show Map Loading map......

  12. Injection Laser System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Injection Laser System For each of NIF's 192 beams: The pulse shape as a function of time ... NIF's injection laser system (ILS) plays a key role in meeting these three requirements. ...

  13. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  14. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  15. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  16. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  17. Premixed direct injection disk

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  18. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  19. Transonic Combustion ’ - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy ...

  20. Fuel injection apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Y.; Kuroda, Y.; Ogata, K.

    1988-07-12

    A fuel injection apparatus is described for injecting fuel responsive to a rotary speed of an engine by utilizing the pressure of compressed air, the apparatus comprising means for regulating the supplying time of the compressed air responsive to at least one of the rotary speed of the engine and the load of the engine, and the regulating means including means for supplying the compressed air for a longer time at least one of low rotary speed and low load of the engine than at least one of high rotary speed and high load of the engine.

  1. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  2. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  3. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  4. Silicone injection restores failing submarine cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilstra, M.

    1995-12-01

    Faced with the prospect of replacing nearly 10 miles of aging undersea cables, Orcas Power & Light Co (Opalco) elected instead to inject silicone into as many of the cables as possible. Silicone injection has been used extensively on underground residential distribution (URD) and feeder cables, but only two underwater cables had previously been injected: a feeder cable for Florida Power Corp under an intercoastal waterway and a cable for Washington Water Power Co under a lake in western Idaho. The compound restores power cables damaged by water treeing and prevents further water damage. Selection criteria included age, type, and whether the cables had ever been spliced. Older, soldered, hand-wrapped splices were avoided as they block the CableCure fluid from flowing through. This makes the cable uninjectable unless the splices are replaced with the molded type. The first cables chosen for injection were between 15 and 30 years old and clear of soldered splices. They also were free from faults. 4 figs.

  5. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods A method of designing an injectate...

  6. Category:Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Injectivity Test page? For detailed information on Injectivity Test, click here....

  7. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  8. Particle beam injection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  9. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  10. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) ...

  11. Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Advanced Particulate Filter Technologies for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine Applications Specific ...

  12. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine ...

  13. Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (1979) Raft River Geothermal Area 1979 1979 Evaluation of testing and reservoir parameters in geothermal wells at Raft River and Boise, Idaho Injectivity Test...

  14. Microsoft Word - Letter to region - delay in DSI Lookback - 072009...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    original decision pursuant to the filing of petitions for rehearing filed by the Port Townsend Paper Company and BPA. Also, oral arguments were recently completed on an expedited...

  15. Microsoft Word - DSI Block 01_16_09.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements ...16 9. Employment Expenditures And Capital Investment ...19 9.1 Employment and Capital...

  16. Microsoft Word - DSI Lookback ROD Attachments.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2336 2447 1955 Federal SurplusDeficit 844 1035 892 -191 -468 358 369 2454 4155 3420 2189 200 1282 1956 Federal SurplusDeficit 1007 1609 2915 4751 3301 4047 3920 4988 3602 4050...

  17. Microsoft Word - Cover letter regarding DSI Contract Amendment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the difficult economic times and potential loss of additional jobs in the region. A Burns:lch:123108(C:Documents and Settingserh1557Local SettingsTemporary Internet...

  18. Microsoft Word - DSI Block 12_05_08.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    successor. 8.4.5.7 "S&P" shall mean Standard and Poor's Rating Services (a division of McGraw-Hill, Inc.) or its successor. 9. EMPLOYMENT EXPENDITURES AND CAPITAL INVESTMENT 9.1...

  19. Microsoft Word - DSI Amendment 01-08-09 _after Implementation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    06PB-11744 AMENDMENT executed by the BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION and ALCOA INC. and PUBLIC UTILITY DISTRICT NO. 1 OF WHATCOM COUNTY, WASHINGTON This AMENDMENT to the BLOCK...

  20. Microsoft Word - Posted DSI Amendment of Alcoa Block Power Sales...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    No. 1 Contract No. 06PB-11744 DRAFT AMENDMENT executed by the BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION and ALCOA INC. This AMENDMENT to the BLOCK POWER SALES AGREEMENT is executed by the...

  1. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  2. Memory and Spin Injection Devices Involving Half Metals (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Memory and Spin Injection Devices Involving Half Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Memory and Spin Injection Devices Involving Half Metals Authors: Shaughnessy, M. ; Snow, Ryan ; Damewood, L. ; Fong, C. Y. Publication Date: 2011-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1198038 Grant/Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Type: Published Article Journal Name: Journal of Nanomaterials Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 2011; Journal ID: ISSN 1687-4110 Publisher: Hindawi

  3. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangels, J.A. (Ceradyne Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  4. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  5. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Jr., Henry S.

    1985-01-01

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  6. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  7. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  8. Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

  9. WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: WPCF Underground Injection...

  10. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report Grout Injection Operator...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and no damage to any structures inside the calvareum (i.e., no evidence of brain injury). Page 16 2.4. Investigation Readiness and Accident Scene Preservation The...

  11. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  12. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the accuracy and precision of the models, while reducing epistemic uncertainties.

  13. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-30

    Production levels on each furnace exceeded 7000 NTHM/day during July. The combined production of 14,326 was a result of lower coke rates and below average delay rates on both furnaces, The combined production was at its highest level since September 1997. In August, the combined productivity declined to less than 13,500 NTHM/day. Although D furnace maintained a production rate in excess of 7000 NTHM/day, C furnace was lower because of a castfloor breakout and subsequent five day repair from August 26-30. Despite the lower productivity in August, injected coal and furnace coke rates were very good during the month. During September, the operation was difficult as a result of higher delays on both furnaces. The combined average monthly delay rate was considerably above the twenty-month average of 113 minutes per day and the combined average monthly production was less than 14,000 NTHM/day. Higher furnace coke rates at lower coal injection levels also contributed to the decrease. Additionally, the coke rate on both furnaces was increased substantially and the injected coal rate was decreased in preparation for the high volatile Colorado coal trial that started on September 28. The furnace process results for this quarter are shown in Tables 1A and 1B. In addition, the last twelve months of injected coal and coke rates for each furnace are shown in Figures 1 and 2.

  14. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Jeffrey M.; Chu, Henry S.; Novascone, Stephen R.

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  15. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  16. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  17. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  18. Plasma and Ion Beam Injection into an FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.; Bystritskii, V.; Garate, E.; Rostoker, N.; Song, Y.; Drie, A. van; Binderbauer, M.; Isakov, I.

    2005-10-15

    Experiments on the transverse injection of intense (5-20 A/cm{sup 2}), wide cross-section (10-cm), neutralized, {approx}100-eV H{sup +} plasma and 100-keV H{sup +} ion beams into a preformed B-field reversed configuration (FRC) are described. The FRC background plasma temperature was {approx}5 eV with densities of {approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. In contrast to earlier experiments, the background plasma was generated by separate plasma gun arrays. For the startup of the FRC, a betatron-type 'slow' coaxial source was used. Injection of the plasma beam into the preformed FRC resulted in a 30-40% increase of the FRC lifetime and the amplitude of the reversed magnetic field. As for the ion beam injection experiment into the preformed FRC, there was evidence of beam capture within the configuration.

  19. Allergy Injection Policy | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Millions of Americans suffer from perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by desensitizing the patient to the allergen(s) by giving escalating doses of an extract via regular injections. Receiving weekly injections at a private physician's office is time consuming, reduces productivity, and can quickly deplete an employee's earned leave. FOH

  20. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  1. Fuel injection device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  2. Fuel injection device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  3. Pneumatic direct cylinder fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinke, P.E.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes a pneumatic direct cylinder fuel injection system for use in an internal combustion engine of the type having an engine block means with an air induction means for supplying induction air to cylinders in the engine block means, with each cylinder having a piston reciprocable therein so as to define a combustion chamber which includes a stratified charge chamber as a portion thereof, the system including a plurality of pneumatic injectors, with the pneumatic injector being supported by the engine block means in position to discharge an air/fuel mixture into an associate stratified charge chamber, each of the pneumatic injectors including a body means terminating at one end thereof in a nozzle body, a bore means through the body means and the nozzle body, a valve seat encircling the bore means at the outboard free end of the nozzle body, the opposite end of the bore means being connectable to a source of air at a predetermined pressure, a poppet valve operatively positioned in the bore means. The poppet value includes a head movable between an open position and closed position relative to the valve seat and a stem extending from the head and defining with the bore means an air passage, control means operatively associated with the poppet valve to normally maintain the poppet valve in the closed position and being operative to permit movement of the poppet valve to the open position and, an electromagnetic fuel injector operatively positioned in the body means for injecting pressurized fuel into the air passage upstream of the head of the poppet valve in terms of the direction of air flow through the air passage during a compression stroke of the piston in the associate cylinder, the arrangement being such that when the compression pressure reaches a predetermined pressure the poppet valve will be moved to the valve closed position.

  4. Longitudinal injection transients in an electron storagering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, J.M.; De Santis, S.

    2000-11-02

    We present the results of an experimental study of the longitudinal beam dynamics at injection in the Advanced Light Source (ALS), an electron storage ring. By measuring the longitudinal bunch distribution following injection using a streak camera, we were able to study several useful and interesting e.ects as well as improve overall injection efficiency. These include measurement and correction of the phase and energy offsets at injection, measurement of the injected bunch length and energy spread, direct observation of phase space filamentation due to the spread in synchrotron frequencies, and measurement of the effective damping rate of the bunch shape including radiation damping and decoherence. We have also made some initial studies of the decay of an uncaptured beam at injection which may provide a novel means of measuring the radiation loss per turn.

  5. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  6. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  7. Combustion control technologies for direct injection SI engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kume, T.; Iwamoto, Y.; Iida, K.; Murakami, M.; Akishino, K.; Ando, H.

    1996-09-01

    Novel combustion control technologies for the direct injection SI engine have been developed. By adopting upright straight intake ports to generate air tumble, an electromagnetic swirl injector to realize optimized spray dispersion and atomization and a compact piston cavity to maintain charge stratification, it has become possible to achieve super-lean stratified combustion for higher thermal efficiency under partial loads as well as homogeneous combustion to realize higher performance at full loads. At partial loads, fuel is injected into the piston cavity during the later stage of the compression stroke. Any fuel spray impinging on the cavity wall is directed to the spark plug. Tumbling air flow in the cavity also assists the conservation of the rich mixture zone around the spark plug. Stable combustion can be realized under a air fuel ratio exceeding 40. At higher loads, fuel is injected during the early stage of the intake stroke. Since air cooling by the latent heat of vaporization increases volumetric efficiency and reduces the octane number requirement, a high compression ratio of 12 to 1 can be adopted. As a result, engines utilizing these types of control technologies show a 10% increase in improved performance over conventional port injection engines.

  8. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  9. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  10. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal Heating Systems (DEQ Form UICGEO-1004(f)) Abstract Required...

  11. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application Fees (DEQ Form UIC 1003-GIC) Abstract Required fees and form...

  12. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Underground Injection Control Registration webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Washington Environmental Permit Handbook -...

  13. Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permitting Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage Author State of Hawaii...

  14. Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A low temperature oxidation catalyst applied to a DOC and DPF combined with a unique fuel injection system remove soot from a diesel exhaust system.

  15. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  16. CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy to advance carbon storage technologies nationwide, has begun injecting carbon dioxide for their large-scale CO2 injection test in Decatur, Illinois.

  17. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  18. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G. Ronald; Hohimer, John P.; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  19. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  20. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  1. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Effect of Injection Parameters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 ...

  3. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-19

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  4. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer. PDF icon p-10gibbs.pdf More ...

  5. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  6. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  7. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  8. Dual nozzle single pump fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, C.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes an improvement in a fuel injection system in a stratified charge hybrid internal combustion engine including a main combustion chamber, a precombustion chamber connected with the main chamber, fuel injectors in the main combustion chamber and precombustion chamber which open at higher and lower pressure levels respectively to sequentially inject fuel into the prechamber and the main chamber, timed spark ignition means in the prechamber for ignition of the fuel-air mixture therein, and an engine driven and timed fuel injection pump having a variable output capacity that varies with power level position, the injection pump is supplied by a low pressure charging pump. The improvement comprises: a shuttle valve including a bore therein; a shuttle spool means positioned within the bore defining a prechamber supply chamber on one side thereof and a spool activation chamber on the opposite side thereof the spool means having a first and second position; biasing means urging the spool towards it first position with the spool actuation chamber at its minimum volume; first conduit means connecting charging pressure to the prechamber supply camber in the first position oil the spool means; second conduit means connecting the injection pump to spool actuation chamber; third conduit means connecting the spool actuating chamber with the main injector; forth conduit means connecting the prechamber supply chamber with the prechamber injector; the initial charge from the injection pump actuates the spool means from its fir to its second position.

  9. Fuel injection characteristics and combustion behavior of a direct-injection stratified-charge engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balles, E.N.; Ekchian, J.A.; Heywood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    High levels of hydrocarbon emissions during light load operation keep the direct injection stratified charge engine from commercial application. Previous analytical work has identified several possible hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms which can result from poor in-cylinder fuel distribution. Poor fuel distribution can be caused by erratic fuel injection. Experiments conducted on a single cylinder disc engine show a dramatic increase in the cycle to cycle variation in injection characteristics as engine load decreases. This is accompanied by an increase in cycle to cycle variation in combustion behavior suggesting that degradation in combustion results from the degradation in the quality of the injection event. Examination of combustion and injection characteristics on a cycle by cycle basis shows that, at light load, IMEP and heat release do not correlate with the amount of fuel injected into the cylinder. There are strong indications that individual cycles undergo partial or complete misfire.

  10. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  11. Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged Spark Ignited Direct Injection - A Fuel Economy Solution for The US Turbocharged SIDI ...

  12. Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability and Instrumentation Working Group Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, ...

  13. V-170: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection Vulnerability V-170: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection Vulnerability June 4, 2013 - 12:17am...

  14. Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission Standards Presentation given at DEER 2006, ...

  15. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel ...

  16. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  17. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. ...

  18. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods Brady, Patrick...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L. A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed....

  19. EPA - Underground Injection Control Classes of Wells webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Underground Injection Control Classes of Wells webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Underground Injection Control Classes of...

  20. Utah Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Injection Control Program Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Utah Underground Injection Control Program Webpage Abstract Provides...

  1. Idaho Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Underground Injection Control Program Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho Underground Injection Control Program Webpage...

  2. Vermont Underground Injection Control Rule | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Underground Injection Control Rule Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: Vermont Underground Injection Control...

  3. Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers, ... Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers, ...

  4. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical modeling of water injection ...

  5. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells Title: Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and ...

  6. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. ...

  7. Powder Injection Molding of Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Nyberg, Eric A.; Weil, K. Scott; Miller, Megan R.

    2005-01-01

    Powder injection molding (PIM) is a well-established, cost-effective method of fabricating small-to-moderate size metal components. Derived from plastic injection molding and employing a mixture of metal powder and plastic binder, the process has been used with great success in manufacturing a wide variety of metal products, including those made from stainless steel, nickel-based superalloys, and copper alloys. Less progress has been achieved with titanium and other refractory metal alloys because of problems with alloy impurities that are directly attributable to the injection molding process. Specifically, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are left behind during binder removal and become incorporated into the chemistry and microstructure of the material during densification. Even at low concentration, these impurities can cause severe degradation in the mechanical properties of titanium and its alloys. We have developed a unique blend of PIM constituents where only a small volume fraction of binder (~5 10 vol%) is required for injection molding; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and binder solvent. Because of the nature of decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process. Results will be presented on the first phase of this research, in which the binder, injection molding, de-binding and sintering schedule were developed. Additional data on the mechanical and physical properties of the material produced will be discussed.

  8. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  9. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.

    1996-12-31

    Partially oxygenated hydrocarbons produced from natural gas have been shown to be viable alternate fuels for the diesel engine, showing favorable combustion characteristics similar to that of diesel fuel but without exhaust particulates and with significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions and lower engine noise. Further, engine studies have demonstrated that such compounds, like dimethyl ether (DME), can be injected at much lower pressures than conventional diesel fuel with better overall performance. This experimental study compares the injection of DME to that of conventional diesel fuel. Both fuels were injected into a quiescent high pressure chamber containing Nitrogen at pressures up to 25 atmospheres at room temperature with a pintle nozzle and jerk pump. Comparisons were obtained with high speed photography using a Hycam camera. Results indicate that there are significant differences in spray geometry and penetration which are not predictable with analytical models currently used for diesel fuels.

  10. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  11. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  12. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Westerman, Stuart; Cheng, Weixing; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  13. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  14. Award Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award Types Types of Awards The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. Contact Awards Team (505) 667-7824 Email Types of Awards The Awards Office, sponsored by the Technology Transfer Division and the Science and Technology Base Program Office, coordinates the Laboratory's submission process for many key

  15. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D.; Thiel, Matthew P.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  16. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  17. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  18. Microearthquakes induced by a hydraulic injection in sedimentary rock, East Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    House, L.; Flores, R.; Withers, R.

    1996-08-01

    In October, 1993, ARCO carried out a hydraulic injection near Beaumont, TX, into an unconsolidated sand, the Frio Formation. Fluid was injected into a 55m long zone at a depth of 1350 m. Four separate injections were done during 5 days. A total of more than 2.1 million gallons of bentonite slurry was injected, along with more than 3 million pounds of sand. Downhole fluid injection pressures ranged between about 3000 and 3500 psi. Induced microearthquakes were monitored by a set of 25 geophone packages situated in each of two monitoring well. More than 2400 microearthquakes were recorded during the injection, although most were too small to locate reliably using arrival times. A total of 54 microearthquakes were selected for detailed study. They were precisely located using arrival times of P and S phases from both of the monitoring boreholes. These locations are distributed non-uniformly, with a cluster near the injection borehole, a linear distribution about 200 m from the injection borehole, and a relatively quiet zone in between. The relatively nonseismic behavior in the middle zone compared to the other two zones suggests that this zone represent a discontinuity in the Frio Formation, although no obvious discontinuity has been identified from logs or nearby seismic reflection profiles. The large vertical extent of the geophone packages allowed an inversion of the arrival times for transverse isotropic elastic parameters, which yielded Vp anisotropy of about -13% and Vs of about -2%. Since these anisotropy values indicate that the vertical Vp and Vs are larger than the horizontal, they are surprising for this well bedded formation. Single-event focal mechanisms could be determined for 47 of the microearthquakes, and all are shear slip type. They show a large range of mechanisms, ranging from normal to reverse slip. Normal or oblique-normal slip predominant though, with T (tensional) axes generally nearly horizontal and approximately N-S. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Type B Accident Investigation Board Report on the October 15, 2001, Grout Injection ... The board concluded that the direct cause of the accident was a failure of a 45 swivel ...

  20. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

  1. Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

  2. Modeling of Carbon Migration During JET Injection Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J. D.; Likonen, J.; Coad, P.; Rubel, M.; Widdowson, A.; Airila, M.; Andrew, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Corrigan, G.; Esser, H. G.; Jachmich, S.; Kallenbach, A.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Matthews, G. F.; Philipps, V.; Pitts, R. A.; Spence, J.; Stamp, M.; Wiesen, S.

    2008-10-15

    JET has performed two dedicated carbon migration experiments on the final run day of separate campaigns (2001 and 2004) using {sup 13}CH{sub 4} methane injected into repeated discharges. The EDGE2D/NIMBUS code modelled the carbon migration in both experiments. This paper describes this modelling and identifies a number of important migration pathways: (1) deposition and erosion near the injection location, (2) migration through the main chamber SOL, (3) migration through the private flux region aided by E x B drifts, and (4) neutral migration originating near the strike points. In H-Mode, type I ELMs are calculated to influence the migration by enhancing erosion during the ELM peak and increasing the long-range migration immediately following the ELM. The erosion/re-deposition cycle along the outer target leads to a multistep migration of {sup 13}C towards the separatrix which is called 'walking'. This walking created carbon neutrals at the outer strike point and led to {sup 13}C deposition in the private flux region. Although several migration pathways have been identified, quantitative analyses are hindered by experimental uncertainty in divertor leakage, and the lack of measurements at locations such as gaps and shadowed regions.

  3. Fuel injection and mixing systems having piezoelectric elements and methods of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Chien-Pei; Short, John; Klemm, Jim; Abbott, Royce; Overman, Nick; Pack, Spencer; Winebrenner, Audra

    2011-12-13

    A fuel injection and mixing system is provided that is suitable for use with various types of fuel reformers. Preferably, the system includes a piezoelectric injector for delivering atomized fuel, a gas swirler, such as a steam swirler and/or an air swirler, a mixing chamber and a flow mixing device. The system utilizes ultrasonic vibrations to achieve fuel atomization. The fuel injection and mixing system can be used with a variety of fuel reformers and fuel cells, such as SOFC fuel cells.

  4. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  5. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation, and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  6. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Li, Huidong; Xiao, Jie; Myjak, Mitchell J.; Lu, Jun; Martinez, Jayson J.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Eppard, Matthew B.

    2015-01-29

    Salmon recovery, and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish, has been attracting national attention in due to great environmental and economic implications. Acoustic Telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter offers improved performance and 30% weight reduction. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use, substantially reduces adverse effects of implantation,more » and provides additional biological benefits for tagged fish, it will become the enabling technology for studying migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. This will lead to critical information for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.« less

  7. Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

  8. European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambon, Paul H; Huff, Shean P; Edwards, Kevin Dean; Norman, Kevin M; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Thomas, John F

    2011-01-01

    Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

  9. T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability September 30, 2011 - 8:30am Addthis PROBLEM: Symantec IM Manager Code...

  10. High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in DIII-D ... Title: High frequency pacing of edge localized modes by injection of lithium granules in ...

  11. RRC - Summary of Injection Control Rules | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Summary of Injection Control Rules Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: RRC - Summary of Injection Control Rules Abstract This webpage...

  12. WAC - 173-218 Underground Injection Control Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8 Underground Injection Control Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 173-218 Underground Injection...

  13. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  14. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers. You are accessing a ...

  15. Microsoft Word - 6-9-09 DSI Lookback Letter- _2_.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Period; and 3) BPA is permitted to seek additional payments directly from Port Townsend Paper Company (or indirectly through the Public Utility District No. 1 of Clallam...

  16. Microsoft Word - DSI_Lookback_DROD_6-08-10_Final _signature_...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    legislative authority should not be readily subordinated to the actions of a wayward or unknowledgeable administrative official"); Portmann v. United States, 674 F.2d...

  17. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2008-10-20_DSI-Workshop (7 slides).ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is obligated to provide 48 million in employment expenditures * Alcoa has agreed to invest 160 million in capital improvements if there is 10 years of certainty upfront -...

  18. Microsoft Word - 200812-24_DSI-DraftContract_blackline.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    successor. 8.4.5.7 "S&P" shall mean Standard and Poor's Rating Services (a division of McGraw-Hill, Inc.) or its successor. 9. EMPLOYMENT EXPENDITURES AND CAPITAL INVESTMENT 9.1...

  19. Microsoft Word - 200812-24_DSI-DraftContract_redline.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    successor. 8.4.5.7 "S&P" shall mean Standard and Poor's Rating Services (a division of McGraw-Hill, Inc.) or its successor. 9. EMPLOYMENT EXPENDITURES AND CAPITAL INVESTMENT 9.1...

  20. Microsoft PowerPoint - 2008-12-16_DSI-Workshop v3.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    70 average megawatts of any firm power made available by the reduction of another direct-service industry smelter customer's entitlement pursuant to a corresponding section of...

  1. Microsoft Word - DSI_Lookback_Part_1_anouncement_-_2010-06-08...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Court's final Opinions in PNGC and PNGC II) on BPA's Website at: http:www.bpa.govpowerplregionaldialogueimplementationdocuments 3 Beginning on July 26, 2010 and continuing...

  2. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  3. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  4. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  5. Type: Renewal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 INCITE Awards Type: Renewal Title: -Ab Initio Dynamical Simulations for the Prediction of Bulk Properties‖ Principal Investigator: Theresa Windus, Iowa State University Co-Investigators: Brett Bode, Iowa State University Graham Fletcher, Argonne National Laboratory Mark Gordon, Iowa State University Monica Lamm, Iowa State University Michael Schmidt, Iowa State University Scientific Discipline: Chemistry: Physical INCITE Allocation: 10,000,000 processor hours Site: Argonne National

  6. Facility Type!

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ITY: --&L~ ----------- srct-r~ -----------~------~------- if yee, date contacted ------------- cl Facility Type! i I 0 Theoretical Studies Cl Sample 84 Analysis ] Production 1 Diepasal/Storage 'YPE OF CONTRACT .--------------- 1 Prime J Subcontract&- 1 Purchase Order rl i '1 ! Other information (i.e., ---------~---~--~-------- :ontrait/Pirchaee Order # , I C -qXlJ- --~-------~~-------~~~~~~ I I ~~~---~~~~~~~T~~~ FONTRACTING PERIODi IWNERSHIP: ,I 1 AECIMED AECMED GOVT GOUT &NTtiAC+OR

  7. Alternative Designs for the NSLS-II Injection Straight Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaftan,T.; Heese, R.; Weihreter, E.; Willeke, F.; Rehak, M.; Meier, R.; Fliller, R.; Johnson, E. D.

    2009-05-04

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is developing a state-of-the-art 3 GeV synchrotron light source, the NSLS-II [1]. The 9.3 meter-long injection straight section of its storage ring now fits a conventional injection set-up consisting of four kickers producing a closed bump, together with a DC septum and a pulsed septum. In this paper, we analyze an alternative option based on injection via a pulsed sextupole magnet. We discuss the dynamics of the injected and stored beams and, subsequently, the magnet's specifications and tolerances. We conclude by summarized the advantages and drawbacks of each injection scheme.

  8. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  9. Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul M. Bellan

    2001-10-09

    OAK-B135 The goal of the Caltech program is to determine how helicity injection works by investigating the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with magnetic relaxation. A new coaxial helicity injection source has been constructed and brought into operation. The key feature of this source is that it has maximum geometric simplicity. Besides being important for fusion research, this work also has astrophysical implications. Photos obtained using high-speed cameras show a clear sequence of events in the formation process. In particular, they show initial merging/reconnection processes, jet-like expansion, kinking, and separation of the plasma from the source. Various diagnostics have been developed, including laser induced fluorescence and soft x-ray detection using high speed diodes. Gas valves have been improved and a patent disclosure relating to puffed gas valves has been filed. Presentations on this work have been given in the form of invited talks at several university physics departments that were previously unfamiliar with laboratory plasma experiments.

  10. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upatnieks, Ansis (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-30

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  11. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  12. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  13. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  14. Gas Injection Apparatus for Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almabouada, F.; Louhibi, D.; Hamici, M.

    2011-12-26

    We present in this article a gas injection apparatus which comprises the gas injector and its electronic command for vacuum chamber applications. Some of these applications are thin-film deposition by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) or a cathodic arc deposition (arc-PVD) and the plasma generation. The electronic part has been developed to adjust the flow of the gas inside the vacuum chamber by controlling both of the injector's opening time and the repetition frequency to allow a better gas flow. In this case, the system works either on a pulsed mode or a continuous mode for some applications. In addition, the repetition frequency can be synchronised with a pulsed laser by an external signal coming from the laser, which is considered as an advantage for users. Good results have been obtained using the apparatus and testing with Argon and Nitrogen gases.

  15. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  16. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  17. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  18. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Cernohous, Bob R.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-10-11

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  19. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Manufacturing (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this

  20. Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | DOE PAGES DOE PAGES Search Results Accepted Manuscript: Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators This content will become publicly available on February 22, 2017 Title: Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators We investigate the spin injection and the spin transport in paramagnetic insulators described by simple Heisenberg interactions using auxiliary particle methods. Some of these methods allow access to both paramagnetic states above

  1. Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 22, 2017 Title: Spin injection and spin transport in paramagnetic insulators We investigate the spin injection and the spin transport in paramagnetic insulators described by simple Heisenberg interactions using auxiliary particle methods. Some of these methods allow

  2. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  3. Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-01-28

    We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

  4. Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios; Soultanis, Konstantinos; Batistaki, Chrysanthi; Kelekis, Alexis

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

  5. Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J.

    2008-10-06

    The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

  6. Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact of Extreme Injection Pressure and EGR on the Combustion System of a HD Single Cylinder Engine Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research ...

  7. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) ...

  8. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing Citation Details ... reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create ...

  9. An Injectable Apatite PRB for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: An Injectable Apatite PRB for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization. Abstract not provided. Authors: Moore, Robert C. ; Vermeul, Vince ; Szecsody, Jim ; Fritz, Brad ; ...

  10. Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Summary of the Optics, IR, Injection, Operations, Reliability and Instrumentation Working Group Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of the Optics, ...

  11. Single Well Injection Withdrawl Tracer Tests for Proppant Detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large question preventing optimal natural gas production from "hydrofracked" shales is how far proppants, injected to keep shale fractures open, move into the gas-bearing shales. ...

  12. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions H2 Internal Combustion Engine Research Towards 45% ...

  13. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  14. Texas Water Code 27A General Provisions for Injection Wells ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WellsLegal Abstract These rules outline the requirements for construction and maintenance of injection wells in Texas. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 1977 Legal...

  15. Oregon Fees for Underground Injection Control Program Fact Sheet...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fees for Underground Injection Control Program Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material:...

  16. Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permit Packet | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Supplemental Material: Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permit PacketPermittingRegulatory GuidanceSupplemental Material Author State of...

  17. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water...

  18. WSDE Underground Injection Control Well Registration Form | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Injection Control Well Registration Form Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Permit ApplicationPermit Application: WSDE Underground...

  19. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Injectivity Effects of Mineral Scaling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical Simulation of Injectivity Effects of Mineral Scaling and Clay Swelling in a Fractured Geothermal Reservoir Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical Simulation ...

  1. Hawaii Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Program Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii Underground Injection Control Program Webpage Author State of Hawaii Department...

  2. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Webpage Abstract Provides overview of regulations...

  3. Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water after Hydraulic Fracturing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strontium Isotopes Test Long-Term Zonal Isolation of Injected and Marcellus Formation Water after ...

  4. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  5. Oxidation characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI)...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characteristics of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine soot: Catalytic effects of ash and modified kinetic correlation Title Oxidation characteristics of gasoline...

  6. Injectivity Test At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Benoit, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Benoit, Et Al., 2000) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  8. Uranium Sequestration via Phosphate Infiltration/Injection Test...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium Sequestration via Phosphate InfiltrationInjection Test History Supporting the Preferred Alternative 1 300 Area GW Concentrations - Uranium High River Stage - GW...

  9. Injectivity Test At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al., 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  10. Injectivity Test At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Reese...

  11. Injectivity Test At Newberry Caldera Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Newberry Caldera Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  12. Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity...

  13. Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin, Et Al., 1993) Exploration Activity...

  14. Injectivity Test At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Steamboat Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  15. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing ...

  16. Investigation of Direct Injection Vehicle Particulate Matter Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This study focuses primarily on particulate matter mass analysis of a gasoline direct injection engine in a test cell with a chassis dynamometer.

  17. RRC - Injection/Disposal Well Permitting, Testing, and Monitoring...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    InjectionDisposal Well Permitting, Testing, and Monitoring manual Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - Guide...

  18. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  19. Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.

    1982-03-19

    This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

  20. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmer, David O.

    1996-09-17

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  1. Transonic Combustion ’- Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel fuel injection equipment enables knock-free ignition with low noise and smoke in compression-ignition engines and low-particulates in spark-ignition engines.

  2. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Specification | Department of Energy can offer the same power, torque, and environmental vehicle performance while reducing imports of foreign oil PDF icon deer09_arnold.pdf More Documents & Publications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Liquid Propane Injection Applications Transportation Fuels: The Future is Today (6 Activities)

  3. High pressure injection and atomization characteristics of methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aigal, A.K.; Pundir, B.P.; Khatchian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Research on conversion of diesel engines for operation on methanol is, currently, of worldwide interest. Due to requirements of higher cyclic delivery of methanol and changes in fuel properties e.g. compressibility, wave propagation velocity, viscosity, surface tension, density etc., injection and atomization characteristics of methanol are expected to be different from diesel. From the equation of continuity and forces acting on the injection system elements and applying the principles of similarity, modifications required in the injection system were identified. Methanol injection and atomization characteristics were studied with a modified injection system and compared with those observed with diesel fuel. Methanol gave more favourable cyclic delivery characteristics than diesel. Laser diffraction technique was used to study time and space resolved drop size distribution in methanol and diesel sprays. With methanol, drop size distribution were, generally, much narrower and droplets were smaller than diesel. Spatial distribution of drop size in methanol spray showed somewhat different trends than for diesel.

  4. Use of data obtained from core tests in the design and operation of spent brine injection wells in geopressured or geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorda, R.M.

    1980-03-01

    The effects of formation characteristics on injection well performance are reviewed. Use of data acquired from cores taken from injection horizons to predict injectivity is described. And methods for utilizing data from bench scale testing of brine and core samples to optimize injection well design are presented. Currently available methods and equipment provide data which enable the optimum design of injection wells through analysis of cores taken from injection zones. These methods also provide a means of identifying and correcting well injection problems. Methods described in this report are: bulk density measurement; porosity measurement; pore size distribution analysis; permeability measurement; formation grain size distribution analysis; core description (lithology) and composition; amount, type and distribution of clays and shales; connate water analysis; consolidatability of friable reservoir rocks; grain and pore characterization by scanning electron microscopy; grain and pore characterization by thin section analysis; permeability damage and enhancement tests; distribution of water-borne particles in porous media; and reservoir matrix acidizing effectiveness. The precise methods of obtaining this information are described, and their use in the engineering of injection wells is illustrated by examples, where applicable. (MHR)

  5. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 97 243 137 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of

  6. South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 48 80 70 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas

  7. Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground

  8. Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 683 740 746 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of

  9. Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,274 1,500 179 1970's 391 189 255 2,012 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections

  10. Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 123 366 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground

  11. Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 112 395 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground

  12. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  13. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  14. North Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 97 2,626 2,019 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections

  15. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  16. Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 16,327 13,253 15,555 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into

  17. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  18. Idaho Application for Permit to Convert a Geothermal Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Convert a Geothermal Injection Well - Form 4003-3 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Idaho Application for Permit to Convert a Geothermal...

  19. DOE Regional Partner Initiates CO2 Injection Study in Virginia...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    injecting carbon dioxide (CO2) into coal seams in the Central Appalachian Basin to determine the feasibility of CO2 storage in unmineable coal seams and the potential for enhanced ...

  20. DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to ... indicated that the region's low-rank coal seams have the capacity to store up to 8 ...

  1. Fact #869: April 20, 2015 Gasoline Direct Injection Captures...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gasoline Direct Injection Captures 38% Market Share in Just Seven Years from First Significant Use File fotw869web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Fact 905: December 28, 2015 ...

  2. Improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery using polymer injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchett, R.T.; McGough, K.M.; Luttrell, G.H.

    2006-08-15

    The paper reports the improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery process using polymer injection technology. Field test and economic analysis are also included in the paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

  4. Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew H.

    2003-06-10

    A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

  5. Tracer Recovery and Mixing from Two Geothermal Injection-Backflow...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    procedures for use with injection-backflow testing, one on the fracture-permeability Raft River reservoir and the other on the matrix-permeability East Mesa reservoir. Results...

  6. Interpretation of self-potential measurements during injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    self-potential measurements during injection tests at Raft River, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Interpretation of...

  7. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF sup 26Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR ...

  8. Title 40 CFR 144 Underground Injection Control Program | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    44 Underground Injection Control Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- Federal RegulationFederal Regulation: Title 40 CFR 144...

  9. Gasoline Compression Ignition - Start of Injection Timing Sweep...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Us For more information, contact Greg Cunningham at (630) 252-8232 or media@anl.gov. Gasoline Compression Ignition - Start of Injection Timing Sweep (VERIFI) Share Topic...

  10. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  11. Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Resistivity...

  12. Illinois CO2 Injection Project Moves Another Step Forward

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The recent completion of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey at a large Illinois carbon dioxide injection test site is an important step forward for the carbon capture and storage project's planned early 2011 startup.

  13. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection-diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid-fluid interface. ...

  14. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system. Final report, Volume 1: Public design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, T.; Hanley, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) and the Public Services Company of Colorado (PSCo) signed the cooperative agreement for the Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System in March 1991. This project integrates various combinations of five existing and emerging technologies onto a 100 MWe, down-fired, load-following unit that burns pulverized coal. The project is expected to achieve up to 70% reductions in both oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Various combinations of low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), overfire air (OFA) ports, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), dry sorbent injection (DSI) using both calcium- and sodium-based reagents, and flue-gas humidification are expected to integrate synergistically and control both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions better than if each technology were used alone. For instance, ammonia emissions from the SNCR system are expected to reduce NO{sub 2} emissions and allow the DSI system (sodium-based reagents) to achieve higher removals of SO{sub 2}. Unlike tangentially or wall-fired units, down-fired require substantial modification to their pressure parts to retrofit LNBs and OFA ports, substantially increasing the cost of retrofit. Conversely, the retrofitting of SNCR, DSI, or humidification systems does not require any major boiler modifications and are easily retrofitted to all boiler types. However, existing furnace geometry and flue-gas temperatures can limit their placement and effectiveness. In particular, SNCR requires injecting the SNCR chemicals into the furnace where the temperature is within a very narrow temperature range.

  15. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, R.M.; Archuleta, J.; Fink, C.F.

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive /sup 82/Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular /sup 82/Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the /sup 82/Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote horehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  16. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Robert M.; Archuleta, Jacobo R.; Fink, Conrad F.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive .sup.82 Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular .sup.82 Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the .sup.82 Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote borehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  17. Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization, induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Passive injection: A strategy for mitigating reservoir pressurization, induced seismicity and brine migration in geologic CO2 storage Authors: Dempsey, David ; Kelkar, Sharad ; Pawar, Rajesh Publication

  18. Boundary condition and fuel composition effects on injection processes of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    high-pressure sprays at the microscopic level (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Boundary condition and fuel composition effects on injection processes of high-pressure sprays at the microscopic level This content will become publicly available on March 22, 2018 « Prev Next » Title: Boundary condition and fuel composition effects on injection processes of high-pressure sprays at the microscopic level Authors: Manin, J. ; Bardi, M. ; Pickett, L. M. ; Payri, R.

  19. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1988-01-01

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  20. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, January

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1, 1995--March 31, 1995 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells. Quarterly report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as

  1. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingwu; Li, Wenguang; Jiang, Hua

    2012-01-03

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  2. Direct plasma injection scheme with various ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.

    2010-09-15

    The laser ion source is one of the most powerful heavy ion sources. However, it is difficult to obtain good stability and to control its intense current. To overcome these difficulties, we proposed a new beam injection scheme called 'direct plasma injection scheme'. Following this it was established to provide various species with desired charge state as an intense accelerated beam. Carbon, aluminum and iron beams have been tested.

  3. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  4. Numerical Modeling of Geomechanical Processes Related to CO{sub 2} Injection within Generic Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, Andreas

    2013-05-31

    In this project generic anticline structures have been used for numerical modeling analyses to study the influence of geometrical parameters, fluid flow boundary conditions, in situ stress regime and inter-bedding friction coefficient on geomechanical risks such as fracture reactivation and fracture generation. The resulting stress states for these structures are also used to determine safe drilling directions and a methodology for wellbore trajection optimization is developed that is applicable for non-Andersonian stress states. The results of the fluid flow simulation show that the type of fluid flow boundary condition is of utmost importance and has significant impact on all injection related parameters. It is recommended that further research is conducted to establish a method to quantify the fluid flow boundary conditions for injection applications. The results of the geomechanical simulation show that in situ stress regime is a crucial, if not the most important, factor determining geomechanical risks. For extension and strike slip stress regimes anticline structures should be favored over horizontally layered basin as they feature higher ΔP{sub c} magnitudes. If sedimentary basins are tectonically relaxed and their state of stress is characterized by the uni-axial strain model the basin is in exact frictional equilibrium and fluids should not be injected. The results also show that low inter bedding friction coefficients effectively decouple layers resulting in lower ΔP{sub c} magnitudes, especially for the compressional stress regime.

  5. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haipeng; Plawski, Tomasz E.; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW type high efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  6. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  7. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  8. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convectiondiffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluidfluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convectiondiffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  9. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  10. Influence of electron injection into 27 cm audio plasma cell on the plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haleem, N. A.; Ragheb, M. S.; Zakhary, S. G.; El Fiki, S. A.; Nouh, S. A.; El Disoki, T. M.

    2013-08-15

    In this article, the plasma is created in a Pyrex tube (L = 27 cm, ?= 4 cm) as a single cell, by a capacitive audio frequency (AF) discharge (f = 10100 kHz), at a definite pressure of ?0.2 Torr. A couple of tube linear and deviating arrangements show plasma characteristic conformity. The applied AF plasma and the injection of electrons into two gas mediums Ar and N{sub 2} revealed the increase of electron density at distinct tube regions by one order to attain 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 3}. The electrons temperature and density strengths are in contrast to each other. While their distributions differ along the plasma tube length, they show a decaying sinusoidal shape where their peaks position varies by the gas type. The electrons injection moderates electron temperature and expands their density. The later highest peak holds for the N{sub 2} gas, at electrons injection it changes to hold for the Ar. The sinusoidal decaying density behavior generates electric fields depending on the gas used and independent of tube geometry. The effect of the injected electrons performs a responsive impact on electrons density not attributed to the gas discharge. Analytical tools investigate the interaction of the plasma, the discharge current, and the gas used on the electrodes. It points to the emigration of atoms from each one but for greater majority they behave to a preferred direction. Meanwhile, only in the linear regime, small percentage of atoms still moves in reverse direction. Traces of gas atoms revealed on both electrodes due to sheath regions denote lack of their participation in the discharge current. In addition, atoms travel from one electrode to the other by overcoming the sheaths regions occurring transportation of particles agglomeration from one electrode to the other. The electrons injection has contributed to increase the plasma electron density peaks. These electrons populations have raised the generated electrostatic fields assisting the elemental ions emigration to a preferred electrode direction. Regardless of plasma electrodes positions and plasma shape, ions can be departed from one electrode to deposit on the other one. In consequence, as an application the AF plasma type can enhance the metal deposition from one electrode to the other.

  11. Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy New control strategies are ...

  12. Injection of ?-like suprathermal particles into diffusive shock acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyesung; Petrosian, Vah; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W. E-mail: vahe@stanford.edu E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu

    2014-06-20

    We consider a phenomenological model for the thermal leakage injection in the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process, in which suprathermal protons and electrons near the shock transition zone are assumed to have the so-called ?-distributions produced by interactions of background thermal particles with pre-existing and/or self-excited plasma/MHD waves or turbulence. The ?-distribution has a power-law tail, instead of an exponential cutoff, well above the thermal peak momentum. So there are a larger number of potential seed particles with momentum, above that required for participation in the DSA process. As a result, the injection fraction for the ?-distribution depends on the shock Mach number much less severely compared to that for the Maxwellian distribution. Thus, the existence of ?-like suprathermal tails at shocks would ease the problem of extremely low injection fractions, especially for electrons and especially at weak shocks such as those found in the intracluster medium. We suggest that the injection fraction for protons ranges 10{sup 4}-10{sup 3} for a ?-distribution with 10 ? ? {sub p} ? 30 at quasi-parallel shocks, while the injection fraction for electrons becomes 10{sup 6}-10{sup 5} for a ?-distribution with ? {sub e} ? 2 at quasi-perpendicular shocks. For such ? values the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) electrons to protons naturally becomes K {sub e/p} ? 10{sup 3}-10{sup 2}, which is required to explain the observed ratio for Galactic CRs.

  13. Optical injection probing of single ZnO tetrapod lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szarko, Jodi M.; Song, Jae Kyu; Blackledge, Charles Wesley; Swart, Ingmar; Leone, Stephen R.; Li, Shihong; Zhao, Yiping

    2004-11-23

    The properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotetrapod lasers are characterized by a novel ultrafast two-color pump/stimulated emission probe technique. Single legs of tetrapod species are isolated by a microscope objective, pumped by 267 nm pulses, and subjected to a time-delayed 400 nm optical injection pulse, which permits investigation of the ultrafast carrier dynamics in the nanosize materials. With the optical injection pulse included, a large increase in the stimulated emission at 400 nm occurs, which partially depletes the carriers at this wavelength and competes with the normal 390 nm lasing. At the 390 nm lasing wavelengths, the optical injection causes a decrease in the stimulated emission due to the energetic redistribution of the excited carrier depletion, which occurs considerably within the time scale of the subpicosecond duration of the injection pulse. The effects of the optical injection on the spectral gain are employed to probe the lasing dynamics, which shows that the full width at half maximum of the lasing time is 3 ps.

  14. DeNOx characteristics using two staged radical injection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kambara, S.; Kumano, Y.; Yukimura, K.

    2009-06-15

    Ammonia radical injection using pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been investigated as a means to control NOx emissions from combustors. When DBD plasma-generated radicals (NH{sub 2}, NH, N, and H) are injected into a flue gas containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), NOx is removed efficiently by chain reactions in the gas phase. However, because the percentage of NOx removal gradually decreases with increasing oxygen concentrations beyond 1% O{sub 2}, improvement of the DeNOx (removal of nitrogen oxide) characteristics at high O{sub 2} concentrations was necessary for commercial combustors. A two-staged injection of the DeNOx agent was developed based on the detailed mechanisms of electron impact reactions and gas phase reactions. A concentration of H radical was observed to play an important role in NOx formation and removal. The effects of applied voltages, oxygen concentrations, and reaction temperatures on NOx removal were investigated under normal and staged injection. NOx removal was improved by approximately 20% using staged injection at O{sub 2} concentrations of 1 to 4%.

  15. Analysis of PWR RCS Injection Strategy During Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.-J. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chiang, K.-S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chiang, S.-C. [Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China)

    2004-05-15

    Reactor coolant system (RCS) injection is an important strategy for severe accident management of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Maanshan is a typical Westinghouse PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) with large, dry containment. The severe accident management guideline (SAMG) of Maanshan NPP is developed based on the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) SAMG.The purpose of this work is to analyze the RCS injection strategy of PWR system in an overheated core condition. Power is assumed recovered as the vessel water level drops to the bottom of active fuel. The Modular Accident Analysis Program version 4.0.4 (MAAP4) code is chosen as a tool for analysis. A postulated station blackout sequence for Maanshan NPP is cited as a reference case for this analysis. The hot leg creep rupture occurs during the mitigation action with immediate injection after power recovery according to WOG SAMG, which is not desired. This phenomenon is not considered while developing the WOG SAMG. Two other RCS injection methods are analyzed by using MAAP4. The RCS injection strategy is modified in the Maanshan SAMG. These results can be applied for typical PWR NPPs.

  16. Electroconvection under injection from cathode and heating from above

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mordvinov, A. N.; Smorodin, B. L.

    2012-05-15

    We study the electroconvection that appears in a nonuniformly heated, poorly conducting liquid in a parallel-plate horizontal capacitor due to the action of an external static electric field on the charge injected from the cathode. It is shown that the heating of the layer from above prevents steady-state convection and that, unlike the isothermal situation, electroconvection can appear in the oscillatory manner as a result of direct Hopf bifurcation. The effect of the heating intensity, the intensity of charge injection from the cathode, and the charge mobility on the thresholds of oscillatory and monotonic electroconvection is analyzed and the characteristic scales and frequencies of critical perturbations are determined. The nonlinear wave and steady-state regimes of the 2D convective structures formed in the poorly conducting liquid under the action of thermogravitational and injection mechanisms of convection are analyzed. The domains of existence of standing, traveling, and modulated waves are determined.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, the Raleigh Housing Authority worked with Building America team, the Advanced Residential Integrated Solutions Collaborative to determine the most cost-effective ways to reduce duct leakage in its low-rise housing units.Two retrofit duct sealing techniquesmanually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealantwere implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. Ihe cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  18. Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1995 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1996 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage

  19. Residual orientation in micro-injection molded parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B. (Monash); (ANSTO)

    2008-06-30

    The residual orientation following micro-injection molding of small rectangular plates with linear polyethylene has been examined using small-angle neutron scattering, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of changing the molding conditions has been examined, and the residual chain orientation has been compared to the residual orientation of the crystallites as a function of position in the sample. This study has found that, for micromoldings, the orientation of the crystallites decreases with increasing injection speed and increasing mold thickness. The combined data suggest that the majority of the orientation present comes from oriented crystal growth rather than residual chain orientation.

  20. New Jersey Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 805 975 1,281 1970's 1,447 1,626 1,765 1,867 3,953 6,378 1990's 0 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date:

  1. Geothermal Injection Technology Program: Annual progress report, Fiscal Year 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This report summarizes the Geothermal Injection Technology Program major activities in fiscal year 1986. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI) have been conducting injection research and testing for this program, which was initiated in 1983. Activities at the INEL, representative element nodeling of fracture systems based on stochastic analysis, dual permeability modeling of flow in a fractured geothermal reservoir, and dual permeability model - laboratory and FRACSL-validation studies, are presented first, followed by the University of Utah Research Institute tracer development - experimental studies, which includes a brief description of activities planned for FY-1987.

  2. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  3. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; WEI,J.

    2001-06-18

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented.

  4. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  5. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  6. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Types of radiation exposure Regardless of where or how an accident involving radiation ... Hospital Emergency Care of the Radiation Accident Patient.) Contamination The second type ...

  7. ARM - Measurement - Cloud type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as cirrus, stratus, cumulus etc Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  8. Acid-gas injection encounters diverse H{sub 2}S, water phase changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, J.J.

    1998-03-09

    For acid-gas injection systems, pressure-composition diagrams indicate the significant phase changes that H{sub 2}S and water mixtures can undergo when going from an amine unit to downhole in an injection well. This conclusion of a two-part series describes the importance of considering H{sub 2}S and water phase changes in the design of acid gas injection compressors, pipelines, injection wells, and methanol injection.

  9. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  10. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  11. Prediction of Gas Injection Performance for Heterogeneous Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blunt, M.J.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2001-03-26

    This report was an integrated study of the physics and chemistry affecting gas injection, from the pore scale to the field scale, and involved theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. Specifically, advances were made on streamline-based simulation, analytical solutions to 1D compositional displacements, and modeling and experimental measures of three-phase flow.

  12. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  13. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mines, Greg

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  14. One-Dimensional SO2 Predictions for Duct Injection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-10-05

    DIAN1D is a one-dimensional model that predicts SO2 absorption by slurry droplets injected into a flue gas stream with two-fluid atomizers. DIANUI is an interactive user interface for DIAN1D. It prepares the input file for DIAN1D from plant design specifications and process requirements.

  15. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mines, Greg

    2013-12-24

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  16. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  17. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  18. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  19. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  20. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  1. DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

    2002-10-01

    OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

  2. Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-06-10

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ?10{sup 4} to ?3 10{sup 4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  3. Message communications of particular message types between compute nodes using DMA shadow buffers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-11-16

    Message communications of particular message types between compute nodes using DMA shadow buffers includes: receiving a buffer identifier specifying an application buffer having a message of a particular type for transmission to a target compute node through a network; selecting one of a plurality of shadow buffers for a DMA engine on the compute node for storing the message, each shadow buffer corresponding to a slot of an injection FIFO buffer maintained by the DMA engine; storing the message in the selected shadow buffer; creating a data descriptor for the message stored in the selected shadow buffer; injecting the data descriptor into the slot of the injection FIFO buffer corresponding to the selected shadow buffer; selecting the data descriptor from the injection FIFO buffer; and transmitting the message specified by the selected data descriptor through the data communications network to the target compute node.

  4. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  5. Numerical prediction of fiber orientation in injection-molded short-fiber/thermoplastic composite parts with experimental validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thi, Thanh Binh Nguyen; Morioka, Mizuki; Yokoyama, Atsushi; Hamanaka, Senji; Yamashita, Katsuhisa; Nonomura, Chisato

    2015-05-22

    Numerical prediction of the fiber orientation in the short-glass fiber (GF) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites with the fiber weight concentration of 30%, 50%, and 70% manufactured by the injection molding process is presented. And the fiber orientation was also directly observed and measured through X-ray computed tomography. During the injection molding process of the short-fiber/thermoplastic composite, the fiber orientation is produced by the flow states and the fiber-fiber interaction. Folgar and Tucker equation is the well known for modeling the fiber orientation in a concentrated suspension. They included into Jeffreys equation a diffusive type of term by introducing a phenomenological coefficient to account for the fiber-fiber interaction. Our developed model for the fiber-fiber interaction was proposed by modifying the rotary diffusion term of the Folgar-Tucker equation. This model was presented in a conference paper of the 29{sup th} International Conference of the Polymer Processing Society published by AIP conference proceeding. For modeling fiber interaction, the fiber dynamic simulation was introduced in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient, which is sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The fiber orientation is predicted by using the proposed fiber interaction model incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. An experimental program has been carried out in which the fiber orientation distribution has been measured in 100 x 100 x 2 mm injection-molded plate and 100 x 80 x 2 mm injection-molded weld by analyzed with a high resolution 3D X-ray computed tomography system XVA-160?, and calculated by X-ray computed tomography imaging. The numerical prediction shows a good agreement with experimental validation. And the complex fiber orientation in the injection-molded weld was investigated.

  6. Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Continental flood basalts represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood basalt lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-saturated supercritical CO2 show that mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood basalt being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with basalt-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood basalts in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in regions of these countries where conventional storage options are limited.

  7. Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Continental flood basalts represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood basalt lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-saturated supercritical CO2 show thatmore » mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood basalt being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with basalt-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood basalts in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in regions of these countries where conventional storage options are limited.« less

  8. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  9. Numerical approach of the injection molding process of fiber-reinforced composite with considering fiber orientation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Thi, T. B., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp; Yokoyama, A., E-mail: thanhbinh.skku@gmail.com, E-mail: yokoyama@kit.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Fibro-Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology (Japan); Ota, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Kodama, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Yamashita, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Isogai, Y., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Furuichi, K., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp; Nonomura, C., E-mail: kei-ota@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhiro-kodama@toyobo.jp, E-mail: katsuhisa-yamashita@toyobo.jp, E-mail: yumiko-isogai@toyobo.jp, E-mail: kenji-furuichi@toyobo.jp, E-mail: chisato-nonomura@toyobo.jp [Toyobo Co., LTD. Research Center (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    One of the most important challenges in the injection molding process of the short-glass fiber/thermoplastic composite parts is being able to predict the fiber orientation, since it controls the mechanical and the physical properties of the final parts. Folgar and Tucker included into the Jeffery equation a diffusive type of term, which introduces a phenomenological coefficient for modeling the randomizing effect of the mechanical interactions between the fibers, to predict the fiber orientation in concentrated suspensions. Their experiments indicated that this coefficient depends on the fiber volume fraction and aspect ratio. However, a definition of the fiber interaction coefficient, which is very necessary in the fiber orientation simulations, hasn't still been proven yet. Consequently, this study proposed a developed fiber interaction model that has been introduced a fiber dynamics simulation in order to obtain a global fiber interaction coefficient. This supposed that the coefficient is a sum function of the fiber concentration, aspect ratio, and angular velocity. The proposed model was incorporated into a computer aided engineering simulation package C-Mold. Short-glass fiber/polyamide-6 composites were produced in the injection molding with the fiber weight concentration of 30 wt.%, 50 wt.%, and 70 wt.%. The physical properties of these composites were examined, and their fiber orientation distributions were measured by micro-computed-tomography equipment ?-CT. The simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment results.

  10. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Refunjol, B.T.; Lake, L.W.

    1997-08-01

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  11. Types of Reuse

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following provides greater detail regarding the types of reuse pursued for LM sites. It should be noted that many actual reuses combine several types of the uses listed below.

  12. Types of Hydropower Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are two main types of hydro turbines: impulse and reaction. The type of hydropower turbine selected for a project is based on the height of standing water—referred to as "head"—and the flow,...

  13. Scattering assisted injection based injectorless mid infrared quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Siddharth Kamoua, Ridha

    2014-06-07

    An injectorless five-well mid infrared quantum cascade laser is analyzed which relies on phonon scattering injection in contrast to resonant tunneling injection, which has been previously used for injectorless designs. A Monte Carlo based self-consistent electron and photon transport simulator is used to analyze the performance of the analyzed design and compare it to existing injectorless designs. The simulation results show that the analyzed design could greatly enhance the optical gain and the characteristic temperatures of injectorless quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) which have typically been hindered by low characteristic temperatures and significant temperature related performance degradation. Simulations of the analyzed device predict threshold current densities of 0.85?kA/cm{sup 2} and 1.95?kA/cm{sup 2} at 77?K and 300?K, respectively, which are comparable to the threshold current densities of conventional injector based QCLs.

  14. South Central Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) South Central Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2014 43,713 72,210 68,273 129,736 166,816 139,578 127,533 106,014 152,936 188,366 105,938 79,339 2015 42,402 27,815 109,364 202,417 199,245 125,159 103,901 98,174 147,861 157,461 91,849 81,946 2016 39,777 68,898 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  15. East Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) East Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2014 9,107 10,259 22,569 71,857 144,145 132,960 120,491 118,493 122,207 94,669 33,103 25,810 2015 8,423 5,281 16,253 88,445 149,767 130,188 108,787 114,704 101,174 71,777 40,221 27,722 2016 8,190 15,514 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  16. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  17. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  18. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  19. Pacific Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Pacific Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2014 4,011 3,540 14,172 43,546 58,466 51,172 32,264 32,879 23,448 31,224 15,841 14,871 2015 5,947 15,411 23,160 28,448 37,851 21,448 19,718 17,633 22,413 27,233 13,622 8,742 2016 7,399 8,534 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure

  20. AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Eastern Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 7,862 17,834 34,190 160,946 247,849 262,039 269,285 244,910 208,853 134,234 47,094 16,471 1995 13,614 4,932 36,048 85,712 223,991 260,731 242,718 212,493 214,385 160,007 37,788 12,190 1996 12,276 39,022 32,753 130,232 233,717 285,798 303,416 270,223

  1. AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Producing Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 20,366 29,330 55,297 93,538 129,284 83,943 104,001 98,054 88,961 65,486 49,635 27,285 1995 24,645 25,960 57,833 78,043 101,019 100,926 77,411 54,611 94,759 84,671 40,182 33,836 1996 34,389 48,922 38,040 76,100 98,243 88,202 88,653 109,284 125,616 91,618 37,375

  2. AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) AGA Western Consuming Region Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1994 2,449 542 13,722 29,089 48,055 33,801 35,146 27,858 45,903 22,113 5,766 6,401 1995 2,960 9,426 8,840 10,680 42,987 47,386 37,349 22,868 31,053 25,873 15,711 3,003 1996 2,819 8,696 9,595 20,495 41,216 36,086 25,987 20,787 24,773 17,795 13,530 9,122

  3. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartwell, Jack K.; Goodwin, Scott G.; Johnson, Larry O.; Killian, E. Wayne

    1990-01-01

    An improved system for gamma-ray spectroscopy characterized by an interface module that controls the injection of electronic pulses as well as separation logic that enables storage of pulser events in a region of the spectrum of a multichannel analyzer distinct from the region reserved for storage of gamma-ray events. The module accomplishes this by tagging pulser events (high or low) injected into the amplification circuitry, adding an offset to the events so identified at the time the events are at the output of the analog to digital converter, and storing such events in the upper portion of the spectrum stored in the multichannel analyzer. The module can be adapted for use with existing gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment to provide for automatic analyses of radioisotopes.

  4. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  5. Stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines having an air intake stroke, a compression stroke, a power stroke, and an exhaust stroke. It comprises a rotor housing, the housing including an air intake port and an exhaust port, and an outer perimeter, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a gaseous fuel injector supplying all of the fuel is connected to the housing between 270{degrees} and 360{degrees} of the rotor rotation after compression top dead center and downstream of the air intake port, the injector providing gaseous fuel at a pressure less than peak compression pressure, the injector located in the middle of the width of the outer perimeter of the housing, spark ignition means in the housing downstream of the injector, and means connected to the fuel injector responsive to the compression pressure for controlling the rate and duration of fuel injection.

  6. Injection/Extraction Studies for the Muon FFAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J. Scott; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.

    2010-03-30

    The non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring is a candidate muon accelerator in the Neutrino Factory complex according to the present baseline, which is currently being addressed by the International Design Study (IDS-NF). In order to achieve small orbit excursion, motivated by magnet cost reduction, and small time of flight variation, dictated by the need to use high RF frequency, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry dictates very difficult constraints on the injection/extraction systems. Beam dynamics in the non-scaling FFAG is studied using codes capable of correctly tracking with large transverse amplitude and momentum spread. The feasibility of injection/extraction is studied and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. Finally the parameters of the resulting kicker magnets are estimated.

  7. Pulse-actuated fuel-injection spark plug

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, Ian; Tatro, Clement A.

    1978-01-01

    A replacement spark plug for reciprocating internal combustion engines that functions as a fuel injector and as a spark plug to provide a "stratified-charge" effect. The conventional carburetor is retained to supply the main fuel-air mixture which may be very lean because of the stratified charge. The replacement plug includes a cylindrical piezoelectric ceramic which contracts to act as a pump whenever an ignition pulse is applied to a central rod through the ceramic. The rod is hollow at its upper end for receiving fuel, it is tapered along its lower length to act as a pump, and it is flattened at its lower end to act as a valve for fuel injection from the pump into the cylinder. The rod also acts as the center electrode of the plug, with the spark jumping from the plug base to the lower end of the rod to thereby provide spark ignition that has inherent proper timing with the fuel injection.

  8. A Novel Method of Injection Molding Titanium Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Weil, K. Scott

    2005-05-01

    We have developed a unique blend of powder injection molding feedstock materials in which only a small volume fraction of binder (< 8%) is required; the remainder of the mixture consists of the metal powder and a solid aromatic solvent. Because of the nature of the decomposition in the binder system and the relatively small amount used, the binder is eliminated almost completely from the pre-sintered component during the initial stage of a two-step heat treatment process.

  9. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  10. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  11. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  12. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  13. Alcohol injection cuts diesel consumption on turbocharged tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edson, D.V.

    1980-07-21

    M and W Gear Co. of Gibson City, IL, are marketing a new alcohol- injection system that permits turbocharged diesel engines to burn alcohol and claims to cut diesel consumption by 30% and more. The alcohol fuel, a blend of alcohol and water, does not meet the diesel fuel until the alcohol has been atomized and sprayed through the intake manifold into the cylinders. It permits farmers to use home- still-produced ethanol without the added expense of refining to anhydrous composition.

  14. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Richard P.; Lott, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of DOC Performance Using Secondary Fuel Injection |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_Yetkin.pdf More Documents & Publications Engine Tests of an Active PM Filter Regeneration System Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group

  16. Experimental Investigation of Effect of Injection Parameters, Compression

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ratio and Ultra-cooled EGR on CI Engine Performance and Emissions | Department of Energy Low temperature combustion, simultaneous reduction of NOx and PM, in CI engines is achieved with moderate rate of ultra-cooled EGR PDF icon p-32_patel.pdf More Documents & Publications An Experimental Investigation of the Origin of Increased NOx Emissions When Fueling a Heavy-Duty Compression-Ignition Engine with Soy Biodiesel Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance,

  17. Postdoc Appointment Types

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appointment Types Postdoc Appointment Types Most postdocs will be offered a postdoctoral research associate appointment. Each year, approximately 30 Postdoctoral Fellow appointments, including the Distinguished Fellows, are awarded. Contact Postdoc Program Office Email Postdoc appointment types offer world of possibilities Meet the current LANL Distinguished Postdocs Research Associates Research Associates pursue research as part of ongoing LANL science and engineering programs. Sponsored

  18. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  19. Coanda injection system for axially staged low emission combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evulet, Andrei Tristan (Clifton Park, NY); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); ElKady, Ahmed Mostafa (Niskayuna, NY); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC)

    2012-05-15

    The low emission combustor includes a combustor housing defining a combustion chamber having a plurality of combustion zones. A liner sleeve is disposed in the combustion housing with a gap formed between the liner sleeve and the combustor housing. A secondary nozzle is disposed along a centerline of the combustion chamber and configured to inject a first fluid comprising air, at least one diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to a downstream side of a first combustion zone among the plurality of combustion zones. A plurality of primary fuel nozzles is disposed proximate to an upstream side of the combustion chamber and located around the secondary nozzle and configured to inject a second fluid comprising air and fuel to an upstream side of the first combustion zone. The combustor also includes a plurality of tertiary coanda nozzles. Each tertiary coanda nozzle is coupled to a respective dilution hole. The tertiary coanda nozzles are configured to inject a third fluid comprising air, at least one other diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to one or more remaining combustion zones among the plurality of combustion zones.

  20. Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, P.D.

    2011-04-01

    One of the main concerns of storage in saline aquifers is leakage via faults. In the early stages of site selection, site-specific fault coverages are often not available for these aquifers. This necessitates a method using available fault data to estimate the probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and migrating up a fault. The probability of encounter can be calculated from areal fault density statistics from available data, and carbon dioxide plume dimensions from numerical simulation. Given a number of assumptions, the dimension of the plume perpendicular to a fault times the areal density of faults with offsets greater than some threshold of interest provides probability of the plume encountering such a fault. Application of this result to a previously planned large-scale pilot injection in the southern portion of the San Joaquin Basin yielded a 3% and 7% chance of the plume encountering a fully and half seal offsetting fault, respectively. Subsequently available data indicated a half seal-offsetting fault at a distance from the injection well that implied a 20% probability of encounter for a plume sufficiently large to reach it.

  1. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen; Gel, Aytekin; Syamlal, M; Guenther, Chris; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2010-01-01

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  2. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

  3. File:04ORDExplorationInjectionPermit (1).pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ORDExplorationInjectionPermit (1).pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:04ORDExplorationInjectionPermit (1).pdf Size of this preview: 463 ...

  4. Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus Initial Results of the DeNOx SCR System by Urea Injection in the Euro 5 Bus 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  5. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS You ...

  6. DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS Soil vapor extraction ...

  7. H.A.R. 11-23 - Underground Injection Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 - Underground Injection Control Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: H.A.R. 11-23 - Underground Injection...

  8. A Case History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: A Case History of Injection Through...

  9. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with ...

  10. Fact #720: March 26, 2012 Eleven Percent of New Light Trucks Sold have Gasoline Direct Injection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline direct fuel injection (GDI) allows fuel to be injected directly into the cylinder so the timing and shape of the fuel mist can be controlled more precisely. The improved combustion and...

  11. Fact #801: October 28, 2013 Gasoline Direct Injection Continues to Grow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) is an engine technology that improves fuel economy and engine performance by injecting fuel directly into the combustion chamber, allowing for a more complete and...

  12. Field air injection tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Field air injection tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle on the permeability of welded tuff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Field air injection tests to ...

  13. Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle on the permeability of welded tuff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Air-injection field tests to ...

  14. Formation dry-out from CO2 injection into saline aquifers: Part...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 54; 58; AQUIFERS; BRINES; CROSS SECTIONS; DIFFUSION; DISSOLUTION; EVAPORATION; FRESH WATER; GEOMETRY; INJECTION WELLS; MITIGATION; PERMEABILITY; POROSITY; PRECIPITATION; ...

  15. Effect of pilot injection on combustion in a turbocharged D.I. diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishida, Masahiro; Chen, Z.L.; Luo, G.F.; Ueki, Hironobu

    1994-09-01

    For reducing the exhaust emissions and improving the ignition characteristics, the effect of pilot injection was investigated experimentally in a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The pilot injection quantity was varied by changing the seat diameter of the Doge plunger installed in the newly developed pilot injector while the separation period between the beginning of pilot injection and that of main injection was fixed at a short interval in the present experiment. The pilot injection effect on combustion was compared with the case of normal injection in two fuel oils with the cetane indexes of 53 and 40-respectively. The pilot injection showed some significant effects on improving the ignition characteristics and fuel consumption as follows: (1) The pilot ignition delay and the main ignition delay were about half of the ignition delay of the normal injection respectively. (2) The lower fuel consumption and NOx could be attained by the pilot injection at the retarded injection timing, especially under the lower load condition. (3) The trade-off relationship between the specific fuel consumption and NOx was significantly improved by the pilot injection. (4) In the present short pilot-main interval, a small amount of pilot quantity was recommended to reduce NOx and fuel consumption without deteriorating smoke density. 12 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Agreement Type Union

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Type Union Local Name Number of Employees Project Labor Agreement International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers 135 2 International Brothehood of ...

  17. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B; Szybist, James P; Splitter, Derek A; Pihl, Josh A; Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  18. THE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTION KICKER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAHN,H.

    1999-06-28

    IN THIS PAPER, RESULTS FROM IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS ON THE RHIC INJECTION KICKERS ARE REPORTED. THE KICKER IS CONFIGURED AS A ''C'' CROSS SECTION MAGNET WITH INTERLEAVED FERRITE AND HIGH-PERMITTIVITY DIELECTRIC SECTIONS TO ACHIEVE A TRAVELLING WAVE STRUCTURE. THE IMPEDANCE WAS MEASURED USING THE WIRE METHOD, AND ACCURATE RESULTS ARE OBTAINED BY INTERPRETING THE FORWARD SCATTERING COEFFICIENT VIA THE LONG-FORMULA. THE FOUR KICKERS WITH THEIR CERAMIC BEAM TUBES CONTRIBUE AT Z/N-0.22 OMEGA/RING IN THE INTERESTING FREQUENCY RANGE FROM 0.1 TO 1 BHZ, AND LESS ABOVE.

  19. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  20. Injection mode-locking Ti-sapphire laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovater, James Curtis; Poelker, Bernard Matthew

    2002-01-01

    According to the present invention there is provided an injection modelocking Ti-sapphire laser system that produces a unidirectional laser oscillation through the application of a ring cavity laser that incorporates no intracavity devices to achieve unidirectional oscillation. An argon-ion or doubled Nd:YVO.sub.4 laser preferably serves as the pump laser and a gain-switched diode laser serves as the seed laser. A method for operating such a laser system to produce a unidirectional oscillating is also described.

  1. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR Semi-Annual Report Reporting Period Start Date: May 1, 2003 Reporting Period End Date: November 1, 2003 Principal Authors: Robert Loucks (Co-PI), Steve Ruppel (Co-PI), Julia Gale, Jon Holder, Jon Olsen, Deanna Combs, Dhiraj Dembla, and Leonel Gomez Date Report Issued: December 10, 2003 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-02NT15442 Bureau of Economic Geology The John A. and Katherine G. Jackson School of Geosciences The

  2. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  3. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  4. PNEUMATIC MICROVALVE FOR ELECTROKINETIC SAMPLE PRECONCENTRATION AND CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Rausch, Sarah J.; Geng, Tao; Jambovane, Sachin R.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-27

    Here we show that a closed pneumatic microvalve on a PDMS chip can serve as a semipermeable membrane under an applied potential, enabling current to pass through while blocking the passage of charged analytes. Enrichment of both anionic and cationic species has been demonstrated, and concentration factors of ~70 have been achieved in just 8 s. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the sample is hydrodynamically injected onto an integrated microchip or capillary electrophoresis (CE) column. In contrast to existing preconcentration approaches, the membrane-based method described here enables both rapid analyte concentration as well as high resolution separations.

  5. Laboratory Measurements of Electrostatic Solitary Structures Generated by Beam Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefebvre, Bertrand; Chen, Li-Jen; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Vincena, Stephen; Kintner, Paul; Pickett, Jolene; Chiang, Franklin; Judy, Jack

    2010-09-10

    Electrostatic solitary structures are generated by injection of a suprathermal electron beam parallel to the magnetic field in a laboratory plasma. Electric microprobes with tips smaller than the Debye length ({lambda}{sub De}) enabled the measurement of positive potential pulses with half-widths 4 to 25{lambda}{sub De} and velocities 1 to 3 times the background electron thermal speed. Nonlinear wave packets of similar velocities and scales are also observed, indicating that the two descend from the same mode which is consistent with the electrostatic whistler mode and result from an instability likely to be driven by field-aligned currents.

  6. CREEP MODELING FOR INJECTION-MOLDED LONG-FIBER THERMOPLASTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

    2008-06-30

    This paper proposes a model to predict the creep response of injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). The model accounts for elastic fibers embedded in a thermoplastic resin that exhibits the nonlinear viscoelastic behavior described by the Schaperys model. It also accounts for fiber length and orientation distributions in the composite formed by the injection-molding process. Fiber length and orientation distributions were measured and used in the analysis that applies the Eshelbys equivalent inclusion method, the Mori-Tanaka assumption (termed as the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach) and the fiber orientation averaging technique to compute the overall strain increment resulting from an overall constant applied stress during a given time increment. The creep model for LFTs has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been validated against the experimental creep data obtained for long-glass-fiber/polypropylene specimens. The effects of fiber orientation and length distributions on the composite creep response are determined and discussed.

  7. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  8. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  9. Duct injection technology prototype development. Materials corrosion report, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harper, S.L.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a test program conducted to determine the corrosion rate of materials in the dry scrubber or duct injection systems. Four materials were evaluated: 1010 carbon steel, Corten, 317SS and Hastelloy C-276. The results show that acidic conditions result in higher corrosion rates than alkaline conditions for all the materials. The carbon steel, Corten and stainless steel show moderate to heavy pitting attack in the acidic environment. For the alkaline conditions, the corrosion rates of carbon steel and Corten were higher than the stainless steel or Hastelloy C-276. Also, the corrosion rate of abraded specimens were four time those of unabraded specimens in the flue gas. It is probable that areas of wall-wetting and plugging in the duct injection process will exhibit high rates of corrosion for the carbon steel, Corten, and stainless steel materials. General corrosion and pitting corrosion will predominate. Additionally, abraded duct areas will corrode at a significantly higher rate than unabraded duct materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Sample extraction and injection with a microscale preconcentrator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Chan, Helena Kai Lun

    2007-09-01

    This report details the development of a microfabricated preconcentrator that functions as a fully integrated chemical extractor-injector for a microscale gas chromatograph (GC). The device enables parts-per-billion detection and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air with size and power advantages over macro-scale systems. The 44 mm{sup 3} preconcentrator extracts VOCs using highly adsorptive, granular forms of graphitized carbon black and carbon molecular sieves. The micron-sized silicon cavities have integrated heating and temperature sensing allowing low power, yet rapid heating to thermally desorb the collected VOCs (GC injection). The keys to device construction are a new adsorbent-solvent filling technique and solvent-tolerant wafer-level silicon-gold eutectic bonding technology. The product is the first granular adsorbent preconcentrator integrated at the wafer level. Other advantages include exhaustive VOC extraction and injection peak widths an order of magnitude narrower than predecessor prototypes. A mass transfer model, the first for any microscale preconcentrator, is developed to describe both adsorption and desorption behaviors. The physically intuitive model uses implicit and explicit finite differences to numerically solve the required partial differential equations. The model is applied to the adsorption and desorption of decane at various concentrations to extract Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters from effluent curve measurements where properties are unknown a priori.

  11. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Delayed energy injection model for gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-12-10

    The shallow decay phase and flares in the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be associated with the later activation of the central engine. Some models of energy injection involve a continuous energy flow since the GRB trigger time, such as the magnetic dipole radiation from a magnetar. However, in the scenario involving a black hole accretion system, the energy flow from the fall-back accretion may be delayed for a fall-back time ?t {sub fb}. Thus, we propose a delayed energy injection model. The delayed energy would cause a notable rise to the Lorentz factor of the external shock, which will 'generate' a bump in the multiple band afterglows. If the delayed time is very short, our model degenerates to the previous models. Our model can explain the significant re-brightening in the optical and infrared light curves of GRB 081029 and GRB 100621A. A considerable fall-back mass is needed to provide the later energy; this indicates that GRBs accompanied with fall-back material may be associated with a low energy supernova so that the fraction of the envelope can survive during eruption. The fall-back time can give meaningful information on the properties of GRB progenitor stars.

  13. Asymmetric injection of cathodic arc plasma into a macroparticlefilter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2004-02-11

    The cathodic arc plasmas produced by cathode spots usuallyinclude macroparticles, which is undesirable for many applications. Acommon way of removing macroparticles is to use curved solenoid filterswhich guide the plasma from the source to the substrate. In this work, anarc source with relatively small cathode is used, limiting the possiblelocations of plasma production. The relative position of cathodic arcsource and macroparticle filtered was systematically varied and thefiltered plasma current was recorded. It was found that axis-symmetricplasma injection leads to maximum throughput only if an anode aperturewas used, which limited the plasma to near-axis flow by scraping offplasma at larger angles to the axis. When the anode aperture was removed,more plasma could enter the filter. In this case, maximum filtered ioncurrent was achieved when the plasma was injected off-axis, namely offsetin the direction where the filter is curved. Such behavior wasanticipated because the plasma column in the filter is known to beshifted by ExB and centrifugal drift as well as by non-axis-symmetriccomponents of the magnetic field in the filter entrance and exit plane.The data have implications for plasma transport variations caused bydifferent spot locations on cathodes that are not small compared to thefilter cross section.

  14. Improved plasma uniformity in a discharge system with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizir, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Shandrikov, M. V.

    2009-02-15

    We present the results of experiments leading to improvement in bulk plasma uniformity of a constricted-arc discharge system with electron injection. The steady-state discharge was in argon, at a gas pressure of 0.5 mTorr, and operated with a main discharge voltage between 20 and 100 V and current between 3 and 15 A. The radial plasma distribution was measured with a movable Langmuir probe. We find that geometric modification of the intermediate electrode exit aperture and the main discharge cathode add little to the plasma uniformity. Improved bulk plasma uniformity is observed when a special distributing grid electrode is used and the main discharge voltage is less than 20-30 V. The application of a weakly divergent magnetic field in the region of the intermediate electrode exit aperture decreases the plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 14% over a radial distance of 30 cm. The plasma uniformity was further improved by compensating the magnetic self-field of the injected electron beam by a reverse magnetic field produced with a special electrode compensator. It is shown that an increase in discharge current causes a proportional increase in back current in the distributing electrode. The approach allows a decrease in plasma nonuniformity from 20% to 13% over a radial distance of 30 cm.

  15. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  17. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  18. Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, C. J.

    2014-08-29

    During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.

  19. Cavity morphology in a Ni based superalloy under heavy ion irradiation with cold pre-injected helium. I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, He; Yao, Zhongwen Daymond, Mark R.; Kirk, Marquis A.

    2014-03-14

    In order to understand radiation damage in the nickel based superalloy Inconel X-750 in thermal reactors, where (n, ?) transmutation reaction also occurred in addition to fast neutron induced atomic displacement, heavy ion (1?MeV Kr{sup 2+}) irradiation with pre-injected helium was performed under in-situ observations of an intermediate voltage electron microscope at Argonne National Laboratory. By comparing to our previous studies using 1?MeV Kr{sup 2+} irradiation solely, the pre-injected helium was found to be essential in cavity nucleation. Cavities started to be visible after Kr{sup 2+} irradiation to 2.7 dpa at ?200?C in samples containing 200 appm, 1000 appm, and 5000 appm helium, respectively, but not at lower temperatures. The cavity growth was observed during the continuous irradiation. Cavity formation appeared along with a reduced number density of stacking fault tetrahedra, vacancy type defects. With higher pre-injected helium amount, a higher density of smaller cavities was observed. This is considered to be the result of local trapping effect of helium which disperses vacancies. The average cavity size increases with increasing irradiation temperatures; the density reduced; and the distribution of cavities became heterogeneous at elevated temperatures. In contrast to previous characterization of in-reactor neutron irradiated Inconel X-750, no obvious cavity sink to grain boundaries and phase boundaries was found even at high doses and elevated temperatures. MC-type carbides were observed as strong sources for agglomeration of cavities due to their enhanced trapping strength of helium and vacancies.

  20. Ducted combustion chamber for direct injection engines and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Charles

    2015-03-03

    An internal combustion engine includes an engine block having a cylinder bore and a cylinder head having a flame deck surface disposed at one end of the cylinder bore. A piston connected to a rotatable crankshaft and configured to reciprocate within the cylinder bore has a piston crown portion facing the flame deck surface such that a combustion chamber is defined within the cylinder bore and between the piston crown and the flame deck surface. A fuel injector having a nozzle tip disposed in fluid communication with the combustion chamber has at least one nozzle opening configured to inject a fuel jet into the combustion chamber along a fuel jet centerline. At least one duct defined in the combustion chamber between the piston crown and the flame deck surface has a generally rectangular cross section and extends in a radial direction relative to the cylinder bore substantially along the fuel jet centerline.

  1. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; TANG,J.

    2001-06-18

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed.

  2. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Allen B.

    1989-01-01

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  3. Modified electrokinetic sample injection method in chromatography and electrophoresis analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, J. Courtney; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    A sample injection method for horizontal configured multiple chromatography or electrophoresis units, each containing a number of separation/analysis channels, that enables efficient introduction of analyte samples. This method for loading when taken in conjunction with horizontal microchannels allows much reduced sample volumes and a means of sample stacking to greatly reduce the concentration of the sample. This reduction in the amount of sample can lead to great cost savings in sample preparation, particularly in massively parallel applications such as DNA sequencing. The essence of this method is in preparation of the input of the separation channel, the physical sample introduction, and subsequent removal of excess material. By this method, sample volumes of 100 nanoliter to 2 microliters have been used successfully, compared to the typical 5 microliters of sample required by the prior separation/analysis method.

  4. Iron beam acceleration using direct plasma injection scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Fuwa, Y.; RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198

    2014-02-15

    A new set of vanes of radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator was commissioned using highly charged iron beam. To supply high intensity heavy ion beams to the RFQ, direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) with a confinement solenoid was adopted. One of the difficulties to utilize the combination of DPIS and a solenoid field is a complexity of electro magnetic field at the beam extraction region, since biasing high static electric field for ion extraction, RFQ focusing field, and the solenoid magnetic field fill the same space simultaneously. To mitigate the complexity, a newly designed magnetic field clamps were used. The intense iron beam was observed with bunched structure and the total accelerated current reached 2.5 nC.

  5. Post-injection transmission attenuation measurements for PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daube-Witherspoon, M.E.; Carson, R.E.; Green, M.V.

    1988-02-01

    The feasibility of acquiring PET transmission information after tracer injection was studied using ring and rotating pin transmission sources. A combined transmission/emission scan was acquired, followed by an emission scan, used to subtract the emission counts from the transmission/emission data. The ratio of emission count rate for FDG brain scans to transmission count rate is 50-100% for a 5-mCi ring source and less than 5% for a 5-mCi pin source. Windowing of the sinogram, which rejects most random and scattered coincidences, also eliminates most emission counts. The magnitude and effects of residual random and scattered coincidences as well as increases in variability from tranmission/emission scans were studied. In addition, the results of combined transmission/emission scans for a high-contrast emission source distribution using ring and pin sources are described.

  6. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  7. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transducer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercialmore » tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. The findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.« less

  8. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transmitter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun D.

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercialmore » tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. Furthermore, the findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.« less

  9. Piezoelectric transducer design for a miniaturized injectable acoustic transducer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huidong; Jung, Ki Won; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic telemetry has been an important tool in the last 20 years for studying fish survival and migration behaviors during and after dam passage. This technology uses implantable acoustic transmitters as tags to three-dimensionally track the movement of fish. However, the relatively large weights and sizes of commercially available transmitters limit the populations of fish that could be studied. The surgical implantation procedures required may also injure fish and also incur a significant amount of labor. Therefore, a smaller, lighter, and injectable tag was needed, and similar or better acoustic performance and service life over that provided by existing commercial tags was desired. To develop such a small transmitter, a number of technical challenges, including design optimization of the piezoelectric transducer, needed to be overcome. The goal of our efforts to optimize the transducer focused on improving the average source level in the 180° range in which the transmitter was facing the receiving hydrophone, so as to increase the transmitter’s detection probability. This paper reports the techniques that were explored and developed to achieve this goal. We found that a novel off-center tube transducer improved the average source level of the front half of the transducer by 1.5 dB. An acoustic reflector attached to the back of the transducer also improved the source level by 3 dB when the transducer was pointed toward the receiving hydrophone, although the source level on the sides of the transducer was reduced. We found that too small a gap between the transducer and the component placed behind it resulted in distortion of the beam pattern. To overcome that issue, we connected a tuning inductor in series with the transducer to help optimize the source level. The findings and techniques developed in this work contributed to the successful development and implementation of a new injectable transmitter.

  10. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO? storage reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO? storage that combines CO? injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO?. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO? injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO? injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO? storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be used directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  11. Effects of gas injection condition on mixing efficiency in the ladle refining process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, S.M.; Chiang, J.D.; Hwang, W.S.

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of injection condition on the mixing efficiency of the gas injection treatment of the ladle refining process in steelmaking. A water modeling approach was employed. A NaCl solution was injected into the vessel and the electric conductivity value of the water solution was measured to represent the concentration of the additive. The results of this investigation reveal that up to a certain level, mixing efficiency is improved as the gas flow rate increases. Off-center injection is better than centerline injection. However, the injection lance should not be too close to the wall. Also, mixing efficiency is improved when the submerged depth of the immersion lance increases. The immersion hood has a optimal size as far as mixing efficiency is concerned. A larger or smaller hood would reduce its efficiency. The submerged depth of the immersion hood should be kept to a minimum to improve mixing efficiency.

  12. Pre-injection brine production for managing pressure in compartmentalized CO₂ storage reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; White, Joshua A.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2014-12-31

    We present a reservoir management approach for geologic CO₂ storage that combines CO₂ injection with brine extraction. In our approach,dual-mode wells are initially used to extract formation brine and subsequently used to inject CO₂. These wells can also be used to monitor the subsurface during pre-injection brine extraction so that key data is acquired and analyzed prior to CO₂ injection. The relationship between pressure drawdown during pre-injection brine extraction and pressure buildup during CO₂ injection directly informs reservoir managers about CO₂ storage capacity. These data facilitate proactive reservoir management, and thus reduce costs and risks. The brine may be usedmore » directly as make-up brine for nearby reservoir operations; it can also be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  13. The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, CaliforniaGeothermal Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2006-09-25

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become arequired strategy to extended and sustain production of geothermalresources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasingnon-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers,operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and streamwaters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field fromneighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significantincrease in energy in the United States (US Department of Energy (DOE)goal is 40,000 megawatts by 2040), injection must play a larger role inthe overall strategy, i.e., enhanced geothermal systems, (EGS). Presentedin this paper are the results of monitoring microseismicity during anincrease in injection at The Geysers field in California using data froma high-density digital microearthquake array. Although seismicity hasincreased due to increased injection it has been found to be somewhatpredicable, thus implying that intelligent injection control may be ableto control large increases in seismicity.

  14. Electron self-injection in the proton-driven-plasma-wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Wang, You-Nian

    2013-12-15

    The self-injection process of plasma electrons in the proton-driven-plasma-wakefield acceleration scheme is investigated using a two-dimensional, electromagnetic particle-in-cell method. Plasma electrons are self-injected into the back of the first acceleration bucket during the initial bubble formation period, where the wake phase velocity is low enough to trap sufficient electrons. Most of the self-injected electrons are initially located within a distance of the skin depth c/?{sub pe} to the beam axis. A decrease (or increase) in the beam radius (or length) leads to a significant reduction in the total charges of self-injected electron bunch. Compared to the uniform plasma, the energy spread, emittance and total charges of the self-injected bunch are reduced in the plasma channel case, due to a reduced injection of plasma electrons that initially located further away from the beam axis.

  15. V-043: Perl Locale::Maketext Module '_compile()' Multiple Code Injection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vulnerabilities | Department of Energy 3: Perl Locale::Maketext Module '_compile()' Multiple Code Injection Vulnerabilities V-043: Perl Locale::Maketext Module '_compile()' Multiple Code Injection Vulnerabilities December 10, 2012 - 1:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Perl Locale::Maketext Module Two Code Injection Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Locale::Maketext 1.23 is affected; other versions also may be affected. ABSTRACT: Two vulnerabilities have been reported in Locale::Maketext module for Perl

  16. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems` variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Fuel injection for internal combustion engines. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of fuel injection systems applied to internal combustion engines and turbines. Gasoline, diesel, synthetic fuels, and liquid gas systems are discussed relative to systems' variations and performances. Fuel injection atomization and combustion are considered in theory, and fuel injection relative to emission control is included. (Contains a minimum of 223 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    December 23, 2005, Summary Report | Department of Energy Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to December 23, 2005, Summary Report Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to December 23, 2005, Summary Report Docket No. EO-05-01: Trona injection tests were conducted at Mirant's Potomac River Station on Unit 1 between November 12 and December 23, 2005. The purpose of these tests was to determine the capability of dry

  19. A study of solitary wave trains generated by injection of a blob into

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasmas (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A study of solitary wave trains generated by injection of a blob into plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study of solitary wave trains generated by injection of a blob into plasmas We have investigated the evolution of consecutive electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) generated upon injection of a finite-sized blob into plasmas using one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. Strong charge separation developed at

  20. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann (Niskayuna, NY); DeLancey, James Peter (Corinth, NY); Primus, Roy James (Niskayuna, NY); Pintgen, Florian Peter (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-02-15

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  1. A study of the spray injection Reynolds number effects on gasoline yields of an FCC riser reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, B. J.; Zhou, C. Q.; Chang, S. L.; Lottes, S. A.

    2000-04-03

    A computational analysis of the combined effects of feed oil injection parameters in a commercial-scale fluidized catalytic cracking riser reactor was performed using a three-phase, multiple species kinetic cracking computer code. The analysis showed that the injection operating parameters (droplet diameter and injection velocity) had strong impacts on the gasoline yields of the FCC unit. A spray injection Reynolds number combining the two parameters was defined. A correlation between the spray injection Reynolds number and the gasoline product yields for various feed injection conditions was developed. A range of spray injection Reynolds number for the maximum gasoline yield was identified.

  2. Tunnel-injection quantum dot deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with polarization-induced doping in III-nitride heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Jai Islam, S. M.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Kumar Kandaswamy, Prem; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2014-01-13

    Efficient semiconductor optical emitters in the deep-ultraviolet spectral window are encountering some of the most deep rooted problems of semiconductor physics. In III-Nitride heterostructures, obtaining short-wavelength photon emission requires the use of wide bandgap high Al composition AlGaN active regions. High conductivity electron (n-) and hole (p-) injection layers of even higher bandgaps are necessary for electrical carrier injection. This approach requires the activation of very deep dopants in very wide bandgap semiconductors, which is a difficult task. In this work, an approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to counter the challenges. The active region of the heterostructure light emitting diode uses ultrasmall epitaxially grown GaN quantum dots. Remarkably, the optical emission energy from GaN is pushed from 365?nm (3.4?eV, the bulk bandgap) to below 240?nm (>5.2?eV) because of extreme quantum confinement in the dots. This is possible because of the peculiar bandstructure and band alignments in the GaN/AlN system. This active region design crucially enables two further innovations for efficient carrier injection: Tunnel injection of carriers and polarization-induced p-type doping. The combination of these three advances results in major boosts in electroluminescence in deep-ultraviolet light emitting diodes and lays the groundwork for electrically pumped short-wavelength lasers.

  3. Method and apparatus for injecting a substance into the bloodstream of a subject

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Bennett, G.W.; Duncan, C.C.; Ducote, L.W.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for injecting a substance, such as a radiopharmaceutical, into the bloodstream of a subject. The apparatus comprises an injection means, such as a servo controlled syringe, a means for measuring the concentration of that substance in the subject's bloodstream, and means for controlling the injection in response to the measurement so that the concentration of the substance follows a predetermined function of time. The apparatus of the subject invention functions to inject a substance into a subject's bloodstream at a rate controlled by an error signal proportional to the difference between the concentration of the substance in the subject's bloodstream and the predetermined function. 2 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for injecting a substance into the bloodstream of a subject

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, Richard M.; Bennett, Gerald W.; Duncan, Charles C.; Ducote, Louis W.

    1983-10-18

    An apparatus and method for injecting a substance, such as a radiopharmaceutical, into the bloodstream of a subject. The apparatus comprises an injection means, such as a servo controlled syringe, a means for measuring the concentration of that substance in the subject's bloodstream, and means for controlling the injection in response to the measurement so that the concentration of the substance follows a predetermined function of time. The apparatus of the subject invention functions to inject a substance into a subject's bloodstream at a rate controlled by an error signal proportional to the difference between the concentration of the substance in the subject's bloodstream and the predetermined function.

  5. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5440us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" ...

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5440us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Natural Gas Salt Underground Storage Activity-Injects (MMcf)" ...

  7. Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research Vehicle Technologies Office Merit ...

  8. 10,422,136 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of August 21, 2015...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The projects currently injecting CO2 within DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program and the Major Demonstration Program are detailed below. Regional Carbon...

  9. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, C. M.; Chase, B. E.; Chaurize, S. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Seiya, K.; Pellico, W. A.; Sullivan, T. M.; Triplett, A. K.

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  10. Injectivity Test At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Vale Hot Springs Area (Combs, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  11. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water ...

  12. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3-cylindery gasoline direct injection engines offer similar value in CO2 reduction capability (Euros/% CO2 reduction) at a significantly lower on-cost.

  13. T-655: Mozilla Firefox CVE-2011-2369 HTML Injection Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mozilla Firefox is prone to an HTML-injection vulnerability because it fails to properly sanitize user-supplied input before using it in dynamically generated content.

  14. DOE-Sponsored Mississippi Project Hits 1-Million-Ton Milestone for Injected CO2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A large-scale carbon dioxide storage project in Mississippi has become the fifth worldwide to reach the important milestone of more than 1 million tons injected.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel injection...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel injection...

  17. A study of solitary wave trains generated by injection of a blob...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A study of solitary wave trains generated by injection of a blob into plasmas We have investigated the evolution of consecutive electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) generated ...

  18. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

  19. Regressed relations for forced convection heat transfer in a direct injection stratified charge rotary engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.M.; Schock, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Currently, the heat transfer equation used in the rotary combustion engine (RCE) simulation model is taken from piston engine studies. These relations have been empirically developed by the experimental input coming from piston engines whose geometry differs considerably from that of the RCE. The objective of this work was to derive equations to estimate heat transfer coefficients in the combustion chamber of an RCE. This was accomplished by making detailed temperature and pressure measurements in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) RCE under a range of conditions. For each specific measurement point, the local gas velocity was assumed equal to the local rotor tip speed. Local physical properties of the fluids were then calculated. Two types of correlation equations were derived and are described in this paper. The first correlation expresses the Nusselt number as a function of the Prandtl number, Reynolds number, and characteristic temperature ratio; the second correlation expresses the forced convection heat transfer coefficient as a function of fluid temperature, pressure and velocity. 10 references.

  20. A self-consistent model of the lateral behavior of a twin-stripe injection laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, T.; Ormondroyd, R.F.; Rozzi, T.E.

    1986-10-01

    A fully self-consistent computer model of the steady-state behavior of the zero-order lateral optical field of a GaAs twin-stripe injection laser is presented which takes into account current spreading in the p-type confining layer, the effect of lateral diffusion of carriers in the active layer, and bimolecular and stimulated radiative recombination. The results predict the lateral movement of the near field of the optical signal under asymmetric drive conditions, as observed in practice. Also calculated are the corresponding carrier and current density distributions. It is shown that the near-field zero order lateral optical field can be beam steered across the facet by only 2 ..mu..m, typically. However, the initial position of the beam can be controlled by the two-stripe currents and also the geometry of the device. For the case where I/sub s1/ approx. = I/sub s2/ the beam movement is seen to be proportional to either I/sub s1/ or I/sub s2/. The results show that beam steering is not accompanied by a negative slope to the I-L characteristics. The effect of geometry and diffusion coefficient on the value of maximum current allowed before modal instability occurs is also given.

  1. Evaluation of slurry injection technology for management of drilling wastes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Dusseault, M. B.

    2003-02-19

    Each year, thousands of new oil and gas wells are drilled in the United States and around the world. The drilling process generates millions of barrels of drilling waste each year, primarily used drilling fluids (also known as muds) and drill cuttings. The drilling wastes from most onshore U.S. wells are disposed of by removing the liquids from the drilling or reserve pits and then burying the remaining solids in place (called pit burial). This practice has low cost and the approval of most regulatory agencies. However, there are some environmental settings in which pit burial is not allowed, such as areas with high water tables. In the U.S. offshore environment, many water-based and synthetic-based muds and cuttings can be discharged to the ocean if discharge permit requirements are met, but oil-based muds cannot be discharged at all. At some offshore facilities, drilling wastes must be either hauled back to shore for disposal or disposed of onsite through an injection process.

  2. METALLIZATION OF SNS RING INJECTION KICKER CERAMIC CHAMBERS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HE,P.; HSEUH,H.C.; TODD,R.J.

    2002-06-03

    Ceramic chambers will be used in the pulsed kicker magnets for the injection of H{sup -} into the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring, to avoid shielding of a fast-changing external magnetic field by metallic chamber walls and to reduce eddy current heating. The inner surfaces of the ceramic chambers will be coated with a conductive layer, possibly titanium (Ti) or copper (Cu) with a titanium nitride (TiN) overlayer, to reduce the beam coupling impedance, provide passage for beam image current and to reduce the secondary electron yields. This paper describes the development of sputtering method for the 0.83m long 16cm inner diameter (ID) ceramic chambers. Coatings of Ti, Cu and TiN with thickness up to 10 {micro}m were produced by means of DC magnetron sputtering. The difficulty of coating insulators was overcome with the introduction of an anode screen. Films with good adhesion, uniform longitudinal thickness, and conductivity were produced.

  3. A 1-Joule laser for a 16-fiber injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honig, J

    2004-04-06

    A 1-J laser was designed to launch light down 16, multi-mode fibers (400-{micro}m-core dia.). A diffractive-optic splitter was designed in collaboration with Digital Optics Corporation (DOC), and was delivered by DOC. Using this splitter, the energy injected into each fiber varied <1%. The spatial profile out of each fiber was such that there were no ''hot spots,'' a flyer could successfully be launched and a PETN pellet could be initiated. Preliminary designs of the system were driven by system efficiency where a pristine TEM{sub 00} laser beam would be required. The laser is a master oscillator, power amplifier (MOPA) consisting of a 4-mm-dia. Nd:YLF rod in the stable, q-switched oscillator and a 9.5-mm-dia. Nd:YLF rod in the double-passed amplifier. Using a TEM{sub 00} oscillator beam resulted in excellent transmission efficiencies through the fibers at lower energies but proved to be quite unreliable at higher energies, causing premature fiber damage, flyer plate rupture, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Upon further investigation, it was found that both temporal and spatial beam formatting of the laser were required to successfully initiate the PETN. Results from the single-mode experiments, including fiber damage, SRS and SBS losses, will be presented. In addition, results showing the improvement that can be obtained by proper laser beam formatting will also be presented.

  4. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  5. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges.

  6. Conceptual study of electron ripple injection for tokamak transport control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Chang, C.S.

    1995-08-01

    A non-intrusive method for inducing radial electric field based on electron ripple injection is under development by the Princeton CDX-U group. The radial electric field is known to play an important role in the L-H and H-VH mode transition according to the recent theoretical and experimental research. It is therefore important to develop a non-intrusive tool to control the radial electric field profile in tokamak plasmas. The present technique utilizes externally-applied local magnetic ripple fields to trap electrons at the edge, allowing them to penetrate towards the plasma center via {gradient}B and curvature drifts, causing the flux surfaces to charge up negatively. Electron cyclotron resonance heating is utilized to increase the trapped population and the electron drift velocity by raising the perpendicular energy of trapped electrons. In order to quantify the effects of cyclotron resonance heating on electrons, the temperature anisotropy of resonant electrons in a tokamak plasma is calculated. For the calculation of anisotropic temperatures, energy moments of the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function for heated electrons are solved, assuming a moderate wave power and a constant quasilinear diffusion coefficient. Simulation using a guiding-center orbit model have been performed to understand the behavior of suprathermal electrons in the presence of ripple fields. Examples for CDX-U and ITER parameters are given.

  7. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  8. Agreement Type Union

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Type Union Local #/Name Number of Employees Project Labor Agreement International Association of Heat and Frost Insulators and Allied Workers 135 2 International Brothehood of Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmith Forgers and Helpers 92 0 International Union of Bricklayers & Allied Craftsmen 13 0 Regional Council of Carpenters 1780 & 1977 13 Operative Plasterers and Cement Mason International Association Operative Plasterers and Cement Mason International Association 1

  9. Multi-dimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus during LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a DVI Injection Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Euh, D.J.; Chu, I.C.; Song, C.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Yusung P.O. Box 105, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor vessel with a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (Multi-dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents(LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled-down of 1400 MWe PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic phenomena in downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pre-test analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer. (authors)

  10. Multidimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus During LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a Direct Vessel Injection Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Yun, Byong-Jo; Euh, Dong-Jin; Chu, In-Cheol; Song, Chul-Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-15

    Multidimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel with a direct vessel injection mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (multidimensional investigation in downcomer annulus simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled down to a 1400-MW(electric) PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multidimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of an LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pretest analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer.

  11. Energy.gov Page Types

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the standard page types available in the Energy.gov Drupal content management system. For information about other available page types, or to request a new kind of page type, contact...

  12. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  13. Carbon Sequestration Partner Initiates Drilling of CO2 Injection Well in Illinois Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), one of seven regional partnerships created by the U.S. Department of Energy to advance carbon sequestration technologies nationwide, has begun drilling the injection well for their large-scale carbon dioxide injection test in Decatur, Illinois.

  14. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  15. DOE Partner Begins Injecting 50,000 Tons of CO2 in Michigan Basin

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building on an initial injection project of 10,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide into a Michigan geologic formation, a U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 50,000 additional tons into the formation, which is believed capable of storing hundreds of years worth of CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.

  16. Dry low NOx combustion system with pre-mixed direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas; Ziminsky, Willy; Khan, Abdul

    2013-12-17

    A combustion system includes a first combustion chamber and a second combustion chamber. The second combustion chamber is positioned downstream of the first combustion chamber. The combustion system also includes a pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle. The pre-mixed, direct-injection secondary fuel nozzle extends through the first combustion chamber into the second combustion chamber.

  17. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  18. Dual effects of stochastic heating on electron injection in laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Z. G.; Wang, X. G.; Yang, L.; Zhou, C. T.; Yu, M. Y.; Ying, H. P.

    2014-08-15

    Electron injection into the wakefield of an intense short laser pulse by a weaker laser pulse propagating in the opposite direction is reconsidered using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations as well as analytical modeling. It is found that for linearly polarized lasers the injection efficiency and the quality of the wakefield accelerated electrons increase with the intensity of the injection laser only up to a certain level, and then decreases. Theory and simulation tracking test electrons originally in the beat region of the two laser pulses show that the reduction of the injection efficiency at high injection-laser intensities is caused by stochastic overheating of the affected electrons.

  19. Using high temperature baghouses to enhance desulfurization following economizer sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, G.; Keener, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    In order to explore the potential of using high temperature baghouses to enhance SO{sub 2} removal following upstream sorbent injection, an integrated two-stage reactor system has been built. It consists of an injection stage and a filtration stage. Distinct from one-stage fixed-bed reactors, sorbent particles in this system are initially converted under controlled injection conditions before entering the filtration reactor chamber. By the aid of the system, several unique features regarding the gas-solid reactions in the baghouse after economizer zone sorbent injection have been revealed. Results have shown that the appropriate usage of a high temperature baghouse may substantially enhance the performance of the process. The further SO{sub 2} removal in the baghouse is comprehensively affected by both the conditions in the injection zone and those in the baghouse.

  20. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M.

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  1. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  2. Diffusion injected multi-quantum well light-emitting diode structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riuttanen, L. Nyknen, H.; Svensk, O.; Suihkonen, S.; Sopanen, M.; Kivisaari, P.; Oksanen, J.; Tulkki, J.

    2014-02-24

    The attention towards light-emitting diode (LED) structures based on nanowires, surface plasmon coupled LEDs, and large-area high-power LEDs has been increasing for their potential in increasing the optical output power and efficiency of LEDs. In this work we demonstrate an alternative way to inject charge carriers into the active region of an LED, which is based on completely different current transport mechanism compared to conventional current injection approaches. The demonstrated structure is expected to help overcoming some of the challenges related to current injection with conventional structures. A functioning III-nitride diffusion injected light-emitting diode structure, in which the light-emitting active region is located outside the pn-junction, is realized and characterized. In this device design, the charge carriers are injected into the active region by bipolar diffusion, which could also be utilized to excite otherwise challenging to realize light-emitting structures.

  3. An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer Pack

    2007-12-31

    This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

  4. Route to polarization switching induced by optical injection in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, M.; Panajotov, K.

    2006-02-15

    We perform a theoretical investigation of the polarization dynamics in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) subject to orthogonal optical injection, i.e., the injected field has a linear polarization (LP) orthogonal to that of the free-running VCSEL. In agreement with previous experiments [Z. G. Pan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2999 (1993)], an increase of the injection strength may lead to a polarization switching accompanied by an injection locking. We find that this route to polarization switching is typically accompanied by a cascade of bifurcations to wave-mixing dynamics and time-periodic and possibly chaotic regimes. A detailed mapping of the polarization dynamics in the plane of the injection parameters (detuning, injection strength) unveils a large richness of dynamical scenarios. Of particular interest is the existence of another injection-locked solution for which the two LP modes both lock to the master laser frequency, i.e., an elliptically polarized injection-locked (EPIL) steady state. Modern continuation techniques allow us to unveil an unfolding mechanism of the EPIL solution as the detuning varies and also to link the existence of the EPIL solution to a resonance condition between the master laser frequency and the free-running frequency of the normally depressed LP mode in the slave laser. We furthermore report an additional case of bistability, in which the EPIL solution may coexist with the second injection-locked solution (the one being locked to the master polarization). This case of bistability is a result of the interaction between optical injection and the two-polarization-mode characteristics of VCSEL devices.

  5. Direct current injection and thermocapillary flow for purification of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xu; Islam, Ahmad E.; Seabron, Eric; Dunham, Simon N.; Du, Frank; Lin, Jonathan; Wilson, William L.; Rogers, John A.; Wahab, Muhammad A.; Alam, Muhammad A.; Li, Yuhang; Tomic, Bojan; Huang, Jiyuan; Burns, Branden; Song, Jizhou; Huang, Yonggang

    2015-04-07

    Aligned arrays of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) represent ideal configurations for use of this class of material in high performance electronics. Development of means for removing the metallic SWNTs (m-SWNTs) in as-grown arrays represents an essential challenge. Here, we introduce a simple scheme that achieves this type of purification using direct, selective current injection through interdigitated electrodes into the m-SWNTs, to allow their complete removal using processes of thermocapillarity and dry etching. Experiments and numerical simulations establish the fundamental aspects that lead to selectivity in this process, thereby setting design rules for optimization. Single-step purification of arrays that include thousands of SWNTs demonstrates the effectiveness and simplicity of the procedures. The result is a practical route to large-area aligned arrays of purely s-SWNTs with low-cost experimental setups.

  6. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N.; Pollard, M.

    2011-09-30

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  7. Ducts Sealing Using Injected Spray Sealant, Raleigh, North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques - manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  8. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H[sub 2]O[sub 2], and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H[sub 2]O[sub 2] injection as an oxygenation technique.

  9. Evaluation of a subsurface oxygenation technique using colloidal gas aphron injections into packed column reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wills, R.A.; Coles, P.

    1991-11-01

    Bioremediation may be a remedial technology capable of decontaminating subsurface environments. The objective of this research was to evaluate the use of colloidal gas aphron (CGA) injection, which is the injection of micrometer-size air bubbles in an aqueous surfactant solution, as a subsurface oxygenation technique to create optimal growth conditions for aerobic bacteria. Along with this, the capability of CGAs to act as a soil-washing agent and free organic components from a coal tar-contaminated matrix was examined. Injection of CGAs may be useful for remediation of underground coal gasification (UCG) sites. Because of this, bacteria and solid material from a UCG site located in northeastern Wyoming were used in this research. Colloidal gas aphrons were generated and pumped through packed column reactors (PCRS) containing post-burn core materials. For comparison, PCRs containing sand were also studied. Bacteria from this site were tested for their capability to degrade phenol, a major contaminant at the UCG site, and were also used to bioaugment the PCR systems. In this study we examined: (1) the effect of CGA injection on dissolved oxygen concentrations in the PCR effluents, (2) the effect of CGA, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and phenol injections on bacterial populations, (3) the stability and transport of CGAs over distance, and (4) CGA injection versus H{sub 2}O{sub 2} injection as an oxygenation technique.

  10. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  11. Monitoring and Numerical Modeling of Shallow CO{sub 2} Injection, Greene County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rovey, Charles; Gouzie, Douglas; Biagioni, Richard

    2013-09-30

    The project titled Monitoring and Numerical Modeling of Shallow CO{sub 2} Injection, Greene County, Missouri provided training for three graduate students in areas related to carbon capture and storage. Numerical modeling of CO{sub 2} injection into the St. Francois aquifer at the Southwest Power Plant Site in Greene County, Missouri indicates that up to 4.1 x 10{sup 5} metric tons of CO{sub 2} per year could be injected for 30 years without exceeding a 3 MPa differential injection pressure. The injected CO{sub 2} would remain sequestered below the top of the overlying caprock (St. Francois confining unit) for more than 1000 years. Geochemical modeling indicates that portions of the injected CO{sub 2} will react rapidly with trace minerals in the aquifer to form various solid carbonate mineral phases. These minerals would store significant portions of injected CO{sub 2} over geologic time scales. Finally, a GIS data base on the pore-fluid chemistry of the overlying aquifer system in Missouri, the Ozark aquifer, was compiled from many sources. This data base could become useful in monitoring for leakage from future CO{sub 2} sequestration sites.

  12. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  13. U-049: IBM Tivoli Netcool Reporter CGI Bug Lets Remote Users Inject

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commands on the Target System | Department of Energy 49: IBM Tivoli Netcool Reporter CGI Bug Lets Remote Users Inject Commands on the Target System U-049: IBM Tivoli Netcool Reporter CGI Bug Lets Remote Users Inject Commands on the Target System December 1, 2011 - 9:00am Addthis PROBLEM: IBM Tivoli Netcool Reporter CGI Bug Lets Remote Users Inject Commands on the Target System. PLATFORM: IBM Tivoli Netcool Reporter prior to 2.2.0.8 ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in IBM Tivoli Netcool

  14. Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geomechanical Evaluation of Thermal Impact of Injected CO2 Temperature on a Geological Reservoir: Application to the FutureGen 2.0 Site The impact of temperature variations of injected CO2 on the mechanical integrity of a

  15. Method and apparatus for transferring and injecting rf energy from a generator to a resonant load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffert, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Improved apparatus and method are provided for the coherent amplification and injection of radio-frequency (rf) energy into a load cavity using a plurality of amplifier tubes. A plurality of strip line cavities (30, 32, 34, 36, 40, 42, 44) are laterally joined to define a continuous closed cavity (48), with an amplifier tube (50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64) mounted within each resonant strip cavity. Rf energy is injected into the continuous cavity (48) from a single input (70) for coherent coupling to all of the amplifier tubes for amplification and injection into the load cavity (76).

  16. COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    26}Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup 26}Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: COLLATERAL EFFECTS ON SOLAR NEBULA OXYGEN ISOTOPES DUE TO INJECTION OF {sup 26}Al BY A NEARBY SUPERNOVA Injection of material from a core-collapse supernova into the solar system's already-formed disk is one proposed mechanism for producing the short-lived radionuclides, such as {sup

  17. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  18. Analysis of cause and mechanism for injection-induced seismicityat the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Oldenburg, Curtis

    2007-06-14

    We analyzed relative contributions to the cause andmechanism of injection-induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermalfield, California, using coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanicalmodeling. Our analysis shows that the most important cause forinjection-induced seismicity is injection-induced cooling and associatedthermal-elastic shrinkage that changes the stress state in such a waythat mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, thecooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shearstrength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are thenreactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slipalong fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced seismicityat The Geysers.

  19. The second generation of electronic diesel fuel injection systems - Investigation with a rotary pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, K.; Oshizawa, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes concepts of the next generation of electronic diesel fuel injection (EDFI) systems, and the test results of the prototype, named ''Model-1.'' Important characteristics of the next generation of EDFI will be; mechanical simplicity, direct control and pump intelligence. Direct spill control using a high speed solenoid valve for injection regulation and pump mounted electronic circuits were used in the ''Model-1'' system. The test results demonstrate the advantages of this system, and suggest possibilities of new function such as individual cylinder control, pilot injection and multi fuel usage.

  20. Control of light polarization using optically spin-injected vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frougier, J. Jaffrs, H.; Deranlot, C.; George, J.-M.; Baili, G.; Dolfi, D.; Alouini, M.; Sagnes, I.; Garnache, A.

    2013-12-16

    We fabricated and characterized an optically pumped (100)-oriented InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL). The structure is designed to allow the integration of a Metal-Tunnel-Junction ferromagnetic spin-injector for future electrical injection. We report here the control at room temperature of the electromagnetic field polarization using optical spin injection in the active medium of the VECSEL. The switching between two highly circular polarization states had been demonstrated using an M-shaped extended cavity in multi-modes lasing. This result witnesses an efficient spin-injection in the active medium of the LASER.

  1. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  2. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOEs Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is equivalent to the...

  3. Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low beta compact toroid injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Hsu, Scott; Li, Hui

    2009-01-01

    We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.

  4. 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule 3.46 Fluid Injection into Productive...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: 16 TAC, part 1, chapter 3, rule 3.46 Fluid Injection into Productive ReservoirsLegal Abstract These rules explain...

  5. Field pilot tests for tertiary recovery using butane and propane injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, E.F.; Garcia, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    This work describes a pilot project for tertiary recovery of liquid hydrocarbons through LPG injection in water-out sections of the Bolivar reservoir in La Pena Field, Santa Cruz, Boliva. The promising results obtained in the initial field miscibility tests, as well as the results from a mathematical model built to stimulate and evaluate the tertiary recovery project, directed subsequent work into a cyclic scheme for enhanced recovery. This scheme is explained and injection production data is presented. Field facilities built to handle both the injected LPG and the produced oil-LPG mixture are described. The oil/LPG ratio and the LPG recovered/injected fraction are the main factors measured in this to make further considerations for a full scale project.

  6. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5540us2a.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5540US2" ...

  7. ,"U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...dnavnghistn5540us2m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, ... 1: U.S. Natural Gas Non-Salt Underground Storage Injections (MMcf)" "Sourcekey","N5540US2" ...

  8. Engineering-Scale Development of Injection Casting Technology for Metal Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogata, Takanari; Tsukada, Takeshi

    2007-07-01

    Engineering-scale injection casting tests were conducted in order to demonstrate the applicability of injection casting technology to the commercialized fast reactor fuel cycle. The uranium-zirconium alloy slugs produced in the tests were examined with reference to the practical slug specifications: average diameter tolerance {+-} 0.05 mm, local diameter tolerance {+-} 0.1 mm, density range 15.3 to 16.1 g/cm{sup 3}, zirconium content range 10 {+-} 1 wt% and total impurity (C, N, O, Si) <2000 ppm, which were provisionally determined. Most of the slugs satisfied these specifications, except for zirconium content. The impurity level was sufficiently low even though the residual and scrapped alloys were repeatedly recycled. The weight ratio of injected metal to charged metal was sufficiently high for a high process throughput. The injection casting technology will be applicable to the commercialized fuel cycle when the issue of zirconium content variation is resolved. (authors)

  9. Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This poster offers a comparison of high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) of natural gas engines with pilot diesel ignition with diesel engines used in heavy-duty diesel engine ...

  10. Nevada Production and Injection Well Data for Facilities with Flash Steam Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mines, Greg

    Files contain a summary of the production and injection data submitted by the geothermal operators to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology over the period from 1985 thru 2009

  11. Fuel injection assembly for use in turbine engines and method of assembling same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward

    2015-03-24

    A fuel injection assembly for use in a turbine engine is provided. The fuel injection assembly includes a plurality of tube assemblies, wherein each of the tube assemblies includes an upstream portion and a downstream portion. Each tube assembly includes a plurality of tubes that extend from the upstream portion to the downstream portion or from the upstream portion through the downstream portion. At least one injection system is coupled to at least one tube assembly of the plurality of tube assemblies. The injection system includes a fluid supply member that extends from a fluid source to the downstream portion of the tube assembly. The fluid supply member includes a first end portion located in the downstream portion of the tube assembly, wherein the first end portion has at least one first opening for channeling fluid through the tube assembly to facilitate reducing a temperature therein.

  12. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma Authors: Magee, E W ; Beiersdorfer, P ; Brown, G V ; Hell, N Publication Date: 2014-05-28 OSTI Identifier: 1169881 Report Number(s):...

  13. Nevada Production and Injection Well Data for Facilities with Flash Steam Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Greg

    2014-03-26

    Files contain a summary of the production and injection data submitted by the geothermal operators to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology over the period from 1985 thru 2009

  14. A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: A Semi-Analytical Solution for Large-Scale Injection-Induced PressurePerturbation and Leakage in a Laterally Bounded Aquifer-AquitardSystem Citation Details ...

  15. 11,202,720 Metric Tons of CO2 Injected as of October 14, 2015...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This carbon dioxide (CO2) has been injected in the United States as part of DOE's Clean Coal Research, Development, and Demonstration Programs. One million metric tons of CO2 is ...

  16. UAC R371-7 - Underground Injection Control Program | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    71-7 - Underground Injection Control Program Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: UAC R371-7 - Underground...

  17. Nonthermal plasma processor utilizing additive-gas injection and/or gas extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2006-06-20

    A device for processing gases includes a cylindrical housing in which an electrically grounded, metal injection/extraction gas supply tube is disposed. A dielectric tube surrounds the injection/extraction gas supply tube to establish a gas modification passage therearound. Additionally, a metal high voltage electrode circumscribes the dielectric tube. The high voltage electrode is energizable to create nonthermal electrical microdischarges between the high voltage electrode and the injection/extraction gas supply tube across the dielectric tube within the gas modification passage. An injection/extraction gas and a process gas flow through the nonthermal electrical microdischarges within the gas modification passage and a modified process gas results. Using the device contaminants that are entrained in the process gas can be destroyed to yield a cleaner, modified process gas.

  18. High Resolution RANS NLH Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheson, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Numerical prediction of the Stage 67 transonic fan stage employing wall jet tip injection flow control and study of the physical mechanisms leading to stall suppression and stability enhancement afforded by endwall recirculation/injection is the focus of this paper. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes computations were used to perform detailed analysis of the Stage 67 configuration experimentally tested at NASA s Glenn Research Center in 2004. Time varying prediction of the stage plus recirculation and injection flowpath were performed utilizing the Nonlinear Harmonic approach. Significantly higher grid resolution per passage was achieved than what has been generally employed in prior reported numerical studies of spike stall phenomena in transonic compressors. This paper focuses on characterizing the physics of spike stall embryonic stage phenomena and the impact of tip injection, resulting in experimentally and numerically demonstrated stall suppression

  19. Formation dry-out from CO2 injection into saline acquifers: Part...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation dry-out from CO2 injection into saline acquifers: Part 2, Analytical model for salt precipitation You are accessing a ...

  20. Process and apparatus for timed port injection of fuel to form a stratified charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingle, W.D. III; Wells, A.D.

    1991-10-01

    This patent describes a process for combusting gaseous fuel in an internal combustion engine. It comprises injecting the gaseous fuel into an intake manifold at a position upstream of and adjacent to an intake valve; precisely controlling an injection pressure and timing of the gaseous fuel injection into the intake manifold for injecting the gaseous fuel relatively late during an intake phase of a combustion cycle of the internal combustion engine to form a stratified charge in only an upper portion of a combustion chamber with an enriched portion of the stratified charge localized near ignition means within the combustion chamber; igniting and combusting the enriched stratified charge within the combustion chamber; and exhausting combustion products from the combustion chamber.

  1. Numerical investigation of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Rossi, F.

    2013-10-15

    The process of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble wake generated by a short and intense laser pulse propagating in a uniform underdense plasma is studied by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations and test-particle simulations. We consider a wake generated by a non-evolving laser driver traveling with a prescribed velocity, which then sets the structure and the velocity of the wake, so the injection dynamics is decoupled from driver evolution, but a realistic structure for the wakefield is retained. We show that a threshold for self-injection into a non-evolving bubble wake exists, and we characterize the dependence of the self-injection threshold on laser intensity, wake velocity, and plasma temperature for a range of parameters of interest for current and future laser-plasma accelerators.

  2. Results of the Flowmeter-Injection Test in the Long Valley Exploratory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Flowmeter-Injection Test in the Long Valley Exploratory Well (Phase II), Long Valley, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  3. Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the effect of a heat cycle on the permeability of welded tuff Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Air-injection field tests to determine the effect of a heat cycle on the ...

  4. Carbon Storage Partner Completes First Year of CO2 Injection Operations in Illinois

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A project important to demonstrating the commercial viability of carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology has completed the first year of injecting carbon dioxide from an industrial plant at a large-scale test site in Illinois.

  5. Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important Geologic CO2 Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon dioxide injection -- an important part of carbon capture and storage technology -- is underway as part of a pilot study of CO2 enhanced oil recovery in the Citronelle Field of Mobile County, Alabama.

  6. Radiation asymmetries during disruptions on DIII-D caused by massive gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Commaux, N.; Baylor, L. R.; Jernigan, T. C.; Foust, C. R.; Combs, S.; Meitner, S. J.; Hollmann, E. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Moyer, R. A.; Humphreys, D. A.; Wesley, J. C.; Eidietis, N. W.; Parks, P. B.; Lasnier, C. J.

    2014-10-15

    One of the major challenges that the ITER tokamak will have to face during its operations are disruptions. During the last few years, it has been proven that the global consequences of a disruption can be mitigated by the injection of large quantities of impurities. But one aspect that has been difficult to study was the possibility of local effects inside the torus during such injection that could damage a portion of the device despite the global heat losses and generated currents remaining below design parameter. 3D MHD simulations show that there is a potential for large toroidal asymmetries of the radiated power during impurity injection due to the interaction between the particle injection plume and a large n?=?1 mode. Another aspect of 3D effects is the potential occurrence of Vertical Displacement Events (VDE), which could induce large poloidal heat load asymmetries. This potential deleterious effect of 3D phenomena has been studied on the DIII-D tokamak, thanks to the implementation of a multi-location massive gas injection (MGI) system as well as new diagnostic capabilities. This study showed the existence of a correlation between the location of the n?=?1 mode and the local heat load on the plasma facing components but shows also that this effect is much smaller than anticipated (peaking factor of ?1.1 vs 3-4 according to the simulations). There seems to be no observable heat load on the first wall of DIII-D at the location of the impurity injection port as well as no significant radiation asymmetries whether one or 2 valves are fired. This study enabled the first attempt of mitigation of a VDE using impurity injection at different poloidal locations. The results showed a more favorable heat deposition when the VDE is mitigated early (right at the onset) by impurity injection. No significant improvement of the heat load mitigation efficiency has been observed for late particle injection whether the injection is done in the way of the VDE (upward VDE mitigated by injection from the upper part of the vessel vs the lower part) or not.

  7. Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 24, 2017 Title: Lithium wall conditioning by high frequency pellet injection in RFX-mod Authors: Innocente, P. ; Mansfield, D. K. ; Roquemore, A. L. ; Agostini, M. ; Barison, S. ; Canton, A. ; Carraro, L. ; Cavazzana, R. ; De Masi, G. ; Fassina, A. ; Fiameni, S. ; Grando, L. ; Rais, B. ; Rossetto, F. ;

  8. Injection-locked composite lasers for mm-wave modulation : LDRD 117819 final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Raring, James; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Alford, Charles Fred; Skogen, Erik J.; Chow, Weng Wah; Cajas, Florante G.; Overberg, Mark E.; Torres, David L.; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories exploring mutual injection locking of composite-cavity lasers for enhanced modulation responses. The program focused on developing a fundamental understanding of the frequency enhancement previously demonstrated for optically injection locked lasers. This was then applied to the development of a theoretical description of strongly coupled laser microsystems. This understanding was validated experimentally with a novel 'photonic lab bench on a chip'.

  9. Air-injection testing in vertical boreholes in welded and nonwelded Tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeCain, G.D.

    1997-12-31

    Air-injection tests, by use of straddle packers, were done in four vertical boreholes (UE-25 UZ-No.16, USW SD-12, USW NRG-6, and USW NRG-7a) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The geologic units tested were the Tiva Canyon Tuff, nonwelded tuffs of the Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, and Calico Hills Formation. Air-injection permeability values of the Tiva Canyon Tuff ranged from 0.3 x 10{sup -12} to 54.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}(square meter). Air-injection permeability values of the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff ranged from 0.12 x 10{sup -12} to 3.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. Air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff ranged from 0.02 x 10{sup -12} to 33.0 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The air-injection permeability value of the only Calico Hills Formation interval tested was 0.025 x 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}. The shallow test intervals of the Tiva Canyon Tuff had the highest air-injection permeability values. Variograms of the air-injection permeability values of the Topopah Spring Tuff show a hole effect; an initial increase in the variogram values is followed by a decrease. The hole effect is due to the decrease in permeability with depth identified in several geologic zones. The hole effect indicates some structural control of the permeability distribution, possibly associated with the deposition and cooling of the tuff. Analysis of variance indicates that the air-injection permeability values of borehole NRG-7a of the Topopah Spring Tuff are different from the other boreholes; this indicates areal variation in permeability.

  10. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI)

    2009-09-22

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  11. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accelerator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Authors: Vafaei-Najafabadi, N. ; Marsh, K.A. ; Clayton, C.E. ; An, W. ; Mori, W.B. ; Joshi, C. ; /UCLA ; Lu, W. ; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /UCLA ; Adli, E. ; /SLAC /U. Oslo ; Corde, S. ; Litos, M. ; Li, S. ; Gessner, S. ;

  12. Characteristics of seal formations (confining units) for CO2 injection in

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstones in Southeastern Mississippi. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Characteristics of seal formations (confining units) for CO2 injection in the Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstones in Southeastern Mississippi. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characteristics of seal formations (confining units) for CO2 injection in the Lower Tuscaloosa Sandstones in Southeastern Mississippi. No abstract prepared. Authors: Esposito, Richard [1] ; Goad, Patricia [2] ;

  13. Coaxial pellets for metallic impurity injection on the large helical device

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Coaxial pellets for metallic impurity injection on the large helical device Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coaxial pellets for metallic impurity injection on the large helical device Two coaxial pellets with tungsten inserted into graphite carbon and polyethylene (PE) tubes are compared for tungsten spectroscopic study in the Large Helical Device. The tungsten pellet with carbon tube causes plasma collapse, while that with PE tube smoothly

  14. Method for operating a spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayanaswamy, Kushal; Koch, Calvin K.; Najt, Paul M.; Szekely, Jr., Gerald A.; Toner, Joel G.

    2015-06-02

    A spark-ignition, direct-injection internal combustion engine is coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment system including a three-way catalytic converter upstream of an NH3-SCR catalyst. A method for operating the engine includes operating the engine in a fuel cutoff mode and coincidentally executing a second fuel injection control scheme upon detecting an engine load that permits operation in the fuel cutoff mode.

  15. T-528: Mozilla Firefox/Thunderbird/SeaMonkey Multiple HTML Injection Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mozilla Firefox/Thunderbird/SeaMonkey Multiple HTML Injection Vulnerabilities. Mozilla Firefox, SeaMonkey, and Thunderbird are prone to multiple HTML-injection vulnerabilities. Successful exploits will allow attacker-supplied HTML and script code to run in the context of the affected browser, potentially allowing the attacker to steal cookie-based authentication credentials or to control how the site is rendered to the user. Other attacks are also possible.

  16. Electrical spin injection into InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells: A comparison between MgO tunnel barriers grown by sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barate, P.; Zhang, T. T.; Vidal, M.; Renucci, P.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Liang, S.; Devaux, X.; Hehn, M.; Mangin, S.; Lu, Y.; Frougier, J.; Jaffrs, H.; George, J. M.; Zheng, Y.; Tao, B.; Han, X. F.

    2014-07-07

    An efficient electrical spin injection into an InGaAs/GaAs quantum well light emitting diode is demonstrated thanks to a CoFeB/MgO spin injector. The textured MgO tunnel barrier is fabricated by two different techniques: sputtering and molecular beam epitaxy. The maximal spin injection efficiency is comparable for both methods. Additionally, the effect of annealing is also investigated for the two types of samples. Both samples show the same trend: an increase of the electroluminescence circular polarization (P{sub c}) with the increase of annealing temperature, followed by a saturation of P{sub c} beyond 350?C annealing. Since the increase of P{sub c} starts well below the crystallization temperature of the full CoFeB bulk layer, this trend could be mainly due to an improvement of chemical structure at the top CoFeB/MgO interface. This study reveals that the control of CoFeB/MgO interface is essential for an optimal spin injection into semiconductor.

  17. Assessment of Current Process Modeling Approaches to Determine Their Limitations, Applicability and Developments Needed for Long-Fiber Thermoplastic Injection Molded Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Holbery, Jim; Smith, Mark T.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Norris, Robert E.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.

    2006-11-30

    This report describes the status of the current process modeling approaches to predict the behavior and flow of fiber-filled thermoplastics under injection molding conditions. Previously, models have been developed to simulate the injection molding of short-fiber thermoplastics, and an as-formed composite part or component can then be predicted that contains a microstructure resulting from the constituents material properties and characteristics as well as the processing parameters. Our objective is to assess these models in order to determine their capabilities and limitations, and the developments needed for long-fiber injection-molded thermoplastics (LFTs). First, the concentration regimes are summarized to facilitate the understanding of different types of fiber-fiber interaction that can occur for a given fiber volume fraction. After the formulation of the fiber suspension flow problem and the simplification leading to the Hele-Shaw approach, the interaction mechanisms are discussed. Next, the establishment of the rheological constitutive equation is presented that reflects the coupled flow/orientation nature. The decoupled flow/orientation approach is also discussed which constitutes a good simplification for many applications involving flows in thin cavities. Finally, before outlining the necessary developments for LFTs, some applications of the current orientation model and the so-called modified Folgar-Tucker model are illustrated through the fiber orientation predictions for selected LFT samples.

  18. Neutral Beam Injection Experiments and Related Behavior of Neutral Particles in the GAMMA 10 Tandem Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ohki, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogita, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shoji, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science(Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Islam, M.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamada, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Murakami, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    Results of neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror plasmas are presented together with the neutral particle behavior observed in the experiments. A hydrogen neural beam was injected into the hot-ion-mode plasmas by using the injector installed in the central-cell for the plasma heating and fueling. High-energy ions produced by NBI were observed and its energy distribution was measured for the first time with a neutral particle analyzer installed in the central-cell. The temporal and spatial behavior of hydrogen was observed with axially aligned H{sub {alpha}} detectors installed from the central midplane to anchor-cell. Enhancement of hydrogen recycling due to the beam injection and the cause of the observed decrease in plasma diamagnetism are discussed. The Monte-Carlo code DEGAS for neutral transport simulation was applied to the GAMMA 10 central-cell and a 3-dimensional simulation was performed in the NBI experiment. Localization of neutral particle during the beam injection is investigated based on the simulation and it was found that the increased recycling due to the beam injection was dominant near the injection port.

  19. Ultrafast spin tunneling and injection in coupled nanostructures of InGaAs quantum dots and quantum well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiao-Jie Kiba, Takayuki; Yamamura, Takafumi; Takayama, Junichi; Subagyo, Agus; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Murayama, Akihiro

    2014-01-06

    We investigate the electron-spin injection dynamics via tunneling from an In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As quantum well (QW) to In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As quantum dots (QDs) in coupled QW-QDs nanostructures. These coupled nanostructures demonstrate ultrafast (5 to 20 ps) spin injection into the QDs. The degree of spin polarization up to 45% is obtained in the QDs after the injection, essentially depending on the injection time. The spin injection and conservation are enhanced with thinner barriers due to the stronger electronic coupling between the QW and QDs.

  20. State Assistance with Risk-Based Data Management: Inventory and needs assessment of 25 state Class II Underground Injection Control programs. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    As discussed in Section I of the attached report, state agencies must decide where to direct their limited resources in an effort to make optimum use of their available manpower and address those areas that pose the greatest risk to valuable drinking water sources. The Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation (UIPRF) proposed a risk-based data management system (RBDMS) to provide states with the information they need to effectively utilize staff resources, provide dependable documentation to justify program planning, and enhance environmental protection capabilities. The UIPRF structured its approach regarding environmental risk management to include data and information from production, injection, and inactive wells in its RBDMS project. Data from each of these well types is critical to the complete statistical evaluation of environmental risk and selected automated functions. This comprehensive approach allows state Underground Injection Control (UIC) programs to effectively evaluate the risk of contaminating underground sources of drinking water, while alleviating the additional work and associated problems that often arise when separate data bases are used. CH2M Hill and Digital Design Group, through a DOE grant to the UIPRF, completed an inventory and needs assessment of 25 state Class II UIC programs. The states selected for participation by the UIPRF were generally chosen based on interest and whether an active Class II injection well program was in place. The inventory and needs assessment provided an effective means of collecting and analyzing the interest, commitment, design requirements, utilization, and potential benefits of implementing a in individual state UIC programs. Personal contacts were made with representatives from each state to discuss the applicability of a RBDMS in their respective state.

  1. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Window Types Window Types A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto A wood-frame window with insulated window glazing. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/chandlerphoto Windows come in a number of different frame and glazing types. By combining an energy-efficient frame choice with a glazing type tailored to your climate and application, you can customize each of your home's windows. Types of Window Frames Improving the thermal resistance

  2. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    is termed fluorescence). A ballast is required to regulate and control the current and voltage. Two types of ballasts are used, magnetic and electronic. Electronic ballasts have...

  3. Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2010-04-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

  4. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (≤ 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ≤ 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (≥ 7.0 × 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  5. Hybrid type-I InAs/GaAs and type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot structure with enhanced photoluminescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Hai-Ming; Liang, Baolai Simmonds, Paul J.; Juang, Bor-Chau; Yang, Tao; Young, Robert J.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-03-09

    We investigate the photoluminescence (PL) properties of a hybrid type-I InAs/GaAs and type-II GaSb/GaAs quantum dot (QD) structure grown in a GaAs matrix by molecular beam epitaxy. This hybrid QD structure exhibits more intense PL with a broader spectral range, compared with control samples that contain only InAs or GaSb QDs. This enhanced PL performance is attributed to additional electron and hole injection from the type-I InAs QDs into the adjacent type-II GaSb QDs. We confirm this mechanism using time-resolved and power-dependent PL. These hybrid QD structures show potential for high efficiency QD solar cell applications.

  6. Time-lapse VSP data processing for monitoring CO2 injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie; Rutledge, James; Cheng, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the effort of the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration supported by U.S. Department of Energy and managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, two sets of time-lapse VSPs were acquired and processed in oil fields undergoing CO{sub 2} injection. One set of VSPs was acquired at the Aneth oil field in Utah, the other set at the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) field in West Texas. One baseline and two repeat VSP surveys were conducted from 2007 to 2009 at the Aneth oil field in Utah for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection. The aim of the time-lapse VSP surveys is to study the combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO{sub 2} sequestration in collaboration with Resolute Natural Resources, Inc. VSP data were acquired using a cemented geophone string with 60 levels at depth from 805 m to 1704 m, and CO{sub 2} is injected into a horizontal well nearby within the reservoir at depth approximately from 1730 m to 1780 m. For each VSP survey, the data were acquired for one zero-offset source location and seven offset source locations (Figure 1). The baseline VSP survey was conducted before the CO{sub 2} injection. More than ten thousand tons of CO{sub 2} was injected between each of the two repeat VSP surveys. There are three horizontal injection wells, all originating from the same vertical well. One is drilled towards Southeast, directly towards the monitoring well (Figure 2), and the other two towards Northwest, directly away from the monitoring well. The injection is into the top portion of the Desert Creek formation, just beneath the Gothic shale, which acts as the reservoir seal. The initial baseline acquisition was done in October 2007; subsequent time-lapse acquisitions were conducted in July 2008, and January 2009. The acquisition geometry is shown in Figure 1. Shot point 1 is the zero-offset source location, Shot points 2 to 8 are the seven offset VSPs, arranged in a quarter circle on the Northwest side of the monitoring well. The horizontal injection well is shown in green. The black lines in Figure 1 show the approximate reflection coverage al reservoir depth from the respective offset source locations. VSP source location 5 is in a direct line with the injection. The 60 geophone sondes were cemented into the monitor well just before the baseline VSP acquisition and consisted of 96 geophone channels, with 18 three-component geophones (at the bottom of the string) and 42 single vertical component phones above. For this study, only the vertical geophone data were used.

  7. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  8. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  9. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  10. Evaluation of injection well risk management potential in the Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-09-01

    The UIC regulations promulgated by the EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) provide the EPA, or an EPA approved state agency, with authority to regulate subsurface injection of fluids to protect USDWs. Oil and gas producing industry interests are concerned primarily with Class 2 wells whose uses as defined by UIC regulations are: disposal of fluids brought to the surface and liquids generated in connection with oil and gas production (SWD); injection of fluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR); and storage of liquid hydrocarbons. The Williston Basin was chosen for the pilot study of the feasibility of using the risk approach in managing Class 2 injection operations for the following reasons: it is one of the nine geologic basins which was classified as having a significant potential for external casing corrosion, which permitted an evaluation of the effectiveness of the injection well corrosion control measures used by industry; there are 731 active, 22 shut in and 203 temporarily abandoned SWD and water injection wells in the basin; and the basin covers three states. The broad objective of the Williston Basin study is to define requirements and to investigate the feasibility of incorporating risk management into administration of the UIC program. The study does not address the reporting aspects of UIC regulatory and compliance activities but the data base does contain essentially all the information required to develop the reports needed to monitor those activities. 16 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Electrical and dielectric properties of foam injection-molded polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameli, A.; Nofar, M.; Saniei, M.; Hossieny, N.; Park, C. B.; Pötschke, P.

    2015-05-22

    A combination of high dielectric permittivity (ε′) and low dielectric loss (tan δ) is required for charge storage applications. In percolative systems such as conductive polymer composites, however, obtaining high ε′ and low tan δ is very challenging due to the sharp insulation-conduction transition near the threshold region. Due to the particular arrangement of conductive fillers induced by both foaming and injection molding processes, they may address this issue. Therefore, this work evaluates the application of foam injection molding process in fabricating polymer nanocomposites for energy storage. Polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP-MWCNT) composites were prepared by melt mixing and foamed in an injection molding process. Electrical conductivity (σ), ε′ and tan δ were then characterized. Also, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) was used to investigate the carbon nanotube’s arrangement as well as cellular morphology. The results showed that foam injection-molded composites exhibited highly superior dielectric properties to those of solid counterparts. For instance, foamed samples had ε′=68.3 and tan δ =0.05 (at 1.25 vol.% MWCNT), as opposed to ε′=17.8 and tan δ=0.04 in solid samples (at 2.56 vol.% MWCNT). The results of this work reveal that high performance dielectric nanocomposites can be developed using foam injection molding technologies for charge storage applications.

  12. Effects of Ignition and Injection Perturbation under Lean and Dilute GDI Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, Thomas; Kaul, Brian C; Sevik, James; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Wagner, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are quickly becoming more prominent in light-duty automotive applications because of their potential improvements in efficiency and fuel economy. While EGR dilute and lean operation serve as potential pathways to further improve efficiencies and emissions in GDI engines, they also pose challenges for stable engine operation. Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine that is representative of current automotive-style GDI engines. Baseline cases were performed under steady-state operating conditions where combustion phasing and dilution levels were varied to determine the effects on indicated efficiency and combustion stability. Sensitivity studies were then carried out by introducing binary low-high perturbation of spark timing and injection duration on a cycle-by-cycle basis under EGR dilute and lean operation to determine dominant feedback mechanisms. Ignition perturbation was phased early/late of MBT timing, and injection perturbation was set fuel rich/lean of the given air-to-fuel ratio. COVIMEP was used to define acceptable operation limits when comparing different perturbation cases. Overall sensitivity data shows COVIMEP is more sensitive to injection perturbation over ignition perturbation. This is because of the greater effect injection perturbation has on combustion phasing, ignition delay, and combustion duration.

  13. Window Types | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    its U-factor. There are advantages and disadvantages to all types of frame materials, but vinyl, wood, fiberglass, and some composite frame materials provide greater...

  14. Advanced Production Surface Preparation Technology Development for Ultra-High Pressure Diesel Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, Marion B.

    2012-04-30

    In 2007, An Ultra High Injection Pressure (UHIP) fueling method has been demonstrated by Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development, demonstrating ability to deliver U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 4 Final diesel engine emission performance with greatly reduced emissions handling components on the engine, such as without NOx reduction after-treatment and with only a through-flow 50% effective diesel particulate trap (DPT). They have shown this capability using multiple multi-cylinder engine tests of an Ultra High Pressure Common Rail (UHPCR) fuel system with higher than traditional levels of CEGR and an advanced injector nozzle design. The system delivered better atomization of the fuel, for more complete burn, to greatly reduce diesel particulates, while CEGR or high efficiency NOx reduction after-treatment handles the NOx. With the reduced back pressure of a traditional DPT, and with the more complete fuel burn, the system reduced levels of fuel consumption by 2.4% for similar delivery of torque and horsepower over the best Tier 4 Interim levels of fuel consumption in the diesel power industry. The challenge is to manufacture the components in high-volume production that can withstand the required higher pressure injection. Production processes must be developed to increase the toughness of the injector steel to withstand the UHIP pulsations and generate near perfect form and finish in the sub-millimeter size geometries within the injector. This project resulted in two developments in 2011. The first development was a process and a machine specification by which a high target of compressive residual stress (CRS) can be consistently imparted to key surfaces of the fuel system to increase the toughness of the steel, and a demonstration of the feasibility of further refinement of the process for use in volume production. The second development was the demonstration of the feasibility of a process for imparting near perfect, durable geometry to these same feature surfaces to withstand the pulsating UHIP diesel injection without fatigue failure, through the expected life of the fuel system's components (10,000 hours for the pump and common rail, 5000 hours for the injector). The potential to Caterpillar of this fueling approach and the overall emissions reduction system is the cost savings of the fuel, the cost savings of not requiring a full emissions module and other emissions hardware, and the enabling of the use of biodiesel fuel due to the reduced dependency on after-treatment. A proprietary production CRS generating process was developed to treat the interior of the sac-type injector nozzle tip region (particularly for the sac region). Ninety-five tips passed ultra high pulsed pressure fatigue testing with no failures assignable to treated surfaces or materials. It was determined that the CRS impartation method does not weaken the tip internal seat area. Caterpillar Fuel Systems - Product Development accepts that the CRS method initial production technical readiness level has been established. A method to gage CRS levels in production was not yet accomplished, but it is believed that monitoring process parameters call be used to guarantee quality. A precision profiling process for injector seat and sac regions has been shown to be promising but not yet fully confirmed. It was demonstrated that this precision profiling process can achieve form and geometry to well under an aggressively small micron peak-to-valley and that there are no surface flaws that approach an even tighter micron peak-to-valley tolerance. It is planned to purchase machines to further develop and move the process towards production. The system is targeted towards the high-power diesel electric power generators and high-power diesel marine power generators, with displacement from 20 liters to 80 liters and with power from 800 brake horsepower (BHP) to 3200BHP (0.6 megawatts to 2.4 megawatts). However, with market adoption, this system has the potential to meet EPA exhaust standards for all diesel engines nine liters and up, or 300B

  15. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  16. Ultra low injection angle fuel holes in a combustor fuel nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David

    2012-10-23

    A fuel nozzle for a combustor includes a mixing passage through which fluid is directed toward a combustion area and a plurality of swirler vanes disposed in the mixing passage. Each swirler vane of the plurality of swirler vanes includes at least one fuel hole through which fuel enters the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes thereby decreasing a flameholding tendency of the fuel nozzle. A method of operating a fuel nozzle for a combustor includes flowing a fluid through a mixing passage past a plurality of swirler vanes and injecting a fuel into the mixing passage in an injection direction substantially parallel to an outer surface of the plurality of swirler vanes.

  17. Crucial role of nuclear dynamics for electron injection in a dye–semiconductor complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monti, Adriano; Negre, Christian F. A.; Batista, Victor S.; Rego, Luis G. C.; de Groot, Huub J. M.; Buda, Francesco

    2015-06-05

    In this study, we investigate the electron injection from a terrylene-based chromophore to the TiO2 semiconductor bridged by a recently proposed phenyl-amide-phenyl molecular rectifier. The mechanism of electron transfer is studied by means of quantum dynamics simulations using an extended Hückel Hamiltonian. It is found that the inclusion of the nuclear motion is necessary to observe the photoinduced electron transfer. In particular, the fluctuations of the dihedral angle between the terrylene and the phenyl ring modulate the localization and thus the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor states involved in the injection process. The electron propagation shows characteristic oscillatory features that correlate with interatomic distance fluctuations in the bridge, which are associated with the vibrational modes driving the process. The understanding of such effects is important for the design of functional dyes with optimal injection and rectification properties.

  18. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  19. LOCA analyses for nuclear steam supply systems with upper head injection. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byers, R.K.; Bartel, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The term Upper Head Injection describes a relatively new addition to a nuclear reactor's emergency cooling system. With this feature, water is delivered directly to the top of the reactor vessel during a loss-of-coolant accident, in addition to the later injection of coolant into the primary operating loops. Established computer programs, with various modifications to models for heat transfer and two-phase flow, were used to analyze a transient following a large break in one of the main coolant loops of a reactor equipped with upper head injection. The flow and heat transfer modifications combined to yield fuel cladding temperatures during blowdown which were as much as 440K (800/sup 0/F) lower than were obtained with standard versions of the codes (for best estimate calculations). The calculations also showed the need for more uniformity of applications of heat transfer models in the computer programs employed.

  20. Crucial role of nuclear dynamics for electron injection in a dye–semiconductor complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Monti, Adriano; Negre, Christian F. A.; Batista, Victor S.; Rego, Luis G. C.; de Groot, Huub J. M.; Buda, Francesco

    2015-06-05

    In this study, we investigate the electron injection from a terrylene-based chromophore to the TiO2 semiconductor bridged by a recently proposed phenyl-amide-phenyl molecular rectifier. The mechanism of electron transfer is studied by means of quantum dynamics simulations using an extended Hückel Hamiltonian. It is found that the inclusion of the nuclear motion is necessary to observe the photoinduced electron transfer. In particular, the fluctuations of the dihedral angle between the terrylene and the phenyl ring modulate the localization and thus the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor states involved in the injection process. The electron propagation shows characteristic oscillatorymore » features that correlate with interatomic distance fluctuations in the bridge, which are associated with the vibrational modes driving the process. The understanding of such effects is important for the design of functional dyes with optimal injection and rectification properties.« less