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1

Impact of Chemical Injections on Boiling Water Reactor Dose Rates: Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report investigates the effects of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) chemistry parameters on radiation field generation, with a focus on the higher reactor water Co-60 activity levels observed at plants using On-line NobleChem™ (OLNC) injections. Correlation and response curves were developed to relate reactor water and feedwater chemistry to dose rates, with the goal of improving reactor recirculation system (RRS) piping shutdown dose rate ...

2012-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

2

Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project is to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Jensen et al. (2005) and Yousef et al. (2005), and herein referred to as the ''capacitance model'', produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. We have focused on the following items: (1) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (2) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the capacitance model and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Initial tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (3) Spectral analysis of injection and production data to estimate interwell connectivity and to assess the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. Development of methods and analysis are ongoing. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of the capacitance method. These methods include revising the solution method to simultaneously estimate {lambda} and {tau} for each well pair. This approach allows for further constraints to be imposed during the computation, such as limiting {tau} to a range of values defined by the sampling interval and duration of the field data. This work is proceeding. Further work on this project includes the following: (1) Refinement and testing of the waterflood optimization process, including optimization on more complex situations e.g., time effects on revenue and water injection and disposal costs. (2) Completion of the spectral-based analysis and determination of the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. (3) Revision of the capacitance model procedures to provide more robust results which are insensitive to the initial estimates of {tau} needed in the nonlinear regression.

Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil; Nazli Demiroren

2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A revised method, called the 'segmented capacitance model', identifies times when production changes might not be caused strictly by water injection changes. Application to data from Monument Butte Field shows encouraging results. Our results show the CM and its modified forms can be an important tool for waterflood management. We have moved beyond the proof of principle stage to show it can actually be applied to assess connectivity in field situations. Several shortcomings, however, remain to be addressed before the CM can be routinely applied by field operators. The CM and its modifications analyze well rates in the time domain. We also explored the assessment of interwell connectivity in the spectral domain. We applied conventional methods, based on analyzing passive linear electrical networks, to the analysis of injection and production data. In particular, we assessed the effects of near-wellbore gas on the apparent connectivity. With only oil and water in the system, the results were as expected, giving good connectivity estimates. In the presence of gas, however, the methods could not produce useful estimates of connectivity.

Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

4

Issues Related to Seismic Activity Induced by the Injection of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ISSUES RELATED TO SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDUCED BY THE INJECTION ISSUES RELATED TO SEISMIC ACTIVITY INDUCED BY THE INJECTION OF CO 2 IN DEEP SALINE AQUIFERS Joel Sminchak (sminchak@battelle.org; 614-424-7392) Neeraj Gupta (gupta@battelle.org; 614-424-3820) Battelle Memorial Institute 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 Charles Byrer (a) and Perry Bergman (b) National Energy Technology Laboratory (a) P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV, 26507-0880 (b) P.O. Box 10940, Pittsburgh, PA, 15236-0940 Abstract Case studies, theory, regulation, and special considerations regarding the disposal of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into deep saline aquifers were investigated to assess the potential for induced seismic activity. Formations capable of accepting large volumes of CO 2 make deep well injection of CO 2 an attractive option. While seismic implications must be considered for injection

5

The potential benefits of distributed deneration and rate-related...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

issues that may impede issues its expansion. June 2007 The potential benefits of distributed deneration and rate-related issues that may impede issues its expansion. A...

6

Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl) borate (BIM4) based zwitterionic and related molecules used as electron injection layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tetrakis(1-imidazolyl)borate (BIm4) based zwitterionic and/or related molecules for the fabrication of PLEDs is provided. Device performances with these materials approaches that of devices with Ba/Al cathodes for which the cathode contact is ohmic. Methods of producing such materials, and electron injection layers and devices containing these materials are also provided.

Li, Huaping; Xu, Yunhua; Bazan, Guillermo C

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

7

Predicting the rate by which suspended solids plug geothermal injection wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Standard membrane filtration tests were used to evaluate injection at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Southern California. Results indicate that direct injection into reservoir zones with primary porosity is not feasible unless 1 ..mu..m or larger particulates formed during or after the energy conversion process are removed. (JGB)

Owens, L.B.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Netherton, R.; Thorson, L.

1978-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

8

Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding By Using Grey Relational Grade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Micro metal injection molding ({mu}MIM) which is a variant of MIM process is a promising method towards near net-shape of metallic micro components of complex geometry. In this paper, {mu}MIM is applied to produce 316L stainless steel micro components. Due to highly stringent characteristic of {mu}MIM properties, the study has been emphasized on optimization of process parameter where Taguchi method associated with Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) will be implemented as it represents novel approach towards investigation of multiple performance characteristics. Basic idea of GRA is to find a grey relational grade (GRG) which can be used for the optimization conversion from multi objectives case which are density and strength to a single objective case. After considering the form 'the larger the better', results show that the injection time(D) is the most significant followed by injection pressure(A), holding time(E), mold temperature(C) and injection temperature(B). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also employed to strengthen the significant of each parameter involved in this study.

Ibrahim, M. H. I. [Dept. Of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia); Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muhamad, N.; Sulong, A. B.; Nor, N. H. M.; Harun, M. R.; Murtadhahadi [Precision Process Research Group, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Jamaludin, K. R. [UTM Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, UTM International Campus, 54100 Jalan Semarak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

9

A New Series of Rate Decline Relations Based on the Diagnosis of Rate-Time Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The so-called "Arps" rate decline relations are by far the most widely used tool for assessing oil and gas reserves from rate performance. These relations (i.e., the exponential and hyperbolic decline relations) are empirical where the starting point for their derivation is given by the definitions of the "loss ratio" and the "derivative of the loss ratio", where the "loss ratio" is the ratio of rate data to derivative of rate data, and the "derivative of the loss ratio" is the "b-parameter" as defined by Arps [1945]. The primary goal of this work is the interpretation of the b-parameter continuously over time and thus the better understanding of its character. As is shown below we propose "monotonically decreasing functional forms" for the characterization of the b-parameter, in addition to the exponential and hyperbolic rate decline relations, where the b-parameter is assumed to be zero and constant, respectively. The proposed equations are as follow: b(t)=constant (Arps' hyperbolic rate-decline relation), []tbbtb10exp)(-bt= (exponential function), (power-law function), 10)(btbtb=)/(1)(10tbbtb+= (rational function). The corresponding rate decline relation for each case is obtained by solving the differential equation associated with the selected functional for the b-parameter. The next step of this procedure is to test and validate each of the rate decline relations by applying them to various numerical simulation cases (for gas), as well as for field data cases obtained from tight/shale gas reservoirs. Our results indicate that b-parameter is never constant but it changes continuously with time. The ultimate objective of this work is to establish each model as a potential analysis/diagnostic relation. Most of the proposed models yield more realistic estimations of gas reserves in comparison to the traditional Arps' rate decline relations (i.e., the hyperbolic decline) where the reserves estimates are inconsistent and over-estimated. As an example, the rational b-parameter model seems to be the most accurate model in terms of representing the character of rate data; and therefore, should yield more realistic reserves estimates. Illustrative examples are provided for better understanding of each b-parameter rate decline model. The proposed family of rate decline relations was based on the character of the b-parameter computed from the rate-time data and they can be applied to a wide range of data sets, as dictated by the character of rate data.

Boulis, Anastasios

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Relating Vehicle-Wildlife Crash Rates to Roadway Improvements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

animal-vehicle crash rates experienced increases followingif the crash rates has a significant increase or decrease inshowed an increase in animal-vehicle crash rates, although

Young, Rhonda; Giessen, Steven Vander; Vokurka, Christopher Steven

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Storage capacity and injection rate estimates for CO? sequestration in deep saline aquifers in the conterminous United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A promising method to mitigate global warming is injecting CO? into deep saline aquifers. In order to ensure the safety of this method, it is necessary to understand how much CO? can be injected into an aquifer and at what ...

Szulczewski, Michael Lawrence

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Neutral Beam Injection Experiments and Related Behavior of Neutral Particles in the GAMMA 10 Tandem Mirror  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror plasmas are presented together with the neutral particle behavior observed in the experiments. A hydrogen neural beam was injected into the hot-ion-mode plasmas by using the injector installed in the central-cell for the plasma heating and fueling. High-energy ions produced by NBI were observed and its energy distribution was measured for the first time with a neutral particle analyzer installed in the central-cell. The temporal and spatial behavior of hydrogen was observed with axially aligned H{sub {alpha}} detectors installed from the central midplane to anchor-cell. Enhancement of hydrogen recycling due to the beam injection and the cause of the observed decrease in plasma diamagnetism are discussed. The Monte-Carlo code DEGAS for neutral transport simulation was applied to the GAMMA 10 central-cell and a 3-dimensional simulation was performed in the NBI experiment. Localization of neutral particle during the beam injection is investigated based on the simulation and it was found that the increased recycling due to the beam injection was dominant near the injection port.

Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ohki, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogita, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shoji, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science(Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Islam, M.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamada, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Murakami, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Convergence rate of inexact proximal point methods with relative ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 22, 2010 ... Global convergence rate results for the HPE method have been derived in [11] ...... Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1970. [17] R. T. ...

15

Dimpled/grooved face on a fuel injection nozzle body for flame stabilization and related method  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle used in a gas turbine combustor includes a substantially hollow body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween. A plurality of pre-mix tubes or passages extend axially through the hollow body with inlets at the upstream end face and outlets at the downstream end face. An exterior surface of the downstream end face is formed with three-dimensional surface features that increase a total surface area of the exterior surface as compared to a substantially flat, planar downstream end face.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo; Zuo, Baifang

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion. Report Pursuant to Section 1817 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion More Documents & Publications The potential benefits of distributed deneration and rate-related issues that may impede issues its expansion. June 2007 Notice of inquiry and request for Information - Study of the potential benefits of distributed generation: Federal Register Notice Volume 71, No.

17

Climatologically Tuned Reflectivity-Rain Rate Relations and Links to Area-Time Integrals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relations between either the point- or beam-averaged effective reflectivity, Ze, and surface rain rate, R, are determined by a probability matching method similar to that of Calheiros and Zawadzki, and Rosenfeld. The cumulative density functions (...

David Atlas; Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Probabilistic Parameterizations of Visibility Using Observations of Rain Precipitation Rate, Relative Humidity, and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes the occurrence of the visibility (Vis) versus precipitation rates (PR) for rain and versus relative humidity (RH) from surface observations that were collected during the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) field project, ...

I. Gultepe; J. A. Milbrandt

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- of wells,and (2) allocating a total speci6cd injection rate among chosen injectors. The alloca- tion is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells questions: (1) Which wells should be made injectors? (2) How should the total nquired injection rate

Stanford University

20

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

22

Existing and Past Methods of Test and Rating Standards Related to Integrated Heat Pump Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates existing and past US methods of test and rating standards related to electrically operated air, water, and ground source air conditioners and heat pumps, 65,000 Btu/hr and under in capacity, that potentiality incorporate a potable water heating function. Two AHRI (formerly ARI) standards and three DOE waivers were identified as directly related. Six other AHRI standards related to the test and rating of base units were identified as of interest, as they would form the basis of any new comprehensive test procedure. Numerous other AHRI and ASHRAE component test standards were also identified as perhaps being of help in developing a comprehensive test procedure.

Reedy, Wayne R. [Sentech, Inc.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

RATES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

24

Program or Field Office: Office of Legacy Management Project Title and I.D. No.: Bioremediation Injection and Related Activities at the Pinellas Site, Largo, Florida,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bioremediation Injection and Related Activities at the Pinellas Site, Largo, Florida, Bioremediation Injection and Related Activities at the Pinellas Site, Largo, Florida, LM 13-13 Location: Largo, Florida Proposed Action or Project Description: DOE proposes to use a Geoprobe to inject emulsified edible soybean oil (EEO) and anaerobic microbial solution into the surficial aquifer at the 4.5 Acre Site adjacent to the DOE Young - Rainey STAR Center (Pinellas Site) in Largo, Florida. The proposed action would enhance naturally occurring anaerobic biodegradation, thereby reducing vinyl chloride contamination along the southwest boundary of the 4.5 Acre Site. Dehalococcoides ethenogenes (DHE) is a type of microbe that occurs naturally in the aquifer. Bioaugmentation with a commercially available DHE culture used in conjunction with the EEO would maximize the efficiency of contaminant biodegradation. No genetically engineered or

25

On energy exchange rate and entropy production operators in quantum fluctuation-dissipation relations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For quantum systems with externally time-varied Hamiltonians a definition of operators of system's energy change rate (work per unit time) and entropy production observables is suggested and discussed in the context of rigorous statistical equalities (generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations) under the Jordan-symmetrized chronological operator ordering rule.

Yu. E. Kuzovlev

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Response to Warnings during the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado: Reasons and Relative Injury Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residents of homes that sustained F4 or F5 damage in the deadliest of the 3 May 1999 tornadoes were surveyed to determine their responses to the tornado warning, reasons for their responses, and relative injury rates. There were 190 people in 65 ...

Barbara Hammer; Thomas W. Schmidlin

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

STAR FORMATION RATES IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND THE NATURE OF THE EXTRAGALACTIC SCALING RELATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate scaling relations between star formation rates and molecular gas masses for both local Galactic clouds and a sample of external galaxies. We specifically consider relations between the star formation rates and measurements of dense, as well as total, molecular gas masses. We argue that there is a fundamental empirical scaling relation that directly connects the local star formation process with that operating globally within galaxies. Specifically, the total star formation rate in a molecular cloud or galaxy is linearly proportional to the mass of dense gas within the cloud or galaxy. This simple relation, first documented in previous studies, holds over a span of mass covering nearly nine orders of magnitude and indicates that the rate of star formation is directly controlled by the amount of dense molecular gas that can be assembled within a star formation complex. We further show that the star formation rates and total molecular masses, characterizing both local clouds and galaxies, are correlated over similarly large scales of mass and can be described by a family of linear star formation scaling laws, parameterized by f{sub DG}, the fraction of dense gas contained within the clouds or galaxies. That is, the underlying star formation scaling law is always linear for clouds and galaxies with the same dense gas fraction. These considerations provide a single unified framework for understanding the relation between the standard (nonlinear) extragalactic Schmidt-Kennicutt scaling law, that is typically derived from CO observations of the gas, and the linear star formation scaling law derived from HCN observations of the dense gas.

Lada, Charles J.; Forbrich, Jan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lombardi, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Milan, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Alves, Joao F., E-mail: clada@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jforbrich@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: marco.lombardi@gmail.com, E-mail: joao.alves@univie.ac.at [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Numerical modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Data from injection experiments in the southeast Geysers are presented that show strong interference (both negative and positive) with a neighboring production well. Conceptual and numerical models are developed that explain the negative interference (decline of production rate) in terms of heat transfer limitations and water-vapor relative permeability effects. Recovery and over-recovery following injection shut-in are attributed to boiling of injected fluid, with heat of vaporization provided by the reservoir rocks.

Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Enedy, S. [Northern California Power Agency, Middletown, CA (United States)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Relation between Kilohertz QPOs and Inferred Mass Accretion Rate in 4 LMXBs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I summarize the available RXTE data of the 4 low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and Atoll sources Aql X-1, 4U 1728-34, 4U 1608-52, and 4U 1636-53. I concentrate on the relation between the frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations at kilohertz frequencies (kHz QPOs) and the X-ray flux and colors of these sources. In these 4 sources the kHz QPOs are only observed in a narrow range of spectral states (as defined from the X-ray color-color diagrams). I show that despite its complex dependence upon the X-ray flux, the frequency of the kHz QPOs is monotonically related to the position of the source in the color-color diagram. These findings strengthen the idea that in LMXBs the X-ray flux is not a good indicator of the mass accretion rate, $\\dot M$, and that the observed changes in the frequency of the kHz QPOs in LMXBs are driven by changes in $\\dot M$.

Mariano Mendez

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

The Relation Between Accretion Rate And Jet Power in X-Ray Luminous Elliptical Galaxies  

SciTech Connect

Using Chandra X-ray observations of nine nearby, X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies with good optical velocity dispersion measurements, we show that a tight correlation exists between the Bondi accretion rates calculated from the observed gas temperature and density profiles and estimated black hole masses, and the power emerging from these systems in relativistic jets. The jet powers, which are inferred from the energies and timescales required to inflate cavities observed in the surrounding X-ray emitting gas, can be related to the accretion rates using a power law model of the form log (P{sub Bondi}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) = A + B log (P{sub jet}/10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}), with A = 0.62 {+-} 0.15 and B = 0.77 {+-} 0.18. Our results show that a significant fraction of the energy associated with the rest mass of material entering the Bondi accretion radius (2.4{sub -0.7}{sup +1.0} per cent, for P{sub jet} = 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) eventually emerges in the relativistic jets. Our results have significant implications for studies of accretion, jet formation and galaxy formation. The observed tight correlation suggests that the Bondi formulae provide a reasonable description of the accretion process in these systems, despite the likely presence of magnetic pressure and angular momentum in the accreting gas. The similarity of the P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} values argues that a significant fraction of the matter entering the accretion radius flows down to regions close to the black holes, where the jets are presumably formed. The tight correlation between P{sub Bondi} and P{sub jet} also suggests that the accretion flows are approximately stable over timescales of a few million years. Our results show that the black hole ''engines'' at the hearts of large elliptical galaxies and groups feed back sufficient energy to stem cooling and star formation, leading naturally to the observed exponential cut off at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function.

Allen, Steven W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Reynolds, C.S.; /Maryland U.

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Simulation model and the dynamics of relative poverty rates in the presence of some social benefits in Romania  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents some simulations of the relative poverty rates values in the presence of some social benefits in the income of persons / households considered in the Household Budget Survey carried out by the National Institute of Statistics of Romania ... Keywords: dynamics, indicators, relative poverty, simulation model, social benefits

Cristina Stroe; Andreea Cambir; Cornelia Barti; Eva Militaru; Silvia Cojanu; Eliza Lungu; Codruta Dragoiu; Isadora Lazar

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Lightning Rates Relative to Tornadic Storm Evolution on 22 May 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 22 May 1981, we acquired lightning and Doppler radar data on two tornadic storms in Oklahoma. Cloud-to-ground lightning flash rates were measured with a magnetic direction-finder network, and total flash rates in the vicinity of the ...

Donald R. MacGorman; Donald W. Burgess; Vladislav Mazur; W. David Rust; William L. Taylor; Brenda C. Johnson

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Injectivity Test Details Activities (7) Areas (6) Regions (0) NEPA(1) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Well Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Well Testing Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Permeability of the well Thermal: Dictionary.png Injectivity Test: A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can

36

Relative influence of lapse rate and water vapor on the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

Observational data are employed in a radiative transfer model to simulate the mean variation in normalized greenhouse effect (NGE) between January and July. This is performed at a variety of locations, and the mean local rate of change in NGE with surface temperature is determined. The result is 1.5 times larger than the variation of NGE with surface temperature obtained by spatially correlating the aggregated data. This disagreement is ascribed to systematic differences between the two approaches and is interpreted as indicating the significant role that large-scale circulations as well as surface temperatures have on determining local thermal and humidity structures. The separate effects of water vapor and lapse rate variations are estimated, by simulating the January-July changes in NGE with each process in turn held constant: beyond the tropics the lapse rate feedback is found to dominate over the water vapor feedback, particularly over land; in the inter-tropics, lapse rate variations account for about a third of the change in greenhouse trapping, contributing substantially to the `super-greenhouse effect.` Utilizing a radiative-convective model, the possible effects on climate change of both lapse rate changes and water vapor feedback are compared: a global mean model cliamte is perturbed by a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide and equilibrium surface temperatures obtained for a variety of lapse rates. If, under conditions of climate change, the global mean lapse rate varies with surface temperature in the same manner as in the present-day mean seasonal cycle (increasing the lapse rate magnitude by 6%), then the lapse rate feedback amplifies the modeled water vapor feedback by 40%; conversely, a 12% reduction in the magnitude of the lapse rate completely nullifies the water vapor feedback.

Sinha, A. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Eddy Dissipation Rates in Thunderstorms Estimated by Doppler Radar in Relation to Aircraft In Situ Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution aircraft turbulence measurements, well coordinated with radar Doppler spectral width measurements, have been used to verify radar-estimated energy dissipation rates within thunderstorms anvils. The radar-estimated eddy dissipation ...

Peter Meischner; Robert Baumann; Hartmut Höller; Thomas Jank

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Calculated Influence of Temperature-Related Factors on Ozone Formation Rates in the Lower Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an atmospheric chemical reaction mechanism applied to air parcels near the earth's surface, the sensitivities ozone (O3) formation rates are quantified for changes in four meteorologically controlled parameters: temperature, sunlight ...

Chris J. Walcek; Hong-H. Yuan

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

The Relation between the Area-Average Rain Rate and the Rain Cell Size Distribution Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the literature on the rain cell diameter distribution (RCDD) is first presented. It shows that RCDD, for a given rain-rate threshold ?, is accurately described by an exponential distribution with an exponential parameter ? weakly ...

Henri Sauvageot; Frédéric Mesnard; Ricardo S. Tenório

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Rate-decline Relations for Unconventional Reservoirs and Development of Parametric Correlations for Estimation of Reservoir Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time-rate analysis and time-rate-pressure analysis methods are available to estimate reserves and study flow performance of wells in unconventional gas reservoirs. However, these tools are often incorrectly used or the analysis can become difficult because of the complex nature of the reservoir system. Conventional methods (e.g., Arps' time-rate relations) are often used incorrectly to estimate reserves from such reservoirs. It was only recently that a serious study was conducted to outline the limitations of these relations and to set guidelines for their correct application. New time-rate relations, particularly the Duong and logistic growth model, were introduced to estimate reserves and forecast production from unconventional reservoirs. These new models are being used with limited understanding of their characteristics and limitations. Moreover, well performance analyses using analytical/semi-analytical solutions (time-rate-pressure) are often complicated from non-uniqueness that arises when estimating well/formation properties. In this work, we present a detailed study of the Duong model and logistic growth model to investigate the behaviors and limitations of these models when analyzing production data from unconventional reservoirs. We consider production data generated from numerical simulation cases and data obtained from unconventional gas reservoirs to study the quality of match to specific flow regimes and compare accuracy of the reserve estimates. We use the power-law exponential model (PLE), which has been shown to model transient, transition and boundary-dominated flow regimes reliably, as a benchmark to study performance of Duong and logistic growth models. Moreover, we use the "continuous EUR" approach to compare these models during reserve estimation. Finally, we develop four new time-rate relations, based on characteristics of the time-rate data on diagnostic plots. Using diagnostic plots we show that the new time-rate relations provide a quality match to the production data across all flow regimes, leading to a reliable reserve estimate. In a preliminary study, we integrated time-rate model parameters with fundamental reservoir properties (i.e., fracture conductivity (Fc) and 30 year EUR (EUR30yr)), by studying 15 numerical simulation cases to yield parametric correlations. We have demonstrated a methodology to integrate time-rate model parameters and reservoir properties. This method avoids the non-uniqueness issues often associated with model-based production data analysis. This study provides theoretical basis for further demonstration of the methodology using field cases.

Askabe, Yohanes 1985-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

General Probability-matched Relations between Radar Reflectivity and Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of deriving the relation between radar-observed reflectivities Ze and gauge-measured rain intensity, R is presented. It is based on matching the probabilities of the two variables. The observed reflectivity is often very different from ...

Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff; David Atlas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Systematic Variation of Observed Radar Reflectivity–Rainfall Rate Relations in the Tropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Global Validation Program provides a unique opportunity to compare radar datasets from different sites, because they are analyzed in a relatively uniform procedure. Monthly observed radar reflectivity–...

Eyal Amitai

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Experience with Zinc Injection in European PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc injection is an effective technique for lowering shutdown dose rates in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report compiles information about zinc injection experience at Siemens PWRs and compares the results with the use of zinc injection at U.S. PWRs. The plant data confirm that even low concentrations of zinc in the reactor water can indeed lower shutdown dose rates, but plants should make a concerted effort to inject zinc on a continuous basis to achieve the best results.

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment  

SciTech Connect

Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu{sub 2}NO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}, forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150{degree}C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150{degree}C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu{sub 2}O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs.

Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Van Konynenburg, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

46

Two part condenser for varying the rate of condensing and related method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heat transfer apparatus, such as a condenser, is provided. The apparatus includes a first component with a first heat transfer element that has first component inlet and outlet ports through which a first fluid may pass. A second component is also included and likewise has a second heat transfer element with second component inlet and outlet ports to pass a second fluid. The first component has a body that can receive a third fluid for heat transfer with the first heat transfer element. The first and second components are releasably attachable with one another so that when attached both the first and second heat transfer elements effect heat transfer with the third fluid. Attachment and removal of the first and second components allows for the heat transfer rate of the apparatus to be varied. An associated method is also provided.

Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

47

Impact of injection on reservoir performance in the NCPA steam field at The Geysers  

SciTech Connect

A managed injection program implemented by the NCPA in The Southeast Geysers reservoir continues to positively impact reservoir performance. Injection effects are determined by the application of geochemical and geophysical techniques to track the movement of injectate. This information, when integrated with reservoir pressure, flowrate, and thermodynamic data, is used to quantify the overall performance and efficiency of the injection program. Data analysis indicates that injected water is boiling near the injection wells, without deeper migration, and is recovered as superheated steam from nearby production wells. Injection derived steam (IDS) currently accounts for 25 to 35 percent of total production in the NCPA steamfield. Most importantly, 80 to 100% of the injectate is flashing and being recovered as steam. The amount of IDS has increased since 1988 due to both a change in injection strategy and a drying out of the reservoir. However, significant areas of the reservoir still remain relatively unaffected by injection because of the limited amount of injectate presently available. That the reservoir has been positively impacted in the injection areas is evidenced by a decrease in the rate of pressure decline from 1989 through 1992. Correspondingly, there has been a reduction in the rate of steam flow decline in the areas' production wells. Conversely, little evidence of reservoir cooling or thermal breakthrough is shown even in areas where IDS accounts for 80 percent or more of production. Finally, since injection water is a relatively low-gas source of steam, noncondensible gas concentrations have been reduced in some steam wells located within the injection dominated areas.

Enedy, S.L.; Smith, J.L.; Yarter, R.E.; Jones, S.M.; Cavote, P.E.

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

48

Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

Corey, J.C.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Characteristics of Microseismicity in the DV11 Injection Area, Southeast Geysers, California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microearthquake (MEQ) occurrence surrounding the injection well DV11 in Unit 18 of the Southeast (SE) Geysers is investigated. Seismicity rates are compared to the injection rate, and to flow rates in nearby steam extraction wells, which were monitored during the Unit 18 Cooperative Injection Test in 1994 and 1995. The seismicity rate is seen to mirror both injection and production rates, although a time lag sometimes occurs. Waveform cross-correlation is performed for the MEQs in the DV11 area, and the events grouped into clusters based on waveform similarity. Relative location techniques applied to the events in two of these clusters show 7 events grouped into a volume of about 25 m in diameter, at an elevation of about -0.65 km msl and 5 events grouped into a vertically-oriented linear feature about 100 m in length, at about -1.8 km msl.

Kirkpatrick, Ann; Peterson Jr., John E.; Majer, Ernest L.; Nadeau, Robe rt

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Plant Tumor Growth Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plant Tumor Growth Rates Plant Tumor Growth Rates Name: Gina and Maria Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We are doing a science fair project on if B. Carotene, Green tea, and Grape Seed Extract helps plants against the crown gall disease. We injected sunflowers with agrobacterium tum. one week ago (Sun. Feb. 27, 2000). Our questions is how long will it take for the tumors to grow? We scratched the surface of the stems and injected the agrobacterium in the wound. Also which do you think, in your opinion, will do the best, if any? Our science fair is April 13, do you think we'll have growth before then, atleast enough time to do our conclusion and results? Thank you, any information you forward will be very helpful. Replies: Sunflowers form galls relatively quickly. I usually get them in two weeks at least. Good luck.

51

Common Rail Injection System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

Electro-Motive,

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Distribution of fluid phases within the steam zone in steam injection processes  

SciTech Connect

The saturation distribution of steam, water, and oil within the steam zone in a steam injection process at constant injection rates is examined. It is shown theoretically that for typical values of injection parameters the oil saturation in the steam zone rapidly reaches its residual value at steam zone conditions. This result, which corroborates previous experimental evidence, is a consequence of the relatively fast changes in phase saturations compared to the rate of the advance of the steam front. Explicit expressions for the steam saturation distribution are obtained. It is shown that the average steam saturation is a slightly decreasing function of time and approaches a limiting value which is a nearly constant fraction of the steam saturation at the injection point. This result provides theoretical justification for the often made assumption of constant average steam saturation in steam injection calculations.

Yortsos, Y.C.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

A simulation study to verify Stone's simultaneous water and gas injection performance in a 5-spot pattern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water alternating gas (WAG) injection is a proven technique to enhance oil recovery. It has been successfully implemented in the field since 1957 with recovery increase in the range of 5-10% of oil-initially-in-place (OIIP). In 2004, Herbert L. Stone presented a simultaneous water and gas injection technique. Gas is injected near the bottom of the reservoir and water is injected directly on top at high rates to prevent upward channeling of the gas. Stone's mathematical model indicated the new technique can increase vertical sweep efficiency by 3-4 folds over WAG. In this study, a commercial reservoir simulator was used to predict the performance of Stone's technique and compare it to WAG and other EOR injection strategies. Two sets of relative permeability data were considered. Multiple combinations of total injection rates (water plus gas) and water/gas ratios as well as injection schedules were investigated to find the optimum design parameters for an 80 acre 5-spot pattern unit. Results show that injecting water above gas may result in better oil recovery than WAG injection though not as indicated by Stone. Increase in oil recovery with SSWAG injection is a function of the gas critical saturation. The more gas is trapped in the formation, the higher oil recovery is obtained. This is probably due to the fact that areal sweep efficiency is a more dominant factor in a 5-spot pattern. Periodic shut-off of the water injector has little effect on oil recovery. Water/gas injection ratio optimization may result in a slight increase in oil recovery. SSWAG injection results in a steady injection pressure and less fluctuation in gas production rate compared to WAG injection.

Barnawi, Mazen Taher

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Non-isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-isothermal CO2 flow through an injection well Orlando SilvaOrlando Silva #12; The Problem CO2 or gas injection well Questions Injection of scCO2 vs. gaseous CO2. Other relevant examples: - gas and therefore the CO2 injection rate. caprock reservoir geothermal gradient hydrostatic gradient well CO2 bubble

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

55

Operational experience during the LHC injection tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Following the LHC injection tests of 2008. two injection tests took place in October and November 2009 as preparation for the LHC restart on November 20, 2009. During these injection tests beam was injected through the TI 2 transfer line into sector 23 of ring 1 and through TI 8 into the sectors 78, 67 and 56 of ring 2. The beam time was dedicated to injection steering, optics measurements and debugging of all the systems involved. Because many potential problems were sorted out in advance, these tests contributed to the rapid progress after the restart. This paper describes the experiences and issues encountered during these tests as well as related measurement results.

Fuchsberger, K; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Bailey, R; Bruning, O; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Lamont, M; MacPherson, A; Meddahi, M; Papotti, G; Pojer, M; Ponce, L; Redaelli, S; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Wenninger, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Slit injection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

Alger, Terry W. (Livermore, CA); Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA); Bradley, Laird P. (Livermore, CA)

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Rich catalytic injection  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Beam injection into RHIC  

SciTech Connect

During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Geothermal injection monitoring project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

Younker, L.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Model study of historical injection in the Southeast Geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three component model study of the historical injection of two wells in the Unit 13 area demonstrates that the recovery of injection derived steam is influenced by the geologic structure of the bottom of the reservoir and the relative location of injection wells. the migration of injectate from the first injection well, located up structure from the second, quenched the area around the second injector before it started operation. while both wells had similar cumulative mass injected, nearly five times more injection derived steam is recovered from the first injector than the second. Sensitivity runs were made to three cases of increasing matrix capillary pressure. The recovery of injection derived steam increases with higher values of capillarity. The interaction of structure at the bottom of the reservoir, injection well locations, and matrix capillarity all influence the recovery efficiency of injectate as steam. The model developed in this study will be used to evaluate injection strategies at The Geysers.

Faulder, D.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Model study of historical injection in the southeast Geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three component model study of the historical injection of two wells in the Unit 13 area demonstrates that the recovery of injection derived steam is influenced by the geologic structure of the bottom of the reservoir and the relative location of injection wells. The migration of injectate from the first injection well, located up structure from the second, quenched the area around the second injector before it started operation. While both wells had similar cumulative mass injected, nearly five times more injection derived steam is recovered from the first injector than the-second. Sensitivity runs were made to three cases of increasing matrix capillary pressure. The recovery of injection derived steam increases with higher values of capillarity. The interaction of structure at the bottom of the reservoir, injection well locations, and matrix capillarity all influence the recovery efficiency of injected as steam. The model developed in this study will be used to evaluate injection strategies at The Geysers.

Faulder, D.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Model study of historical injection in the southeast Geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three component model study of the historical injection of two wells in the Unit 13 area demonstrates that the recovery of injection derived steam is influenced by the geologic structure of the bottom of the reservoir and the relative location of injection wells. The migration of injectate from the first injection well, located up structure from the second, quenched the area around the second injector before it started operation. While both wells had similar cumulative mass injected, nearly five times more injection derived steam is recovered from the first injector than the-second. Sensitivity runs were made to three cases of increasing matrix capillary pressure. The recovery of injection derived steam increases with higher values of capillarity. The interaction of structure at the bottom of the reservoir, injection well locations, and matrix capillarity all influence the recovery efficiency of injected as steam. The model developed in this study will be used to evaluate injection strategies at The Geysers.

Faulder, D.D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Traffic-related air pollution exposures and changes in heart rate variability in Mexico City: A panel study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related pollutants including PM 2.5 , carbon dioxide (COparticles; CO 2 : Carbon dioxide; CO: Carbon monoxide; HF:2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ),

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Overview of Recent Developments in Pellet Injection for ITER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pellet injection is the primary fueling technique planned for core fueling of ITER burning plasmas. Also, the injection of relatively small pellets to purposely trigger rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) has been proposed as a possible solution to the heat flux damage from larger natural ELMs likely to be an issue on the ITER divertor surfaces. The ITER pellet injection system is designed to inject pellets into the plasma through both inner and outer wall guide tubes. The inner wall guide tubes will provide high throughput pellet fueling while the outerwall guide tubes will be used primarily to trigger ELMs at a high frequency (>15 Hz). The pellet fueling rate ofeach injector is to be up to 120 Pa-m3/s, which will require the formation of solid D-T at a volumetric rate of ~1500 mm3/s. Two injectors are to be provided for ITER at the startup with a provision for up to six injectorsduring the D-T phase. The required throughput of each injector is greater than that of any injector built to date, and a novel twin-screw continuous extrusion system is being developed to meet the challenging design parameters. Status of the development activities will be presented, highlighting recent progress.

Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

2001-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

68

OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. ................................... 19 FIGURE 3.13: ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL WITH A PAIR OF INJECTION AND PRODUCTION WELLS. ................... 20 FIGURE 3.14: TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL WITH PRODUCTION AND INJECTION WELLS AT THE CENTER.......... 20 and an injection well was placed in the corner diagonally opposite. The maximum production rate of the well

Stanford University

69

Geysers injection modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

Pruess, K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

A Methodology to Derive Radar Reflectivity–Liquid Equivalent Snow Rate Relations Using C-Band Radar and a 2D Video Disdrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to derive equivalent radar reflectivity factor–liquid equivalent snow rate (Ze–SR) power-law relations for snowfall using the C-band King City operational weather radar and a 2D video disdrometer (2DVD). The 2DVD ...

Gwo-Jong Huang; V. N. Bringi; Robert Cifelli; David Hudak; W. A. Petersen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Power and transmission rate orders and related documents. Office of Power Marketing Coordination, data compiled January 1, 1980-December 31, 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This publication contains the power and transmission rate orders and related documents issued by the Department of Energy. It covers calendar years 1980 and 1981. The first publication, DOE/CE-007 covering the period from March through December 1979, was published July 1981. This publication is a compilation of all rate orders issued by the Assistant Secretary for Resource Applications and the Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy during calendar years 1980 and 1981 under Delegation Order No. 0204-33. It also includes all final approvals, remands, and disapprovals by the FERC, and a petition to the FERC for reconsideration by a Power Marketing Administration during 1980 and 1981. Also included are two delegation orders along with an amendment and a supplement to one delegation order, a departmental order on financial reporting, and Power and Transmission Rate Adjustment Procedures relating to federal power marketing.

None

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

73

Encounters of H and D atoms with O{sub 2} in water: Relative diffusion and reaction rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diffusive encounters of H and D atoms with O{sub 2} in water are investigated with the time-domain EPR free induction decay attenuation technique. Given the paramagnetic triplet ground state of the O{sub 2} molecule, it is expected that all H-O{sub 2} encounters will contribute to spin dephasing, regardless of whether reaction to form HO{sub 2} occurs. In H{sub 2}O the second-order spin-spin dephasing rate of H in the presence of O{sub 2} is 1.94 {times} 10{sup 10} M{sup {minus}1} sec{sup {minus}1} at 25{degrees}C, with an activation energy of 11.22 {+-} 0.33 kJ/mole between 8 and 60{degrees}C. In a mixture of 90% D{sub 2}O and 10% H{sub 2}O, H atom dephasing is marginally slower in the same temperature range. Dephasing of D atoms in 90% D{sub 2}O is ca. 5--10% slower than H, indicating that diffusion of D is slower than H. The results are analyzed in terms of other available data concerning H and O{sub 2} diffusion and the reaction rate in water. It seems clear that neither the Stokes Einstein hydrodynamic theory nor classical activated rate theory applies to the diffusion of light hydrophobic gases in water. The authors tentatively conclude that H-O{sub 2} spin exchange is slightly less efficient than can be predicted in the theoretical diffusion limit.

Han, P.; Bartels, D.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Determination of the Lower Temperature Limit of Void Swelling of Stainless Steels at Relatively Low Displacement Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An issue of current interest to PWRs is the possibility that void swelling of austenitic near-core internal components may exert some deleterious effect on component functionality, particularly during extended operation to 60 years. A similar concern has also been raised for water-cooled fusion devices. One question of particular interest is the range of temperature over which void swelling can occur, since the internal components experience temperatures from ~290 to perhaps as high as 390 degrees C in some limited locations. This question was addressed using a flow restrictor component from the low-flux breeder zone of the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan. This component was constructed of annealed 12X18H10T, an alloy similar to AISI 321 which is used in Russian reactors for applications where AISI 304L would be used in comparable Western and Japanese reactors. Extensive sectioning to produce 114 separate specimens, followed by examination of the radiation-induced microstructure showed that void swelling in the range of temperatures and dpa rates of PWR interest occurs down to ~305 degrees C. At 330 degrees C the swelling reached ~1% at 20 dpa. Comparison of these data with other published results from Russian LWR reactors at <10 dpa confirms that the lowest temperature that stainless steels can begin swelling appears to be ~300 degrees C. Since fusion and PWR spectra generate similar levels of hydrogen and helium, it is expected that these conclusions are also application to fusion devices operating at comparable dpa rates.

Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu V.; Dvoriashin, Alexander M.; Krigan, V. M.; Garner, Francis A.

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

PRODUCTIVITY OF SOLAR FLARES AND MAGNETIC HELICITY INJECTION IN ACTIVE REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this study is to better understand how magnetic helicity injection in an active region (AR) is related to the occurrence and intensity of solar flares. We therefore investigate the magnetic helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux, as a reference. In total, 378 ARs are analyzed using SOHO/MDI magnetograms. The 24 hr averaged helicity injection rate and unsigned magnetic flux are compared with the flare index and the flare-productive probability in the next 24 hr following a measurement. In addition, we study the variation of helicity over a span of several days around the times of the 19 flares above M5.0 which occurred in selected strong flare-productive ARs. The major findings of this study are as follows: (1) for a sub-sample of 91 large ARs with unsigned magnetic fluxes in the range from (3-5) x 10{sup 22} Mx, there is a difference in the magnetic helicity injection rate between flaring ARs and non-flaring ARs by a factor of 2; (2) the GOES C-flare-productive probability as a function of helicity injection displays a sharp boundary between flare-productive ARs and flare-quiet ones; (3) the history of helicity injection before all the 19 major flares displayed a common characteristic: a significant helicity accumulation of (3-45) x 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2} during a phase of monotonically increasing helicity over 0.5-2 days. Our results support the notion that helicity injection is important in flares, but it is not effective to use it alone for the purpose of flare forecast. It is necessary to find a way to better characterize the time history of helicity injection as well as its spatial distribution inside ARs.

Park, Sung-hong; Wang Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, 101 Tiernan Hall, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chae, Jongchul, E-mail: sp295@njit.ed [Astronomy Program and FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

76

Yet Another Fault Injection Technique : by Forward Body Biasing Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

expensive fault injection tech- niques, like clock or voltage glitches, are well taken into accountYet Another Fault Injection Technique : by Forward Body Biasing Injection K. TOBICH1,2, P. MAURINE1 Injection, Electromag- netic Attacks, RSA, Chinese Remainder Theorem 1 Introduction Fault injection

77

Results of calculations of external gamma radiation exposure rates from local fallout and the related radionuclide compositions of selected US Pacific events  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and local surface deposition of related radionuclides resulting from selected US Pacific events. Results of the calculations of relative external gamma radiation exposure rate and related radionuclide ground deposition are given in six appendices. The output of the calculation has 30 decay times: 10 from 1 to 21 h, 10 from 1 to 300 d, and 10 from 1 to 50 y. For each of these times and for zero time, there are values of the external gamma radiation exposure rate normalized to 1 mR/h, 1 m above the surface, 12 h after the event; the associated values of ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/ for each radionuclide; and the total ..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/. Surface roughness effects are simulated by using Beck's values of (mR/h)/..mu..Ci/m/sup 2/) for a relaxation length of 0.16 g/cm/sup 2/. Fractionation effects, simulated by the removal of a fraction of the refractory nuclides from the calculation, were found for unfractionated debris and for debris with 0.5 and 0.1 of the refractory elements present. Each Appendix contains three sets of 11 pages of calculated results relating to one event in Table 1. Each set of 11 pages is marked page 2 through page 12. Page 2 of each set gives the external gamma-ray exposure rates and associated values of total microcuries per square meter at 30 decay intervals and at zero time. The value for each activation product at zero time is the result of a measurement. The measurements were performed on debris samples taken by aircraft approximately 1 to 4 h after detonation. When no measurement exists, the value appears as zero. Fission products were calculated from the fissioning nuclides and neutron energy spectra. Calculated values for each radionuclide at various decay intervals are given.

Hicks, H.G.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect

The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

1999-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

79

Studies of injection into naturally fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A semi-analytical model for studies of cold water injection into naturally fractured reservoirs has been developed. The model can be used to design the flow rates and location of injection wells in such systems. The results obtained using the model show that initially the cold water will move very rapidly through the fracture system away from the well. Later on, conductive heat transfer from the rock matrix blocks will retard the advancement of the cold water front, and eventually uniform energy sweep conditions will prevail. Where uniform energy sweep conditions are reached the cold waer movement away from the injection well will be identical to that in a porous medium; consequently maximum energy recovery from the rock matrix will be attained. The time of uniform energy sweep and the radial distance from the injection well where it occurs are greatly dependent upon the fracture spacing, but independent of the fracture aperture.

Boedvarsson, G.S.; Lai, C.H.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION  

SciTech Connect

The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in their physics and their technology, or in any case they are considered to be adequately covered by these other authors.

Kunkel, W.B.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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81

Definition: Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Injectivity Test Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Injectivity Test A well testing technique conducted upon completion of a well. Water is pumped into the well at a constant rate until a stable pressure is reached then the pump is turned off and the rate at which pressure decreases is measured. The pressure measurements are graphed and well permeability can be calculated.[1] References ↑ https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/pdf/IGAstandard/ISS/2008Croatia/Hole03.pdf Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You and one other like this.One person likes this. Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Injectivity_Test&oldid=688681"

82

INJECTIVE COGENERATORS AMONG OPERATOR BIMODULES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Given C ?-algebras A and B acting cyclically on Hilbert spaces H and K, respectively, we characterize completely isometric A, B-bimodule maps from B(K, H) into operator A, B-bimodules. We determine cogenerators in some classes of operator bimodules. For an injective cogenerator X in a suitable category of operator A, B-bimodules we show: if A, regarded as a C ?-subalgebra of A?(X) (adjointable left multipliers on X), is equal to its relative double commutant in A?(X), then A must be a W ?-algebra. 1.

Bojan Magajna

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Injection Timing Effects on Brake Fuel Conversion Efficiency and Engine System's Respones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Societal concerns on combustion-based fuel consumption are ever-increasing. With respect to internal combustion engines, this translates to a need to increase brake fuel conversion efficiency (BFCE). Diesel engines are a relatively efficient internal combustion engine to consider for numerous applications, but associated actions to mitigate certain exhaust emissions have generally deteriorated engine efficiency. Conventionally, diesel engine emission control has centered on in-cylinder techniques. Although these continue to hold promise, the industry trend is presently favoring the use of after-treatment devices which create new opportunities to improve the diesel engine's brake fuel conversion efficiency. This study focuses on injection timing effects on the combustion processes, engine efficiency, and the engine system's responses. The engine in the study is a medium duty diesel engine (capable of meeting US EPA Tier III off road emission standards) equipped with common rail direct fuel injection, variable geometry turbo charging, and interfaced with a custom built engine controller. The study found that injection timing greatly affected BFCE by changing the combustion phasing. BFCE would increase up to a maximum then begin to decrease as phasing became less favorable. Combustion phasing would change from being mostly mixing controlled combustion to premixed combustion as injection timing would advance allowing more time for fuel to mix during the ignition delay. Combustion phasing, in turn, would influence many other engine parameters. As injection timing is advanced, in-cylinder temperatures and pressures amplify, and intake and exhaust manifold pressures deteriorate. Rate of heat release and rate of heat transfer increase when injection timing is advanced. Turbocharger speed falls with the advancing injection timing. Torque, however, rose to a maximum then fell off again even though engine speed and fueling rate were held constant between different injection timings. Interestingly, the coefficient of heat transfer changes from a two peak curve to a smooth one peak curve as the injection timing is advanced further. The major conclusion of the study is that injection advance both positively and negatively influences the diesel engine's response which contributes to the brake fuel conversion efficiency.

McLean, James Elliott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria  

SciTech Connect

In Salah Gas Project in Algeria has been injecting 0.5-1 million tonnes CO{sub 2} per year over the past five years into a water-filled strata at a depth of about 1,800 to 1,900 m. Unlike most CO{sub 2} storage sites, the permeability of the storage formation is relatively low and comparatively thin with a thickness of about 20 m. To ensure adequate CO{sub 2} flow-rates across the low-permeability sand-face, the In Salah Gas Project decided to use long-reach (about 1 to 1.5 km) horizontal injection wells. In an ongoing research project we use field data and coupled reservoir-geomechanical numerical modeling to assess the effectiveness of this approach and to investigate monitoring techniques to evaluate the performance of a CO{sub 2}-injection operation in relatively low permeability formations. Among the field data used are ground surface deformations evaluated from recently acquired satellite-based inferrometry (InSAR). The InSAR data shows a surface uplift on the order of 5 mm per year above active CO{sub 2} injection wells and the uplift pattern extends several km from the injection wells. In this paper we use the observed surface uplift to constrain our coupled reservoir-geomechanical model and conduct sensitivity studies to investigate potential causes and mechanisms of the observed uplift. The results of our analysis indicates that most of the observed uplift magnitude can be explained by pressure-induced, poro-elastic expansion of the 20 m thick injection zone, but there could also be a significant contribution from pressure-induced deformations within a 100 m thick zone of shaly sands immediately above the injection zone.

Rutqvist, J.; Vasco, D.W.; Myer, L.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Cost Estimate of Activated Carbon Injection for Controlling Mercury...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mercury reductions of between 60% and 70% at injection rates around 10-15 lbsmillion acf (see Figure 1). Although regression analysis of full-scale ACIESP data shows that it...

87

Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

Böse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Supported-sorbent injection. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

Nelson, S. Jr.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

2006-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

90

-Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the injection well to^ production wells along high conductivity fractures. A powerful method for investigat- ing fields typically choose a configuration for injection wells after a number of development wells have of cooler injected fluids at producing wells. The goal of the current #12;- 10 - work is to provide

Stanford University

91

Optimization of injection scheduling in geothermal fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study discusses the application of algorithms developed in Operations Research to the optimization of brine reinjection in geothermal fields. The injection optimization problem is broken into two sub-problems: (1) choosing a configuration of injectors from an existing set of wells, and (2) allocating a total specified injection rate among chosen injectors. The allocation problem is solved first. The reservoir is idealized as a network of channels or arcs directly connecting each pair of wells in the field. Each arc in the network is considered to have some potential for thermal breakthrough. This potential is quantified by an arc-specific break-through index, b/sub ij/, based on user-specified parameters from tracer tests, field geometry, and operating considerations. The sum of b/sub ij/-values for all arcs is defined as the fieldwide breakthrough index, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells and rates so as to minimize B subject to constraints on the number of injectors and the total amount of fluid to be produced and reinjected. The study presents four computer programs which employ linear or quadratic programming to solve the allocation problem. In addition, a program is presented which solves the injector configuration problem by a combination of enumeration and quadratic programming. The use of the various programs is demonstrated with reference both to hypothetical data and an actual data set from the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand.

Lovekin, J.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study discusses the application of algorithms developed in Operations Research to the optimization of brine reinjection in geothermal fields. The injection optimization problem is broken into two sub-problems: (1) choosing a configuration of injectors from an existing set of wells, and (2) allocating a total specified injection rate among chosen injectors. The allocation problem is solved first. The reservoir is idealized as a network of channels or arcs directly connecting each pair of wells in the field. Each arc in the network is considered to have some potential for thermal breakthrough. This potential is quantified by an arc-specific breakthrough index, b{sub ij}, based on user-specified parameters from tracer tests, field geometry, and operating considerations. The sum of b{sub ij}-values for all arcs is defined as the fieldwide breakthrough index, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells and rates so as to minimize B subject to constraints on the number of injectors and the total amount of fluid to be produced and reinjected. The use of the various methods is demonstrated with reference both to hypothetical data and an actual data set from the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand.

Lovekin, James; Horne, Roland N.

1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

93

A physiological and morphological analysis of the effects of nitrogen supply on the relative growth rates of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of nitrogen supply on relationships of relative growth rate (RGR) to leaf physiology, structural and non-structural carbon partitioning, and nitrogen- and water-use efficiencies were examined in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) clonal lines differing in growth potential. Nine 18-month-old loblolly pine clones were grown in a climate-controlled greenhouse for 20 weeks under two contrasting nitrogen (N) regimes (50 and 250 ppm) and a growth analysis was carried out. Higher nitrogen increased plant RGR and largely resulted in proportional shifts in biomass from roots and stems to needles. The RGR of plants receiving higher nitrogen was increased primarily through increased leaf area ratio (LAR), which was increased through higher leaf mass fraction (LMF) and not through changes in needle morphology. Although concentrations of needle glucose in plants receiving 250 ppm N were 22 percent higher than plants receiving lower N, total non-structural carbohydrate concentrations in needles of plants receiving 50 ppm N were nearly double that of clones receiving 250 pm N, primarily due to starch accumulation of the nitrogen-deficient plants. Plants receiving 250 ppm N also had 39 and 18 percent lower starch in the coarse and fine roots, respectively. Plants receiving higher nitrogen were also more water-use efficient, but had lower photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency. LAR, net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA), and LMF were all positively correlated with RGR, but the main influence on RGR differences among clones was LAR. In addition, leaf-level rates of photosynthesis and respiration were positively correlated with RGR; however, faster-growing clones did not exhibit greater carbon economy at the leaf level. Both instantaneous water-use efficiency (A/E) and ?13C were positively correlated with RGR and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was negatively correlated with RGR. The identification of physiological and morphological traits underpinning differences in RGR among clones and how these traits are affected by nitrogen supply provides new information on trait correlations within species and parallels broader patterns observed among species.

Stover, Corey Michael

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Spin Injection Across a Heterojunction: A Ballistic Picture  

SciTech Connect

Spin injection across heterojunctions plays a decisive role in the new field of spintronics. Within the ballistic transport regime, we state a general expression for the spin-injection rate in a heterojunction made of two ballistic electrodes. Both the spin-orbit interaction and interface scattering effect are taken into account. Our model is consistent with the well-documented results of ferromagnetic-metal junctions. It explains the recent experimental results of a dilute-magnetic-semiconductor/semiconductor junction and predicts solutions to enhance the spin-injection rate across a ferromagnetic-semiconductor junction.

Hu, C.-M.; Matsuyama, T.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

95

Maximum Rate of Pulverized Coal Injection into Blast Furnace with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pulverized coal consumption efficiency is determined by means of microscopic and chemical analysis. The carbon structure of coke fines in the blast furnace ...

96

Particle beam injection system  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ); Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

98

Injection and energy recovery in fractured geothermal reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerical studies of the effects of injection on the behavior of production wells completed in fractured two-phase geothermal reservoirs are presented. In these studies the multiple-interacting-continua (MINC) method is employed for the modeling of idealized fractured reservoirs. Simulations are carried out for a five-spot well pattern with various well spacings, fracture spacings, and injection fractions. The production rates from the wells are calculated using a deliverability model. The results of the studies show that injection into two-phase fractured reservoirs increases flow rates and decreases enthalpies of producing wells. These two effects offset each other so that injection tends to have small effects on the usable energy output of production wells in the short term. However, if a sufficiently large fraction of the produced fluids is injected, the fracture system may become liquid-filled and an increased steam rate is obtained. Our studies show that injection greatly increases the long-term energy output from wells, as it helps extract heat from the resrvoir rocks. If a high fraction of the produced fluids is injected, the ultimate energy recovery will increase manyfold.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; O'Sullivan, M.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

100

Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Energy recovery by water injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several analytical and numerical studies that address injection and thermal breakthrough in fractured geothermal reservoirs are described. The results show that excellent thermal sweeps can be achieved in fractured reservoirs, and that premature cold water breakthrough can be avoided if the injection wells are appropriately located.

Witherspoon, P.A.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Tsang, C.F.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fluid injection profiles: modern analysis of wellbore temperature survey  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exact and approximate solutions for heat flow in a fluid injection well are presented. By using the approximate results, temperature surveys can be quickly analyzed in the field, and the well depths where fluids leave and the departing flow rates at these depths can be precisely determined. Although this method eliminates the need for indigenous and post injection shut-in temperatures, several surveys must be taken just before and during the injection period which can be as short as several hours. In the application described the method was used to locate the depths where hydraulic fractures were initiated in a hot dry rock geothermal well.

Murphy, H.D.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

104

Characterizing the Effects of Air Injection on Compressor Performance for Use in Active Control of Rotating Stall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work has developed an air injection controller for rotating stall based on the idea of a shifting compressor characteristic and the Moore--Greitzer three state compressor model. In order to demonstrate this form of control experimentally, a series of open loop tests were performed to measure the performance characteristics of a low speed axial flow compression system when air is injected upstream of the rotor face. The position of the air injection port relative to the hub and the rotor face and the angle relative to the mean axial flow were varied. The tests show that the injection of air has drastic effects on the stalling mass flow rate and on the size of the hysteresis loop associated with rotating stall. The stalling mass flow rate was decreased by 10% and the hysteresis loop was completely eliminated under some conditions. The results of the open loop parametric study were then used to implement a closed loop control strategy based on a shifting characteristic. 1 Introdu...

Robert Behnken; Mina Leung; Richard M. Murray

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Fractured reservoir characterization through injection, falloff, and flowback tests  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the development of a multiphase pressure-transient-analysis technique for naturally fractured reservoirs and the analysis of a series of field tests performed to evaluate the water injection potential and the reservoir characteristics of a naturally fractured reservoir. These included step-rate, water-injectivity, pressure-falloff, and flowback tests. Through these tests, a description of the reservoir was obtained.

Peng, C.P.; Singh, P.K. (Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)); Halvorsen, H. (Amoco Norway Oil Co., Stavanger (NO)); York, S.D. (Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

1979-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

107

An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P. [Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Rate Schedules  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

109

Injection nozzle for a turbomachine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

110

-OGP 04 (1) -Predicting Injectivity Decline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- OGP 04 (1) - Predicting Injectivity Decline in Water Injection Wells by Upscaling On-Site Core, resulting in injectivity decline of injection wells. Particles such as biomass, corrosion products, silt on permeability. These data were then processed, upscaled to model injection wells and, finally, history matched

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

111

The energy injection and losses in the Monte Carlo simulations of a diffusive shock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) could be simulated by some well-established models, the assumption of the injection rate from the thermal particles to the superthermal population is still a contentious problem. But in the self-consistent Monte Carlo simulations, because of the prescribed scattering law instead of the assumption of the injected function, hence particle injection rate is intrinsically defined by the prescribed scattering law. We expect to examine the correlation of the energy injection with the prescribed multiple scattering angular distributions. According to the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, the energy injection and the losses in the simulation system can directly decide the shock energy spectrum slope. By the simulations performed with multiple scattering law in the dynamical Monte Carlo model, the energy injection and energy loss functions are obtained. As results, the case applying anisotropic scattering law produce a small energy injection and large energy losses leading to a s...

Wang, Xin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A Case History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Case History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada Case History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Case History of Injection Through 1991 at Dixie Valley, Nevada Abstract The Dixie Valley injection system has been operational for 3 1/4 years and disperses injectate into the reservoir through three distinct geological environments. Short term step-rate injection tests underestimated the long term injectivity of some of the injectors requiring additional injectors to be drilled. Liberal use of surface discharge over three years allowed orderly development of an eight-well injection system that provides pressure support for nine production wells but has not yet resulted in any cooling problems. Tracer testing identified a single flow path while long

113

Injection into a fractured geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed study is made on the movement of the thermal fronts in the fracture and in the porous medium when 100{sup 0}C water is injected into a 300{sup 0}C geothermal reservoir with equally spaced horizontal fractures. Numerical modeling calculations were made for a number of thermal conductivity values, as well as different values of the ratio of fracture and rock medium permeabilities. One important result is an indication that although initially, the thermal front in the fracture moves very fast relative to the front in the porous medium as commonly expected, its speed rapidly decreases. At some distance from the injection well the thermal fronts in the fracture and the porous medium coincide, and from that point they advance together. The implication of this result on the effects of fractures on reinjection into geothermal reservoirs is discussed.

Bodvarsson, G.S.; Tsang, C.F.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

115

Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI): Sun, Yong (Madison, WI)

2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

116

A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize Steamflood Performance Topical and steam quality cuts for equivalent heat injection rates, one-eighth five-spot model 31 4. Comparison 32 5. Comparison of tapering injection mass rates with tapering injected steam qualities

117

Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive .sup.82 Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular .sup.82 Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the .sup.82 Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote borehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

Potter, Robert M. (Los Alamos, NM); Archuleta, Jacobo R. (Espanola, NM); Fink, Conrad F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Injecting Carbon Dioxide into Unconventional Storage Reservoirs...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

will also be investigated with a targeted CO 2 injection test into a depleted shale gas well. Different reservoir models will be used before, during, and after injection...

119

Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

120

Systematic study related to the role of initial impurities and irradiation rates in the formation and evolution of complex defects in silicon for detectors in HEP experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of oxygen and carbon impurities on the concentrations of defects in silicon for detector uses, in complex fields of radiation, characteristic to high energy physics experiments, is investigated in the frame of the quantitative phenomenological model developed previously by the authors and extended in the present paper. Continuous irradiation conditions are considered, simulating realistically the environments for these experiments. The generation rate of primary defects is calculated starting from the projectile - silicon interaction and from the recoil energy redistribution in the lattice. The mechanisms of formation of complex defects are explicitly analysed. Vacancy-interstitial annihilation, interstitial and vacancy migration to sinks, divacancy, vacancy- and interstitial-impurity complex formation and decomposition are considered. Oxygen and carbon impurities present in silicon could monitor the concentration of all stable defects, due to their interaction with vacancies and interstitials. Their role in the mechanisms of formation and decomposition of the following stable defects: V_2, VO, V_2O, C_i, C_iO_i, C_iC_s and VP, is studied. The model predictions cover a generation primary rate of defects between 10^2 pairs/cm3/s and 10^{11} pairs/cm3/s, and could be a useful clue in obtaining harder materials for detectors for space missions, at the new generation of accelerators, as, e.g. LHC, Super-LHC and Eloisatron, or for industrial applications.

Sorina Lazanu; Ionel Lazanu

2003-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Energy Rating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Consistent, accurate, and uniform ratings based on a single statewide rating scale Reasonable estimates of potential utility bill savings and reliable recommendations on cost-effective measures to improve energy efficiency Training and certification procedures for home raters and quality assurance procedures to promote accurate ratings and to protect consumers Labeling procedures that will meet the needs of home buyers, homeowners, renters, the real estate industry, and mortgage lenders with an interest in home energy ratings

Cabec Conference; Rashid Mir P. E

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Insertion Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HOME > Insertion Rates. TECH HEADLINES. Research Explores a New Layer in Additive Manufacturin... Grand Opening Slated for Electron Microscopy Facility.

123

Systematic study related to the role of initial impurities and irradiation rates in the formation and evolution of complex defects in silicon for detectors in HEP experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of oxygen and carbon impurities on the concentrations of defects in silicon for detector uses, in complex fields of radiation, characteristic to high energy physics experiments, is investigated in the frame of the quantitative phenomenological model developed previously by the authors and extended in the present paper. Continuous irradiation conditions are considered, simulating realistically the environments for these experiments. The generation rate of primary defects is calculated starting from the projectile - silicon interaction and from the recoil energy redistribution in the lattice. The mechanisms of formation of complex defects are explicitly analysed. Vacancy-interstitial annihilation, interstitial and vacancy migration to sinks, divacancy, vacancy- and interstitial-impurity complex formation and decomposition are considered. Oxygen and carbon impurities present in silicon could monitor the concentration of all stable defects, due to their interaction with vacancies and interstitials. ...

Lazanu, S; Lazanu, Sorina; Lazanu, Ionel

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

PHYSICS PROCESSES IN DISRUPTION MITIGATION USING MASSIVE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

SciTech Connect

Methods for detecting imminent disruptions and mitigating disruption effects using massive injection of noble gases (He, Ne, or Ar) have been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak [1]. A jet of high injected gas density (> 10{sup 24} m{sup -3}) and pressure (> 20 kPa) penetrates the target plasma at the gas sound speed ({approx}300-500 m/s) and increases the atom/ion content of the plasma by a factor of > 50 in several milliseconds. UV line radiation from the impurity species distributes the plasma energy uniformly on the first wall, reducing the thermal load to the divertor by a factor of 10. Runaway electrons are almost completely eliminated by the large density of free and bound electrons supplied by the gas injection. The small vertical plasma displacement before current quench and high ratio of current decay rate to vertical growth rate result in a 75% reduction in peak halo current amplitude and attendant forces.

D.A. HUMPHREYS; D.G. WHYTE; T.C. JERNIGAN; T.E.EVANS; D.S. GRAY; E.M. HOLLMANN; A.W. HYATT; A.G. KELLMAN; C.J. LASNIER; P.B. PARKS; P.L. TAYLOR

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Rate schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

126

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

128

-Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.A. Hsieh 1e$ Pressure Buildup Monitoring of the Krafla Geothermal Field, . . . . . . . . 1'1 Xceland - 0 Initial Chemical and Reservoir Conditions at Lo6 Azufres Wellhead Power Plant Startup - P. Kruger, LSGP-TR-92 - Injection Technology - Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research at Stanford Principal

Stanford University

129

Water Injection into a Low-Permeability Rock - 1: Hydrofracture Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we model water injection through a growing vertical hydrofracture penetrating a low-permeability reservoir. The results are useful in oilfield waterflood applications and in liquid waste disposal through reinjection. Using Duhamel's principle, we extend the Gordeyev and Entov (1997) self-similar 2D solution of pressure diffusion from a growing fracture to the case of variable injection pressure. The flow of water injected into a low-permeability rock is almost perpendicular to the fracture for a time sufficiently long to be of practical interest. We revisit Carter's model of 1D fluid injection (Howard and Fast, 1957) and extend it to the case of variable injection pressure. We express the cumulative injection through the injection pressure and effective fracture area. Maintaining fluid injection above a reasonable minimal value leads inevitably to fracture growth regardless of the injector design and the injection policy. The average rate of fracture growth can be predicted from early injection. A smart injection controller that can prevent rapid fracture growth is needed.

Patzek, Tad W.; Silin, Dmitriy B.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

130

Blue light emitting diode internal and injection efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple experimental method of light emitting diode(LED) injection efficiency (IE) determination was suggested. IE and internal quantum efficiency(IQE) calculation is an actual and difficult problem in LED science. In this paper IE and IQE of blue LEDs were determined separately. The method is based on electroluminescence data fitting by the modified rate equation model. Efficiency droop caused by Auger recombination and poor injection were taken into account. Only one reasonable assumption was accepted during the calculations: IE tends to 1 at low current densities.

Ilya E. Titkov; Denis A. Sannikov; Young-Min Park; Joong-Kon Son

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Zinc Injection Strategy Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All U.S. boiling water reactors (BWRs) inject depleted zinc oxide (DZO) into the reactor feedwater for the purpose of suppressing drywell shutdown radiation dose rates. Current guidance in BWRVIP-190: BWR Vessel and Internals Project, BWR Water Chemistry Guidelines2008 Revision (EPRI report 1016579) is to inject sufficient zinc to achieve a Co-60(s)/Zn(s) ratio of Utility-specific goals may encourage even lower Co-60(s)/Zn(s) levels. This may be in part because BWR e...

2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Booster gold beam injection efficiency and beam loss  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the BNL requires the AGS to provide gold beam with the intensity of 10{sup 9} ions per bunch. Over the years, the Tandem Van de Graaff has provided steadily increasing intensity of gold ion beams to the AGS Booster. However, the gold ion beam injection efficiency at the Booster has been found to decrease with the rising intensity of injected beams. As the result, for Tandem beams of the highest intensity, the Booster late intensity is lower than with slightly lower intensity Tandem beam. In this article, the authors present two experiments associated with the Booster injection efficiency and beam intensity. One experiment looks at the Booster injection efficiency by adjusting the Tandem beam intensity, and another looks at the beam life time while scraping the beam in the Booster. The studies suggest that the gold beam injection efficiency at the AGS Booster is related to the beam loss in the ring, rather than the intensity of injected beam or circulating beam.

Zhang, S.Y.; Ahrens, L.A.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

136

Miniaturized flow injection analysis system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Miniaturized flow injection analysis system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

Folta, J.A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radial lean direct injection burner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

139

Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The protection of aircraft against shoulder fired heat seeking missiles is of growing concern in the aviation community. This thesis presents a simple method for shielding the infrared signature of a jet engine from heat seeking missiles. The research efforts investigated two approaches to shield the thermal signature of the Noel Penny Type 401 turbojet at the Texas A&M University Propulsion Lab Test Cell. First, liquid nitrogen was injected through a manifold at a flow rate equivalent to the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a small temperature reduction in the exhaust but no infrared shielding. Second, water was injected at a flow rate of 13% of the flow of exhaust gases, producing a greater temperature reduction and some shielding. Water was then injected through a manifold at a ?ow rate of 118% of the flow rate of exhaust gases, producing a substantial reduction in temperature and complete shielding of the infrared signature. Additionally, numerical simulations were performed using FLUENT to support these experiments. Results are presented in the form of thermocouple data and thermal images from the experiments, and in the form of temperature contours and streamtraces from the simulations.

Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tariff Rates FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2011 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2010 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

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141

Analytical steam injection model for layered systems  

SciTech Connect

Screening, evaluation and optimization of the steam flooding process in homogeneous reservoirs can be performed by using simple analytical predictive models. In the absence of any analytical model for layered reservoirs, at present, only numerical simulators can be used. And these are expensive. In this study, an analytical model has been developed considering two isolated layers of differing permeabilities. The principle of equal flow potential is applied across the two layers. Gajdica`s (1990) single layer linear steam drive model is extended for the layered system. The formulation accounts for variation of heat loss area in the higher permeability layer, and the development of a hot liquid zone in the lower permeability layer. These calculations also account for effects of viscosity, density, fractional flow curves and pressure drops in the hot liquid zone. Steam injection rate variations in the layers are represented by time weighted average rates. For steam zone calculations, Yortsos and Gavalas`s (1981) upper bound method is used with a correction factor. The results of the model are compared with a numerical simulator. Comparable oil and water flow rates, and breakthrough times were achieved for 100 cp oil. Results with 10 cp and 1000 cp oils indicate the need to improve the formulation to properly handle differing oil viscosities.

Abdual-Razzaq; Brigham, W.E.; Castanier, L.M.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Lean direct injection diffusion tip and related method  

SciTech Connect

A nozzle for a gas turbine combustor includes a first radially outer tube defining a first passage having an inlet and an outlet, the inlet adapted to supply air to a reaction zone of the combustor. A center body is located within the first radially outer tube, the center body including a second radially intermediate tube for supplying fuel to the reaction zone and a third radially inner tube for supplying air to the reaction zone. The second intermediate tube has a first outlet end closed by a first end wall that is formed with a plurality of substantially parallel, axially-oriented air outlet passages for the additional air in the third radially inner tube, each air outlet passage having a respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages in the first end wall for the fuel in the second radially intermediate tube. The respective plurality of associated fuel outlet passages have non-parallel center axes that intersect a center axis of the respective air outlet passage to locally mix fuel and air exiting said center body.

Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Ziminsky, Willy S. (Simpsonville, SC); Lipinski, John (Simpsonville, SC); Kraemer, Gilbert O. (Greer, SC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Niskayuna, NY); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

143

Exchange Rates and Fundamentals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near–random walk behavior if fundamentals are I(1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs, inflation, and interest rates provide little help in predicting changes in floating exchange rates. As well, we show that the data do exhibit a related link suggested by standard models—that the exchange rate helps predict these fundamentals. The implication is that exchange rates and fundamentals are linked in a way that is broadly consistent with asset-pricing models of the exchange rate. I.

Charles Engel; Kenneth D. West

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

145

An environmental analysis of injection molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

Thiriez, Alexandre

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Effects of different fuels on a turbocharged, direct injection, spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The following pages describe the experimentation and analysis of two different fuels in GM's high compression ratio, turbocharged direct injection (TDI) engine. The focus is on a burn rate analysis for the fuels - gasoline ...

Negrete, Justin E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

Pruess, K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Two-Pulse Ionization Injection into Quasi-Linear Laser Wakefields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a scheme for controlling electron injection into the quasi-linear wakefield driven by a guided drive pulse via ionization of a dopant species by a collinear injection laser pulse with a short Rayleigh range. The scheme is analyzed by particle in cell simulations which show controlled injection and acceleration of electrons to an energy of 370 MeV, a relative energy spread of 2%, and a normalized transverse emittance of 3.0 {\\mu}m.

Bourgeois, Nicolas; Hooker, Simon M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Fuel injection device and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Fuel injection device and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

Carlson, L.W.

1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

152

Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

Corey, John C. (212 Lakeside Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

Corey, J.C.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

154

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements. [Comparing steam injection and steam foam injection with nitrogen and without nitrogen  

SciTech Connect

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Negative ion-based neutral injection on DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

High energy negative ion-based neutral beam injection is a strong candidate for heating and non-inductive current drive in tokamaks. Many of the questions related to the physics and engineering of this technique remain unanswered. In this paper, we consider the possibility of negative ion-based neutral beam injection on DIII-D. We establish the desired parameter space by examining physics trades. This is combined with potential design constraints and a survey of component technology options to establish an injector concept. Injector performance is estimated assuming particular component technologies, and concept flexibility with respect to incorporating alternate technologies is described. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Stewart, L.D.; Bhadra, D.K.; Colleraine, A.P.; Kim, J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

BOOSTER GOLD BEAM INJECTION EFFICIENCY AND BEAM LOSS  

SciTech Connect

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the BNL requires the AGS to provide Gold beam with the intensity of 10{sup 9} ions per bunch. Over the years, the Tandem Van de Graaff has provided steadily increasing intensity of gold ion beams to the AGS Booster. However, the gold beam injection efficiency at the Booster has been found to decrease with the rising intensity of injected beams. As the result, for Tandem beams of the highest intensity, the Booster late intensity is lower than with slightly lower intensity Tandem beam. In this article, the authors present two experiments associated with the Booster injection efficiency and beam intensity. One experiment looks at the Booster injection efficiency by adjusting the Tandem beam intensity, and another looks at the beam life time while scraping the beam in the Booster. The studies suggest that the gold beam injection efficiency at the AGS Booster is related to the beam loss in the ring, rather than the intensity of injected beam or circulating beam. A close look at the effect of the lost gold ion at the Booster injection leads to the prediction that the lost gold ion creates large number of positive ions, and even larger number of electrons. The lost gold beam is also expected to create large numbers of neutral particles. In 1998 heavy ion run, the production of positive ions and electrons due to the lost gold beam has been observed. Also the high vacuum pressure due to the beam loss, presumably because of the neutral particles it created, has been measured. These results will be reported elsewhere.

ZHANG,S.Y.; AHRENS,L.A.

1998-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

157

Allergy Injection Policy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Allergy Injection Policy Millions of Americans suffer from perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy immunotherapy is an effective way to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis by desensitizing the patient to the allergen(s) by giving escalating doses of an extract via regular injections. Receiving weekly injections at a private physician's office is time consuming, reduces productivity, and can quickly deplete an employee's earned leave. FOH offers the convenience of receiving allergy injections at the OHC as a physician-prescribed service, reducing time away from work for many federal employees. Allergy Injection Policy.pdf More Documents & Publications Physician Treatment Order Handicapped Parking Guidance

158

DUS II SOIL GAS SAMPLING AND AIR INJECTION TEST RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air injection well testing was performed at the Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS) site located near the M-Area Settling Basin (referred to as DUS II in this report). The objective of this testing was to determine the effectiveness of continued operation of these systems. Steam injection ended on September 19, 2009 and since this time the extraction operations have utilized residual heat that is present in the subsurface. The well testing campaign began on June 5, 2012 and was completed on June 25, 2012. Thirty-two (32) SVE wells were purged for 24 hours or longer using the active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) system at the DUS II site. During each test five or more soil gas samples were collected from each well and analyzed for target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The DUS II site is divided into four parcels (see Figure 1) and soil gas sample results show the majority of residual VOC contamination remains in Parcel 1 with lesser amounts in the other three parcels. Several VOCs, including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE), were detected. PCE was the major VOC with lesser amounts of TCE. Most soil gas concentrations of PCE ranged from 0 to 60 ppmv with one well (VEW-22A) as high as 200 ppmv. Air sparging (AS) generally involves the injection of air into the aquifer through either vertical or horizontal wells. AS is coupled with SVE systems when contaminant recovery is necessary. While traditional air sparging (AS) is not a primary component of the DUS process, following the cessation of steam injection, eight (8) of the sixty-three (63) steam injection wells were used to inject air. These wells were previously used for hydrous pyrolysis oxidation (HPO) as part of the DUS process. Air sparging is different from the HPO operations in that the air was injected at a higher rate (20 to 50 scfm) versus HPO (1 to 2 scfm). . At the DUS II site the air injection wells were tested to determine if air sparging affected VOC soil gas concentrations during ASVE. Five (5) SVE wells that were located closest to the air injection wells were used as monitoring points during the air sparging tests. The air sparging tests lasted 48 hours. Soil gas sample results indicate that sparging did not affect VOC concentrations in four of the five sparging wells, while results from one test did show an increase in soil gas concentrations.

Noonkester, J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, W.; Hyde, W.; Kohn, J.; Walker, R.

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

159

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objectives of this study are to determine the most suitable type of gas for a water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection scheme, the WAG cycle time, and gas injection rate to increase oil production rate and recovery from the San Francisco field, Colombia. Experimental and simulation studies were conducted to achieve these objectives. The experimental study consisted of injecting reconstituted gas into a cell containing sand and "live" San Francisco oil. Experimental runs were made with injection of (i) the two field gases and their 50-50 mixture, (ii) the two field gases enriched with propane, and (iii) WAG with the two field gases enriched with propane. Produced oil volume, density, and viscosity; and produced gas volume and composition were measured and analyzed. A 1D 7-component compositional simulation model of the laboratory injection cell and its contents was developed. After a satisfactory history-match of the results of a WAG run, the prediction runs were made using the gas that gave the highest oil recovery in the experiments, (5:100 mass ratio of propane:Balcon gas). Oil production results from simulation were obtained for a range of WAG cycles and gas injection rate. The main results of the study may be summarized as follows. For all cases studied, the lowest oil recovery is obtained with injection of San Francisco gas, (60% of original oil-in-place OOIP), and the highest oil recovery (84% OOIP) is obtained with a WAG 7.5-7.5 (cycle of 7.5 minutes water injection followed by 7.5 minutes of gas injection at 872 ml/min). This approximately corresponds to WAG 20-20 in the field (20 days water injection followed by 20 days gas injection at 6.8 MMSCF/D). Results clearly indicate increase in oil recovery with volume of the gas injected. Lastly, of the three injection schemes studied, WAG injection with propane-enriched gas gives the highest oil recovery. This study is based on the one-dimensional displacement of oil. The three-dimensional aspects and other reservoir complexities that adversely affect oil recovery in reality have not been considered. A 3D reservoir simulation study is therefore recommended together with an economic evaluation of the cases before any decision can be made to implement any of the gas or WAG injection schemes.

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2009 Rates and Rate Schedule 2008 Rates and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Human Collagen Injections to Reduce Rectal Dose During Radiotherapy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objectives: The continuing search for interventions, which address the incidence and grade of rectal toxicities associated with radiation treatment of prostate cancer, is a major concern. We are reporting an investigational trial using human collagen to increase the distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall, thereby decreasing the radiation dose to the rectum. Methods: This is a pilot study evaluating the use of human collagen as a displacing agent for the rectal wall injected before starting a course of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Using a transperineal approach, 20 mL of human collagen was injected into the perirectal space in an outpatient setting. Computerized IMRT plans were performed pre- and postcollagen injection, and after a patient completed their radiotherapy, to determine radiation dose reduction to the rectum associated with the collagen injection. Computed tomography scans were performed 6 months and 12 months after completing their radiotherapy to evaluate absorption rate of the collagen. All patients were treated with IMRT to a dose of 75.6 Gy to the prostate. Results: Eleven patients were enrolled into the study. The injection of human collagen in the outpatient setting was well tolerated. The mean separation between the prostate and anterior rectum was 12.7 mm. The mean reduction in dose to the anterior rectal wall was 50%. All men denied any rectal symptoms during the study. Conclusions: The transperineal injection of human collagen for the purpose of tissue displacement is well tolerated in the outpatient setting. The increased separation between the prostate and rectum resulted in a significant decrease in radiation dose to the rectum while receiving IMRT and was associated with no rectal toxicities.

Noyes, William R., E-mail: noyes@cancercenternd.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hosford, Charles C. [Department of Medical Statistics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Schultz, Steven E. [Department of Urology, RiverView Health, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Numerical study of boundary layer injection as a scale control method  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A boundary layer injection method of controlling scale-buildup in geothermal two-phase flow nozzles is studied. The object of this study is to set an upper limit on the ratio of the injected mass flow rate to the free stream mass flow rate that is necessary to isolate the scale carrying free stream flow from the nozzle wall. In order to develop a numerical model of the boundary layer flow, assumptions are made which reduce the results to order of magnitude approximations. Two configurations of nozzles with various injection flow rates are tried. It is found by numerical experiment that a nozzle with injection through a 1 mm thick ring near the inlet, is more efficient at isolating the free stream than a porous nozzle. A mass flow rate ratio of 0.173% was necessary to achieve this effect. It may be concluded that an upper limit on the mass flow rate ratio is about 2.0% with injection through a ring near the inlet, and that boundary layer injection is a reasonable method of controlling scale-buildup. A glossary of variables, program documentation and listings are presented for programs GMD15SR8, TRACK11, and TRACK12.

Feiereisen, W.

1975-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

163

Water injection into a Low-Permeability Rock - 2: Control Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Part 1, we have demonstrated the inevitable growth of the fluid injection hydrofractures in low-permeability rocks. Thus, a smart controller that manages fluid injection in the presence of hydrofracture extension is highly desirable. Such a controller will be an essential part of automated waterflood project surveillance and control. Here we design an optimal injection controller using methods of optimal control theory. The controller inputs are the history of the injection pressure and the cumulative injection, along with the fracture size. The output parameter is the injection pressure and the control objective is the injection rate. We demonstrate that the optimal injection pressure depends not only on the instantaneous measurements, but it is determined by the whole history of the injection and of the fracture area growth. We show the controller robustness when the inputs are delayed and noisy and when the fracture undergoes abrupt extensions. Finally, we propose a procedure that allows estimation of the hydrofracture size at no additional cost.

Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

165

Experiences from First Top-Off Injection at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) is moving toward Top-Off injection mode, SLAC's Radiation Protection Department is working with SSRL on minimizing the radiological hazards of this mode. One such hazard is radiation that is created inside the accelerator concrete enclosure by injected beam. Since during Top-Off injection the stoppers that would otherwise isolate the storage ring from the experimental area stay open, the stoppers no longer prevent such radiation from reaching the experimental area. The level of this stray radiation was measured in April 2008 during the first Top-Off injection tests. They revealed radiation dose rates of up to 18 microSv/h (1.8 millirem/h) outside the experimental hutches, significantly higher than our goal of 1 microSv/h (0.1 millirem/h). Non-optimal injection increased the measured dose rates by a factor two. Further tests in 2008 indicated that subsequent improvements by SSRL to the injection system have reduced the dose rates to acceptable levels. This presentation describes the studies performed before the Top-Off tests, the tests themselves and their major results (both under initial conditions and after improvements were implemented), and presents the controls being implemented for full and routine Top-Off injection.

Bauer, J.M.; Liu, J.C.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, S.H.; /SLAC

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

166

Reservoir response to injection in the Southeast Geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 20 megawatt (MW) increase in steam flow potential resulted within five months of the start-up of new injection wells in the Southeast Geysers. Flow rate increases were observed in 25 wells offset to the injectors, C-11 and 956A-1. This increased flowrate was sustained during nine months of continuous injection with no measurable decrease in offset well temperature until C-11 was shut-in due to wellbore bridging. The responding steam wells are located in an area of reduced reservoir steam pressure known as the Low Pressure Area (LPA). The cause of the flowrate increases was twofold (1) an increase in static reservoir pressure and (2) a decrease in interwell communication. Thermodynamic and microseismic evidence suggests that most of the water is boiling near the injector and migrating to offset wells located ''down'' the static pressure gradient. However, wells showing the largest increase in steam flowrate are not located at the heart of the pressure sink. This indicates that localized fracture distribution controls the preferred path of fluid migration from the injection well. A decrease in non-condensible gas concentrations was also observed in certain wells producing injection derived steam within the LPA. The LPA project has proven that steam suppliers can work together and benefit economically from joint efforts with the goal of optimizing the use of heat from The Geysers reservoir. The sharing of costs and information led directly to the success of the project and introduces a new era of increased cooperation at The Geysers.

Enedy, Steve; Enedy, Kathy; Maney, John

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Survey of innovative rates, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Current innovative rate data from 135 major utilities throughout the United States were gathered and analyzed. Over 1000 innovative rates that were in use by the utilities in 1990 and 1991 were identified, abstracted and entered into a database. Survey results indicate that over 616 million MWh were sold to the nearly five million customers using the innovative rates offered. From an annual sales perspective, the most widely used rates are demand-side management rates -- rates intended to change customer energy use -- and rates that are market-driven.'' The survey identified 525 demand-side management rates serving our four million customers with reported sales of approximately 520 million MWh. These rates serve over 80% of the total innovative rate customers and account for 84% of the total MWh sales. Also important in terms of MWh sales they represent are market-driven rates, which accounted for sales of 48 million MWh in 1990. Both demand-side management and market-driven rates show a 20% customer growth rate between 1988 and 1990. Other innovative rates examined in the survey included: prepaid service; load retention incentive rates; technology specific rates; and those rates related expressly to non-utility generators -- namely buy-back and standby rates.

White, L.J.; Wakefield, R.A.; McVicker, C.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Survey of innovative rates, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current innovative rate data from 135 major utilities throughout the United States were gathered and analyzed. Over 1000 innovative rates that were in use by the utilities in 1990 and 1991 were identified, abstracted and entered into a database. Survey results indicate that over 616 million MWh were sold to the nearly five million customers using the innovative rates offered. From an annual sales perspective, the most widely used rates are demand-side management rates -- rates intended to change customer energy use -- and rates that are market-driven.'' The survey identified 525 demand-side management rates serving our four million customers with reported sales of approximately 520 million MWh. These rates serve over 80% of the total innovative rate customers and account for 84% of the total MWh sales. Also important in terms of the MWh sales they represent are market-driven rates, which accounted for sales of 48 million MWh in 1990. Both demand-side management and market-driven rates show a 20% customer growth rate between 1988 and 1990. Other innovative rates examined in the survey included: prepaid service; load retention incentive rates; technology specific rates; and those rates related expressly to non-utility generators -- namely buy-back and standby rates.

White, L.J.; Wakefield, R.A.; McVicker, C.M.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Effect of flue gas impurities on the process of injection and storage of carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous experiments - injecting pure CO2 into carbonate cores - showed that the process is a win-win technology, sequestrating CO2 while recovering a significant amount of hitherto unrecoverable natural gas that could help defray the cost of CO2 sequestration. In this thesis, I report my findings on the effect of flue gas ??impurities?? on the displacement of natural gas during CO2 sequestration, and results on unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests to carbonate samples. In displacement experiments, corefloods were conducted at 1,500 psig and 70??C, in which flue gas was injected into an Austin chalk core containing initially methane. Two types of flue gases were injected: dehydrated flue gas with 13.574 mole% CO2 (Gas A), and treated flue gas (N2, O2 and water removed) with 99.433 mole% CO2 (Gas B). The main results of this study are as follows. First, the dispersion coefficient increases with concentration of ??impurities??. Gas A exhibits the largest dispersion coefficients, 0.18-0.25 cm2/min, compared to 0.13-0.15 cm2/min for Gas B, and 0.15 cm2/min for pure CO2. Second, recovery of methane at breakthrough is relatively high, ranging from 86% OGIP for pure CO2, 74-90% OGIP for Gas B, and 79-81% for Gas A. Lastly, injection of Gas A would sequester the least amount of CO2 as it contains about 80 mole% nitrogen. From the view point of sequestration, Gas A would be least desirable while Gas B appears to be the most desirable as separation cost would probably be cheaper than that for pure CO2 with similar gas recovery. For UCS tests, corefloods were conducted at 1,700 psig and 65??C in such a way that the cell throughput of CO2 simulates near-wellbore throughput. This was achieved through increasing the injection rate and time of injection. Corefloods were followed by porosity measurement and UCS tests. Main results are presented as follows. First, the UCS of the rock was reduced by approximately 30% of its original value as a result of the dissolution process. Second, porosity profiles of rock samples increased up to 2.5% after corefloods. UCS test results indicate that CO2 injection will cause weakening of near-wellbore formation rock.

Nogueira de Mago, Marjorie Carolina

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas) < Back Eligibility Utility Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Fuel Distributor Savings Category Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Texas Program Type Environmental Regulations Safety and Operational Guidelines Provider Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Chapter 27 of the Texas Water Code (the Injection Well Act) defines an "injection well" as "an artificial excavation or opening in the ground made by digging, boring, drilling, jetting, driving, or some other

171

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the flue gas in a separate activation reactor, which increases SO 2 removal. An electrostatic precipitator downstream from the point of injection captures the reaction...

172

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project: A DOE Assessment June 2000 U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P.O. Box 880,...

173

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Injection through fractures  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Injection through fractures Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot...

174

NSLS-II INJECTION STRAIGHT DIAGNOSTICS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ultra-bright light source being developed by the NSLS-II project will utilize top-up injection and fine tuning of the injection process is mandatory. In this paper we present the diagnostics installed in the injection straight. Its use for commissioning and tuning of the injection cycle is also described. The NSLS-II storage ring will utilize a 9.3 meter long injection straight section shown in Fig. 1. Injection will be preformed with two septa (one pulsed, one DC) and four kickers. The stored beam will be shifted towards the pulsed septum up to IS mm and the nominal distance between centers of the injected and the bumped beam is 9.5mm. The NSLS-II beam position monitors will have turn-by-turn and first-turn capabilities and will be used for the commissioning and tuning the injection process. However, there are three additional BPMs and two beam intercepting OTR screens (flags) installed in the injection straight.

Pinayev, I.; Blednykh, A.; Ferreira, M.; Fliller, R.; Kosciuk, B.; Shaftan, T.V.; Wang, G.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Powder Injection Molding - Available Technologies - PNNL  

Summary. Presented here is a novel and innovative means of powder injection molding (PIM) of reactive refractory metals, such as titanium and its ...

176

Energy-efficient control in injection molding.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??xviii, 209 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm HKUST Call Number: Thesis CENG 2008 Yao As an energy-intensive process, in injection molding, energy cost is… (more)

Yao, Ke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates Loveland Area Project Firm Power Rates Transmission and Ancillary Services Rates 2012 Rate Adjustment-Transmission and Ancillary Services 2010 Rate Adjustment-Firm Power 2009...

178

Rates and Repayment Services  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission...

179

Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Fast Plasma Shutdowns Obtained With Massive Hydrogenic, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

Massive gas injection (MGI) experiments with H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, He, Ne and Ar and 'mixed' (H{sub 2} + Ar and D{sub 2} + Ne) gases injected into 'ITER-similar' 1.3-MA H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, injected quantity Q, delivery time, t{sub inj}, rate-of-rise and intrinsic and added impurities are found to affect the attributes and 'disruption mitigation' efficacies of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient Q and t{sub inj} < {approx}2 ms, all species provide fast (within {le} {approx}3 ms), more-or-less uniform radiative dissipation of the 0.7-MJ plasma thermal energy and fast but benign current decays with reduced vacuum vessel vertical force impulse. With pure and mixed low-Z gases, free-electron densities up to 2 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -3} are obtained. While these densities are high relative to normal tokamak densities, they are still an order of magnitude smaller than the densities required for unconditional mitigation of the runaway electron avalanche process. Key information relevant to the design of effective MGI systems for larger tokamaks and ITER has been obtained and the collective species and Q-variation data provides a rich basis for validation of emerging 2D + t MHD/transport/radiation models.

Wesley, J; Hollmann, E; Jernigan, T; Van Zeeland, M; Baylor, L; Boedo, J; Combs, S; Evans, T; Groth, M; Humphreys, D; Hyatt, A; Izzo, V; James, A; Moyer, R; Parks, P; Rudakov, D; Strait, E; Wu, W; Yu, J

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

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181

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Injectivity Test At Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, Reese River Area (Henkle & Ronne, 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Reese River Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes On March 22, 2007 a brief injectivity test was preformed after the slotted liner had been installed. Water was injected at flow rates of 6.3 l/s, 13 l/s and 19 l/s and the pressure and temperature was recorded down hole at a depth of 926 m. At the higher flow rate, the test was interrupted several times to repair leaks at the surface. From the recorded pressure an approximate injectivity index of 10 l/s/MPa was calculated. References William R. Henkle, Joel Ronne (2008) Phase 2 Reese River Geothermal Project Slim Well 56-4 Drilling And Testing Retrieved from

183

Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solids-stabilized water-in-oil emulsions have been suggested as a drive fluid to recover viscous oil through a piston-like displacement pattern. While crude heavy oil was initially suggested as the base oil, an alternative oil ? used engine oil was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively large supply, and potential solution of used engine oil disposal. In this research, different types of used engine oil (mineral based, synthetic) were tested to make W/O emulsions simply by blending in brine. A series of stable emulsions was prepared with varied water contents from 40~70%. Viscosities of these emulsions were measured, ranging from 102~104 cp at low shear rates and ambient temperature. Then an emulsion made of 40% used engine oil and 60% brine was chosen for a series of coreflood experiments, to test the stability of this emulsion while flowing through porous media. Limited breakdown of the effluent was observed at ambient injection rates, indicating a stability of the emulsion in porous media. Pressure drops leveled off and remained constant at constant rate of injection, indicating steady-state flows under the experimental conditions. No plug off effect was observed after a large volume of emulsion passed through the cores. Reservoir scale simulations were conducted for the emulsion flooding process based on the emulsion properties tested from the experiments. Results showed significant improvement in both displacement pattern and oil recovery especially compared to water flooding. Economics calculations of emulsion flooding were also performed, suggesting this process to be highly profitable.

Fu, Xuebing

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Intracluster gas pressure, entropy injection and redshift evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the effect of entropy injection in the intracluster medium (ICM) in light of the recent observationally determined universal pressure profile of the ICM. Beginning with a power-law entropy profile that is expected in the absence of any feedback, we show that a simple universal prescription of entropy injection results in the final, observed universal pressure profile. This simple prescription has two components, one associated with an overall increase in entropy and another associated with injection in the central parts of the cluster. Importantly, both the components of entropy injection are needed to produce the final universal pressure profile. This is indicative of a need of both preheating the ICM as well {\\it in situ} AGN/SNe heating. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by extending the calculations to clusters at high redshift, and predict redshift evolution of cluster scaling relations that can be tested against data. We show that the self-similar evolution of the universal pressure p...

Nath, Biman B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Experimentally Measured Interfacial Area during Gas Injection into Saturated Porous Media: An Air Sparging Analogy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of interfacial area (awn) between air and subsurface liquids during air-sparging can limit the rate of site remediation. Lateral movement within porous media could be encountered during air-sparging operations when air moves along the bottom of a low-permeability lens. This study was conducted to directly measure the amount of awn between air and water flowing within a bench-scale porous flow cell during the lateral movement of air along the upper edge of the cell during air injections into an initially water-saturated flow cell. Four different cell orientations were used to evaluate the effect of air injection rates and porous media geometries on the amount of awn between fluids. Air was injected at flow rates that varied by three orders of magnitude, and for each flow cellover this range of injection rates little change in awn was noted. A wider variation in awn was observed when air moved through different regions for the different flow cell orientations. These results are in good agreement with the experimental findings of Waduge et al. (2007), who performed experiments in a larger sand-pack flow cell, and determined that air-sparging efficiency is nearly independent of flow rate but highly dependent on the porous structure. By directly measuring the awn, and showing that awn does not vary greatly with changes in injection rate, we show that the lack of improvement to remediation rates is because there is a weak dependence of the awn on the air injection rate.

Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H., Bromhal, Grant

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Neutron time behavior for deuterium neutral beam injection into a hydrogen plasma in ORMAK  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Neutrons were produced by D-D interactions when a 28-keV deuterium beam was coinjected into a hydrogen plasma in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK). Fokker-Planck calculations, which correctly predict the time behavior of the neutron rate after beam turnon, show that the majority of the neutrons are from injected particles interacting with previously injected deuterons that have scattered to pitch angles of approximately 60 to 90/sup 0/ while slowing down.

England, A. C.; Howe, H. C.; Mihalczo, J. T.; Fowler, R. H.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Rate Optimization for Polymer and CO2 Flooding Under Geologic Uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the depletion of the existing reservoirs and the decline in oil discoveries during the last few decades, enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods have gained a lot of attention. Among the various improved recovery methods, waterflooding is by far the most widely used. However, the presence of reservoir heterogeneity such as high permeability streaks often leads to premature breakthrough and poor sweep resulting in reduced oil recovery. This underscores the need for a prudent reservoir management, in terms of optimal production and injection rates, to maximize recovery. The increasing deployment of smart well completions and i-field has inspired many researchers to develop algorithms to optimize the production/injection rates along intervals of smart wells. However, the application of rate control for other EOR methods has been relatively few. This research aims to extend previous streamline-based rate optimization workflow to polymer flooding and CO2 flooding. The objective of the approach is to maximize sweep efficiency and minimize recycling of injected fluid (polymer/CO2) by delaying its breakthrough. This is achieved by equalizing the front arrival time at the producers using streamline time-of-flight. Arrival time is rescaled to allow for optimization after breakthrough of injected fluid. Additionally, we propose an accelerated production strategy to increase NPV over sweep efficiency maximization case. The optimization is performed under operational and facility constraints using a sequential quadratic programming approach. The geological uncertainty has been accounted via a stochastic optimization framework based on the combination of the expected value and variance of a performance measure from multiple realizations. Synthetic and field examples are used extensively to demonstrate the practical feasibility and robustness of our approach for application to EOR processes.

Sharma, Mohan

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Rates & Repayment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

190

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The overall objective of the test program described in this quarterly report is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants with configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. This technology was successfully evaluated in NETL's Phase I tests at scales up to 150 MW, on plants burning subbituminous and bituminous coals and with ESPs and fabric filters. The tests also identified issues that still need to be addressed, such as evaluating performance on other configurations, optimizing sorbent usage (costs), and gathering longer-term operating data to address concerns about the impact of activated carbon on plant equipment and operations. The four sites identified for testing are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station, AEP's Conesville Station, and Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant. In addition to tests identified for the four main sites, parametric testing at Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3 has been scheduled and made possible through additional costshare participation targeted by team members specifically for tests at Holcomb or a similar plant. This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. Long-term testing was completed at Meramec during this reporting period. Preliminary results from parametric, baseline and long-term testing at Meramec are included in this report. Planning information for the other three sites is also included. In general, quarterly reports will be used to provide project overviews, project status, and technology transfer information. Topical reports will be prepared to present detailed technical information.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

191

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

192

Influence of Thermalisation on Electron Injection in Supernova Remnant Shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within a test-particle description of the acceleration process in parallel nonrelativistic shocks, we present an analytic treatment of the electron injection. We estimate the velocity distribution of the injected electrons as the product of the post-shock thermal distribution of electrons times the probability for electrons with a given velocity to be accelerated; the injection efficiency is then evaluated as the integral of this velocity distribution. We estimate the probability of a particle to be injected as that of going back to the upstream region at least once. This is the product of the probability of returning to the shock from downstream times that of recrossing the shock from downstream to upstream. The latter probability is expected to be sensitive to details of the process of electron thermalisation within the (collisionless) shock, a process that is poorly known. In order to include this effect, for our treatment we use results of a numerical, fully kinetic study, by Bykov & Uvarov (1999). According to them, the probability of recrossing depends on physics of thermalisation through a single free parameter (Gamma), which can be expressed as a function of the Mach number of the shock, of the level of electron-ion equilibration, as well as of the spectrum of turbulence. It becomes apparent, from our analysis, that the injection efficiency is related to the post-shock electron temperature, and that it results from the balance between two competing effects: the higher the electron temperature, the higher the fraction of downstream electrons with enough velocity to return to the shock and thus to be ready to cross the shock from downstream to upstream; at the same time, however, the higher the turbulence, which would hinder the crossing.

O. Petruk; R. Bandiera

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

193

Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Drilling Waste Management Fact Sheet: Slurry Injection of Drilling Wastes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Slurry Injection Slurry Injection Fact Sheet - Slurry Injection of Drilling Wastes Underground Injection of Drilling Wastes Several different approaches are used for injecting drilling wastes into underground formations for permanent disposal. Salt caverns are described in a separate fact sheet. This fact sheet focuses on slurry injection technology, which involves grinding or processing solids into small particles, mixing them with water or some other liquid to make a slurry, and injecting the slurry into an underground formation at pressures high enough to fracture the rock. The process referred to here as slurry injection has been given other designations by different authors, including slurry fracture injection (this descriptive term is copyrighted by a company that provides slurry injection services), fracture slurry injection, drilled cuttings injection, cuttings reinjection, and grind and inject.

196

Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4, and PO4 solutions show greater Sr and Sr-90 incorporation during initial precipitation and less initial mobilization with solutions with low Ca2+ concentration. While all solutions showed nearly the same Sr uptake into apatite (14 to 17% by 2 weeks, 21% to 30% by 5 weeks), the incorporation efficiency (i.e., mM Sr incorporated per mM PO4 injected) was higher for solutions containing citrate. The Sr incorporation rate into apatite during initial precipitation (by 1 month) averaged 4.64 ± 1.9 x 10-4 h-1 (half-life 1500 ± 430 h, 8.85 x 10-7 mg Sr/day/mg apatite). The injection solution used in field injections #3 to #18 (10 mM PO4, 1 mM Ca, 2.5 mM citrate), which is deficient in Ca (a total of 16.7 mM needed to form apatite with 10 mM of PO4), resulted in the initial Sr and Ca peak (24 h) at 4.7x groundwater. By 30 days, the aqueous Sr concentration was 0.28x groundwater and Ca 0.43x groundwater, as both Sr and Ca are used to form initial apatite precipitates. Reactive transport simulation of the complex ion exchange, biodegradation, and precipitation processes showed that the initial Sr groundwater increase mobilized only 1.5% of the Sr mass in sediments. Citrate biodegradation, a necessary step in Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions forming apatite, had an average half-life of 50 h (at aquifer sediment/water ratio and temperature), and decreased an order of magnitude with sediment depth as the microbial biomass decreased five orders of magnitude. The rate of citrate biodegradation was relatively invariant with biomass and water saturation (50% to 100%, for vadose zone infiltration) possibly due to significant microbial injection using river water and subsurface microbial mobilization.

Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The feasibility of deep well injection for brine disposal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A generalized methodology for evaluating the technical feasibility of projects involving the disposal of waste brine by injection into deep saline aquifers is developed, primarily from the hydrology and petroleum engineering literature. Data collection, groundwater modeling, and fluid compatibility are discussed in detail. Injection system design, economics, and regulatory considerations are more related to economic than technical feasibility, and are discussed only as they relate to technical feasibility. The methodology is utilized to make a preliminary evaluation of a proposed brine injection project in the Dove Creek area of King and Stonewall Counties, North Central Texas. Four known deep aquifers are modeled, using the SWIFT/486 software, to determine their ability to receive two cfs of brine for a project life of one hundred years. Two aquifers, the Strawn and EUenburger Formations, are predicted to be acceptable for disposal. Each aquifer would require only one disposal well which is favorable for the economics of the project. Additional data, particularly hydraulic conductivity and net aquifer thickness data, are required to make a more definitive technical feasibility determination for this project.

Spongberg, Martin Edward

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures Injection of Electrons and Holes into Nanostructures This program targets fundamental understanding of nanoscale charge transfer processes. The proposed work draws on the strengths of the Brookhaven Chemistry Department in the areas of electron transfer experiment and theory, and extends the area of inquiry to nanoscale processes. Electron/hole injection into a wire, a nanocrystal, a nanotube or other nanostructure in solution may be brought about by light absorption, by an electron pulse (pulse radiolysis, LEAF), by a chemical reagent, or through an electrode. These processes are being studied by transient methods by following conductivity, current, but most generally, spectroscopic changes in the solutions to determine the dynamics of charge injection. The observed transient spectra can also provide values for electron-transfer coupling elements and energetics. Theoretical/computational studies can help in materials design and in the interpretation of the experimental results. The experimental systems being examined include molecular wires and metal nanoclusters.

200

Efficient Spin Injection using Tunnel Injectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Semiconductor spintronics aims to develop novel sensor, memory and logic devices by manipulating the spin states of carriers in semiconducting materials. This talk will focus on electrical spin injection into semiconductors, which is a prerequisite for ...

Xin Jiang

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel  

SciTech Connect

A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

202

Smart Materials for Fuel Injection Actuation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The demands of stringent emissions and a robust engine dynamic torque response characteristic require innovative, accurate and repeatable control of the fuel injection event. Recent advances in piezo-material actuators have warranted the pursuit of its application to advanced heavy-duty truck fuel injection systems. This presentation will report on design and testing of an advanced electronic unit injector for the Detroit Diesel Series 60 truck engine.

Hakim, Nabil

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

205

The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related...

206

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reservoir wells close to injection well E-6 along with theMeeting. Most of the injection wells are open to the Alphaand completing new injection wells is lower than in the East

Truesdell, A.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Predicting and Evaluating the Effectiveness of Ocean Carbon Sequestration by Direct Injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct injection of CO{sub 2} into the ocean is a potentially effective carbon sequestration strategy. Therefore, we want to understand the effectiveness of oceanic injection and develop the appropriate analytic framework to allow us to compare the effectiveness of this strategy with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate the effectiveness of ocean carbon sequestration using one dimensional and three dimensional ocean models. We discuss a new measure of effectiveness of carbon sequestration in a leaky reservoir, which we denote sequestration potential. The sequestration potential is the fraction of global warning cost avoided by sequestration in a reservoir. We show how these measures apply to permanent sequestration and sequestration in leaky reservoirs, such as the oceans, terrestrial biosphere, and some geologic formations. Under the assumptions of a constant cost of carbon emission and a 4% discount rate, injecting 900 m deep in the ocean avoids {approx}90% of the global warming cost associated with atmospheric emission; an injection 1700 m deep would avoid > 99 % of the global warming cost. Hence, for discount rates in the range commonly used by commercial enterprises, oceanic direct injection may be nearly as economically effective as permanent sequestration at avoiding global warming costs.

Caldeira, K; Herzog, H J; Wickett, M E

2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

208

Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

209

U-058: Apache Struts Conversion Error OGNL Expression Injection...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

8: Apache Struts Conversion Error OGNL Expression Injection Vulnerability U-058: Apache Struts Conversion Error OGNL Expression Injection Vulnerability December 12, 2011 - 9:00am...

210

Calculating the probability of injected carbon dioxide plumes encountering faults  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Change Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage,Probability of Injected Carbon Dioxide Plumes Encounteringthe probability of injected carbon dioxide encountering and

Jordan, P.D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Texas Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Monthly Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Injections into Underground...

212

Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important Geologic CO2 Storage Alabama Injection Project Aimed at Enhanced Oil Recovery, Testing Important...

213

Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1,...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November 12 to December 23, 2005, Summary Report Trona Injection Tests: Mirant Potomac River Station, Unit 1, November...

214

Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

215

Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

216

Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

217

Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

218

Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

219

Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

220

New Jersey Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators New Jersey Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

South Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators South Carolina Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage...

222

North Carolina Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Pages: Injections of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators North Carolina Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage...

223

Illinois Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million Cubic Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct...

224

Epidemiology of HIV Among Injecting and Non-injecting Drug Users: Current Trends and Implications for Interventions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

might inject drugs worldwide [1•]. China, the United States,China, the United States, and Russia, the three leading countries for injecting drugChina Russia USA Fig. 1 Number and proportion of HIV infection among injecting drug

Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Stockman, Jamila K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern for the project as it limited CO{sub 2} injectivity. To reduce voidage balance, and reservoir pressure, a disposal well was therefore drilled. Several injection surveys indicated the CO{sub 2} injection wells had severe conformance issues. After close monitoring of the project to the end of 1999, it was evident the project would not recover the anticipated tertiary reserves. The main reasons for under-performance were poor in zone CO{sub 2} injection into the upper San Andres layers, poorer offtake rates from newly drilled replacement wells and a higher than required reservoir pressure. After discussion internally within Phillips, externally with the Department of Energy (DOE) and SCU partners, a redevelopment of South Cowden was agreed upon to commence in year 2000. The redevelopment essentially abandoned the original development for Budget Phase II in favor of a revised approach. This involved conformance techniques to resolve out of zone CO{sub 2} injection and use of horizontal wells to improve in zone injectivity and productivity. A phased approach was used to ensure short radius lateral drilling could be implemented effectively at South Cowden. This involved monitoring drilling operations and then production response to determine if larger investments during the second phase were justified. Redevelopment Phase 1 was completed in May 2000. It was deemed a success in regard to finding suitable/cost-effective technology for drilling horizontal laterals and finding a technique that could sustain long-term productivity from the upper layers of the San Andres reservoir. Four existing vertical producing wells were isolated from their existing completions and sidetracked with horizontal laterals into the upper layers of the San Andres. Overall average offtake rates for the four wells increased by a factor of 12 during the first four months after completion of Phase 1. Phase 2 of the redevelopment focused on current CO{sub 2} vertical injection wells. Techniques were applied to resolve near well conformance concerns and then either single or dual laterals were dril

K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

An Innovative Injection and Mixing System for Diesel Fuel Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project focused on fuel stream preparation improvements prior to injection into a solid oxide fuel cell reformer. Each milestone and the results from each milestone are discussed in detail in this report. The first two milestones were the creation of a coking formation test rig and various testing performed on this rig. Initial tests indicated that three anti-carbon coatings showed improvement over an uncoated (bare metal) baseline. However, in follow-up 70 hour tests of the down selected coatings, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that no carbon was generated on the test specimens. These follow-up tests were intended to enable a down selection to a single best anti-carbon coating. Without the formation of carbon it was impossible to draw conclusions as to which anti-carbon coating showed the best performance. The final 70 hour tests did show that AMCX AMC26 demonstrated the lowest discoloration of the metal out of the three down selected anti-carbon coatings. This discoloration did not relate to carbon but could be a useful result when carbon growth rate is not the only concern. Unplanned variations in the series of tests must be considered and may have altered the results. Reliable conclusions could only be drawn from consistent, repeatable testing beyond the allotted time and funding for this project. Milestones 3 and 4 focused on the creation of a preheating pressure atomizer and mixing chamber. A design of experiment test helped identify a configuration of the preheating injector, Build 1, which showed a very uniform fuel spray flow field. This injector was improved upon by the creation of a Build 2 injector. Build 2 of the preheating injector demonstrated promising SMD results with only 22psi fuel pressure and 0.7 in H2O of Air. It was apparent from testing and CFD that this Build 2 has flow field recirculation zones. These recirculation zones may suggest that this Build 2 atomizer and mixer would require steam injection to reduce the auto ignition potential. It is also important to note that to achieve uniform mixing within a short distance, some recirculation is necessary. Milestone 5 generated CFD and FEA results that could be used to optimize the preheating injector. CFD results confirmed the recirculation zones seen in test data and confirmed that the flow field would not change when attached to a reformer. The FEA predicted fuel wetted wall temperatures which led to several suggested improvements that could possibly improve nozzle efficiency. Milestone 6 (originally an optional task) took a different approach than the preheating pressure atomizer. It focused on creation and optimization of a piezoelectric injector which could perform at extremely low fuel pressures. The piezoelectric atomizer showed acceptable SMD results with fuel pressure less than 1.0 psig and air pressure less than 1.0 in H2O. These SMD values were enhanced when a few components were changed, and it is expected would improve further still at elevated air temperatures. It was demonstrated that the piezoelectric injector could accomplish the desired task. The addition of phase tracking and a burst mode to the frequency controller increased the usability of the piezoelectric injector. This injector is ready to move on to the next phase of development. Engine Components has met the required program milestones of this project. Some of the Milestones were adjusted to allow Milestone 6 to be completed in parallel with the other Milestones. Because of this, Task 3.10 and 3.13 were made optional instead of Milestone 6. Engine Components was extremely grateful for the support that was provided by NETL in support of this work.

Spencer Pack

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Considerable research and testing have been conducted for the improvement of basic thermal recovery processes and for the development and application of other methods of reservoir heating. Effects of various additives injected simultaneously with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela. The experiments were conducted using an injection cell packed with sandmix containing a mixture of sand, water, and Morichal oil. Experimental runs involved injection of steam, or propane, or a mixture of steam and propane into the cell at constant rate, temperature, and pressure. The injection was kept constant at 5 g/min for all runs. Five experiments were performed, namely, run 1 (50 wt.% steam and 50 wt.% propane), run 2 (100 wt.% steam), run 3 (75 wt.% steam and 25 wt.% propane), run 4 (100 wt.% propane), and run 5 (95 wt.% steam and 5 wt.% propane). Main findings for this study are as follows. First, it appears possible to accelerate recovery of Morichal oil using combined steam and propane injection. Oil recovery at 61% OOIP may be up to 0.23 pore volume faster than using steam injection alone, with gain in ultimate recovery of up to 5% OOIP. Second, with only propane injection, at temperature and pressure conditions tested, practically no oil is recovered. Steam is necessary to reduce interfacial tension and the oil viscosity, thus allowing propane to permeate through the oil. This increases propane miscibility with oil, further reducing the residual oil saturation, and enhances the displacement efficiency. It is recommended that further research be conducted to confirm the technical and economic feasibility of steam-propane injection, particularly for other crude oil types, and at pressure and temperature conditions encountered in the field.

Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Solid hydrogen pellet injection into the ORMAK Tokamak  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid hydrogen spheres were injected into the ORMAK tokamak as a test of pellet refueling for tokamak fusion reactors. Pellets 70 ..mu..m and 210 ..mu..m in diameter were injected with speeds of 91 m/sec and 100 m/sec, respectively. Each of the 210-..mu..m pellets added about 1% to the number of particles contained in the plasma. Excited neutrals, ablated from these hydrogen spheres, emitted light which was monitored either by a photomultiplier or by a high speed framing camera. From these light signals it was possible to measure pellet lifetimes, ablation rates, and the spatial distribution of hydrogen atoms in the ablation clouds. The average measured lifetime of the 70-..mu..m pellets was 422 ..mu..sec, and the 210-..mu..m spheres lasted 880 ..mu..sec under bombardment by the plasma. These lifetimes and measured ablation rates are in good agreement with a theoretical model which takes into account shielding of plasma electrons by hydrogen atoms ablated from spherical hydrogen ice.

Foster, C. A.; Colchin, R. J.; Milora, S. L.; Kim, K.; Turnbull, R. J.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Asymptotic Cellular Growth Rate as the Effective Information Utilization Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the average asymptotic growth rate of cells in randomly fluctuating environments. Using a game-theoretic perspective, we show that any response strategy has an asymptotic growth rate, which is the sum of: (i) the maximal growth rate at the worst possible distribution of environments, (ii) relative information between the actual distribution of environments to the worst one, and (iii) information utilization rate which is the information rate of the sensory devices minus the "information dissipation rate", the amount of information not utilized by the cell for growth. In non-stationary environments, the optimal strategy is the time average of the instantaneous optimal strategy and the optimal switching times are evenly spaced in the statistical (Fisher) metric.

Pugatch, Rami; Tlusty, Tsvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells in the Nine Township Area ­ 2009 September 2009 Prepared by Delaware Basin Drilling from EPA to DOE dated 7/16/2009) 1 Solution Mining Practices 1 Recent Well Failures 2 The Mechanism

231

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Energy Injection in GRB Afterglow Models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We extend the standard fireball model, widely used to interpret gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow light curves, to include energy injections, and apply the model to the afterglow light curves of GRB 990510, GRB 000301C and GRB 010222. We show that discrete energy injections can cause temporal variations in the optical light curves and present fits to the light curves of GRB 000301C as an example. A continuous injection may be required to interpret other bursts such as GRB 010222. The extended model accounts reasonably well for the observations in all bands ranging from X-rays to radio wavelengths. In some cases, the radio light curves indicate that additional model ingredients may be needed.

Gudlaugur Johannesson; Gunnlaugur Bjornsson; Einar H. Gudmundsson

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

233

A study on Raman Injection Laser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Raman Injection Laser is a new type of laser which is based on triply resonant stimulated Raman scattering between quantum confined states within the active region of a Quantum Cascade Laser that serves as an internal optical pump. The Raman Injection Laser is driven electrically and no external laser pump is required. Triple resonance leads to an enhancement of orders of magnitude in the Raman gain, high conversion efficiency and low threshold. We studied this new type of laser and conclude some basic equations. With reasonable experimental parameters, we calculated the laser gain, losses and the output power of the Raman Injection Laser by using Mathematica and FEMLab. Finally we compared the theoretical and experimental results.

Liu, Debin

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Neutral beam injection in 2XIIB  

SciTech Connect

Integrated into the operation of the 2XIIB controlled fusion experiment is a 600-A, 20-keV neutral injection system: the highest neutral-beam current capacity of any existing fusion machine. This paper outlines the requirements of the injection system and the design features to which they led. Both mechanical and electrical aspects are discussed. Also included is a brief description of some operational aspects of the system and some of the things we have learned along the way, as well as a short history of the most significant developments. (auth)

Hibbs, S.M.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3  

SciTech Connect

For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Westerman, Stuart; /SLAC; Cheng, Weixing; /Brookhaven; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

236

Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

Stewart, Chris Lee (Normal, IL); Tian, Ye (Bloomington, IL); Wang, Lifeng (Normal, IL); Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

237

Interphase power controller with voltage injection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces a new family of Interphase Power Controllers (IPC) based on the principle of voltage injection commonly used in phase-shifting transformers (PST). The voltage injection IPC exhibits power (active and reactive) control characteristics similar to previously defined IPC's and retains their inherent qualities: passive control, short circuit limitation and voltage decoupling. It also provides more flexibility for the adjustment of the operating points. Two promising topologies are described in more detail. One of them offers the potential of retrofitting existing phase-shifting transformers into full-fledged IPC's.

Beauregard, F.; Brochu, J.; Morin, G.; Pelletier, P. (Centre d'Innovation sur le Transport d'Energie du Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Discussion on Cycle Water Injection Effect and Its Influencing Factors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cyclic waterflooding is a kind of waterflood technique, which can improve the waterflood efficiency in low-permeability and fracture-porosity reservoir by changing periodically injected water volume. This article gives the principle and the applied conditions ... Keywords: water flooding, principle, the opportunity of water injection, water injection efficiency, water injection period

Shan Wuyi, Zhang Xue

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 3 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit at Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the as found baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu and to reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an SO{sub 2} limit of 1.8 lb/MBtu, the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with SO{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The system was designed to inject sorbent at a rate corresponding to a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 2.0. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Pulsed sextupole injection for Beijing Advanced Photon Source with ultralow emittance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present the physical design of the pulsed sextupole injection system for Beijing Advanced Photon Source (BAPS) with an ultralow emittance. The BAPS ring lattice is designed in such a way that two options of pulsed sextupole injection are allowed, i.e., with septum and pulsed sextupole in different drift spaces or in the same drift space. We give the magnetic parameters of the injection system and the optimal condition of the optical functions for both options. In addition, we find that the pulsed sextupole induces position-dependent dispersive effect and causes non-ignorable effect on the injection efficiency in a storage ring with a relatively small acceptance, which should be well considered.

Yi, JIAO

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Parametric lower-hybrid instability driven by modulated electron beam injection  

SciTech Connect

A modulated electron beam is injected into a low ..beta.. plasma parallel to the confining field to investigate the energy-transfer-rate from the electron beam to the plasma. Parametric excitation of electrostatic lower-hybrid waves and ion cyclotron quasimodes is experimentally identified. The temperature of both ions and electrons is observed to increase significantly concomitant with the growth of the instability.

Allen, G.R.; Owens, D.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Yamada, M.; Ikezi, H.; Porkolab, M.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluid flow and heat transfer processes during productionis a slow process, so that rates of heat transfer to theprocesses induced by water injection into depleted or depleting vapor zones are characterized by a complex interplay between fluid flow and heat transfer,

Pruess, Karsten

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Relative Corrosivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Measured atmospheric-corrosion rates for steel and zinc...Relative corrosivity Steel Zinc 1 Normal Wells, Northwest Territory Rural 0.02 0.2 2 Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Rural 0.2 0.2 9 State College, PA (a) Rural 1.0 1.0 17 Pittsburgh, PA (roof) Industrial 1.8 1.5 18 London (Battersea), U.K. Industrial 2.0 1.2 27 Bayonne, NJ Industrial 3.4 3.1 28 Kure...

244

300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Type-checking injective pure type systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Injective pure type systems form a large class of pure type systems for which one can compute by purely syntactic means two sorts elmt(?∣M) and sort(?∣M), where ? is a pseudo-context and M is a pseudo-term, ...

Gilles Barthe

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

All Electric Injection Molding Machines: How Much Energy Can You Save?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are three basic types of injection molding machines (IMMs) currently on the market: hydraulic, all-electric, and hybrid. They each have a different way of driving machine processes. Hydraulic IMMs use hydraulic pumps, all-electric machines use only high-speed servo motors, and hybrid IMMs use a combination of hydraulic pumps and servo motors. It is widely accepted that all-electric IMMs are the most energy efficient of the three technologies. Surprisingly, available quantitative analysis of energy savings from all-electric IMMs is limited and much of it relies on manufacturer claims and limited real life performance data. Manufacturers and utility estimates of energy savings due to the installation of an all-electric injection molding machine are typically based solely on the type of IMM technology or the IMM technology type and throughput, also called the mass flow rate of production. This paper suggests that there are other factors that influence energy usage in addition to the mass flow rate, such as product type, product cycle time, injection temperature, clamping pressure requirement, screw length and clamping distance. This paper details the injection molding process and investigates specific factors that affect IMM energy usage and energy savings. Some all-electric injection molding manufacturers claim that the market for injection molding machinery will completely take over the plastic molding industry in North America. Do these quiet, clean, precise, repeatable, and energy-efficient, all-electrics be the new norm in North American plastic molding industry? Will hydraulic molding machines become extinct? If all-electric IMMs are not fifth generation, will they be able to deliver higher clamping force believed to be equivalent to the hydraulic machines? To what extent are hydraulic machines replaceable with all electric machines based on different applications? In this paper, we attempt to answer all the above questions. We will discuss the current market share of the different injection molding technologies. We will investigate the percentage utilization of the rated capacity of all three types of injection molding technology. We will address how the percentage utilization of all electric machines is comparable with the same capacity of hybrid and hydraulic machines. We will also assess the market potential of all three injection-molding technologies depending on their application, cost, capabilities and energy consumption. We will discuss the current market shares among hydraulic, hybrid and all-electric machines. Finally, we will also discuss the attitudinal and economic market barriers of acceptance of all-electric technologies.

Kanungo, A.; Swan, E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

251

Data Center Rating Infrastructure Rating Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Portfolio Manager on June 7, 2010. The questions below are designed to help data center owners and operators better understand the rating and benchmark their buildings in...

252

Method of controlling fusion reaction rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method of controlling the reaction rates in a nuclear fusion reactor; and more particularly, to the use of polarized nuclear fuel.

Kulsrud, R.M.; Furth, H.P.; Valeo, E.J.; Goldhaber, M.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

253

Definition: Facility Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

any equipment comprising the facility.1 Related Terms reactive power, equipment rating, power, smart grid References Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An inl...

254

Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Waterflooding has become standard practice for extending the productive life of many solution gas drive reservoirs, but has the disadvantage of leaving a substantial residual oil volume in the reservoir. Solvent flooding has been offered as a method whereby oil may be completely displaced from the reservoir, leaving no residual volume. Field results have demonstrated that solvent floods suffer from early solvent breakthrough and considerable oil by-passing owing to high solvent mobility. The injection of both water and solvent has been demonstrated to offer advantages. Water partially mitigates both the adverse mobility and high cost of solvent floods, while solvent mobilizes oil which would be left in the reservoir by water alone. The process is equally applicable to reservoirs currently at residual oil saturation (tertiary floods) and to reservoirs at maximum oil saturation (secondary floods). In stratified reservoirs high permeability layers may be preferentially swept by solvent floods, while low permeability layers may be scarcely swept at all. Presence or absence of transverse communication between layers can modify overall sweep efficiency. This work is a study of water-solvent injection in stratified reservoirs based on computer simulation results. Fractional oil recovery as a function of injected solvent fraction, permeability contrast between layers, initial oil saturation, and presence or absence of transverse communication between strata has been determined. Results are presented as a series of optimization curves. Permeability contrast between layers is shown to be the dominant control on fractional oil recovery. Transverse communicating reservoirs are shown to require a higher solvent-water ratio in order to attain recoveries comparable to transverse noncommunicating reservoirs. In actual field projects, water and solvent are injected alternately as discrete slugs. This process is known as "WAG" for "water-alternating-gas". In the simulations used in this study, continuous water-solvent injection at a fixed fraction rather than true WAG was employed. It is demonstrated that the two methods give equivalent results. In summary, this work is the first comprehensive study of the behavior of stratified reservoirs undergoing water-solvent injection.

Moon, Gary Michael

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number Emissions (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Start of injection can improve environmental performance of fuel-efficient gasoline direct injection engines.

Not Available

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Drug injection rates and needle-exchange use in New York City ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who attended anywhere from 4 to 11 quarterly .... standard error) for each person were used as the dependent variable

257

REP-Rated Target Injection for Inertial Fusion Energy (A24820)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fusion Sci. And Technol. 47, 1143 (2005)16th Topical Meeting on Technology Fusion Energy Madison Wisconsin, US, 2004999609950

Frey, D.T.

2004-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

258

Determination of silica deposition rates and thresholds applied towards protection of injection reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This program was instituted to quantify certain aspects of silica scaling deposition processes at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica. The program objective was to identify the highest temperature at which silica scale will develop from partially evaporated and significantly cooled geothermal liquid under operating conditions. Integral to the study objective was the quantification of certain aspects of silica deposition processes at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica. There, the objective was to reduce the scaling risk associated with adding a bottoming-cycle to generate more electricity from the liquids already being produced.

Geothermal Development Associates; Don Michels Associates

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Tracking the Libor Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigating the Libor Rate,” mimeo. Abrantes-Metz, R. ,Libor data: Historial 1 month Libor rates, British Bankers1108R) Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M. Abrantes-Metz , Sofia

Abrantes-Metz, Rosa; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Judge, George G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Transient fault modeling and fault injection simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An accurate transient fault model is presented in this thesis. A 7-term exponential current upset model is derived from the results of a device-level, 3-dimensional, single-event-upset simulation. A curve-fitting algorithm is used to extract the numerical model from the empirical data. The model is implemented in a HSPICE simulation environment as a current-injection source for fault simulation. The current transient model is used to conduct electrical-level fault injection simulations on a static RAM cell and subcircuits from two commercial microprocessors. The results from the 7-term exponential model are compared with the results from the widely accepted double-exponential transient model. The experimental data indicate that, for a given charge level, the 7-term exponential fault model results in a higher chance of having a latch error. More importantly, different latch-error patterns are captured from the target circuits under the new fault model.

Yuan, Xuejun

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Combustion oscillation control by cyclic fuel injection  

SciTech Connect

A number of recent articles have demonstrated the use of active control to mitigate the effects of combustion instability in afterburner and dump combustor applications. In these applications, cyclic injection of small quantities of control fuel has been proposed to counteract the periodic heat release that contributes to undesired pressure oscillations. This same technique may also be useful to mitigate oscillations in gas turbine combustors, especially in test rig combustors characterized by acoustic modes that do not exist in the final engine configuration. To address this issue, the present paper reports on active control of a subscale, atmospheric pressure nozzle/combustor arrangement. The fuel is natural gas. Cyclic injection of 14% control fuel in a premix fuel nozzle is shown to reduce oscillating pressure amplitude by a factor of 0.30 (i.e., {approximately}10 dB) at 300 Hz. Measurement of the oscillating heat release is also reported.

Richards, G.A.; Yip, M.J. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Robey, E. [EG& G Technical Services of West Virginia, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Cowell, L.; Rawlins, D. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diedgo, CA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

PLT neutral injection ignitron accelerating supply  

SciTech Connect

A phase-controlled rectifier was designed for the accelerating supply on the PLT Neutral Beam Injection system at PPPL. The rectifier must furnish 70 amperes at up to 50 KV for 300 milliseconds, with a duty cycle of up to 10 percent. Protection of the injectors requires the supply to withstand repeated crowbarring. The rectifying element selected to satisfy these requirements was a commercially-available ignitron, installed in a supporting frame and using firing circuits and controls designed by PPPL. (auth)

Ashcroft, D.L.; Murray, J.G.; Newman, R.A.; Peterson, F.L.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Thrombin Injection for Acute Hemorrhage Following Angiography  

SciTech Connect

Femoral arterial puncture is the main access for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention in vascular disease. Significant complications are unusual and include uncontrolled bleeding which usually requires surgery. We report the use of ultrasound-guided thrombin injection that prevented any immediate need for surgery in 2 cases of uncontrolled bleeding following femoral arteriography. Clinical presentations and treatment are reported, together with a review of the literature.

Richards, T., E-mail: tobyrichards@btinternet.com; Mussai, F. J.; Phillips-Hughes, J.; Uberoi, R.; Boardman, P. [John Radcliffe Hospital, Nuffield Department of Surgery and Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Stanford Geothermal Program, reservoir and injection technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annual report of the Stanford Geothermal Program presents major projects in reservoir and injection technology. The four include: (1) an application of the boundary element method to front tracking and pressure transient testing; (2) determination of fracture aperture, a multi-tracer approach; (3) an analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection; and, (4) pressure transient modeling of a non-uniformly fractured reservoir. (BN)

Horne, R.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Kruger, P.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

2012 Rate Adjustments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Register Notices Meetings Brochure Brochure Addendum Customer Comment Letter Approved Rate Order FERC Confirmation If you have questions, call Rates and Repayment, 800-472-2306...

266

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

figure data Figure 7 shows the percent change in average real rates for those state-to-state ... Estimated transportation rates for coal delivered to electric ...

267

Effective Rate Period  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

10012012 - 09302013 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10012012 - 09302013 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,381,487...

268

PEP-II injection timing and controls  

SciTech Connect

Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings.

Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ronan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent pollution control requirements for new power plants have nearly doubled the cost of producing electricity. The capital, operating and maintenance costs of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are major, and considerable interest is currently being given to less expensive dry systems. One attractive alternative to wet scrubbing for FGD is to inject a dry, powdered reagent into the duct work between a coal-fired boiler and a FF (baghouse). The reagent (and fly ash) are collected on the fabric surface where the SO/sub 2//reagent contact occurs. The technical aspects of SO/sub 2/ removal using nahcolite and trona as sorbents have been investigated at laboratory-scale, demonstrated at full-scale, and are reported on briefly. These results indicate that injection of sodium based reagents is technically an attractive alternative to the many steps and processes involved in wet scrubbing. This paper summarizes a project to examine the economics of nahcolite/trona and furnace limestone injection FGD and compare them to those of the more advanced spray dryer FGD systems. Uncertainties in material handling, pulverization, and waste disposal were investigated and designs were produced as a basis for cost estimating.

Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.; Keeth, R.J.; McDowell, D.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Scheck, R.W.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

European Lean Gasoline Direct Injection Vehicle Benchmark  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lean Gasoline Direct Injection (LGDI) combustion is a promising technical path for achieving significant improvements in fuel efficiency while meeting future emissions requirements. Though Stoichiometric Gasoline Direct Injection (SGDI) technology is commercially available in a few vehicles on the American market, LGDI vehicles are not, but can be found in Europe. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) obtained a European BMW 1-series fitted with a 2.0l LGDI engine. The vehicle was instrumented and commissioned on a chassis dynamometer. The engine and after-treatment performance and emissions were characterized over US drive cycles (Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET), and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06)) and steady state mappings. The vehicle micro hybrid features (engine stop-start and intelligent alternator) were benchmarked as well during the course of that study. The data was analyzed to quantify the benefits and drawbacks of the lean gasoline direct injection and micro hybrid technologies from a fuel economy and emissions perspectives with respect to the US market. Additionally that data will be formatted to develop, substantiate, and exercise vehicle simulations with conventional and advanced powertrains.

Chambon, Paul H [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Norman, Kevin M [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Twin-Screw Extruder Development for the ITER Pellet Injection System  

SciTech Connect

The ITER pellet injection system is comprised of devices to form and accelerate pellets, and will be connected to inner wall guide tubes for fueling, and outer wall guide tubes for ELM pacing. An extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with a gas gun into the plasma. The ITER pellet injection system is required to provide a plasma fueling rate of 120 Pa-m3/s (900 mbar-L/s) and durations of up to 3000 s. The fueling pellets will be injected at a rate up to 10 Hz and pellets used to trigger ELMs will be injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype has been built and has demonstrated the production of a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. The 27 mm diameter, intermeshed, counter-rotating extruder screws are rotated at a rate up to ?5 rpm. Deuterium gas is pre-cooled and liquefied and solidified in separate extruder barrels. The precooler consists of a deuterium gas filled copper coil suspended in a separate stainless steel vessel containing liquid nitrogen. The liquefier is comprised of a copper barrel connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which has a machined helical groove surrounded by a copper jacket, through which the pre-cooled deuterium condenses. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at ?15 K) before it is forced through the extruder die. The die forms the extrusion to a 3 mm x 4 mm rectangular cross section. Design improvements have been made to improve the pre-cooler and liquefier heat exchangers, to limit the loss of extrusion through gaps in the screws. This paper will describe the design improvements for the next iteration of the extruder prototype.

Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Leachman, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Difficulty Accessing Syringes Mediates the Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Syringe Sharing Among Young Injection Drug Users  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ó The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Injection drug users (IDU) who use methamphetamine (MA) are at an increased risk of HIV infection due to engagement in injection-related risk behavior including syringe sharing. In this cohort study of young IDU aged 18-30, we investigated the relationship between injection MA use and syringe sharing, and whether difficulty accessing sterile syringes mediated this association. Behavioral questionnaires were completed by 384 IDU in Vancouver, Canada between October 2005 and May 2008. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate direct and indirect effects. The median age of participants was 24 (IQR: 22–27) and 214 (55.7%) were male. Injecting MA was independently associated with syringe sharing. Mediation analyses revealed that difficulty accessing sterile syringes partially mediated the association between injecting MA and syringe sharing. Interventions to reduce syringe sharing among young methamphetamine injectors

Evan Wood; Thomas L. Patterson; Thomas Kerr; E. Wood; T. Kerr; T. L. Patterson

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Geothermal injection technology program. Annual progress report, FY-85  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes injection research conducted during FY-1985. The objective was to develop a better understanding of the migration and impact of fluids injected in geothermal reservoirs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual project summaries. (ACR)

Not Available

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

Arnold, S.C.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

NETL: News Release - CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

21, 2011 CO2 Injection Begins in Illinois Large-Scale Test to Inject 1 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide in Saline Formation Washington, D.C. - The Midwest Geological...

278

Investigation of Hybrid Steam/Solvent Injection to Improve the Efficiency of the SAGD Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has been demonstrated as a proven technology to unlock heavy oil and bitumen in Canadian reservoirs. Given the large energy requirements and volumes of emitted greenhouse gases from SAGD processes, there is a strong motivation to develop enhanced oil recovery processes with lower energy and emission intensities. In this study, the addition of solvents to steam has been examined to reduce the energy intensity of the SAGD process. Higher oil recovery, accelerated oil production rate, reduced steam-to-oil ratio, and more favorable economics are expected from the addition of suitable hydrocarbon additives to steam. A systematic approach was used to develop an effective hybrid steam/solvent injection to improve the SAGD process. Initially, an extensive parametric simulation study was carried out to find the suitable hydrocarbon additives and injection strategies. Simulation studies aim to narrow down hybrid steam/solvent processes, design suitable solvent type and concentration, and explain the mechanism of solvent addition to steam. In the experimental phase, the most promising solvents (n-hexane and n-heptane) were used with different injection strategies. Steam and hydrocarbon additives were injected in continuous or alternating schemes. The results of the integrated experimental and simulation study were used to better understand the mechanism of hybrid steam/solvent processes. Experimental and simulation results show that solvent co-injection with steam leads to a process with higher oil production, better oil recovery, and less energy intensity with more favorable economy. Solvent choice for hybrid steam/solvent injection is not solely dependent on the mobility improvement capability of the solvents but also reservoir properties and operational conditions such as operating pressure and injection strategy. Pure heated solvent injection requires significant quantities. A vaporized solvent chamber is not sustainable due to low latent heat of the solvents. Alternating steam and solvent injection provides heat for the solvent cycles and increases oil recovery. Co-injection of small volumes (5-15% by volume) of suitable solvents at the early times of the SAGD operation considerably improves the economics of the SAGD process.

Ardali, Mojtaba

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane injection accelerated oil production by as much as 23 % pore volume of steam injected (cold-water equivalent). The apparatus and procedure used in this study have been improved. Steam injection rate was kept constant at 5 cc/min (cold-water equivalent) for all runs. Four thermocouples were placed along the longitudinal axis of the cell to measure temperature profiles during injection. A new, more efficient method was developed to break emulsion in the produced sample. For four of the eight runs, consistent operating conditions were obtained by use of superheated steam, cell pressure of 50 psig, and identical insulation. Eight experimental runs were made in which the propane:steam mass ratios used were 0:100 (steam only), 1:100, 2.5:100, and 5:100. A run using 5:100 nitrogen: steam mass ratio was also made. The main findings of this research (derived from four runs with consistent operating conditions) are as follows. First, the propane:steam mass ratio of 5:100 accelerated the start and peak of oil production by 20 % and 13 % pore volume steam injected (cold-water equivalent), compared to steam injection alone. Second, oil recoveries for practical purposes are similar in all cases, 63 % - 70 % OOIP if average high and low values are taken. Third, the start of production is practically the same for 0:100 and 1:100 propane:steam ratio and for 5:100 nitrogen: steam ratio. In the latter case, the production peak is higher due to additional drive from nitrogen injection. Fourth, oil production acceleration in the 5:100 propane:steam case is probably caused by dry distillation in which light fractions of the oil partition into and are carried by the injected propane to lower the viscosity of the oil ahead of the steam front. Last, convective heat transfer at any of these low (5:100) ratios appears to be of secondary importance.

Ferguson,Mark Anthony

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Sand deformation concept for in-situ recovery of bitumen by cyclic steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Historically, a vertical or horizontal fracture is believed to be a main recovery mechanism for a cyclic steam injection process from the unconsolidated oil sands. Most of the current computer models for the process are based on the fracture concept. With the new postulated ''Sand Deformation Concept'' on the other hand, the injected fluid is able to penetrate the unconsolidated oil sand by creating microchannels. When the pore pressure is reduced during production, these secondary flow channels will totally or partially collapse. Condensed steam tends to sweep fluids where the bitumen had been heated and imparts mobility due to the injected hot fluid. Flow geometry of the new concept was fully investigated in this study. The physical differences between the sand deformation zone and the no-deformation zone were also investigated. The major differences zone were also investigated. The major differences between these two zones are a porosity change, a pressure level and energy and flow characteristics resulting from the existence of microchannels. All of these modifications were successfully incorporated into a conventional numerical thermal simulator. The new model provided an excellent match for all the field observations (steam injection pressure, oil-and-water production rates, fluid production temperature, downhole production pressure and the salinity changes) of a steam stimulated well in an unconsolidated oil sand. Conclusion from the study indicates that the most important phenomenon for in-situ recovery of bitumen is the one way valve effect of the microchannels which are opened during injection and closed during production.

Ito, Y.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.

John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

rates rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

285

Projective Space Codes for the Injection Metric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the context of error control in random linear network coding, it is useful to construct codes that comprise well-separated collections of subspaces of a vector space over a finite field. In this paper, the metric used is the so-called "injection distance", introduced by Silva and Kschischang. A Gilbert-Varshamov bound for such codes is derived. Using the code-construction framework of Etzion and Silberstein, new non-constant-dimension codes are constructed; these codes contain more codewords than comparable codes designed for the subspace metric.

Khaleghi, Azadeh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Nonisothermal injection tests in fractured reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The paper extends the analysis of nonisothermal pressure transient data to fractured reservoirs. Two cases are considered: reservoirs with predominantly horzontal fractures and reservoirs with predominantly vertical fractures. Effects of conductive heat transfer between the fractures and the rock matrix are modeled, and the resulting pressure transients evaluated. Thermal conduction tends to retard the movement of the thermal front in the fractures, which significantly affects the pressure transient data. The purpose of the numerical simulation studies is to provide methods for analyzing nonisothermal injection/falloff data for fractured reservoirs.

Cox, B.L.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Historical Interest Rates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current and Historical Interest Rates Current and Historical Interest Rates The table lists interest rates, from the project's inception through the present, for all projects with repayment supervised by the CRSP MC. The latest available interest rate is used for all future interest rate calculations. The Amistad-Falcon, Collbran, Provo River, and Rio Grande Projects are all assigned the average daily "Yield Rate" calculated by the U.S. Treasury, on an annual basis, for Treasury bonds having terms of 15 years or more remaining to maturity. The calculated yield rate is rounded to the nearest one-eighth of one percent. The yield rate is based upon the bond's interest rate, as well as its market value. The Colorado River Storage Project and its participating projects, Dolores and Seedskadee, are assigned the average daily "Coupon Rate," annualized for the same U.S. Treasury bonds used in "Yield Rate" calculations. The coupon rate is the interest rate that the bond carries upon its face.

288

A study of steam injection in fractured media  

SciTech Connect

Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

Pruess, K.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Investigation of Diesel combustion using multiple injection strategies for idling after cold start of passenger-car engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to better understand the combustion behaviour in a low compression ratio DI Diesel engine when multiple injection strategies are applied just after the engine cold starts in low temperature conditions (idling). More specifically, the aim of this study was twofold: on one hand, to understand the effect of the multiple injection strategies on the indicated mean effective pressure; on the other hand, to contribute to the understanding of combustion stability characterized by the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure. The first objective was fulfilled by analyzing the rate of heat release obtained by in-cylinder pressure diagnosis. The results showed that the timing of the pilot injection closest to the main injection was the most influential parameter based on the behaviour of the rate of heat release (regardless of the multiple injection strategy applied). For the second objective, the combustion stability was found to be correlated with the combustion centroid angle. The results showed a trend between them and the existence of a range of centroid angles where the combustion stability is strong enough. In addition, it was also evident that convenient split injection allows shifting the centroid to such a zone and improves combustion stability after start. (author)

Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Salavert, J.M.; Martin, J. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Aptdo. 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Lightning Scaling Relations Revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scaling relations connecting storm electrical generator power (and hence lightning flash rate) to charge transport velocity and storm geometry were originally posed by Vonnegut in the 1960s. These were later simplified to yield simple ...

Dennis J. Boccippio

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Supersonic Jet Excitation using Flapping Injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supersonic jet noise reduction is important for high speed military aircraft. Lower acoustic levels would reduce structural fatigue leading to longer lifetime of the jet aircraft. It is not solely structural aspects which are of importance, health issues of the pilot and the airfield per- sonnel are also very important, as high acoustic levels may result in severe hearing damage. It remains a major challenge to reduce the overall noise levels of the aircraft, where the supersonic exhaust is the main noise source for near ground operation. Fluidic injection into the supersonic jet at the nozzle exhaust has been shown as a promising method for noise reduction. It has been shown to speed up the mix- ing process of the main jet, hence reducing the kinetic energy level of the jet and the power of the total acoustic radiation. Furthermore, the interaction mechanism between the fluidic injection and the shock structure in the jet exhaust plays a crucial role in the total noise radia- tion. In this study, LES is used...

Hafsteinsson, Haukur; Andersson, Niklas; Cuppoletti, Daniel; Gutmark, Ephraim; Prisell, Erik

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

Upatnieks, Ansis (Livermore, CA)

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

295

Tracking the Libor Rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paper 1108R2 Paper 1108R) Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M.revision 2013 by author(s). Tracking the Libor Rate Rosa M.providing a methodology for tracking the dynamic integrity

Abrantes-Metz, Rosa; Villas-Boas, Sofia B.; Judge, George G.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

2009 Rate Adjustments  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

provisional rates will be in effect until the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) confirms and approves them on a final basis or until they are replaced by other rates....

297

Mouse heart rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mouse heart rate Name: amj Status: NA Age: NA Location: NA Country: NA Date: Around 1993 Question: Is it possible to get the heart rate of a mouse without special equipment?...

298

Dynamics of heart rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heart rate oscillates on several different time scales and has long?term variability in the form of 1/fnoise. The physiological control of heart rate is briefly reviewed

Daniel T. Kaplan; Mario Talajic

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Analysis of thermally induced permeability enhancement in geothermal injection wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reinjection of spent geothermal brine is a common means of disposing of geothermal effluents and maintaining reservoir pressures. Contrary to the predictions of two-fluid models (two-viscosity) of nonisothermal injection, an increase of injectivity, with continued injection, is often observed. Injectivity enhancement and thermally-affected pressure transients are particularly apparent in short-term injection tests at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mexico. During an injection test, it is not uncommon to observe that after an initial pressure increase, the pressure decreases with time. As this typically occurs far below the pressure at which hydraulic fracturing is expected, some other mechanism for increasing the near-bore permeability must explain the observed behavior. This paper focuses on calculating the magnitude of the nearbore permeability changes observed in several nonisothermal injection tests conducted at the Los Azufres Geothermal Field.

Benson, S.M.; Daggett, J.S.; Iglesias, E.; Arellano, V.; Ortiz-Ramirez, J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

Petzoldt, R.W.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

U-219: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

19: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote 19: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords U-219: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords July 24, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords PLATFORM: Symantec Web Gateway 5.0.x.x ABSTRACT: Several vulnerabilities were reported in Symantec Web Gateway. REFERENCE LINKS: Security Advisories Relating to Symantec Products SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1027289 Bugtraq ID: 54424 Bugtraq ID: 54425 Bugtraq ID: 54426 Bugtraq ID: 54427 Bugtraq ID: 54429 Bugtraq ID: 54430

302

U-219: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

19: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote 19: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords U-219: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords July 24, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Symantec Web Gateway Input Validation Flaws Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands, Execute Arbitrary Commands, and Change User Passwords PLATFORM: Symantec Web Gateway 5.0.x.x ABSTRACT: Several vulnerabilities were reported in Symantec Web Gateway. REFERENCE LINKS: Security Advisories Relating to Symantec Products SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1027289 Bugtraq ID: 54424 Bugtraq ID: 54425 Bugtraq ID: 54426 Bugtraq ID: 54427 Bugtraq ID: 54429 Bugtraq ID: 54430

303

Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not just near the injection well. Note that because thisConcentrations at the injection well increase during thethe fractures away from the injection well is fast, solutes

Cotte, F.P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, California Geothermal Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of thermoelastic stress on injection well fracturing. SPE38N) LBNL NCSN POWER PLANTS INJECTION WELLS EVENTS LBNLNCSN POWER PLANTS INJECTION WELLS EVENTS Aidlin 11 - LBNL

Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

SciTech Connect

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 ? PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and PCD/FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, to be performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) will be tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations will be very low and may present challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and PCD/FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there will be 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample will be generated prior to each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and PCD-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the PCD for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting PCD-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in PCD and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

306

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) were tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations were very low and presented challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there were 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample was generated at the same time as each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and FNR-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the FNR for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting FNR-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in FNR and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US Massive Gas Injection Disruption Mitigation System Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a candidate design for the ITER Disruption Mitigation System. This candidate is the Massive Gas Injection System that provides machine protection in a plasma disruption event. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data as well as some data calculated from operating facilities, and the failure events were ranked for their criticality to system operation.

Lee C. Cadwallader

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Behavior of radioactive species during water injection into alloy breeder material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into lead-lithium alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The fraction of water reacted, quantity of hydrogen produced, and behavior of radioactive species associated with the use of this alloy as a breeder material were determined. The reaction products were identified, and the aerosol was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and deposition rate. 2 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Jeppson, D.W.; Serinni, G. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA); Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Bifurcation, efficiency, and the role of injection in shock acceleration with the Bohm diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency and uniqueness of the diffusive shock acceleration is studied on the basis of the novel kinetic solutions. These solutions obtained earlier (paper I, astro-ph/9707152) selfconsistently describe a strong coupling of cosmic rays with the gas flow. They show that the dependence of the acceleration efficiency upon physical parameters is critical in nature. In this paper we investigate a steady acceleration in the parameter space formed by the injection rate (\

M. A. Malkov

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

310

Bifurcation, efficiency, and the role of injection in shock acceleration with the Bohm diffusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency and uniqueness of the diffusive shock acceleration is studied on the basis of the novel kinetic solutions. These solutions obtained earlier (paper I, astro-ph/9707152) selfconsistently describe a strong coupling of cosmic rays with the gas flow. They show that the dependence of the acceleration efficiency upon physical parameters is critical in nature. In this paper we investigate a steady acceleration in the parameter space formed by the injection rate (\

Malkov, M A

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Volume 3, Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Edwards Unit 1, Central Illinois Light Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Design work has been completed for a Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) system to reduce emissions of NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} from a wall fired unit. A GR-SI system was designed for Central Illinois Light Company`s Edwards Station Unit 1, located in Bartonville, Illinois. The unit is rated at 117 MW(e) (net) and is front wall fired with a pulverized bituminous coal blend. The goal of the project was to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} by 60%, from the ``as found`` baseline of 0.98 lb/MBtu (420 mg/MJ), and to reduce emissions of S0{sub 2} by 50%. Since the unit currently fires a blend of high sulfur Illinois coal and low sulfur Kentucky coal to meet an S0{sub 2} limit Of 1.8 lb/MBtu (770 mg/MJ), the goal at this site was amended to meeting this limit while increasing the fraction of high sulfur coal to 57% from the current 15% level. GR-SI requires injection of natural gas into the furnace at the level of the top burner row, creating a fuel-rich zone in which NO{sub x} formed in the coal zone is reduced to N{sub 2}. The design natural gas input corresponds to 18% of the total heat input. Burnout (overfire) air is injected at a higher elevation to burn out fuel combustible matter at a normal excess air level of 18%. Recycled flue gas is used to increase the reburning fuel jet momentum, resulting in enhanced mixing. Recycled flue gas is also used to cool the top row of burners which would not be in service during GR operation. Dry hydrated lime sorbent is injected into the upper furnace to react with S0{sub 2}, forming solid CaSO{sub 4} and CaSO{sub 3}, which are collected by the ESP. The SI system design was optimized with respect to gas temperature, injection air flow rate, and sorbent dispersion. Sorbent injection air flow is equal to 3% of the combustion air. The design includes modifications of the ESP, sootblowing, and ash handling systems.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Injection, flow, and mixing of CO2 in porous media with residual gas.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geologic structures associated with depleted natural gas reservoirs are desirable targets for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as evidenced by numerous pilot and industrial-scale GCS projects in these environments world-wide. One feature of these GCS targets that may affect injection is the presence of residual CH{sub 4}. It is well known that CH{sub 4} drastically alters supercritical CO{sub 2} density and viscosity. Furthermore, residual gas of any kind affects the relative permeability of the liquid and gas phases, with relative permeability of the gas phase strongly dependent on the time-history of imbibition or drainage, i.e., dependent on hysteretic relative permeability. In this study, the effects of residual CH{sub 4} on supercritical CO{sub 2} injection were investigated by numerical simulation in an idealized one-dimensional system under three scenarios: (1) with no residual gas; (2) with residual supercritical CO{sub 2}; and (3) with residual CH{sub 4}. We further compare results of simulations that use non-hysteretic and hysteretic relative permeability functions. The primary effect of residual gas is to decrease injectivity by decreasing liquid-phase relative permeability. Secondary effects arise from injected gas effectively incorporating residual gas and thereby extending the mobile gas plume relative to cases with no residual gas. Third-order effects arise from gas mixing and associated compositional effects on density that effectively create a larger plume per unit mass. Non-hysteretic models of relative permeability can be used to approximate some parts of the behavior of the system, but fully hysteretic formulations are needed to accurately model the entire system.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Doughty, C.A.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage  

SciTech Connect

Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline aquifer and surrounding formations. This uncertainty in leakage will be used to feed into risk assessment modeling.

Deng, Hailin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiao, Zunsheng [Wyoming State Geological Survey; Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Surdam, Ronald C. [Wyoming State Geological Survey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

A Comparison of Mass Rate and Steam Quality Reductions to Optimize Steamflood Performance  

SciTech Connect

Many operators of steamdrive projects will reduce the heat injection rate as the project matures. The major benefit of this practice is to reduce the fuel costs and thus extend the economic life of the project. However, there is little industry consensus on whether the heat cuts should take the form of: (1) mass rate reductions while maintaining the same high steam quality, or (2) steam quality decreases while keeping the same mass rate. Through the use of a commercial three-phase, three-dimensional simulator, the oil recovery schedules obtained when reducing the injected steam mass rate or quality with time were compared under a variety of reservoir and operating conditions. The simulator input was validated for Kern River Field conditions by using the guidelines developed by Johnson, et at. (1989) for four steamflood projects in Kern River. The results indicate that for equivalent heat injection rates, decreasing the steam injection mass rate at a constant high quality will yield more economic oil than reducing the steam quality at a constant mass rate. This conclusion is confirmed by a sensitivity analysis which demonstrates the importance of the gravity drainage/steam zone expansion mechanism in a low-pressure, heavy oil steamflood with gravity segregation. Furthermore, the impact of discontinuous silts and nonuniform initial temperatures within the steamflood zone was studied, indicating again that a decreasing mass rate injection strategy is a superior operating practice.

Messner, Gregory L.

1999-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

315

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

NONE

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

New type gas-injection plant readied  

SciTech Connect

A unique gas-injection plant is about to go on stream in Venezuela's Lake Maracaibo. The $10-million installation, designed for unattended operation, is a joint venture of Phillips Petroleum Co., as operator for itself, and Cia. Shell de Venezuela. The plant, housed on a 120 by 130-ft platform, will be the first in the world to use gas turbines to drive reciprocating compressors. The 130 MMscfd facility will use 2 General Electric 15,000-hp gas turbines with gear reducers to drive a pair of 4-stage Cooper- Bessemer LM-8 compressors. No previous attempt has ever been made to drive this type of unit by gas turbines. Phillips says the gas turbines were selected because of inherent flexibility reliability as prime movers, and lack of vibration--an important advantage in offshore gas plants.

Franco, A.

1967-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

318

Current drive, anticurrent drive, and balanced injection  

SciTech Connect

In lower hybrid (LH) discharges, the number of suprathermal electrons is limited by the upper bound on the current density from the q = 1 condition, which is caused by the onset of the m = 1 MHD instability. The stored energy of suprathermal electrons, measured in terms of a poloidal beta, scales with plasma current as I/sub p//sup -1/. Potentially, these bounds represent very restrictive conditions for heating in larger machines. Consequently, it seems necessary to perform experiments where the electrons are driven in both directions, parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field, i.e., bidirectional scenarios like anticurrent drive or balanced injection. Data from PLT relevant to these ideas are discussed. 6 refs., 4 figs.

von Goeler, S.; Stevens, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Cavallo, A.; Chu, T.K.; Fishman, H.; Hill, K.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Waste heat steams ahead with injection technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Owners of Commercial-Industrial-Institutional buildings whose thermal usage is too variable to implement cogeneration are looking to a gasturbine steam-injection technology, called the Cheng Cycle, to reduce their energy costs. The Cheng Cycle uses industrial components-a gas-turbine generating set, a waste-heat recovery steam generator and system controls-in a thermodynamically optimized mode. In the process, steam produced from waste heat can be used for space or process heating or to increase the electrical output of a gas turbine. The process was patented in 1974 by Dr. Dah Yu Cheng, of the University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, Calif. When a plant's thermal needs fall because of production or temperature changes, unused steam is directed back to the turbine to increase electrical output. As thermal requirements rise, the process is reversed and needed steam is channeled to plant uses.

Shepherd, S.; Koloseus, C.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

D/sub 2/ - pellet injection system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For density build-up of a target plasma for neutral injection in the stellarator ''Wendelstein W VIIA''and for refuelling of the divertor tokamak ASSDEX, pellet light gas guns have been developed. In a continuous flow cryostat cooled by liquid helium with a comsumption of 2 - 3 liter liquid helium per hour deuterium was condensed and solidified. To prevent the propeller gas entering the torus was used. In one system a 3.6 mm guiding tube following the barrel was applied successfully. By optical diagnostics pellet velocity, pellet size and pellet trajectory is measured. For a pellet centrifuge system investigations of carbon fiber rotors were made up to surface velocities of 1500 m/s.

Buechl, K.; Andelfinger, C.; Kollotzek, H.; Lang, R.; Ulrich, M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Coal Transportation Rate Sensitivity Analysis  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

On December 21, 2004, the Surface Transportation Board (STB) requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impact of changes in coal transportation rates on projected levels of electric power sector energy use and emissions.Specifically, the STB requested an analysis of changes in national and regional coalconsumption and emissions resulting from adjustments in railroad transportation rates for Wyoming's Powder River Basin (PRB) coal using the National Energy Modeling System(NEMS). However, because NEMS operates at a relatively aggregate regional level and does not represent the costs of transporting coal over specific rail lines, this analysis reports on the impacts of interregional changes in transportation rates from those used in the Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO2005) reference case.

John Conti

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Evaluating reservoir production strategies in miscible and immiscible gas-injection projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Miscible gas injection processes could be among the most widely used enhanced oil recovery processes. Successful design and implementation of a miscible gas injection project depends upon the accurate determination of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) and other factors such as reservoir and fluid characterization. The MMP indicates the lowest pressure at which the displacement process becomes multicontact miscible. The experimental methods available for determining MMP are both costly and time consuming. Therefore, the use of correlations that prove to be reliable for a wide range of fluid types would likely be considered acceptable for preliminary screening studies. This work includes a comparative and critical evaluation of MMP correlations and thermodynamic models using an equation of state by PVTsim software. Application of gas injection usually entails substantial risk because of the technological sophistication and financial requirements to initiate the project. More detailed, comprehensive reservoir engineering and project monitoring are necessary for typical miscible flood projects than for other recovery methods. This project evaluated effects of important factors such as injection pressure, vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratio, well completion, relative permeability, and permeability stratification on the recovery efficiency from the reservoir for both miscible and immiscible displacements. A three-dimensional, three-phase, Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) compositional simulator based on the implicit-pressure explicit-saturation (IMPES) technique was used to determine the sensitivity of miscible or immiscible oil recovery to suitable ranges of these reservoir parameters. Most of the MMP correlations evaluated in this study have proven not to consider the effect of fluid composition properly. In most cases, EOS-based models are more conservative in predicting MMP values. If screening methods identify a reservoir as a candidate for a miscible injection project, experimental MMP measurements should be conducted for specific gas-injection purposes. Simulation results indicated that injection pressure was a key parameter that influences oil recovery to a high degree. MMP appears to be the optimum injection pressure since the incremental oil recovery at pressures above the MMP is negligible and at pressures below the MMP recovery is substantially lower. Stratification, injection-well completion pattern, and vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratios could also affect the recovery efficiency of the reservoir in a variety of ways discussed in this work.

Farzad, Iman

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

About the Ratings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2008 Ratings Changes 2008 Ratings Changes EPA's "New" Fuel Economy Ratings Video about EPA's New Fuel Economy Ratings Windows Media Video (6.8 MB) Quicktime Video (7.8 MB) Text Version EPA changed the way it estimates fuel economy starting with the 2008 model year. This "new" way of estimating fuel economy supplements the previous method by incorporating the effects of Faster speeds and acceleration Air conditioner use Colder outside temperatures What else do I need to know about the "new" ratings? The tests lower MPG estimates for most vehicles. View old/new MPG ratings for a specific vehicle The actual mileage you get will still vary based on your driving habits, traffic conditions, and other factors. All MPG estimates in Find-a-Car have been converted to the new

324

Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Effective Rate Period  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fiscal Year 2014 Fiscal Year 2014 Effective Rate Period As of Beginning of the FY 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement $73,441,557 CV-F13 Base Resource Revenue Requirement $69,585,875 First Preference Revenue Requirement $3,855,682

326

High Redshift Supernova Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a sample of 42 supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on-board the Hubble Space Telescope as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey to measure the rate of core collapse supernovae to z~0.7 and type Ia supernovae to z~1.6. This significantly increases the redshift range where supernova rates have been estimated from observations. The rate of core collapse supernovae can be used as an independent probe of the cosmic star formation rate. Based on the observations of 17 core collapse supernovae, we measure an increase in the core collapse supernova rate by a factor of 1.6 in the range 0.3rate. The increase in the rate in this redshift range in consistent with recent measurements of the star formation rate derived from UV-luminosity densities and IR datasets. Based on 25 type Ia supernovae, we find a SN Ia rate that is a factor 3-5 higher at z~1 compared to earlier estimates at lower redshifts (zrate traces a higher star formation rate at redshifts z>1 compared to low redshift. At higher redshift (z>1), we find a suggested decrease in the type Ia rate with redshift. This evolution of the Ia rate with redshift is consistent with a type Ia progenitor model where there is a substantial delay between the formation of the progenitor star and the explosion of the supernova. Assuming that the type Ia progenitor stars have initial main sequence masses 3-8 M_Sun, we find that 5-7% of the available progenitors explode as type Ia supernovae.

Tomas Dahlen; Louis-Gregory Strolger; Adam G. Riess; Bahram Mobasher; Ranga-Ram Chary; Christopher J. Conselice; Henry C. Ferguson; Andrew S. Fruchter; Mauro Giavalisco; Mario Livio; Piero Madau; Nino Panagia; John L. Tonry

2004-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

327

Rate Schedule CPP-2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) or other regulatory bodies will be passed on to each relevant customer. The FERC's or...

328

Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (UIC code) is adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-5-11). It is the purpose of this UIC Code to adopt underground injection control (UIC) regulations necessary to qualify the State of Arkansas to retain authorization for its Underground Injection Control Program pursuant to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, as amended; 42 USC 300f et seq. In order

329

Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date 1979 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Quantification of the pressure response prior to 600 minutes is not always possible. Short-duration (< 24-hour) injection or pump tests are conducted with the drilling rig equipment, and long-duration (21-day) injection and pump tests are then conducted with the permanent pumping facilities. References Allman, D. W.; Goldman, D.; Niemi, W. L. (1 January 1979) Evaluation of testing and reservoir parameters in geothermal wells at Raft

330

T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability T-731:Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability September 30, 2011 - 8:30am Addthis PROBLEM: Symantec IM Manager Code Injection Vulnerability. PLATFORM: IM Manager versions prior to 8.4.18 are affected. ABSTRACT: Symantec IM Manager is prone to a vulnerability that will let attackers run arbitrary code. referecnce LINKS: Symantec Security Advisory SYM11-012 Symantec Security Updates Bugtraq ID: 49742 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High Discussion: Symantec was notified of Cross-Site Scripting and Code injection/execution issues present in the Symantec IM Manager management console. The management console fails to properly filter/validate external inputs. Successful exploitation of SQL Injection or Remote Code execution might

331

INJECTION SYSTEM DESIGN FOR THE BSNS/RCS.  

SciTech Connect

The BSNS injection system is designed to take one uninterrupted long drift in one of the four dispersion-free straight sections to host all the injection devices. Painting bumper magnets are used for both horizontal and vertical phase space painting. Closed-orbit bumper magnets are used for facilitating the installation of the injection septa and decreasing proton traversal in the stripping foil. Even with large beam emittance of about 300 {pi}mm.mrad used, BSNS/RCS still approaches the space charge limit during the injection/trapping phase for the accumulated particles of 1.9*10{sup 13} and at the low injection energy of 80 MeV. Uniform-like beam distribution by well-designed painting scheme is then obtained to decrease the tune shift/spread. ORBIT code is used for the 3D simulations. Upgrading to higher injection energy has also been considered.

WEI, J.; TANG, J.Y.; CHEN, Y.; CHI, Y.L.; JIANG, Y.L.; KANG, W.; PANG, J.B.; QIN, Q.; QIU, J.; SHEN, L.; WANG, W.

2006-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hanford 100N Area Apatite Emplacement: Laboratory Results of Ca-Citrate-PO4 Solution Injection and Sr-90 Immobilization in 100N Sediments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes laboratory scale studies investigating the remediation of Sr-90 by Ca-citrate-PO4 solution injection/infiltration to support field injection activities in the Hanford 100N area. This study is focused on experimentally testing whether this remediation technology can be effective under field scale conditions to mitigate Sr-90 migration 100N area sediments into the Columbia River. Sr-90 is found primarily adsorbed to sediments by ion exchange (99% adsorbed, < 1% in groundwater) in the upper portion of the unconfined aquifer and lower vadose zone. Although primarily adsorbed, Sr-90 is still considered a high mobility risk as it is mobilized by seasonal river stage increases and by plumes of higher ionic strength relative to groundwater. This remediation technology relies upon the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution forming apatite precipitate [Ca6(PO4)10(OH)2], which incorporates some Sr-90 during initial precipitation and additionally slowly incorporates Sr-90 by solid phase substitution for Ca. Sr substitution occurs because Sr-apatite is thermodynamically more stable than Ca-apatite. Once the Sr-90 is in the apatite structure, Sr-90 will decay to Y-90 (29.1 y half-life) then Zr-90 (64.1 h half-life) without the potential for migration into the Columbia River. For this technology to be effective, sufficient apatite needs to be emplaced in sediments to incorporate Sr and Sr-90 for 300 years (~10 half-lives of Sr-90), and the rate of incorporation needs to exceed the natural groundwater flux rate of Sr in the 100N area. A primary objective of this study is to supply an injection sequence to deliver sufficient apatite into subsurface sediments that minimizes initial mobility of Sr-90, which occurs because the injection solution has a higher ionic strength compared to groundwater. This can be accomplished by sequential injections of low, then high concentration injection of Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions. Assessment of low concentration Ca-citrate-PO4, citrate-PO4, and PO4 solutions show greater Sr and Sr-90 incorporation during initial precipitation and less initial mobilization with solutions with low Ca2+ concentration. While all solutions showed nearly the same Sr uptake into apatite (14 to 17% by 2 weeks, 21% to 30% by 5 weeks), the incorporation efficiency (i.e., mM Sr incorporated per mM PO4 injected) was higher for solutions containing citrate. The Sr incorporation rate into apatite during initial precipitation (by 1 month) averaged 4.64 ± 1.9 x 10-4 h-1 (half-life 1500 ± 430 h, 8.85 x 10-7 mg Sr/day/mg apatite). The injection solution used in field injections #3 to #18 (10 mM PO4, 1 mM Ca, 2.5 mM citrate), which is deficient in Ca (a total of 16.7 mM needed to form apatite with 10 mM of PO4), resulted in the initial Sr and Ca peak (24 h) at 4.7x groundwater. By 30 days, the aqueous Sr concentration was 0.28x groundwater and Ca 0.43x groundwater, as both Sr and Ca are used to form initial apatite precipitates. Reactive transport simulation of the complex ion exchange, biodegradation, and precipitation processes showed that the initial Sr groundwater increase mobilized only 1.5% of the Sr mass in sediments. Citrate biodegradation, a necessary step in Ca-citrate-PO4 solutions forming apatite, had an average half-life of 50 h (at aquifer sediment/water ratio and temperature), and decreased an order of magnitude with sediment depth as the microbial biomass decreased five orders of magnitude. The rate of citrate biodegradation was relatively invariant with biomass and water saturation (50% to 100%, for vadose zone infiltration) possibly due to significant microbial injection using river water and subsurface microbial mobilization.

Szecsody, James E.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Moore, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Girvin, Donald C.; McKinley, James P.; Truex, Michael J.; Phillips, Jerry L.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A study of relative permeability for steam-water flow in porous media  

SciTech Connect

We report on continuing experimental and numerical efforts to obtain steam-water relative permeability functions and to assess effect of heat transfer and phase change. To achieve these, two sets of steady-state flow experiments were conducted: one with nitrogen and water and another with steam and water. During these experiments, a mixture of nitrogen-water (or steam-water) was injected into a Berea sandstone core. At the onset of steady state conditions, three-dimensional saturation distributions were obtained by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography scanner. By identifying a length of the core over which a flat saturation profile exists and measuring the pressure gradient associated with this length, we calculated relative permeabilities for nitrogen-water flow experiments. The relative permeability relations obtained in this case were in good agreement with those reported by other investigators. Another attempt was also made to conduct a steam-water flow experiment under adiabatic conditions. This experiment was completed with partial success due to the difficulties encountered during the experiment. The results of this experiment showed that a flat saturation profile actually developed over a substantial length of the core even at a comparatively modest injection rate (6 grams per minute) with low steam quality (4% by mass). The completion of this set of experiments should yield steam-water relative permeability relations in the near future.

Ambusso, Willis; Satik, Cengiz; Horne, Roland

1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

334

The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, California Geothermal Field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and streamhave been injecting steam condensate, local rain and stream

Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

INTENSITY OF BETATRON RADIATION AS FUNCTION OF INJECTION VOLTAGE  

SciTech Connect

The intensity of betatron radiation emission as a function of injection voltage was studied using a 25-Mev betatron with a 350-kw external electron injector. The injection voltage was measured every 20 to 30 kw from 50 to 250 kw. The results showed that up to 250 kw, emission intensity increases according to theory. It is suggested that an increase in injection intensity up to 1000 kw and over should result in a considerable rise in emission intensity. (R.V.J.)

Moskalev, V.A.; Okulov, B.V.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Experimental investigation of caustic steam injection for heavy oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study has been conducted to compare the effect of steam injection and caustic steam injection in improving the recovery of San Ardo and Duri heavy oils. A 67 cm long x 7.4 cm O.D (outer diameter), steel injection cell is used in the study. Six thermocouples are placed at specific distances in the injection cell to record temperature profiles and thus the steam front velocity. The injection cell is filled with a mixture of oil, water and sand. Steam is injected at superheated conditions of 238oC with the cell outlet pressure set at 200 psig, the cell pressure similar to that found in San Ardo field. The pressure in the separators is kept at 50 psig. The separator liquid is sampled at regular intervals. The liquid is centrifuged to determine the oil and water volumes, and oil viscosity, density and recovery. Acid number measurements are made by the titration method using a pH meter and measuring the EMF values. The interfacial tensions of the oil for different concentrations of NaOH are also measured using a tensionometer. Experimental results show that for Duri oil, the addition of caustic results in an increase in recovery of oil from 52% (steam injection) to 59 % (caustic steam injection). However, caustic has little effect on San Ardo oil where oil recovery is 75% (steam injection) and 76 % (caustic steam injection). Oil production acceleration is seen with steam-caustic injection. With steam caustic injection there is also a decrease in the produced oil viscosity and density for both oils. Sodium hydroxide concentration of 1 wt % is observed to give the lowest oil-caustic interfacial tension. The acid numbers for San Ardo and Duri oil are measured as 6.2 and 3.57 respectively.

Madhavan, Rajiv

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection  

SciTech Connect

A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

Yortsos, Y.C.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Histopathological Alterations after Single Epidural Injection of Ropivacaine, Methylprednizolone Acetate, or Contrast Material in Swine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: The consequences from the injection of different types of drugs in the epidural space remains unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that localized inflammation, fibrosis, and arachnoiditis can complicate sequential epidural blockades, or even epidural contrast injection. We investigate the in vivo effect of epidural injections in the epidural space in an animal model. Materials and Methods: A group of ten male adult pigs, five punctures to each at distinct vertebral interspaces under general anesthesia, were examined, testing different drugs, used regularly in the epidural space (iopamidol, methylprednisolone acetate, ropivacaine). Each site was marked with a percutaneous hook wire marker. Histological analysis of the epidural space, the meninges, and the underlying spinal cord of the punctured sites along with staining for caspase-3 followed 20 days later. Results: The epidural space did not manifest adhesions or any other pathology, and the outer surface of the dura was not impaired in any specimen. The group that had the contrast media injection showed a higher inflammation response compared to the other groups (P = 0.001). Positive staining for caspase-3 was limited to <5% of neurons with all substances used. Conclusion: No proof of arachnoiditis and/or fibrosis was noted in the epidural space with the use of the above-described drugs. A higher inflammation rate was noted with the use of contrast media.

Kitsou, Maria-Chrysanthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Vlachodimitropoulos, Demetrios [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine (Greece); Soultanis, Konstantinos [University of Athens, 1st Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Batistaki, Chrysanthi [University of Athens, 2nd Department of Anesthesiology-Pain Unit, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital (Greece); Kelekis, Alexis, E-mail: akelekis@med.uoa.gr [University of Athens, 2nd Radiology Department, Attikon University Hospital (Greece)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

342

NETL: News Release - DOE Technology Monitors CO2 Injection in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3, 2008 DOE Technology Monitors CO2 Injection in Australian Gas Field CSLF Project Demonstrates Unique Carbon Sequestration Technologies WASHINGTON, D.C. - Australia has launched...

343

INJECTION AND THERMAL BREAKTHROUGH IN FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Pruess, K. , Analysis of injection testing of geothermalreservoirs: Geothermal Resoures Council, Vol. 4. , (into a fractured geothermal reservoir: Transactions, Vol. 4,

Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Injection Phenomena in the PS Converter - The Teachings of J ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

blockage and punching); the concept of “high pressure” or sonic injection including a review of the ... to the representatives of the technology suppliers as well as.

345

Injection of Alternative Carbon Containing Materials in the BF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By injection of the materials preparation methods in terms e.g. drying and/or ... Efficiency in recovery of valuable compounds as well as the behaviour of ...

346

Application of Metal Injection Molding to Soft Magnetic Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advances in Current Activated Tip-Based Sintering (CATS) · Advances in Synthesis and Densification of Heterogeneous Materials · Application of Metal Injection ...

347

Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Study Reveals Fuel Injection Timing Impact on Particle Number...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In an ongoing quest to meet ever-more-rigorous fuel economy and emissions requirements, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly turning to gasoline direct injection (GDI) coupled...

349

Interpretation of self-potential measurements during injection...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

self-potential measurements during injection tests at Raft River, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Interpretation of...

350

Dry sorbent injection may serve as a key pollution control ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Dry sorbent injection (DSI) is a pollution control technology that may play a role in the United States' electric power sector's compliance with the Mercury and Air ...

351

Single Well Injection Withdrawl Tracer Tests for Proppant ...  

A large question preventing optimal natural gas production from "hydrofracked" shales is how far proppants, injected to keep shale fractures open, ...

352

Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Wood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... by one double-gate injection mould integrated an ultrasonic generator unit. ... Polymer Based Composite and Hybrid Materials for Wind Power Generation.

353

Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Fenton Hill Hdr Geothermal Area (Grigsby, Et Al., 1983) Exploration Activity Details...

354

Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Facebook icon Twitter icon Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL...

355

Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

Not Available

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Alaska Natural Gas Injections into Underground Storage (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators Alaska Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply &...

357

Rhode Island Natural Gas Underground Storage Injections All Operators...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

of Natural Gas into Underground Storage - All Operators Rhode Island Underground Natural Gas Storage - All Operators Injections of Natural Gas into Storage (Annual Supply &...

358

Completion report: Raft River Geothermal Injection Well Six (RRGI-6)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Raft River Geothermal Injection Well Six (RRGI-6) is an intermediate-depth injection well designed to accept injection water in the 600 to 1000 m (2000 to 3500 ft) depth range. It has one barefoot leg, and it was drilled so that additional legs can be added later; if there are problems with intermediate-depth injection, one or more additional legs could be directionally drilled from the current well bore. Included are the reports of daily drilling records of drill bits, casings, and loggings, and descriptions of cementing, coring, and containment.

Miller, L.G.; Prestwich, S.M.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

BURNING RATES IN INCINERATORS A SIMPLE RELATION BETWEEN TOTAL, VOLUMETRIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the incinerator. It is even possible that they could be used for attemperating so that a higher combustion intensity could be maintained but with attemperation of the gas temperature by the moisture so that any risk air and better · · mlxmg. #12;However, other than use of attemperation, it is now clear

Columbia University

360

Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF{sub 6} by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF{sub 6}, indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour.

Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Community Relations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Students at EnergySmart Schools and people at Rebuilding Together events Community Relations EETD and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's community relations mission and...

362

Definition: Dynamic Capability Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Capability Rating Capability Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Dynamic Capability Rating Dynamic capability rating can be achieved through real-time determination of an element's (e.g., line, transformer etc.) ability to carry load based on electrical and environmental conditions.[1] Related Terms rating References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Dynamic_Capability_Rating&oldid=506158" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load)

363

Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 µL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2 % w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95 % confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5 % (2 % typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. 1.

Gustavo Pignalosa; Moisés Knochen; Noel Cabrera

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

365

Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.

1982-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

366

Determination of elemental constituents in different matrix materials and flow injection studies by the electrolyte cathode glow discharge technique with a new design  

SciTech Connect

An open-to-air type electrolyte cathode discharge (ELCAD) has been developed with a new design. The present configuration leads to a stable plasma even at low flow rates (0.96 mL/min). Plasma fluctuations arising from the variations in the gap between solid anode and liquid cathode were eliminated by providing a V-groove to the liquid glass-capillary. Cathode (ground) connection is given to the solution at the V-groove itself. Interfaced to atomic emission spectrometry (AES), its analytical performance is evaluated. The optimized molarity of the solution is 0.2 M. The analytical response curves for Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn demonstrated good linearity. The limit of detections of Ca, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, Fe, and Zn are determined to be 17, 11, 5, 45, 15, 28, and 3 ng mL{sup -1}. At an integration time of 0.3 s, the relative standard deviation (RSD) values of the acid blank solutions are found to be less than 10% for the elements Ca, Cu, Cd, Hg, Fe, and Zn and 18% for Pb. The method is applied for the determination of the elemental constituents in different matrix materials such as tuna fish (IAEA-350), oyster tissue (NIST SRM 1566a), and coal fly ash (CFA SRM 1633b). The obtained results are in good agreement with the certified values. The accuracy is found to be between 7% and 0.6% for major to trace levels of constituent elements and the precision between 11% and 0.6%. For the injection of 100 {mu} L of 200 ng mL{sup -1} mercury solution at the flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, the flow injection studies resulted in the relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8%, concentration detection limit of 10 ng/mL, and mass detection limit of 1 ng for mercury.

Shekhar, R.; Karunasagar, D.; Ranjit, M.; Arunachalam, J. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Hyderabad (India)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Generating enough heat to convert water into steam is a major expense for projects that inject steam into reservoirs to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. If the… (more)

Nesse, Thomas

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method of controlling fusion reaction rates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Analytical modeling of a fracture-injection/falloff sequence and the development of a refracture-candidate diagnostic test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fracture-injection/falloff sequences are routinely used as pre-frac well tests to estimate reservoir pressure and transmissibility, but the current interpretation methods are limited to analyzing specific and very small portions of the pressure falloff data. To remove the current limitations, new analytical fractureinjection/ falloff models are developed that account for fracture propagation, fracture closure, and after fracture closure diffusion. A fracture-injection/falloff differs from a conventional injection/falloff sequence in that pressure during the injection is sufficient to initiate and propagate a hydraulic fracture. By considering fracture propagation as time-dependent storage, three new models are presented for a fractureinjection/ falloff sequence in a well in an infinite slab reservoir with a single vertical fracture created during the injection and with variable fracture and wellbore storage as follows: Â? Equivalent propagating-fracture and before-fracture-closure storage with constant after-fractureclosure storage. Â? Time-dependent propagating-fracture storage, constant before-closure storage, and constant afterclosure storage. Â? Time-dependent propagating-fracture storage, constant before-closure storage with linear flow from the fracture, and constant wellbore storage and skin with after-closure radial flow. When a fracture-injection can be considered as occurring instantaneously, limiting-case solutions of the new fracture-injection/falloff models suggest the observed pressure difference can be integrated to generate an equivalent pressure difference if the rate were constant. Consequently, a fractureinjection/ falloff sequence can be analyzed with constant-rate, variable-storage type curves. The new fracture-injection/falloff theory is also extended to allow for a fracture-injection in a reservoir containing an existing conductive hydraulic fracture. The new multiple-fracture fracture-injection/falloff model forms the basis of a new refracture-candidate diagnostic test that uses characteristic variable-storage behavior to qualitatively diagnose a pre-existing fracture retaining residual width and to determine if a preexisting fracture is damaged. A quantitative analysis methodology is also proposed that uses a new pressure-transient solution for a well in an infinite-slab reservoir producing through multiple arbitrarilyoriented finite- or infinite-conductivity fractures.

Craig, David Paul

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

OpenEI - rates  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Electric Utility U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by Zipcode (Feb 2011) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/899 This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011.

371

<RatesMiscInfo>  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Power Supply Report June 2013 (53kb pdf) May 2013 (53kb pdf) April 2013 (52kb pdf) March 2013 (54kb pdf) February 2013 (54kb pdf) January 2013 (54kb...

372

Heat Rate Program Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power plant facilities with performance or heat rate improvement programs perform better than those that do not have those programs. A heat rate improvement program typically provides sufficient information for decision making with respect to timely maintenance actions and/or operational adjustments. Monitoring the performance of any power plant component includes the trending of parameters that also describe the performance of other plant components, providing insight and information on improving ...

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Adaptable Inverter for Injection of Fuel Cell and Photovoltaic Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

important to apply renewable energies and efficient technologies. For power injection of photovoltaic with different energy sources such as photovoltaic, fuel cell and battery. It is possible to adjust active inverter. These inverters for injection of photovoltaic energy are developed only for this purpose

Kulig, Stefan

374

An immiscible WAG injection project in the Kuparuk River Unit  

SciTech Connect

Immiscible water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection has been successfully used in the Kuparuk River Unit as a means of controlling excess gas production. Additionally, simulation results have indicated that WAG injection can increase economic oil recovery by improving waterflood conformance. WAG recovery mechanisms, simulation results, field performance, and field surveillance are discussed.

Champion, J.H.; Sheldon, J.B.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

PROGRESS WITH NSLS-II INJECTION STRAIGHT SECTION DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

The NSLS-II injection straight section (SR) consists of pulsed and DC bumps, septa system, beam trajectory correction and diagnostics systems. In this paper we discuss overall injection straight layout, preliminary element designs, specifications for the pulsed and DC magnets and their power supplies, vacuum devices and chambers and diagnostics devices. Prior to selecting the current 'conventional' design of the injection straight section we analyzed an option of injection via pulsed multipole pioneered at PF-AR. We found that this promising approach was not suited to the NSLS-II storage ring optics, since it would require a impractically compact arrangement of the injection straight section components and a complex modification of the transport line optics due to the strong focusing of the injected beam passing off the pulsed multipole axis. In addition, the requirement for a small injection transient of the stored beam orbit severely constrains the vertical alignment tolerance of the pulsed multipole. The design of the NSLS-II injection straight section is now completed with exception of transition chamber details, which will be adjusted to accommodate the actual layouts of the pulsed magnets.

Shaftan, T.; Blednykh, A.; Casey, B.; Dalesio, B.; Faussete, R.; Ferreira, M.; Fliller, R.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Job, P.K.; Johnson, E.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Padrazo, D.; Parker, B.; Pinayev, I.; Sharma, S.; Singh, O.; Spataro, C.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

376

Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected electron clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected electron clouds A. A° snes,1 J, N. �stgaard, and M. Thomsen (2005), Medium energy pitch angle distribution during substorm injected to obtain pitch angle resolved electron distribution data for measurements at energies 10 eV to 47 keV. [3

Bergen, Universitetet i

377

Definition: Emergency Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Emergency Rating Emergency Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Emergency Rating The rating as defined by the equipment owner that specifies the level of electrical loading or output, usually expressed in megawatts (MW) or Mvar or other appropriate units, that a system, facility, or element can support, produce, or withstand for a finite period. The rating assumes acceptable loss of equipment life or other physical or safety limitations for the equipment involved.[1] Related Terms rating References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. inline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Emergency_Rating&oldid=480317" Categories:

378

Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production  

SciTech Connect

Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

379

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Name: Shakti Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Summer 2010 Question: What is the best way to find a cat's heart rate using a stethoscope? Because I have tried to hear their heart beat but their purring is all I can hear. If I shouldn't use a stethoscope, then what should I use? Replies: Hi Shakti! If you want to use a stethoscope, the trick is to get your cat to stop purring. Two good ways that I have found to help stop the purring 1. Cover their nose (generally cats don't like this and will stop purring) or 2. Put on the tap to drip or lightly stream water (also, they generally don't like this and will stop purring). Alternatively, you can get their heart rate from feeling their pulse. A good place to try to feel a pulse is right where the leg attaches to the abdomen - in an area called the inguinal region. Now granted there are some heart conditions that will cause an animals pulse and their heart rates don't match up, and it's hard to feel if you have a fat cat, but it's a good place to try if you are really trying to get a heart rate in a healthy kitty!

380

CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced gas production and carbon sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Analyses suggest that carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be injected into depleted gas reservoirs to enhance methane (CH{sub 4}) recovery for periods on the order of 10 years, while simultaneously sequestering large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations applicable to the Rio Vista Gas Field in California show that mixing between CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} is slow relative to repressurization, and that vertical density stratification favors enhanced gas recovery.

Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Development of Innovative Combustion Processes for a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In support of the Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) emissions and fuel economy goals, a small-bore, high-speed, direct-injection (HSDI) diesel facility in which to conduct research into the physics of the combustion process relevant to these engines has been developed. The characteristics of this facility are described, and the motivation for selecting these characteristics and their relation to high efficiency, low-emission HSDI engine technology is discussed.

John Dec; Paul Miles

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

U-174: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability 4: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability U-174: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability May 22, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Serendipity Unspecified SQL Injection Vulnerability PLATFORM: 1.6.1 and prior versions ABSTRACT: A vulnerability was reported in Serendipity. A remote user can inject SQL commands. Reference Links: SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1027079 Secunia Advisory SA49234 CVE-2012-2762 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: The 'include/functions_trackbacks.inc.php' script does not properly validate user-supplied input. A remote user can supply a specially crafted parameter value to execute SQL commands on the underlying database. Impact: A remote user can execute SQL commands on the underlying database. Solution: The vendor has issued a fix (1.6.2).

383

V-170: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection 0: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection Vulnerability V-170: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection Vulnerability June 4, 2013 - 12:17am Addthis PROBLEM: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection Vulnerability PLATFORM: Apache Subversion 1.x ABSTRACT: A vulnerability has been reported in Apache Subversion. REFERENCE LINKS: Apache Original Advisory Secunia Advisory SA53727 CVE-2013-2088 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium DISCUSSION: The vulnerability is caused due to an input validation error in the svn-keyword-check.pl hook script while processing filenames and can be exploited to inject and execute arbitrary shell commands via a specially crafted request. Successful exploitation requires that contrib scripts are used on the

384

U-251: Bugzilla LDAP Injection and Information Disclosure Vulnerabilities |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: Bugzilla LDAP Injection and Information Disclosure 1: Bugzilla LDAP Injection and Information Disclosure Vulnerabilities U-251: Bugzilla LDAP Injection and Information Disclosure Vulnerabilities September 5, 2012 - 6:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Bugzilla LDAP Injection and Information Disclosure Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Bugzilla 2.x Bugzilla 3.x Bugzilla 4.x ABSTRACT: Bugzilla is prone to an LDAP-injection vulnerability and an information-disclosure vulnerability reference LINKS: Bugzilla Homepage Bugzilla Security Advisory Bugtraq ID: 55349 Secunia Advisory SA50433 CVE-2012-3981 CVE-2012-4747 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: A vulnerability and a security issue have been reported, which can be exploited by malicious people to disclose potentially sensitive information and manipulate certain data. 1) Input passed via the username is not properly escaped before being used

385

Underground Injection Control (West Virginia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Injection Control (West Virginia) Injection Control (West Virginia) Underground Injection Control (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Protection This rule set forth criteria and standards for the requirements which apply to the State Underground Injection Control Program (U.I.C.). The UIC permit program regulates underground injections by 5 classes of wells. All owners

386

Effects of carbon dioxide injection on the displacement of methane and carbonate dissolution in sandstone cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous coreflood experiments show that CO2 sequestration in carbonate rocks is a win-win technology. Injecting CO2 into a depleted gas reservoir for storage also produces hitherto unrecoverable gas. This in turn helps to defray the cost of CO2 sequestration. This thesis reports the results from experiments conducted on a Berea sandstone core. The experiments include displacement experiments and unconfined compressive strength tests. The displacement experiments were conducted at cell pressures of 1500 psig and temperature of 60oC using a 1 foot long and 1 inch diameter Berea sandstone core. Pure CO2 and treated flue gas (99.433 % mole CO2) were injected into the Berea sandstone core initially saturated with methane at a pressure of 1500 psig and 800 psig respectively. Results from these experiments show that the dispersion coefficient for both pure CO2 and treated flue gas are relatively small ranging from 0.18-0.225 cm2/min and 0.28-0.30 cm2/min respectively. The recovery factor of methane at break-through is relatively high ranging from 71%-80% of original gas in place for pure CO2 and 90% to 92% OGIP for treated flue gas, the difference resulting from different cell pressures used. Therefore it would appear that, in practice injection of treated flue gas is a cheaper option compared to pure CO2 injection. For the unconfined compressive strength tests, corefloods were first conducted at high flowrates ranging from 5 ml/min to 20 ml/ min, pressures of 1700-1900 Psig and a temperature of 65oC. These conditions simulate injecting CO2 originating from an electric power generation plant into a depleted gas reservoir and model the near well bore situation. Results from these experiments show a 1% increase in porosity and changes in injectivity due to permeability impairment. The cores are then subjected to an unconfined compressive strength test. Results from these tests do not show any form of weakening of the rock due to CO2 injection.

Maduakor, Ekene Obioma

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

A comparison of ethanol and butanol as oxygenates using a direct-injection, spark-ignition (DISI) engine.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was designed to evaluate a 'what if' scenario in terms of using butanol as an oxygenate in place of ethanol in an engine calibrated for gasoline operation. No changes to the stock engine calibration were performed for this study. Combustion analysis, efficiency, and emissions of pure gasoline, 10% ethanol, and 10% butanol blends in a modern direct-injection four-cylinder spark-ignition engine were analyzed. Data were taken at engine speeds of 1000 rpm up to 4000 rpm with load varying from 0 N m (idle) to 150 N m. Relatively minor differences existed between the three fuels for the combustion characteristics such as heat release rate, 50% mass fraction burned, and coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure at low and medium engine loads. However at high engine loads the reduced knock resistance of the butanol blend forced the engine control unit to retard the ignition timing substantially, compared with the gasoline baseline and, even more pronounced, compared with the ethanol blend. Brake specific volumetric fuel consumption, which represented a normalized volumetric fuel flow rate, was lowest for the gasoline baseline fuel due to the higher energy density. The 10% butanol blend had a lower volumetric fuel consumption compared with the ethanol blend, as expected, based on energy density differences. The results showed little difference in regulated emissions between 10% ethanol and 10% butanol. The ethanol blend produced the highest peak specific NO{sub x} due to the high octane rating of ethanol and effective antiknock characteristics. Overall, the ability of butanol to perform equally as well as ethanol from an emissions and combustion standpoint, with a decrease in fuel consumption, initially appears promising. Further experiments are planned to explore the full operating range of the engine and the potential benefits of higher blend ratios of butanol.

Wallner, T.; Miers, S. A.; McConnell, S. (Energy Systems)

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy breeder material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The temperature and pressure response, fraction of water reacted, quantity of hydrogen produced, and behavior of radioactive species associated with the use of this alloy as a breeder material were determined. The reaction products were identified and the aerosol was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and deposition rate. The water injection was shown to be self limiting for a blanket module designed to withstand the pressure of the water coolant. Radioactive doses associated with the aerosol release from a high-temperature alloy breeder module were determined to be several orders of magnitude below the dose limit for acute health effects. The results were compared to previous experiments and recommendations were made. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

Jeppson, D.W. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Savatteri, C. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on investigating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection rates in homogeneous and fractured cores on oil recovery and a strategy to mitigate CO{sub 2} bypassing in a fractured core.

David S. Schechter

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

391

Impact of Feed Injection Strategies on Fluidization Dynamics for Biomass Thermochemical Conversion  

SciTech Connect

To better understand some of the key parameters that control biomass conversion processes in dense granular beds, an efficient computational framework for large-scale simulations of dense, reactive particulate flows using a Lagrange-Euler approach has been developed. This framework is applied here to the investigation of feed injection in a hot fluidized bed reactor, and how it may impact the biomass conversion dynamics. A simple, pseudo-two dimensional configuration is adopted to facilitate the parametric study. Chemical processes are modeled using global kinetics that accurately reproduce particle mass loss and gas release. A posteriori analysis of particle heating rate, mixing and segregation, along with products distribution and residence time inside the reactor is performed for different injection strategies, and compared to non-reactive cases. Results highlight some non-trivial coupling between chemistry and flow dynamics.

Malhotra, K. N.; Pepiot, P.; Capecelatro, J. S.; Desjardins, O.; Grout, R.; Nimlos, M. R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Generalization of Child-Langmuir Law for Non-Zero Injection Velocities in a Planar Diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Child-Langmuir law relates the voltage applied across a planar diode to the saturation value J_CL of current density that can be transmitted through it in case the injection velocity of electrons into the diode is zero. The Child-Langmuir current density J_CL is, at the same time, (i) the maximum current density that can be transmitted through a planar diode, (ii) the current density below which the flow is steady and unidirectional in the long time limit and (iii) the average transmitted current density for {\\em any} value of injected current density above J_CL. Existing generalizations of Child-Langmuir law to non-zero velocities of injection are based on the characteristics (i) and (ii) of J_CL. This paper generalizes the law to non-zero velocities of injection based on the characteristic (iii) by deriving an analytical expression for the saturation value of current density. The analytical expression for the saturation current density is found to be well supported by numerical computations. A reason behind preferring the saturation property of the Child-Langmuir current density as the basis for its generalization is the importance of that property in numerical simulations of high current diode devices.

R. R. Puri; Debabrata Biswas; Raghwendra Kumar

2004-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

393

Tunnel-injection GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a GaN quantum dot ultraviolet light-emitting diode that uses tunnel injection of carriers through AlN barriers into the active region. The quantum dot heterostructure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN templates. The large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN favors the formation of GaN quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode. Carrier injection by tunneling can mitigate losses incurred in hot-carrier injection in light emitting heterostructures. To achieve tunnel injection, relatively low composition AlGaN is used for n- and p-type layers to simultaneously take advantage of effective band alignment and efficient doping. The small height of the quantum dots results in short-wavelength emission and are simultaneously an effective tool to fight the reduction of oscillator strength from quantum-confined Stark effect due to polarization fields. The strong quantum confinement results in room-temperature electroluminescence peaks at 261 and 340 nm, well above the 365 nm bandgap of bulk GaN. The demonstration opens the doorway to exploit many varied features of quantum dot physics to realize high-efficiency short-wavelength light sources.

Verma, Jai; Kandaswamy, Prem Kumar; Protasenko, Vladimir; Verma, Amit; Grace Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Mythology of rate design  

SciTech Connect

If power rates are determined by marginal costs with clear signals to the consumer, then the load curve will regulate itself without burdening the public with ethical and patriotic issues. Manipulation of the load factor will only cause hardship and inconvenience, but a choice of rates will allow consumers to determine their own balance between rates and convenience. It makes sense to charge consumers the true cost rather than having the same rate apply during a 24-hour period when costs are not uniform. Discussions of how to determine equitable rate structures flounder because we cannot define equity. Economists, who base their recommendations on the assumption that income distribution is reasonable, believe marginal-cost pricing allows the customer to save whatever the utility is saving. Such a system is economically efficient in that the utility charges 100 percent-load-factor consumers according to a base load plant, while charging peak and offpeak consumers what it costs to add them to the system. Adjustment of prices to cause a minimal distortion of the market is the economists' general rule for handling the balancing of cost increases and regulated profits. (DCK)

Streiter, S.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Definition: Equipment Rating | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rating Rating Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Equipment Rating The maximum and minimum voltage, current, frequency, real and reactive power flows on individual equipment under steady state, short-circuit and transient conditions, as permitted or assigned by the equipment owner.[1] Also Known As Standard current ratings Related Terms reactive power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Equipment_Rating&oldid=502535" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

396

Liability aspects of home energy-rating systems  

SciTech Connect

Liability aspects of home energy rating systems are discussed. An introduction to the rating system concept, including types of rating systems, implementation efforts to date, and possible groups to conduct ratings, is also included. The home energy rating system concept involves the periodic rating of the energy efficiency of residential buildings. The rating can provide a relative indication of a home's energy efficiency and also a quantitative estimate of consumption, fuel cost, or both. Primary attention is given to liability issues associated with developing and performing ratings. Secondary attention is given to possible liability associated with misuse of a rating once it has been performed.

Hendrickson, P.L.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Trade, Interdependence and Exchange Rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

period is 1971-2000. All inflation rates and predictions areof Goods and Real Exchange Rate Fluc- tuations,” mimeo [5]Between Trade and Exchange Rate Volatility,” mimeo [6

Fitzgerald, Doireann

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Exchange Rates, Information, and Crises  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Intervention and Exchange Rate Misalignment 4 Conclusion 5explain the exchange rate determination puzzle? Americanrisk to defend the exchange rate. Universit¨at Trier Working

Fernholz, Ricardo Turrin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Duct injection for SO{sub 2} control, Design Handbook, Volume 1, Process design and engineering guidelines  

SciTech Connect

PETC developed a comprehensive program of coal-related, acid-rain research and development with a major activity area centering on flue gas cleanup and control of SO{sub 2} emissions. Particular emphasis was placed on the retrofit measures for older coal-fired power plants which predate the 1971 New Source Performance Standards. Candidate emission control technologies fall into three categories, depending upon their point of application along the fuel path (i.e., pre, during, or post combustion). The post-combustion, in-duct injection of a calcium-based chemical reagent seemed promising. Preliminary studies showed that reagent injection between the existing air heater and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) could remove between 50-60% of the SO{sub 2} and produce an environmentally safe, dry, solid waste that is easily disposed. Although SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies were less, the estimated capital costs for duct injection technology were low making the economics of duct injection systems seem favorable when compared to conventional wet slurry scrubbers under certain circumstances. With the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 came more incentive for the development of low capital cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. A number of technical problems had to be resolved, however, before duct injection technology could be brought to a state of commercial readiness. The Duct Injection Technology Development Program was launched as a comprehensive, four-year research effort undertaken by PETC to develop this new technology. Completed in 1992, this Duct Injection Design Handbook and the three-dimensional predictive mathematical model constitute two primary end products from this development program. The aim of this design handbook and the accompanying math model is to provide utility personnel with sufficient information to evaluate duct injection technology against competing SO{sub 2} emissions reduction strategies for an existing plant.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

BCP Annual Rate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 BCP Annual Rate Process 2013 BCP Annual Rate Process Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 6, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4 Informal Customer Meeting Presentation (Pdf) PRS Executive Summary (Mar 07, 2013) (Pdf) FY2014 Final Ten Year Operating Plan PRS Executive Summary (PDF) FORM for Foreign Visits (doc) Formal Process Initial Federal Register Notice (pdf) Public Information Forum March 27,2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 Customer Meeting Presentation PIF Presentation (PPT) Presentation Details (pdf) Reclamation Fund Status Report PIF PRS Executive Summary (pdf) PIF Transcripts (PDF) Visitor Center Cost Analysis Questions - Responses Public Comment Forum April 10, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 PCF Transcripts Customer Letters

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Multiple System Rate Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savings Under Various MSTR (XLS) Public Information Forum March 29, 2005 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point) Customer Meeting Overview (PDF) Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Public Comment Forum April 6, 2005 Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Response Letter 5-17-05 (PDF) Customer Letters Tonopah ID-5/25/05 (PDF) APS-5/26/05 (PDF) SRP-5/27/05 (PDF) RSLynch-6/1/05 (PDF) KRSaline-6/1/05 (PDF) Formal Process Federal Register Notice (Word) Federal Register Notice (PDF) Brochure (Word) Appendices to Brochure: A B C D E1 E2 F1 F2 GH Public Information Forum July 14, 2004 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point)

402

Electron bunch injection at an angle into a laser wakefield  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

External injection of electron bunches longer than the plasma wavelength in a laser wakefield accelerator can lead to the generation of femtosecond ultrarelativistic bunches with a couple of percent energy spread. Extensive study has been done on external electron bunch (e.g. one generated by a photo-cathode rf linac) injection in a laser wakefield for different configurations. In this paper we investigate a new way of external injection where the electron bunch is injected at a small angle into the wakefield. This way one can avoid the ponderomotive scattering as well as the vacuum-plasma transition region, which tend to destroy the injected bunch. In our simulations, the effect of the laser pulse dynamics is also taken into account. It is shown that injection at an angle can provide compressed and accelerated electron bunches with less than 2% energy spread. Another advantage of this scheme is that it has less stringent requirements in terms of the size of the injected bunch and there is the potential to tr...

Luttikhof, M J H; Van Goor, F A; Boller, K -J

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

LAP Transmission Rate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LAP Transmission Rate 4.50 4.00 3.82 3.50 3.00 of 2.50 c 0 2.I2 2.68 I 3: 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012...

404

Upper Great Plains Rates information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Rates and Repayment Services Rates 2010 Firm Power Rate (effective January 1, 2010) Rate Adjustments 2010 Firm Power Rate Adjustment 2009 Firm Power Rate Adjustment IS Rate Adjustments Rate Adjustment Process Rate Orders Signed, December 23, 2009 (16kb pdf) Announcements Firm Electric Service Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component, June 27, 2013 (74kb pdf) Customer Letter - Final Notice of Drought Adder Component, October 2, 2013 (68kb pdf) Integrated System (IS) Rates 2014 IS Rates Customer Information Meeting Presentation, October 15, 2013 (611kb pdf) Customer Letter - Notification of 2014 Rates, September 13, 2013 (160kb pdf) 2014 Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Calculation and 2012 Rate True-up Calculation (4.9mb pdf) 2013 IS Rates

405

Compendium of Regulatory Requirements Governing Underground Injection of Drilling Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies.

Puder, Markus G.; Bryson, Bill; Veil, John A.

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

406

Steam-injected gas turbines uneconomical with coal gasification equipment  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the Electric Power Research Institute conducted a series of engineering and economic studies to assess the possibility of substituting steam-injected gas (STIG) turbines for the gas turbines currently proposed for use in British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi coal gasification-combined cycle plants. The study sought to determine whether steam-injected gas turbines and intercooled steam-injected gas turbines, as proposed by General Electric would be economically competitive with conventional gas and steam turbines when integrated with coal gasification equipment. The results are tabulated in the paper.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus  

SciTech Connect

A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Alkaline injection for enhanced oil recovery: a status report  

SciTech Connect

In the past several years, there has been renewed interest in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by alkaline injection. Alkaline solutions also are being used as preflushes in micellar/polymer projects. Several major field tests of alkaline flooding are planned, are in progress, or recently have been completed. Considerable basic research on alkaline injection has been published recently, and more is in progress. This paper summarizes known field tests and, where available, the amount of alkali injected and the performance results. Recent laboratory work, much sponsored by the U.S. DOE, and the findings are described. Alkaline flood field test plans for new projects are summarized.

Mayer, E.H.; Berg, R.L.; Carmichael, J.D.; Weinbrandt, R.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Natural Gas Conveyance and Rates  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Natural gas transportation market; Competition vs. market power; Rate structures Cost-of-service Performance based rates

Information Center

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

CarbFix CO2 Injection Pilot Project, J. M. Matter, M. Stute & W. Broecker  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fix Injection Site #12;A Conceptual Carbonation Model Injec8on well: CO2 fully dissolvedCarbFix CO2 Injection Pilot Project, Iceland J. M. Matter, M. Stute & W. Broecker Lamont Pétursson #12;CarbFix Injection Site #12;CarbFix CO2 Injection Site #12;CarbFix Injection Site 2

411

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

412

Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oiland future geothermal, carbon sequestration, and certainacross geothermal, carbon sequestration, and oil and gas

Majer, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related to CO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that could induce hydraulic fracturing or (2) the criticalpressure for onset of hydraulic fracturing of shear slip,

Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cases outside of EGS, CCS and Oil and Gas. a. Mining. NeededCan geothermal, CCS, oil and gas reasonably be expected tosequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a

Majer, E.L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Modeling Hydrogeological and Geomenchanical Processes Related to CO2 Injection in a Faulted Multilayer System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consists of highly fractured shale across the first caprockInitially, the fractured shale zones are considered sealedlayers with caprocks of shale as well as highly fractured

Rutqvist, Jonny; Birkholzer, Jens; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 5,300 5,600 5,900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: 2.5% Aug '12 to Aug '13: -1.3% YTD '12 to YTD '13: 1.5% 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Residual Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: -0.8%

417

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

418

Interpretation of self-potential measurements during injection tests at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

self-potential measurements during injection tests at self-potential measurements during injection tests at Raft River, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Interpretation of self-potential measurements during injection tests at Raft River, Idaho. Final report Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Self-potential measurements before and during injection tests at Raft River KGRA, Idaho indicate a small negative change. The magnitude of the change (5 to 10 mV) is near the noise level (5 mV) but they extend over a fairly broad area. The presence of a cathodic protection system clouds the issue of the validity of the changes, however the form of the observed changes cannot be explained by any simple change in the current strength of the protection system. Furthermore, similar changes are observed for two

419

Underground Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia) Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia) Underground Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Retail Supplier Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Program Info State West Virginia Program Type Fees Provider Department of Environmental Protection This rule establishes schedules of permit fees for state under-ground injection control permits issued by the Chief of the Office of Water Resources. This rule applies to any person who is required to apply for and

420

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says CO2 Injection in Kansas Oilfield Could Greatly Increase Production, Permanently Store Carbon Dioxide, DOE Study Says August 31, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The feasibility of using carbon dioxide (CO2) injection for recovering between 250 million and 500 million additional barrels of oil from Kansas oilfields has been established in a study funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The University of Kansas Center for Research studied the possibility of near-miscible CO2 flooding for extending the life of mature oilfields in the Arbuckle Formation while simultaneously providing permanent geologic storage of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "injection rates relative" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

one mile underground into a deep saline formation. The injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mile underground into a deep saline formation. The injection, mile underground into a deep saline formation. The injection, which will occur over a three-year period and is slated to start in early 2010, will compress up to 1 million metric tonnes of CO 2 from the ADM ethanol facility into a liquid-like, dense phase. The targeted rock formation, the Mt. Simon Sandstone, is the thickest and most widespread saline reservoir in the Illinois Basin, with an estimated CO 2 storage capacity of 27 to 109 billion metric tonnes. A comprehensive monitoring program, which will be evaluated yearly, will be implemented after the injection to ensure the injected CO 2 is stored safely and permanently. The RCSP Program was launched by the Office of Fossil Energy (FE)

422

Development of an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley, an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley, Nevada geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Development of an injection augmentation program at the Dixie Valley, Nevada geothermal field Abstract Evaporative cooling at geothermal power plants generally reduces reservoir pressures even if all available geothermal liquids are reinjected. Controlled programs of injecting non geothermal waters directly into reservoirs have been tested or implemented at only four fields, three of them being vapor dominated. At the liquid-dominated Dixie Valley geothermal field an unsuccessful search for a large volume source of warm,chemically desirable fluid for augmentation was conducted.After determining water

423

Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Underground Injection Control Program Rules and Regulations (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this regulation is to preserve the quality of the groundwater of the State and thereby protect groundwater contamination from contamination by discharge from injection wells and...

425

The reduction of supersonic jet noise using pulsed microjet injection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis is concerned with the active control of supersonic jet noise using pulsed microjet injection at the nozzle exit. Experimental investigations were carried out using this control method on an ideally expanded ...

Ragaller, Paul Aaron

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The design, manufacturing and use of economically friendly injection molds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Much of the polymer manufacturing done today involves the process of injection molding. It can be difficult to gain experience in the art of designing and building tooling for this process outside of industry. The goal of ...

Buchok, Aaron (Aaron J.)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Non-uniform emission studies of a magnetron injection gun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis investigates the experimental measurement and theoretical simulation of the effects of azimuthal emission non-uniformity of a 96 kV, 40 amp magnetron injection gun (MIG) used in a gyrotron. The accomplishments ...

Marchewka, Chad D. (Chad Daniel)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery using polymer injection technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper reports the improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery process using polymer injection technology. Field test and economic analysis are also included in the paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Burchett, R.T.; McGough, K.M.; Luttrell, G.H.

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Victor J. Daniel Jr. CO2 Injection Test Site Plan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mississippi Test Site JAF02664.PPT 1 1.1 SITE BACKGROUND 1.2 GENERAL IDENTIFICATION DATA 1.3 REGULATORY CLASSIFICATION 1.4 WELL DATA - INJECTION WELL NO. 1 1.5 WELL DATA -...

430

Collagen scaffolds and injectable biopolymer gels for cardiac tissue engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds have begun to shown promise for cell delivery for cardiac tissue engineering. Although various polymers and material forms have been explored, there is a need for: injectable gels ...

Ng, Karen Kailin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

NETL: News Release - Illinois CO2 Injection Project Moves Another...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5, 2010 Illinois CO2 Injection Project Moves Another Step Forward Baseline Data Important for CCS Project's Planned 2011 Startup Washington, D.C. - The recent completion of a...

432

Evaluation of bisphenol E cyanate ester for the resin-injection repair of advanced composites  

SciTech Connect

This thesis is a compilation of a general introduction and literature review that ties together the subsequent chapters which consist of two journal articles that have yet to be submitted for publication. The overall topic relates to the evaluation and application of a new class of cyanate ester resin with unique properties that lend it applicable to use as a resin for injection repair of high glass transition temperature polymer matrix composites. The first article (Chapter 2) details the evaluation and optimization of adhesive properties of this cyanate ester and alumina nanocomposites under different conditions. The second article (Chapter 3) describes the development and evaluation of an injection repair system for repairing delaminations in polymer matrix composites.

Wilber Yaote Lio

2009-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

433

Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjusted Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -7.4% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -0.1% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -0.1% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -16.8% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -3.2% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -3.2% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -9.3% Jan '99 to Jan '00: +3.5% YTD '99 to YTD '00: +3.5% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

434

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +1.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -1.9% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -0.1% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -1.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.7% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: +22.3% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +21.1%

435

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.4% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.1% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.6% YTD '98 to YTD '99: 0.0% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: +7.3% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +8.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +8.3%

436

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +5.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.5% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: -0.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +1.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +2.5% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +6.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.8% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +9.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +2.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.2%

437

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: +2.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.4% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -0.2% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.9% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.0% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -1.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.4% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -2.1% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -6.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.6%

438

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

June '99 to July '99: -5.4% June '99 to July '99: -5.4% July '98 to July '99: +3.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.3% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: -0.5% July '98 to July '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +0.5% July '98 to July '99: +1.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.3% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +1.5% July '98 to July '99: +10.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +7.2%

439

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +8.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.0% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +6.0% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +4.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +2.4% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +3.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +32.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +2.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.5%

440

Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers  

SciTech Connect

An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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441

Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

Wang, Qingwu (Chelmsford, MA); Li, Wenguang (Andover, MA); Jiang, Hua (Methuen, MA)

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

442

Hydrothermal Injection Research Program. Annual progress report, FY 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September of 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests followed by a long-term injection test were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow of the well. The test program was successful, resulting in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December of 1982 an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/