Sample records for injection control uic

  1. Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations and Water Quality Certification (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wastewater Regulations for National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Permits, State Permits, Water Quality Based Effluent Limitations...

  2. Underground Injection Control (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule set forth criteria and standards for the requirements which apply to the State Underground Injection Control Program (U.I.C.). The UIC permit program regulates underground injections by...

  3. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application Fees (DEQ Form UIC 1003-GIC) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Oregon...

  4. Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Arkansas Underground Injection Control Code (UIC code) is adopted pursuant to the provisions of the Arkansas Water and Air Pollution Control Act (Arkansas Code Annotated 8-5-11). It is the...

  5. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection Systems Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Oregon Underground...

  6. UIC permitting process for class IID and Class III wells: Protection of drinking water in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillenbrand, C.J. [EPA, New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region II, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program regulates injection wells in the State of New York to protect drinking water; UIC regulations can be found under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Parts 124, 144, 146 and 147. Operators of solution mining injection wells (UIC Class IIIG) and produced fluid disposal wells (UIC Class IID) are required to obtain an UIC permit for authorization to inject. The permitting process requires submittal of drinking water, geologic and proposed operational data in order to assure that pressure build-up within the injection zone will not compromise confining layers and allow vertical migration of fluid into Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW). Additional data is required within an Area of Review (AOR), defined as an area determined by the intersection of the adjusted potentiometric surface produced by injection and a depth 50 feet below the base of the lowermost USDW, or a radius of 1/4 mile around the injection well, whichever is greater. Locations of all wells in the AOR must be identified, and completion reports and plugging reports must be submitted. Requirements are set for maximum injection pressure and flow rates, monitoring of brine properties of the injection well and monitoring of water supply wells in the AOR for possible contamination. Any noncompliance with permit requirements constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds for enforcement action, including possible revocation of permit. Presently four Class IID wells are authorized under permit in New York State. The Queenston sandstone, Medina sandstone, Salina B, Akron dolomite and Oriskany sandstone have been used for brine disposal; the lower Ordovician-Cambrian section is currently being considered as an injection zone. Over one hundred Class IIIG wells are authorized under permit in New York State and all have been utilized for solution mining of the Syracuse salt.

  7. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  8. Underground Injection Control (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Injection and Mining Division (IMD) has the responsibility of implementing two major federal environmental programs which were statutorily charged to the Office of Conservation: the Underground...

  9. WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact Sheet Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: WPCF Underground Injection...

  10. Recommended management practices for operation and closure of shallow injection wells at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Safe Drinking Water Act established the Underground Injection Control (UIC) program to ensure that underground injection of wastes does not endanger an underground source of drinking water. Under UIC regulations, an injection well is a hole in the ground, deeper than it is wide, that receives wastes or other fluid substances. Types of injection wells range from deep cased wells to shallow sumps, drywells, and drainfields. The report describes the five classes of UIC wells and summarizes relevant regulations for each class of wells and for the UIC program. The main focus of the report is Class IV and V shallow injection wells. Class IV wells are prohibited and should be closed when they are identified. Class V wells are generally authorized by rule, but EPA or a delegated state may require a permit for a Class V well. This report provides recommendations on sound operating and closure practices for shallow injection wells. In addition the report contains copies of several relevant EPA documents that provide additional information on well operation and closure. Another appendix contains information on the UIC programs in 21 states in which there are DOE facilities discharging to injection wells. The appendix includes the name of the responsible regulatory agency and contact person, a summary of differences between the state`s regulations and Federal regulations, and any closure guidelines for Class IV and V wells.

  11. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal Heating Systems (DEQ Form UICGEO-1004(f)) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form:...

  12. Underground Injection Control Regulations (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article prohibits injection of hazardous or radioactive wastes into or above an underground source of drinking water, establishes permit conditions and states regulations for design,...

  13. Underground Injection Control Rule (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule regulates injection wells, including wells used by generators of hazardous or radioactive wastes, disposal wells within an underground source of drinking water, recovery of geothermal...

  14. Underground Injection Control Fee Schedule (West Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule establishes schedules of permit fees for state under?ground injection control permits issued by the Chief of the Office of Water Resources. This rule applies to any person who is...

  15. Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection Strategy New control strategies are...

  16. Passive injection control for microfluidic systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for eliminating siphoning, "dead" regions, and fluid concentration gradients in microscale analytical devices. In its most basic embodiment, the present invention affords passive injection control for both electric field-driven and pressure-driven systems by providing additional fluid flow channels or auxiliary channels disposed on either side of a sample separation column. The auxiliary channels are sized such that volumetric fluid flow rate through these channels, while sufficient to move the sample away from the sample injection region in a timely fashion, is less than that through the sample separation channel or chromatograph.

  17. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Ronan, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings.

  18. Dynamic Feed Control For Injection Molding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kazmer, David O. (San Francisco, CA)

    1996-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides methods and apparatus in which mold material flows through a gate into a mold cavity that defines the shape of a desired part. An adjustable valve is provided that is operable to change dynamically the effective size of the gate to control the flow of mold material through the gate. The valve is adjustable while the mold material is flowing through the gate into the mold cavity. A sensor is provided for sensing a process condition while the part is being molded. During molding, the valve is adjusted based at least in part on information from the sensor. In the preferred embodiment, the adjustable valve is controlled by a digital computer, which includes circuitry for acquiring data from the sensor, processing circuitry for computing a desired position of the valve based on the data from the sensor and a control data file containing target process conditions, and control circuitry for generating signals to control a valve driver to adjust the position of the valve. More complex embodiments include a plurality of gates, sensors, and controllable valves. Each valve is individually controllable so that process conditions corresponding to each gate can be adjusted independently. This allows for great flexibility in the control of injection molding to produce complex, high-quality parts.

  19. Underground Injection Control Permits and Registrations (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapter 27 of the Texas Water Code (the Injection Well Act) defines an “injection well” as “an artificial excavation or opening in the ground made by digging, boring, drilling, jetting, driving, or...

  20. Continuous injection method controls downhole corrosion - 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradburn, J.B.; Todd, R.B.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In designing a continuous downhole corrosion inhibitor injection system, many interrelated factors must be considered: bottomhole pressure, inhibitor viscosity, injection rate, friction loss, hole geometry, cost, delivery time, annulus environment, elastomers, and corrosivity of well fluids. In view of the many variables associated with the design of a downhole injection system, the following design outline is presented. 8 refs.

  1. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program) webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's...

  2. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  3. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

  4. Colliding Laser Pulses for Laser-Plasma Accelerator Injection Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    Colliding Laser Pulses for Laser-Plasma Accelerator Injection Control G. R. Plateau, , C. G. R acceleration is a key challenge to achieve compact, reliable, tunable laser-plasma accelerators (LPA) [1, 2]. In colliding pulse injection the beat between multiple laser pulses can be used to control energy, energy

  5. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

  6. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  7. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  8. Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

  9. Apparatus for adjustably controlling valve movement and fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.R.; Shyu, T.P.; Weber, J.R.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is described for adjustably controlling valve movement and fuel injection of an engine having at least one fuel injection system, one exhaust valve system, one intake valve system, a microprocessor controller for receiving input signals and delivering engine controlling electrical signals, and a liquid pressure system, comprising: a single piezoelectric motor connectable to the microprocessor controller and the liquid pressure system and being adapted to receive engine controlling electrical signals from the microprocessor and controllably delivering pressurized liquid signals to the liquid pressure system in response to the received signal; and a spool valve having a single spool, the valve having a plurality of inlets and outlets and being connectable to the liquid pressure system for receiving pressurized liquid signals therefrom and controllably moving the single spool of the spool valve and delivering valve and injection controlling signals to the valve systems and injector system and controlling both valve movement and fuel injection responsive to engine controlling electrical signals received by the piezoelectric motor.

  10. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid will also be determined, as will the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NOX selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), First Energy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the second reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, the first of four short-term sorbent injection tests were conducted at the First Energy Bruce Mansfield Plant. This test determined the effectiveness of dolomite injection through out-of-service burners as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from this unit. The tests showed that dolomite injection could achieve up to 95% sulfuric acid removal. Balance of plant impacts on furnace slagging and fouling, air heater fouling, ash loss-on-ignition, and the flue gas desulfurization system were also determined. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  11. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  12. Review of the CRIP (Controlled Retracting Injection Point) process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been working in the field of underground coal gasification since 1976. We have had a balanced program of modeling, laboratory experiments and field experiments. We have developed several cavity growth and gas composition models. These are designed to be as simple and modular as possible because of the lack of detailed input information and the need to keep computing time low. Our laboratory program is designed to complement and support the modeling effort and the field program. We conducted three field tests at Hoe Creek, Wyoming; each one using a different linking method. We did a series of five small field tests at Centralia, Washington, to study burn cavity development as a function of injection parameters. These were followed a year later by a larger test of the Controlled Retracting Injection Point, or CRIP, process. This concept is used in the design of the Belgian-German test and in the coming Rocky Mountain-1 test. It utilizes injection through a horizontal drilled hole to hold the injection point on the bottom of the seam and a controlled destruction of the injection pipe to move the burn zone when the product gas quality deteriorates. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  13. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John C. (212 Lakeside Dr., Aiken, SC 29803)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  14. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  15. Underground Injection Control Permit Applications for FutureGen 2.0 Morgan County Class VI UIC Wells 1, 2, 3, and 4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgramUndergraduate OpportunitiesSecurityFG-RPT-017

  16. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. Balance of plant impacts, primarily on the ESP particulate control device, were also determined during both tests. These results are presented and discussed in this report.

  17. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the previous semi-annual technical progress report (April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001). During the current reporting period, additional balance of plant impact information was determined for one of the two tests. These additional balance-of-plant results are presented and discussed in this report. There was no other technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed.

  18. Phone (312) 996-8098 Fax (312) 996-4394 tutorium@uic.edu www.uic.edu/depts/tie Tutorium in Intensive English (MC 324)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Phone (312) 996-8098 Fax (312) 996-4394 tutorium@uic.edu www.uic.edu/depts/tie Tutorium to the map on the reverse side for directions to UIC. #12;Phone (312) 996-8098 Fax (312) 996-4394 tutorium

  19. Using GIS to Solve Problems, 9 a.m., 15 August 2014 William "Max" Dieber, Director; Nina Savar, GIS Coordinator maxdbr@uic.edu nsavar@uic.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    ; Nina Savar, GIS Coordinator maxdbr@uic.edu nsavar@uic.edu Urban Data Visualization Laboratory, UIC variables on the landscape. Today we will use GIS to screen an area for the viability of a recycling market the fuel energy impact on recycling this way. Your boss learned that he has 10 minutes to speak

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program is being sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPRI, FirstEnergy, and TVA to investigate furnace injection of alkaline sorbents as a means of reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in the flue gas from coal-fired boilers. This test program is being conducted at the FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP), although later testing will be conducted at a TVA plant. A sorbent injection test was conducted the week of April 18, 2000. The test was the first of several short-term (one- to two-week duration) tests to investigate the effectiveness of various alkaline sorbents for sulfuric acid control and the effects of these sorbents on boiler equipment performance. This first short-term test investigated the effect of injecting dry dolomite powder (CaCO{sub 3} {center_dot} MgCO{sub 3}), a mineral similar to limestone, into the furnace of Unit 2. During the test program, various analytical techniques were used to assess the effects of sorbent injection. These primarily included sampling with the controlled condensation system (CCS) for determining flue gas SO{sub 3} content and an acid dew-point (ADP) meter for determining the sulfuric acid dew point (and, indirectly, the concentration of sulfuric acid) of the flue gas. EPA Reference Method 26a was used for determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), as well and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and fluorine (F{sub 2}) concentrations in the flue gas. Fly ash resistivity was measured using a Southern Research Institute (SRI) point-to-plane resistivity probe, and unburned carbon in fly ash was determined by loss on ignition (LOI). Coal samples were also collected and analyzed for a variety of parameters. Finally, visual observations were made of boiler furnace and convective pass surfaces prior to and during sorbent injection.

  1. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the report for the time period April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. During the current period, process economic estimates were developed, comparing the costs of the furnace magnesium hydroxide slurry injection process tested as part of this project to a number of other candidate SO{sub 3}/sulfuric acid control technologies for coal-fired power plants. The results of this economic evaluation are included in this progress report.

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi-annual Technical Progress Report for the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. Additional balance of plant impact information for the two tests was reported in the Technical Progress Report for the time period October 1, 2001 through March 30, 2002. Additional information became available about the effects of byproduct magnesium hydroxide injection on SCR catalyst coupons during the long-term test at BMP, and those results were reported in the previous report (April 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002). During the current period, there was no technical progress to report, because all planned testing as part of this project has been completed. The project period of performance was extended to allow the conduct of testing of another SO{sub 3} control technology, the sodium bisulfite injection process. However, these additional tests have not yet been conducted.

  3. Apparatus and method for controlling the secondary injection of fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Scott M.; Cai, Weidong; Harris, Jr., Arthur J.

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustor (28) for a gas turbine engine is provided comprising a primary combustion chamber (30) for combusting a first fuel to form a combustion flow stream (50) and a transition piece (32) located downstream from the primary combustion chamber (30). The transition piece (32) comprises a plurality of injectors (66) located around a circumference of the transition piece (32) for injecting a second fuel into the combustion flow stream (50). The injectors (66) are effective to create a radial temperature profile (74) at an exit (58) of the transition piece (32) having a reduced coefficient of variation relative to a radial temperature profile (64) at an inlet (54) of the transition piece (32). Methods for controlling the temperature profile of a secondary injection are also provided.

  4. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  5. Controls of Magnetic Islands by Pellet Injection in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaing, K. C. [University of Wisconsin; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma pressure profile inside the island. This localized bootstrap current replenishes the missing equilibrium bootstrap current density that causes the island to grow in the first place. It is shown that the effect of the localized bootstrap current tends to reduce or eliminate the original drive for the growth of the island in the island evolution equation. The theory is also valid for the localized bootstrap current created by localized heating, but with much less effectiveness. A possibility of eliminating the island by controlling the equilibrium profiles is also discussed.

  6. Control of magnetic islands by pellet injection in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaing, K. C. [University of Wisconsin; Rome, James A [ORNL; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma pressure profile inside the island. This localized bootstrap current replenishes the missing equilibrium bootstrap current density that causes the island to grow in the first place. It is shown that the effect of the localized bootstrap current tends to reduce or eliminate the original drive for the growth of the island in the island evolution equation. The theory is also valid for the localized bootstrap current created by localized heating, but with much less effectiveness. A possibility of eliminating the island by controlling the equilibrium profiles is also discussed. (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Control of magnetic islands by pellet injection in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaing, K. C.; Houlberg, W. A.; Peng, M. [Engineering Physics Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The appearance of magnetic islands in tokamaks degrades plasma confinement. It is therefore important to control or eliminate the growth of the islands to improve the performance of a tokamak. A theory is developed to control magnetic islands using the localized pressure gradient driven bootstrap current by injecting pellets at the O-point of the island to create a peaked plasma pressure profile inside the island. This localized bootstrap current replenishes the missing equilibrium bootstrap current density that causes the island to grow in the first place. It is shown that the effect of the localized bootstrap current tends to reduce or eliminate the original drive for the growth of the island in the island evolution equation. The theory is also valid for the localized bootstrap current created by localized heating, but with much less effectiveness. A possibility of eliminating the island by controlling the equilibrium profiles is also discussed.

  8. Oregon Fees for Underground Injection Control Program Fact Sheet | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy Information Fees for Underground Injection Control Program

  9. Identification and Control of Nonlinear Harmonic Coupling for Pulsed Jet Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M'Closkey, Robert T.

    The control of a jet injected into quiescent surroundings or into a crossflow is a fundamental problem], [2]. In turbine engines, for example, active control of the jet in crossflow has been shown to improve the spread and penetration of the jet into the crossflow for dilution jet injection [3

  10. Controlled air injection for a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew H. (Honeove Falls, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for injecting oxygen into a fuel cell reformate stream to reduce the level of carbon monoxide while preserving the level of hydrogen in a fuel cell system.

  11. Underground Injection Control Program Rules and Regulations (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this regulation is to preserve the quality of the groundwater of the State and thereby protect groundwater contamination from contamination by discharge from injection wells and...

  12. Dynamic model and control of the injection molding process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, Anthony Nickolas

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HOLDING PROCESS I. INTRODUCTION One widely used technique for forming raw polymer materials into finished parts, is the injection molding process, In a normal operation sequence the equipment intakes a small volume of plastic pellets and heats them... volume of plastic pellets, heat them till they form a viscous liquid mass, and then ram them into the mold under high pressures. Nest modern injection molding machines employ a screw-ram device enclosed in a barrel for the injector mechanism. In a...

  13. CECM Day 2009 IRMACS Expanding HAART to Control the Spread of HIV Among Injection Drug Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CECM Day 2009 ­ IRMACS Expanding HAART to Control the Spread of HIV Among Injection Drug Users showed, using a risk behaviour-driven, individual-based (cellular automaton) model of injection drug is likely to be unrealistic for many drug treatment programs, where support is provided that may reduce risk

  14. 130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral InjectionsControl Issues and Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    130kV 130A High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supply for Neutral InjectionsControl Issues and Algorithms

  15. Modelling of the Current Profile Control with Neutral Beam Injection at ASDEX Upgrade and Comparison to JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling of the Current Profile Control with Neutral Beam Injection at ASDEX Upgrade and Comparison to JET

  16. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  17. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  18. WAC - 173-218 Underground Injection Control Program | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah: EnergydbaInformation Underground Injection

  19. Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resendiz Rosas, Celerino

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The sep-aration control technique studied is called 'synthetic jet actuation'. The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous...

  20. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  1. Conceptual Study of Electron Ripple Injection for Tokamak Transport Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Mathematical Sciences New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York New York 10012 A non-intrusive method to develop a non-intrusive tool to control the radial electric #12;eld pro#12;le in tokamak plasmas

  2. Conceptual Study of Electron Ripple Injection for Tokamak Transport Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York New York 10012 A non­intrusive to develop a non­intrusive tool to control the radial electric field profile in tokamak plasmas. The present

  3. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  4. 03/26/01 Department of EECS, UIC 1 An Agent-based Petri Net Model with Application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Haiping

    1 03/26/01 Department of EECS, UIC 1 An Agent-based Petri Net Model with Application to Seller}@eecs.uic.edu 03/26/01 Department of EECS, UIC 2 Outline · Introduction: Related work and our approach. · Part 1: G-net background and the standard G-nets. · Part 2: Design of agent-based G-net model. · Part 3: Modeling agent

  5. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During the time that enhanced AC was injected, the average mercury removal for the month long test was approximately 74% across the test baghouse module. ACI was interrupted frequently during the month long test because the test baghouse module was bypassed frequently to relieve differential pressure. The high air-to-cloth ratio of operations at this unit results in significant differential pressure, and thus there was little operating margin before encountering differential pressure limits, especially at high loads. This limited the use of sorbent injection as the added material contributes to the overall differential pressure. This finding limits sustainable injection of AC without appropriate modifications to the plant or its operations. Handling and storage issues were observed for the TOXECON ash-AC mixture. Malfunctioning equipment led to baghouse dust hopper plugging, and storage of the stagnant material at flue gas temperatures resulted in self-heating and ignition of the AC in the ash. In the hoppers that worked properly, no such problems were reported. Economics of mercury control at Big Brown were estimated for as-tested scenarios and scenarios incorporating changes to allow sustainable operation. This project was funded under the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory project entitled 'Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program--Phase II'.

  6. Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haugen, Sigurd Arild

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CONTROL O' NATEP, CONING IN GAS RESERVOIRS BY INJECTII4G CAS INTO THE AQUIFER A Thesis by SIGURD ARILD HAUGEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Member May 1980 I~SGi9". p ABSTRACT Control of Water Coninc ir, Gas Reservoirs by Injecting Gas into the Aquifer (May 1980) Sigurd Arild Haugen, Dis. Ing. , Roga)and Regional College Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. A. Morse The production...

  7. Reducing cold start hydrocarbon emissions from port fuel injected spark ignition engines with improved management of hardware & controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Kevin R., 1980-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to investigate strategies for reducing cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from port fuel injected (PFI) spark ignition (SI) engines with better use of existing hardware and control ...

  8. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate control device. The native fly ash of the host unit provided significant mercury removal capacity, so that the activated carbon sorbent served as an incremental mercury removal mechanism. Tests run to characterize the waste product, a combination of fly ash and activated carbon on which mercury was present, showed that mercury and other RCRA metals of interest were all below Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits in the leachate. The presence of activated carbon in the fly ash was shown to have an effect on the use of fly ash as an additive in the manufacture of concrete, which could limit the salability of fly ash from a plant where activated carbon was used for mercury control.

  9. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and SpaceCharge Estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fubiani, Gwenael J.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 mu m, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread.

  10. IEEE UIC/ATC Joint Panel on Smart Planet Challenges: Impediments and Enablers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourai, Kenichi

    are essential foundation to building any systems ­ a smart planet is no exception. Software engineeringIEEE UIC/ATC Joint Panel on Smart Planet Challenges: Impediments and Enablers Panel Chair planet and reveal exciting visions of smart everything - smart cities, smart homes, smart workplaces

  11. IEEE UIC/ATC Joint Panel on Smart Planet Challenges: Impediments and Enablers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kourai, Kenichi

    cities, smart homes, smart workplaces, smart hotels, smart schools, and much more. Driven a continuation project on smart home based personal health and independence, funded by the National InstitutesIEEE UIC/ATC Joint Panel on Smart Planet Challenges: Impediments and Enablers Panel Chair

  12. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  13. Precision Vector Control of a Superconducting RF Cavity driven by an Injection Locked Magnetron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Chase; Ralph Pasquinelli; Ed Cullerton; Philip Varghese

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique presented in this paper enables the regulation of both radio frequency amplitude and phase in narrow band devices such as a Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity driven by constant power output devices i.e. magnetrons. The ability to use low cost high efficiency magnetrons for accelerator RF power systems, with tight vector regulation, presents a substantial cost savings in both construction and operating costs compared to current RF power system technology. An operating CW system at 2.45 GHz has been experimentally developed. Vector control of an injection locked magnetron has been extensively tested and characterized with a SRF cavity as the load. Amplitude dynamic range of 30 dB, amplitude stability of 0.3% r.m.s, and phase stability of 0.26 degrees r.m.s. has been demonstrated.

  14. Precision Vector Control of a Superconducting RF Cavity driven by an Injection Locked Magnetron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chase, Brian; Cullerton, Ed; Varghese, Philip

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique presented in this paper enables the regulation of both radio frequency amplitude and phase in narrow band devices such as a Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity driven by constant power output devices i.e. magnetrons. The ability to use low cost high efficiency magnetrons for accelerator RF power systems, with tight vector regulation, presents a substantial cost savings in both construction and operating costs compared to current RF power system technology. An operating CW system at 2.45 GHz has been experimentally developed. Vector control of an injection locked magnetron has been extensively tested and characterized with a SRF cavity as the load. Amplitude dynamic range of 30 dB, amplitude stability of 0.3% r.m.s, and phase stability of 0.26 degrees r.m.s. has been demonstrated.

  15. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  16. Control strategy for hydrocarbon emissions in turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engines during cold-start

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cedrone, Kevin David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gasoline consumption and pollutant emissions from transportation are costly and have serious, demonstrated environmental and health impacts. Downsized, turbocharged direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines ...

  17. Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haugen, Sigurd Arild

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    implicit model. The model is thoroughly tested for both coning and other problems, including both gas and oil. It was very stable, allowing a maximum saturation change per timestep as high as 10 per cent. The condition simulated was a well in the center... of 10. The Behavior of the Injected Gas Gas was injected at different depths below the initial gas/water contact. The perforation interval for injection was 20 feet for all tests, and the r ate of injection varied, depending on the investigation. 24...

  18. Field evaluation of natural gas and dry sorbent injection for MWC emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohadlo, S.; Abbasi, H.; Cygan, D. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)] Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), in cooperation with the Olmsted Waste-to-Energy Facility (OWEF) and with subcontracted engineering services from the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER), has completed the detailed engineering and preparation of construction specifications for an Emissions Reduction Testing System (ERTS). The ERTS has been designed for retrofit to one of two 100-ton/day municipal waste combustors at the OWEF, located in Rochester, Minnesota. The purpose of the retrofit is to conduct a field evaluation of a combined natural gas and sorbent injection process (IGT`s METHANE de-TOX{sup SM}, IGT Patent No. 5,105,747) for reducing the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), hydrochloric acid (HCI), oxides of sulfur (SO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and chlorinated hydrocarbons (dioxin/furans). In addition, the design includes modifications for the control of heavy metals (HM). Development of the process should allow the waste-to-energy industry to meet the Federal New Source Performance Standards for these pollutants at significantly lower costs when compared to existing technology of Thermal deNO{sub x} combined with spray dryer scrubber/fabric filters. Additionally, the process should reduce boiler corrosion and increase both the thermal and power production efficiency of the facility.

  19. The University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH) is one of six health science schools in the leading public university in the Chicago area. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    health care facilities, UIC SPH is housed in two campus buildings which provide modern, wellThe University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH) is one of six health of public health -- locally, statewide, nationally and internationally. The UIC Great Cities Initiative

  20. Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir: Geologic attributes controlling hydrocarbon production and water injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, G. Jr. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq field consists entirely of mudsupported (>90% matrix) limestones that were deposited in the deeper water interior of the Arabian Intrashelf basin. The Hanifa mudstones lack megascopic pore spaces; porosity is evidenced by high porosities (5-32%) within these fine-grained rocks, based on porosity logs and core-plug analyses, absence of visible pore spaces to account for these high pore volumes, and 2000x SEM images that show a crystal framework texture composed of micro-rhombic (clay-size) calcite crystals with 2 - 5 [mu]m-size pore spaces between these calcite crystals. Flow meters indicate that the reservoir is capable of producing/injecting large volumes of oil/water. But there is little stratigraphic predictability to the flow, and thin (2-10 ft) low porosity (<15%) intervals can contribute over 60% of the entire flow. These reservoir attributes, coupled with the low [open quotes]matrix[close quotes] permeabilities (0.1-10 md) of the reservoir indicate the presence of an apparent permeability that is controlling fluid flow. Core studies have revealed that this apparent permeability is in the form of high-angle fractures. These fractures are [le]1 mm wide, contain hydrocarbon residue and calcite cement, and many are in close association with high-amplitude stylolites, suggesting a genetic link between stylolitization and fracturing. Borehole imaging logs are critical for fracture location, abundance, orientation, and size. The Hanifa is separated from the giant Arab-D reservoir by over 450 ft of fine-grained carbonates of the Jubaila Formation. These two reservoirs, however, are in pressure-fluid communication via a network of fractures through the Jubaila carbonates. Reservoir communication and reservoir heterogeneity is a challenge to reservoir geologists and reservoir engineers in formulating a development plan, involving horizontal producer and injector wells, to extract the reserves within the Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir.

  1. COLLIDING PULSE INJECTION EXPERIMENTS IN NON-COLLINEAR GEOMETRY FOR CONTROLLED LASER PLASMA WAKEFIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson

    emittance) is important for future plasma based accelerators and for applications. In any particle accelerator, particle injection into the accelerating structure is a key technology. In all cur- rent laser with acceler- Work supported by DOE grant DE-AC02-05CH11231, DARPA, and INCITE computational grant. CToth

  2. Synchronized droplet size measurements of intermittent coal-water slurry diesel sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terracina, Dwayne Paul

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been completed to characterize atomization of intermittent coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel fuel engine. A synchronized laser diffraction particle analyzer...

  3. Two-stage Ignition as an Indicator of Low Temperature Combustion in a Late Injection Pre-mixed Compression Ignition Control Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bittle, Joshua

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    cool-flame is not observed. By controlling initial conditions (pressure, temperature, and composition), the creation and duration of the cool-flame event is predictable. Further, the effect that injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation level...

  4. State and national energy environmental risk analysis systems for underground injection control. Final report, April 7, 1992--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this effort is to develop and demonstrate the concept of a national Energy and Environmental Risk Analysis System that could support DOE policy analysis and decision-making. That effort also includes the development and demonstration of a methodology for assessing the risks of groundwater contamination from underground injection operations. EERAS is designed to enhance DOE`s analytical capabilities by working with DOE`s existing resource analysis models for oil and gas. The full development of EERAS was not planned as part of this effort. The design and structure for the system were developed, along with interfaces that facilitate data input to DOE`s other analytical tools. The development of the database for EERAS was demonstrated with the input of data related to underground injection control, which also supported the risk assessment being performed. The utility of EERAS has been demonstrated by this effort and its continued development is recommended. Since the absolute risk of groundwater contamination due to underground injection is quite low, the risk assessment methodology focuses on the relative risk of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this methodology is to provide DOE with an enhanced understanding of the relative risks posed nationwide as input to DOE decision-making and resource allocation. Given data problems encountered, a broad assessment of all oil reservoirs in DOE`s resource database was not possible. The methodology was demonstrated using a sample of 39 reservoirs in 15 states. While data difficulties introduce substantial uncertainties, the results found are consistent with expectations and with prior analyses. Therefore the methodology for performing assessments appears to be sound. Recommendations on steps that can be taken to resolve uncertainties or obtain improved data are included in the report.

  5. Gain-scheduling control of port-fuel-injection processes Andrew White a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jongeun

    history: Received 16 October 2009 Accepted 7 December 2010 Available online 28 December 2010 Keywords, and Kolmanovsky (2010). The conventional A/F ratio control for automobiles uses both closed-loop feedback and feed

  6. Alkali injection system with controlled CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 ratios for combustion of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature combustion process for an organic fuel containing sulfur n which the nitrogen of air is replaced by carbon dioxide for combination with oxygen with the ratio of CO.sub.2 /O.sub.2 being controlled to generate combustion temperatures above 2000 K. for a gas-gas reaction with SO.sub.2 and an alkali metal compound to produce a sulfate and in which a portion of the carbon-dioxide rich gas is recycled for mixing with oxygen and/or for injection as a cooling gas upstream from heating exchangers to limit fouling of the exchangers, with the remaining carbon-dioxide rich gas being available as a source of CO.sub.2 for oil recovery and other purposes.

  7. Injecting Task Delegation Constraints into a Role-based Access Control Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    With the broad adoption of workflow management systems to model and au- tomate business processes cross organisations, security becomes a crucial and essential topic. Typically, activities that are part of a process control list or more complex role-based structures [2]. In current workflow management systems, the role

  8. Reducing Cyclic Dispersion in Autoignition Combustion by Controlling Fuel Injection Timing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    ) in autoignition combustion, also called homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), is one factor that limits for high CV when operating HCCI lean (with excess air) with recycling of residual gases through negative]. It was used in [7], [8] to extend the low load limit of HCCI. Feedback control for reducing CV was developed

  9. Assistance to state underground injection control programs and the oil and gas industry with class 2 injection well data management and technology transfer. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paque, M.J.

    1995-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Underground Injection Practices Research Foundation (UIPRF) administered a grant project funded by the US Department of Energy relating to Class 2 injection well operations in various primacy and direct implementation states throughout the country. This effort provided substantial benefits to state regulatory agencies and oil and gas producing companies. It enhanced the protection of the environment through the protection of ground water resources and improved oil and gas production operations within affected states. This project involved the following accomplishment: (1) Completed the design and installation of the only comprehensive, fully relational PC-Based Oil and Gas regulatory data management system (the Risk Based Data Management System) in the country. Additionally, training and data conversion was conduced and the RBDMS User`s Guide and the RBDMS Administrator`s Guide were completed. (2) State wide Area-Of-Review (AOR) workshop were held in California and Oklahoma and a national three-day workshop was held in Kansas City, Missouri where 24 state oil and gas agencies were represented.

  10. H.A.R. 11-23 - Underground Injection Control | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open EnergyGuntersville ElectricControl Jump to: navigation, search

  11. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system calcium-based dry sorbent injection. Test report, April 30--November 2, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomoto, G.H.; Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Company of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology III demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the fifth phase of the test program, where the performance of the dry sorbent injection of calcium was evaluated as an SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection with humidification was performed downstream of the air heater (in-duct). Calcium injection before the economizer was also investigated. The in-duct calcium sorbent and humidification retrofit resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 28 to 40 percent, with a Ca/S of 2, and a 25 to 30{degrees}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature. The results of the economizer calcium injection tests were disappointing with less than 10 percent SO{sub 2} removal at a Ca/S of 2. Poor sorbent distribution due to limited access into the injection cavity was partially responsible for the low overall removals. However, even in areas of high sorbent concentration (local Ca/S ratios of approximately 6), SO{sub 2} removals were limited to 30 percent. It is suspected that other factors (sorbent properties and limited residence times) also contributed to the poor performance.

  12. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  13. Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission Control Fuel Formulation Effects on Diesel Fuel Injection, Combustion, Emissions and Emission...

  14. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph R.V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Andrew Karash; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal from coal combustion using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10{sup -13}m{sup 2} and 2.5 x 10{sup -4}m{sup -1}, respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Pellet injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, S.K. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States))

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last 10 to 15 years, significant progress has been made worldwide in the area of pellet injection technology. This specialized field of research originated as a possible solution to the problem of depositing atoms of fuel deep within magnetically confined, hot plasmas for refueling of fusion power reactors. Using pellet injection systems, frozen macroscopic (millimeter-size) pellets composed of the isotopes of hydrogen are formed, accelerated, and transported to the plasma for fueling. The process and benefits of plasma fueling by this approach have been demonstrated conclusively on a number of toroidal magnetic confinement configurations; consequently, pellet injection is the leading technology for deep fueling of magnetically confined plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion research. Hydrogen pellet injection devices operate at very low temperatures ([congruent]10 K) at which solid hydrogen ice can be formed and sustained. Most injectors use conventional pneumatic (light gas gun) or centrifuge (mechanical) acceleration concepts to inject hydrogen or deuterium pellets at speeds of [congruent]1--2 km/s. Pellet injectors that can operate at quasi-steady state (pellet delivery rates of 1--40 Hz) have been developed for long-pulse fueling. The design and operation of injectors with the heaviest hydrogen isotope, tritium, offer some special problems because of tritium's radioactivity. To address these problems, a proof-of-principle experiment was carried out in which tritium pellets were formed and accelerated to speeds of 1.4 km/s. Tritium pellet injection is scheduled on major fusion research devices within the next few years. Several advanced accelerator concepts are under development to increase the pellet velocity. One of these is the two-stage light gas gun, for which speeds of slightly over 4 km/s have already been reported in laboratory experiments with deuterium ice.

  16. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3% improvement in fuel economy over EMD's traditional Tier I engine hardware configuration. the common rail fuel injection system enabled this added benefit by virtue of an inherent capability to provide multiple injections per power stroke at high fuel rail pressures. On the basis of the findings in this study, EMD concludes that the new electronically-controlled high-pressure common rail injection system has the potential to meet locomotive Tier 2 NOx and particulates emission standards without sacrificing the fuel economy. A number of areas to further improve the injection hardware and engine operating characteristics to further exploit the benefits of common rail injection system have also been identified.

  17. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection Control Registration webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site:...

  18. Application of X-ray CT for investigating fluid flow and conformance control during CO2 injection in highly heterogeneous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakravarthy, Deepak

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    . The experimental results indicate that injection rates play a very important role in affecting the recovery process, more so in the presence of fractures. At high injection rates, faster breakthrough of CO2 and higher oil bypass were observed than at low injection...

  19. Injection system for small betatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuorygin, V.P.; Chakhlov, V.L.; Pushin, U.S.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the head loads on the injector electrodes and to raise the efficiency of electron capture during acceleration, small betatrons are provided with an injection system with a controlled three-electrode injector in which injection current pulse with steep leading and trailing edges is formed by the application of a voltage pulse to the control electrode from a separate circuit through a pulse transformer. In a betatron injection system described, elements of the controlled injector of the accelerating chamber are used to correct the shape of the current pulse. The circuit for correcting the current-pulse shape can increase the accelerated charge by the average of 75% per betatron cycle and decrease the heat loads on the electrodes of the injector without the use of a generator of controlling voltage pulses.

  20. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO sub x /NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.); Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

  1. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO sub x /NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.); Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

  2. Control of blood glucose levels through glucose measurement and insulin injection can reduce the occurrence of complications in type 1 diabetes. Methods such as the `finger-stick' technique have proven expensive, cumbersome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    Background Control of blood glucose levels through glucose measurement and insulin injection can pioneered the first portable and programmable device for measuring blood glucose levels which can also detect other blood circulating molecules such as lactate. Technology The technology makes use

  3. Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okeke, Tobenna

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    permeability, swept zones. This research was initiated to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the latter method, known as deep diverting gels (DDG) to plug thief zones deep within the reservoir and far from the injection well. To evaluate the performance...

  4. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States); Beittel, R. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated Dry Injection Process (IDIP) consists of combustion modification using low NO{sub x} burners to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, dry injection of hydrated line at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO{sub 2}, dry injection of a commercial grade sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal, and humidification for precipitator conditioning. IDIP offers the potential for simultaneously achieving 90% SO{sub 2} removal, and 65% NO{sub x} removal from a high sulfur flue gas. The process is well suited for new or retrofit applications since it can be incorporated within existing economizer and downstream ductwork. Subscale tests were performed in order to identify the best calcium and sodium sorbents. These tests involved the injection of calcium hydroxide and sodium sorbents at various points of the flue gas system downstream of a 0.25 MM BTU/hr. coal fired combustor, and the gas residence times, cooling rates and temperatures were comparable to those found for full-scale utility boilers. These tests verified that a high surface area hydrated lime provides maximum sorbent utilization and identified an alcohol-water hydrated lime as yielding the highest surface area and the best SO{sub 2} removal capability. The tests also identified sodium bicarbonate to be somewhat more effective than sodium sesquicarbonate for SO{sub 2} removal. The proof of concept demonstration was conducted on the large combustor at the Riley Stoker Research Facility in Worcester, MA. When economically compared to conventional limestone slurry scrubbing on a 300 MW plant, the dry injection process shows lower capital cost but higher operating cost. Hydrated lime injection can be less costly than limestone scrubbing when two or more of the following conditions exist: plant is small (less than 100MW); yearly operating hours are small (less than 3000); and the remaining plant lifetime is small (less than 10 years).

  7. Rich catalytic injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veninger, Albert (Coventry, CT)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  8. Intradermal needle-free powdered drug injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, John (John Hsiao-Yung)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a new method for needle-free powdered drug injection. The design, construction, and testing of a bench-top helium-powered device capable of delivering powder to controllable depths within the dermis ...

  9. Here we develop a new control model of water injection from a growing hydrofracture into a layered soft rock. We demonstrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    to believe that direct links between injectors and producers can be established at early stages of waterflood, especially if the injection policy is aggressive. Such links may develop in thin, highly permeable reservoir a vertical hydrofracture in contact with a multilayer reservoir, where some layers have high permeability

  10. A Guidance Document for Kentucky's Oil and Gas Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, Rick

    2002-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The accompanying report, manual and assimilated data represent the initial preparation for submission of an Application for Primacy under the Class II Underground Injection Control (UIC) program on behalf of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to identify deficiencies in Kentucky law and regulation that would prevent the Kentucky Division of Oil and Gas from receiving approval of primacy of the UIC program, currently under control of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Atlanta, Georgia.

  11. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  12. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  13. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  14. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  15. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G. Ronald (Albuquerque, NM); Hohimer, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Owyoung, Adelbert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  16. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  17. The reduction of supersonic jet noise using pulsed microjet injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ragaller, Paul Aaron

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is concerned with the active control of supersonic jet noise using pulsed microjet injection at the nozzle exit. Experimental investigations were carried out using this control method on an ideally expanded ...

  18. Premixed direct injection disk

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  19. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  20. Transonic Combustion ? - Injection Strategy Development for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy Development for Supercritical Gasoline Injection-Ignition in a Light Duty Engine Transonic Combustion - Injection Strategy...

  1. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Authorized Injection Systems

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy Information FeesInformation Section

  2. Advanced in-duct sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control. Topical report number 3, Subtask 2.3: Sorbent optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenhoover, W.A.; Maskew, J.T.; Withum, J.A.; Stouffer, M.R.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to develop second-generation duct injection technology as a cost-effective compliance option for the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Specific process performance goals are to achieve 90% SO{sub 2} removal and 60% sorbent utilization efficiency. Research is focused on the Advanced Coolside process, which has shown the potential of achieving these targets. The objective of Subtask 2.3, Sorbent Optimization, was to explore means of improving performance and economics of the Advanced Coolside process through optimizing the sorbent system. Pilot plant tests of commercial and specially prepared hydrated limes showed that the process is relatively insensitive to sorbent source. This can be an important economic advantage, allowing the use of the lowest cost sorbent available at a site. A pilot plant hydration study conducted in cooperation with Dravo Lime Company further indicated the relative insensitivity of process performance to lime source and to lime physical properties. Pilot plant tests indicated that the use of very small amounts of additives in the Advanced Coolside process can improve performance under some circumstances; however, additives are not necessary to exceed process performance targets.

  3. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  4. Direct tuyere injection of oxygen for enhanced coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, M.F. [Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injecting oxygen directly into the tuyere blowpipe can enhance the ignition and combustion of injected pulverized coal, allowing the efficient use of higher coal rates at high furnace production levels. The effects of direct oxygen injection have been estimated from an analysis of the factors controlling the dispersion, heating, ignition, and combustion of injected coal. Injecting ambient temperature oxygen offers mechanical improvements in the dispersion of coal but provides little thermochemical benefit over increased blast enrichment. Injecting hot oxygen through a novel, patented thermal nozzle lance offers both mechanical and thermochemical benefits over increased enrichment or ambient oxygen injection. Plans for pilot-scale and commercial-scale testing of this new lance are described.

  5. Optimization of Injection Scheduling in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-I12 Optimization of Injection Scheduling in Geothermal Fields James Lovekin May 1987&injection optimization problem is broke$ into two subpmbkm:(1) choosing a configuration of injectorsfrom an existing set is defined as the fieldwide break- through lindex, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells

  6. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in their physics and their technology, or in any case they are considered to be adequately covered by these other authors.

  7. Supported-sorbent injection. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S. Jr.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new retrofitable, wastefree acid-rain control concept was pilot-tested at Ohio Edison`s high-sulfur coal-fired R.E. Burger generating station at the 2-MWe level. During the project, moistened {open_quotes}supported{close_quotes} sorbents, made from a combination of lime and vermiculite or perlite, were injected into a humidified 6,500-acfm flue-gas slipstream. After the sorbents reacted with the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas, they were removed from ductwork with a cyclone and baghouse. The $1.0 million project was co-funded by Sorbent Technologies Corporation, the Ohio Edison Company, and the Ohio Coal Development Office. The project included a preliminary bench-scale testing phase, construction of the pilot plant, parametric studies, numerous series of recycle tests, and a long-term run. The project proceeded as anticipated and achieved its expected results. This duct injection technology successfully demonstrated SO{sub 2}-removal rates of 80 to 90% using reasonable stoichiometric injection ratios (2:1 Ca:S) and approach temperatures (20-25F). Under similar conditions, dry injection of hydrated lime alone typically only achieves 40 to 50% SO{sub 2} removal. During the testing, no difficulties were encountered with deposits in the ductwork or with particulate control, which have been problems in tests of other duct-injection schemes.

  8. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.; Beittel, R. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

  9. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J. [Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (United States). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.; Beittel, R. [Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (United States)

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the subscale test program were designed to provide sorbent and additive selection guidance, and, in so doing, supply answers to the questions posed in the preceding section. The objectives are: Identify the best commercial hydrate sorbent and the best enhanced hydrate sorbent from a list of nine types, based upon S0{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=2. Determine the relative effectiveness of sodium sesquicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control over the temperature range of 200{degrees}F--400{degrees}F. Identify the best NO{sub 2} suppressing additive among the group of ammonia, urea, and activated carbon.

  10. V-139: Cisco Network Admission Control Input Validation Flaw...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: Cisco Network Admission Control Input Validation Flaw Lets Remote Users Inject SQL Commands V-139: Cisco Network Admission Control Input Validation Flaw Lets Remote Users Inject...

  11. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  12. Power dependence of pure spin current injection by quantum interference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Zhao, Hui

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the power dependence of pure spin current injection in GaAs bulk and quantumwell samples by a quantum interference and control technique. Spin separation is measured as a function of the relative strength of the two transition...

  13. ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jagannatham, Aditya K.

    ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 13 August, 2011 Diesel Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala #12;ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION FOR DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES A Milestone in Green Initiatives by Indian Diesel Locomotive equipped with "Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)" was turned out by the Diesel Loco

  14. Injection Laser System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFPTri-PartyFor manyInhibiting IndividualInjection

  15. Washington Environmental Permit Handbook - Underground Injection Control

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwide PermitInformationIsland: Energy ResourcesProcess

  16. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Geothermal Heating

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy Information FeesInformation

  17. SNS Laser Stripping for H- Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Danilov, Y. Liu, K.B. Beard, V.G. Dudnikov, R.P. Johnson, Michelle D. Shinn

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ORNL spallation neutron source (SNS) user facility requires a reliable, intense beams of protons. The technique of H- charge exchange injection into a storage ring or synchrotron has the potential to provide the needed beam currents, but it will be limited by intrinsic limitations of carbon and diamond stripping foils. A laser in combination with magnetic stripping has been used to demonstrate a new technique for high intensity proton injection, but several problems need to be solved before a practical system can be realized. Technology developed for use in Free Electron Lasers is being used to address the remaining challenges to practical implementation of laser controlled H- charge exchange injection for the SNS. These technical challenges include (1) operation in vacuum, (2) the control of the UV laser beam to synchronize with the H- beam and to shape the proton beam, (3) the control and stabilization of the Fabry-Perot resonator, and (4) protection of the mirrors from radiation.

  18. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  19. High productivity injection practices at Rouge Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, D.H.; Hegler, G.L.; Falls, C.E. [Rouge Steel Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rouge Steel Company, located in Dearborn, Michigan, operates two blast furnaces. The smaller of the pair, ``B`` Furnace, has a hearth diameter of 20 feet and 12 tuyeres. It has averaged 2,290 NTHM (net ton of hot metal) per day of 8.2 NTHM per 100 cubic feet of working volume. ``C`` Furnace has a hearth diameter of 29 feet and 20 tuyeres. Both of these furnaces are single tap hole furnaces. Prior to its reline in 1991, ``C`` Furnace was producing at a rate of 3,300 NTHM/day or about 6.25 NTHM/100 cfwv. In November, 1994 it averaged 5,106 NTHM/day or 9.6 NTHM/100 cfwv. This paper discusses how the current production rates were achieved. Also, the areas that needed to be addressed as production increased will be described. These areas include casthouse arrangement and workload, hot metal ladle capacity, slag pot capacity and charging capability. Coupled with the high blast temperature capability, the furnace was provided with a new natural gas injection system that injected the gas through the blowpipes and a natural gas injection system to enrich the stove gas. Following the furnace reline, natural gas has been used in three ways: tuyere level control; combination injection; and stove gas enrichment. Coke consumption rate has also decreased per NTHM.

  20. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for: (a) a labyrinth seal with and without shunt injection and (b) a honeycomb seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto Azuaje, Elias Antonio

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the best flow control, and the labyrinth seals with shunt injection the worst. For low and medium running speed, and most conditions, the labyrinth seal with injection against rotation has the best rotordynamic stability followed in order by the honeycomb...

  1. Method and apparatus for injecting a substance into the bloodstream of a subject

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, Richard M. (Quogue, NY); Bennett, Gerald W. (East Moriches, NY); Duncan, Charles C. (New Haven, CT); Ducote, Louis W. (Shoreham, NY)

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for injecting a substance, such as a radiopharmaceutical, into the bloodstream of a subject. The apparatus comprises an injection means, such as a servo controlled syringe, a means for measuring the concentration of that substance in the subject's bloodstream, and means for controlling the injection in response to the measurement so that the concentration of the substance follows a predetermined function of time. The apparatus of the subject invention functions to inject a substance into a subject's bloodstream at a rate controlled by an error signal proportional to the difference between the concentration of the substance in the subject's bloodstream and the predetermined function.

  2. Method and apparatus for injecting a substance into the bloodstream of a subject

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Bennett, G.W.; Duncan, C.C.; Ducote, L.W.

    1983-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for injecting a substance, such as a radiopharmaceutical, into the bloodstream of a subject. The apparatus comprises an injection means, such as a servo controlled syringe, a means for measuring the concentration of that substance in the subject's bloodstream, and means for controlling the injection in response to the measurement so that the concentration of the substance follows a predetermined function of time. The apparatus of the subject invention functions to inject a substance into a subject's bloodstream at a rate controlled by an error signal proportional to the difference between the concentration of the substance in the subject's bloodstream and the predetermined function. 2 figs.

  3. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  4. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Jr., Henry S. (Wilsonville, AL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  5. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States)] [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)] [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  6. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI): Sun, Yong (Madison, WI)

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  7. Secondary air injection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  8. Apparatus and method to inject a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viola, Michael B. (Macomb Township, MI)

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An exhaust aftertreatment system for an internal combustion engine is provided including an apparatus and method to inject a reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream. Included is a fuel metering device adapted to inject reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream and a controllable pressure regulating device. A control module is operatively connected to the reductant metering device and the controllable pressure regulating device, and, adapted to effect flow of reductant into the exhaust gas feedstream over a controllable flow range.

  9. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  10. Registration of Hanford Site Class V underground injection wells. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plan and Schedule for Disposition and Regulatory Compliance for Miscellaneous Streams (DOE 1994) requires that all existing Class V injection wells be registered under WAC 173--218. (Washington Underground Injection Control Program). The purpose of this document is to fulfill this requirement by registering all active Class V underground injection control wells, on the Hanford Site, under WAC 173--218. This registration will revise the registration previously submitted in 1988 (DOE 1988). In support of this registration, an extensive effort has been made to identify all injection wells on the Hanford Site. New injection wells will not be constructed on the Hanford Site except to receive uncontaminated stormwater or groundwater heatpump return flow. All changes to Miscellaneous Streams will be tracked through the Hanford Site Miscellaneous Streams Inventory Database. Table 5--2 of this injection well registration may be updated annually at the same time as the Miscellaneous Streams Inventory, if necessary.

  11. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  12. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  13. -Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Investigator: Roland N. Home September 1985 First Annual Report Department of Energy Contract Number, and the forecasting of field behavior with time. Injection I I Tec hnology is a research area receiving special on geothermal energy. The Program publishes technical reports on all of its research projects. Research findings

  14. -Injection Technology -Geothermal Reservoir Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    For the Period October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986 DE-ASO7-84ID12529 Stanford Geothermal Program was initiated in fiscal year 1981. The report covers the period from October 1, 1985 through September 30, 1986SGP-TR-107 - Injection Technology - Geothermal Reservoir Engineering Research at Stanford Principal

  15. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacy, Jeffrey M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Novascone, Stephen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  16. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E. (Manito, IL); Blass, James R. (Bloomington, IL); Gibson, Dennis H. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  17. Well injection valve with retractable choke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pringle, R.E.

    1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection valve is described for use in a well conduit consisting of: a housing having a bore, a valve closure member in the bore moving between open and closed positions, a flow tube telescopically movable in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, means for biasing the flow tube in a direction for allowing the valve closure member to move to the closed position, an expandable and contractible fluid restriction connected to the flow tube and extending into the bore for moving the flow tube to the open position in response to injection fluid, but allowing the passage of well tools through the valve, the restriction contractible in response to fluid flow, the restriction includes, segments movable into and out of the bore, and biasing means yieldably urging the segments into the bore, a no-go shoulder on the flow tube, and releasable lockout means between the flow tube and the housing for locking the flow tube and valve in the open position.

  18. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  19. The push for increased coal injection rates -- Blast furnace experience at AK Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dibert, W.A.; Duncan, J.H.; Keaton, D.E.; Smith, M.D. [AK Steel Corp., Middletown, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An effort has been undertaken to increase the coal injection rate on Amanda blast furnace at AK Steel Corporation`s Ashland Works in Ashland, Kentucky to decrease fuel costs and reduce coke demand. Operating practices have been implemented to achieve a sustained coal injection rate of 140 kg/MT, increased from 100--110 kg/MT. In order to operate successfully at the 140 kg/MT injection rate; changes were implemented to the furnace charging practice, coal rate control methodology, orientation of the injection point, and the manner of distribution of coal to the multiple injection points. Additionally, changes were implemented in the coal processing facility to accommodate the higher demand of pulverized coal; grinding 29 tonnes per hour, increased from 25 tonnes per hour. Further increases in injection rate will require a supplemental supply of fuel.

  20. Improved Fueling and Transport Barrier Formation with Pellet Injection from Different Locations on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Schmidt, G. L. Schmidt [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Ernst, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greenfield, C. M. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Houlberg, Wayne A [ORNL; Hsieh, C. [General Atomics; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics; Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Sessions, W. D. [Tennessee Technological University; Staebler, G. M. [General Atomics; Synakowski, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection has been employed on DIII-D from different injection locations to optimize the mass deposition for density profile control and internal transport barrier formation. Transport barriers have been formed deep in the plasma core with central mass deposition from high field side (HFS) injected pellets and in the edge with pellets that trigger L-mode to H-mode transitions. Pellets injected from all locations can trigger the H-mode transition, which depends on the edge density gradient created and not on the radial extent of the pellet deposition. Pellets injected from inside the magnetic axis from the inner wall or vertical port lead to stronger central mass deposition than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) and thus yield deeper more efficient fueling.

  1. An environmental analysis of injection molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiriez, Alexandre

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates injection molding from an environmental standpoint, yielding a system-level environmental analysis of the process. There are three main objectives: analyze the energy consumption trends in injection ...

  2. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  3. Radiation Safety Work Control Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Safety Work Control Form (see instructions on pg-3) Rev. May 2014 Area: Form : Date: Preliminary Applicability Screen: (a) Will closing the beam line injection stoppers...

  4. Microfluidics-Assisted Fabrication of Gelatin-Silica Core–Shell Microgels for Injectable Tissue Constructs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cha, Chaenyung

    Microfabrication technology provides a highly versatile platform for engineering hydrogels used in biomedical applications with high-resolution control and injectability. Herein, we present a strategy of microfluidics-assisted ...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical Simulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen: finite volume method, film cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation AMS@igpm.rwth-aachen.de (Thomas Gotzen) #12;Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

  6. Emissions Control for Lean Gasoline Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Reduction Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection Engine + TWC + LNT + SCR NH 3 LNT NH 3 Optimization HC Slip Control Lean Gasoline SI Direct Injection Engine + TWC + SCR NH 3 TWC NH 3...

  7. Method for preventing bitumen backflow in injection wells when steam injection is interrupted

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, D.C.; Djabbarah, N.F.

    1990-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for preventing viscous hydrocarbonaceous fluids from backflowing into a well upon interruption of a steamflood. It comprises: detecting a substantial reduction in steam injection pressure in at least one injection well via a pressure sensing device; and causing automatically a pressurized fluid to be injected into the injection well in response to the reduction in pressure which prevents viscous hydrocarbonaceous fluids from backflowing into the injection well.

  8. Fuel injection device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injection system and method provide for shaping a combustion plume within a combustion chamber to effectively recirculate hot combustion gases for stable combustion conditions while providing symmetrical combustion conditions. Char and molten slag are passed to the outer boundary layer to complete combustion of char while permitting initial substoichiometric combustion in a reductive atmosphere for reducing discharge of nitrogen oxides. Shaping of the plume is accomplished by an axially adjustable pintle which permits apportionment of driving pressure between elements which contribute tangential and those which contribute radial directional components to oxidant flow entering the combustion chamber.

  9. Applications and Progress of Dust Injection to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Zhehui; Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States); Mansfield, Dennis K.; Roquemore, Lane A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Ticos, Catalin M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Three regimes of dust injection are proposed for different applications to fusion energy. In the 'low-speed' regime (<5 km/s), basic dust transport study, edge plasma diagnostics, edge-localized-mode (ELM) pacing in magnetic fusion devices can be realized by injecting dust of known properties into today's fusion experiments. ELM pacing, as an alternative to mini-pellet injection, is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion devices. Different schemes are available to inject dust. In the 'intermediate-speed' regime (10-200 km/s), possible applications of dust injection include fueling of the next-step fusion devices, core-diagnostics of the next-step fusion devices, and compression of plasma and solid targets to aid fusion energy production. Promising laboratory results of dust moving at 10-50 km/s do exist. Significant advance in this regime may be expected in the near term to achieve higher dust speeds. In the 'high-speed' regime (>500 km/s), dust injection can potentially be used to directly produce fusion energy through impact. Ideas on how to achieve these extremely high speeds are mostly on paper. No plan exists today to realize them in laboratory. Some experimental results, including electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration, are summarized and compared. Some features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. A necessary component of all dust injectors is the dust dropper (also known as dust dispenser). A computer-controlled piezoelectric crystals has been developed to dropped dust in a systematic and reproducible manner. Particle fluxes ranges from a few tens of particles per second up to thousands of particles per second by this simple device.

  10. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  11. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (? 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ? 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (? 7.0 × 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  12. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watkins, Arthur D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  13. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  14. INJECTION CHOICE FOR SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE RING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRODOWSKI,J.; FEDOTOV,A.; GARDNER,C.; LEE,Y.Y.; RAPARIA,D.; DANILOV,V.; HOLMES,J.; PRIOR,C.; REES,G.; MACHIDA,S.

    2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection is key in the low-loss design of high-intensity proton facilities like the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). During the design of both the accumulator and the rapid-cycling-synchrotron version of the SNS, extensive comparison has been made to select injection scenarios that satisfy SNS's low-loss design criteria. This paper presents issues and considerations pertaining to the final choice of the SNS injection systems.

  15. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Advancing The Technology" Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Corey E. Weaver Ford Research and Advanced Engineering 05132011 Project...

  16. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Advancing The Technology" Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Corey E. Weaver Ford Research and Advanced Engineering 05182012 Project...

  17. Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Advancing The Technology" Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDI) Engine Development Corey E. Weaver Ford Research and Advanced Engineering 06192014 Project...

  18. Experimental Investigation of Effect of Injection Parameters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Experimental Investigation of Effect of Injection Parameters, Compression Ratio and Ultra-cooled EGR on CI Engine Performance and Emissions Low temperature combustion,...

  19. 3Q/4Q99 F-Area Hazardous Waste Management Facility Corrective Action Report - Third and Fourth Quarter 1999, Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chase, J.

    2000-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River Site (SRS) monitors groundwater quality at the F-Area Hazardous Waste management Facility (HWMF) and provides results of this monitoring to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) semiannually as required by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit. SRS also performs monthly sampling of the Wastewater Treatment Unit (WTU) effluent in accordance with Section C of the Underground Injection Control (UIC) application.

  20. Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines Injection Nitrogen Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking by Direct Reduced Iron Fines...

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. Deposition of TiO2 thin films by atmospheric plasma post-discharge assisted injection MOCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -discharge is sent away from electrodes confinement [3]. In this work, we have combined these two systems working combines remote Atmospheric Pressure (AP) Plasma with Pulsed Injection Metallorganic Chemical Vapour developed Pulsed Injection MOCVD [1] method, based on a liquid delivery system controlled by a high speed

  3. T-528: Mozilla Firefox/Thunderbird/SeaMonkey Multiple HTML Injection Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mozilla Firefox/Thunderbird/SeaMonkey Multiple HTML Injection Vulnerabilities. Mozilla Firefox, SeaMonkey, and Thunderbird are prone to multiple HTML-injection vulnerabilities. Successful exploits will allow attacker-supplied HTML and script code to run in the context of the affected browser, potentially allowing the attacker to steal cookie-based authentication credentials or to control how the site is rendered to the user. Other attacks are also possible.

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic effects on pellet injection in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strauss, H.R. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012 (United States)] [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Park, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The location at which pellets are injected into a plasma can have a significant effect on what fraction of the pellet mass remains in the plasma for refueling purposes. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations presented here, confirm the results of pellet injection experiments: toroidal curvature makes it favorable to inject pellets from the inboard side or from the top or bottom, rather than from the outboard side. Sufficiently large pellets injected at the inboard edge can reach the plasma center, and in the process drive magnetic reconnection to produce negative central shear. Injection at the top (or bottom) of the tokamak causes relatively little displacement of the pellet. A scaling law is obtained for pellet displacement which agrees well with the simulations. The MHD simulations were carried out with a new unstructured mesh finite element version of the MH3D full MHD code. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Applications of high-speed dust injection to magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yangfang [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany

    2012-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    It is now an established fact that a significant amount of dust is produced in magnetic fusion devices due to plasma-wall interactions. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular for the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and degrade performance. Safety concerns are due to tritium retention, dust radioactivity, toxicity, and flammability. Performance concerns include high-Z impurities carried by dust to the fusion core that can reduce plasma temperature and may even induce sudden termination of the plasma. We have recognized that dust transport, dust-plasma interactions in magnetic fusion devices can be effectively studied experimentally by injection of dust with known properties into fusion plasmas. Other applications of injected dust include diagnosis of fusion plasmas and edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. In diagnostic applications, dust can be regarded as a source of transient neutrals before complete ionization. ELM's pacing is a promising scheme to prevent disruptions and type I ELM's that can cause catastrophic damage to fusion machines. Different implementation schemes are available depending on applications of dust injection. One of the simplest dust injection schemes is through gravitational acceleration of dust in vacuum. Experiments at Los Alamos and Princeton will be described, both of which use piezoelectric shakers to deliver dust to plasma. In Princeton experiments, spherical particles (40 micron) have been dropped in a systematic and reproducible manner using a computer-controlled piezoelectric bending actuator operating at an acoustic (0,2) resonance. The circular actuator was constructed with a 2.5 mm diameter central hole. At resonance ({approx} 2 kHz) an applied sinusoidal voltage has been used to control the flux of particles exiting the hole. A simple screw throttle located {approx}1mm above the hole has been used to set the magnitude of the flux achieved for a given voltage. Particle fluxes ranging from a few tens of particle per second up to thousands of particles per second have been achieved using this simple device. To achieve higher dust injection speed, another key consideration is how to accelerate dust at controlled amount. In addition to gravity, other possible acceleration mechanisms include electrostatic, electromagnetic, gas-dragged, plasma-dragged, and laser-ablation-based acceleration. Features and limitations of the different acceleration methods will be discussed. We will also describe laboratory experiments on dust acceleration.

  6. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartwell, Jack K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goodwin, Scott G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, Larry O. (Blackfoot, ID); Killian, E. Wayne (Idahoe Falls, ID)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved system for gamma-ray spectroscopy characterized by an interface module that controls the injection of electronic pulses as well as separation logic that enables storage of pulser events in a region of the spectrum of a multichannel analyzer distinct from the region reserved for storage of gamma-ray events. The module accomplishes this by tagging pulser events (high or low) injected into the amplification circuitry, adding an offset to the events so identified at the time the events are at the output of the analog to digital converter, and storing such events in the upper portion of the spectrum stored in the multichannel analyzer. The module can be adapted for use with existing gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment to provide for automatic analyses of radioisotopes.

  7. Deposition of fuel pellets injected into tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hsieh, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection has been used on tokamak devices in a number of experiments to provide plasma fueling and density profile control. The mass deposition of these fuel pellets defined as the change in density profile caused by the pellet, has been found to show an outward displacement of the ablated material from that expected by mapping the theoretical ablation rate onto the flux surfaces. This suggests that fast transport of the pellet ablatant occurs during the flow along field lines that may be driven by {del}B drift effects. A comparison of the deposition of pellets from different machines shows similar behavior. Initial results from alternative injection locations designed to take advantage of the outward ablatant drift is presented.

  8. Microfabricated injectable drug delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter A. (Pleasanton, CA); Wang, Amy W. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated, fully integrated drug delivery system capable of secreting controlled dosages of multiple drugs over long periods of time (up to a year). The device includes a long and narrow shaped implant with a sharp leading edge for implantation under the skin of a human in a manner analogous to a sliver. The implant includes: 1) one or more micromachined, integrated, zero power, high and constant pressure generating osmotic engine; 2) low power addressable one-shot shape memory polymer (SMP) valves for switching on the osmotic engine, and for opening drug outlet ports; 3) microfabricated polymer pistons for isolating the pressure source from drug-filled microchannels; 4) multiple drug/multiple dosage capacity, and 5) anisotropically-etched, atomically-sharp silicon leading edge for penetrating the skin during implantation. The device includes an externally mounted controller for controlling on-board electronics which activates the SMP microvalves, etc. of the implant.

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two different boilers, and to determine balance-of-plant impacts. The first long-term test was conducted on FirstEnergy's BMP Unit 3, and the second was conducted on AEP's Gavin Plant, Unit 1. The Gavin Plant test provided an opportunity to evaluate the effects of sorbent injected into the furnace on SO{sub 3} formed across an operating SCR reactor. A final task in the project was to compare projected costs for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries to estimated costs for other potential sulfuric acid control technologies. Estimates were developed for reagent and utility costs, and capital costs, for furnace injection of magnesium hydroxide slurries and seven other sulfuric acid control technologies. The estimates were based on retrofit application to a model coal-fired plant.

  10. Simple method of impurity injection into tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Bakos, J.S.; Petravich, G.; Badalec, H.; Jakubka, K.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of test impurities into the edge plasma of tokamak discharges by erosion probes containing these impurities is described. By applying a short bias pulse to the probe inserted into the sol-plasma, the plasma density and temperature at the probe location can be deduced and the time of injection during the discharge can be controlled. By locating the probe at an appropriate position it is possible to release defined quantities of the material and to influence the fraction which penetrates into the core plasma. The injection of Li into hydrogen discharges of the small-sized tokamaks Castor and MT-1 is demonstrated. The nature of the main erosion process (ion sputtering or arcing) has been found to depend on the radial position of the probe and the probe potential. The lithium amount released by sputtering is determined, while in the case of arcing only an estimate can be given. The temporal evolution and the radial penetration of the Li influx into the plasma have been observed by monitoring the neutral emission line using a grating spectrometer and a CCD camera. In addition, Li transported through the plasma was collected on solid samples. An estimate is given on the fraction of the impurity efflux from the core plasma which is collected on the samples.

  11. Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holmes, Allen B. (Rockville, MD)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

  12. A case study of seawater injection incompatibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindlof, J.C.; Stoffer, K.G.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the primary concerns in the implementation of an effective waterflood is the compatibility between the formation water and the water to be injected. The Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) and the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Technical Branch recognized a potential incompatibility problem and embarked on a comprehensive program to evaluate possible strontium sulfate and calcium sulfate scaling associated with the injection of seawater into the Arab-D reservoir in the northern areas of Ghawar field.

  13. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherish, Peter (Bethel Park, PA); Salvador, Louis A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  14. Microprocessor controller for mold heating and cooling. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floersch, R.H.

    1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microprocessor controllers were designed and implemented to perform direct digital control of the fluid and metal temperature-control loops used to temperature-cycle injection and compression molds. Microprocessor controllers replace a centralized computer system.

  15. Global evaluation of mass transfer effects: In-duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.A.; Newton, G.H.; Kramlich, J.C.; Payne, R.

    1990-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Sorbent injection is a low capital cost, low operating cost approach to SO{sub 2} control targeted primarily at older boilers for which conventional fuel gas desulfurization is not economically viable. Duct injection is one variation of this concept in which the sorbent, either a dry powder or a slurry, is injected into the cooler regions of the boiler, generally downstream of the air heaters. The attractiveness of duct injection is tied to the fact that it avoids much of the boiler heat transfer equipment and thus has minimal impact of boiler performance. Both capital and operating cost are low. This program has as its objectives three performance related issues to address: (1) experimentally identify limits on sorbent performance. (2) identify and test sorbent performance enhancement strategies. (3) develop a compute model of the duct injection process. Two major tasks are described: a laboratory-scale global experiment and development of process model. Both are aimed at understanding and quantifying the rate-limiting processes which control SO{sub 2} capture by lime slurry during boiler duct injection. 29 refs., 35 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Belov, Mikhail E

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An orthogonal ion injection apparatus and process are described in which ions are directly injected into an ion guide orthogonal to the ion guide axis through an inlet opening located on a side of the ion guide. The end of the heated capillary is placed inside the ion guide such that the ions are directly injected into DC and RF fields inside the ion guide, which efficiently confines ions inside the ion guide. Liquid droplets created by the ionization source that are carried through the capillary into the ion guide are removed from the ion guide by a strong directional gas flow through an inlet opening on the opposite side of the ion guide. Strong DC and RF fields divert ions into the ion guide. In-guide orthogonal injection yields a noise level that is a factor of 1.5 to 2 lower than conventional inline injection known in the art. Signal intensities for low m/z ions are greater compared to convention inline injection under the same processing conditions.

  17. albumin ions injected: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 Hunt, Galen 3 Characterizing Oligosaccharides Using Injected-Ion MobilityMass Spectrometry Chemistry Websites Summary: Characterizing Oligosaccharides Using Injected-Ion...

  18. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines...

  19. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  20. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel Engines Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel...

  1. automated flow injection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the great majority the feasibility of our attack. The friend injection attack enables a stealth infiltra- tion of social networks Boyer, Edmond 7 Preventing injection attacks...

  2. 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI Emissions 3-Cylinder Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection: A High Value Solution for Euro VI...

  3. High Resolution RANS NLH Study of Stage 67 Tip Injection Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matheson, Michael A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical prediction of the Stage 67 transonic fan stage employing wall jet tip injection flow control and study of the physical mechanisms leading to stall suppression and stability enhancement afforded by endwall recirculation/injection is the focus of this paper. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes computations were used to perform detailed analysis of the Stage 67 configuration experimentally tested at NASA s Glenn Research Center in 2004. Time varying prediction of the stage plus recirculation and injection flowpath were performed utilizing the Nonlinear Harmonic approach. Significantly higher grid resolution per passage was achieved than what has been generally employed in prior reported numerical studies of spike stall phenomena in transonic compressors. This paper focuses on characterizing the physics of spike stall embryonic stage phenomena and the impact of tip injection, resulting in experimentally and numerically demonstrated stall suppression

  4. Alumni Career Advising Resources UIC RESOURCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    access to one of the most comprehensive employment and career management services in the country and career advising. Active connections with top employers who value the education, skills and prestige ($125 for recent graduates ­ alumni who have earned a University of Illinois degree within the past

  5. a UIC Writing Center Magazine Spring 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    /2009 School Year in Review Student Editors Dima Ansari Salwa Halloway Cynthis Whit Salvatore De Santo Faculty

  6. UIC Honors College This year represents the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    . They are due February 15th. For all the important in- formation, check out the Ball website: http:// uichcab. The sessions cover the process of searching for internal and external awards, highlight upcoming deadlines scholarships (some are in preparation for applying next year). Please visit the OSSP website for more

  7. a UIC Writing Center Magazine Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    enjoy reading these articles just as much as we did writing them. Until next time, Dima, Kelly, Rosendo benefits of peer-based learn- ing. At the center we occupy a special- ized niche--an academic space without about academic writ- ing can be an intrinsic enhancement of our educ

  8. EPA - UIC Well Classifications | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, NewDyer County,ECO2Ltd Place:Notice|Authority

  9. Application of Gaseous Sphere Injection Method for Modeling Under-expanded H2 Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitesides, R; Hessel, R P; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for modeling gaseous injection has been refined and applied to recent experimental data from the literature. This approach uses a discrete phase analogy to handle gaseous injection, allowing for addition of gaseous injection to a CFD grid without needing to resolve the injector nozzle. This paper focuses on model testing to provide the basis for simulation of hydrogen direct injected internal combustion engines. The model has been updated to be more applicable to full engine simulations, and shows good agreement with experiments for jet penetration and time-dependent axial mass fraction, while available radial mass fraction data is less well predicted.

  10. Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resendiz Rosas, Celerino

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    and Lomax. The application of synthetic jet actuators is based in their ability to energize the boundary layer, thereby providing signifcant increase in the lift coefficient. This has been corroborated experimentally and it is corroborated numerically...

  11. Underground Injection Control Permit Applications for FutureGen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is used to generate electricity. A byproduct of the oxy-combustion process is an emission stream that has a high concentration of CO 2 that can be captured and passed through...

  12. WPCF Underground Injection Control Disposal Permit Evaluation and Fact

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planningFlowmeterUtah:InformationInformation WC 26WHLSheet |

  13. WSDE Underground Injection Control Well Registration Form | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwide Permit webpage Jump to: navigation, searchInformation

  14. Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permit Packet | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG|Information OpenEI ReferenceNoise FormsHistoricPlanLegal

  15. Hawaii Underground Injection Control Permitting Webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG|Information OpenEI ReferenceNoise

  16. Hawaii Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG|Information OpenEI ReferenceNoiseInformation State of Hawaii

  17. Idaho Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty, Texas:ITCSolid Waste WebpageInformation Idaho

  18. EPA - Underground Injection Control Classes of Wells webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale,South, NewDyer County,ECO2Ltd

  19. Oregon Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy Information FeesInformation SectionInformation

  20. Oregon Underground Injection Control Registration Application Fees (DEQ

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri:Energy Information FeesInformation SectionInformationForm

  1. Title 40 CFR 144 Underground Injection Control Program | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson EthanolTillson,OpenOpen EnergyR. 297water

  2. RRC - Summary of Injection Control Rules | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevada <REC SolarRFMDSystem LoginSummary

  3. Utah Underground Injection Control Program Webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga,planning methodologies and tools |UCInformation 18, Siting

  4. EPA - Ground Water Discharges (EPA's Underground Injection Control Program)

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Jump to: navigation, searchEMC3,webpage | Open

  5. Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hals, Kjetil M D

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

  6. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  7. Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetoba, L.A.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

  8. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC; Fisher, Alan; /SLAC; Huang, Xiaobiao; /SLAC; Safranek, James; /SLAC; Westerman, Stuart; /SLAC; Cheng, Weixing; /Brookhaven; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  9. Diesel engine emissions reduction by multiple injections having increasing pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf D. (Madison, WI); Thiel, Matthew P. (Madison, WI)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple fuel charges are injected into a diesel engine combustion chamber during a combustion cycle, and each charge after the first has successively greater injection pressure (a higher injection rate) than the prior charge. This injection scheme results in reduced emissions, particularly particulate emissions, and can be implemented by modifying existing injection system hardware. Further enhancements in emissions reduction and engine performance can be obtained by using known measures in conjunction with the invention, such as Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).

  10. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  11. Accounting for Remaining Injected Fracturing Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yannan

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology of multi-stage fracturing of horizontal wells made the development of shale gas reservoirs become greatly successful during the past decades. A large amount of fracturing fluid, usually from 53,000 bbls to 81,400 bbls, is injected...

  12. A study on Raman Injection Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Debin

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Raman Injection Laser is a new type of laser which is based on triply resonant stimulated Raman scattering between quantum confined states within the active region of a Quantum Cascade Laser that serves as an internal optical pump. The Raman...

  13. Injection of electrons with predominantly perpendicular energy into an area of toroidal field ripple in a tokamak plasma to improve plasma confinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ono, Masayuki (Princeton Junction, NJ); Furth, Harold (Princeton, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron injection scheme for controlling transport in a tokamak plasma. Electrons with predominantly perpendicular energy are injected into a ripple field region created by a group of localized poloidal field bending magnets. The trapped electrons then grad-B drift vertically toward the plasma interior until they are detrapped, charging the plasma negative. Calculations indicate that the highly perpendicular velocity electrons can remain stable against kinetic instabilities in the regime of interest for tokamak experiments. The penetration distance can be controlled by controlling the "ripple mirror ratio", the energy of the injected electrons, and their v.sub..perp. /v.sub.51 ratio. In this scheme, the poloidal torque due to the injected radial current is taken by the magnets and not by the plasma. Injection is accomplished by the flat cathode containing an ECH cavity to pump electrons to high v.sub..perp..

  14. Automatic Correction of Betatron Coupling in the LHC Using Injection Oscillations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, T; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Levinsen, Y; McAteer, M-J; Maclean, E; Skowronski, P; Tomas, R; Vanbavinckhove, G; Miyamoto, R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of the betatron coupling at injection and during the energy ramp is critical for the safe operation of the tune feedback and for the dynamic aperture. In the LHC every fill is preceded by the injection of a pilot bunch with low intensity. Using the injection oscillations from the pilot bunch we are able to measure the coupling at each individual BPM. The measurement is used to calculate a global coupling correction. The correction is based on the use of two orthogonal knobs which correct the real and imaginary part of the difference resonance term f1001, respectively. This method to correct the betatron coupling has been proven successful during the normal operation of the LHC. This paper presents the method used to calculate the corrections and its performance.

  15. Operational results for high pulverized coal injection rate at Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Hiromitsu; Matsunaga, Shin`ichi; Kakuichi, Kazumoto; Amano, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazuyoshi

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further develop the technology for high-rate pulverized coal injection (PCI), namely over 200 kg/t-pig, Nippon Steel performed a high injection rate test at the Kimitsu No. 3 blast furnace in November, 1993. The paper describes PCI equipment; the operational design of the test, including blast conditions, reducibility of sinter, coke strength and burden distribution; and test results. These results include a discussion of the transition of operation, burden distribution control, replacement ratio of coke, permeability at upper and lower parts of the furnace, reducibility at lower part of the furnace, accumulation of fines in the deadman, and generation and accumulation of unburnt char. Stable operation was achieved at a PCI rate of 190 kg/t-pig. With injection rates between 200--300 kg/t-pig, the problem becomes how to improve the reduction-meltdown behavior in the lower part of the furnace.

  16. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  17. Terahertz graphene lasers: Injection versus optical pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryzhii, Victor; Otsuji, Taiichi [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ryzhii, Maxim [Computational Nanoelectronics Laboratory, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, Vladimir [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 14260-1920 (United States)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the formation of nonequilibrium states in optically pumped graphene layers and in forward-biased graphene structures with lateral p-i-n junctions and consider the conditions of population inversion and lasing. The model used accounts for intraband and interband relaxation processes as well as deviation of the optical phonon system from equilibrium. As shown, optical pumping suffers from a significant heating of both the electron-hole plasma and the optical phonon system, which can suppress the formation of population inversion. In the graphene structures with p-i-n junction, the injected electrons and holes have relatively low energies, so that the effect of cooling can be rather pronounced, providing a significant advantage of the injection pumping in realization of graphene terahertz lasers.

  18. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  19. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  20. Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor; Silin, Dimitriy Borisovic; De, Asoke Kumar

    2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

  1. Waterflood control system for maximizing total oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz Wiktor (Oakland, CA); Silin, Dimitriy Borisovich (Pleasant Hill, CA); De, Asoke Kumar (San Jose, CA)

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system and method for determining optimal fluid injection pressure is based upon a model of a growing hydrofracture due to waterflood injection pressure. This model is used to develop a control system optimizing the injection pressure by using a prescribed injection goal coupled with the historical times, pressures, and volume of injected fluid at a single well. In this control method, the historical data is used to derive two major flow components: the transitional component, where cumulative injection volume is scaled as the square root of time, and a steady-state breakthrough component, which scales linearly with respect to time. These components provide diagnostic information and allow for the prevention of rapid fracture growth and associated massive water break through that is an important part of a successful waterflood, thereby extending the life of both injection and associated production wells in waterflood secondary oil recovery operations.

  2. Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarino, Mario A.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    ? them in an insulated cooler with ice packs during the summer. In cold weather, use the same container to keep vaccines from freezing. Freezing makes some vaccines ineffective. If vaccines do not require ? refrigeration, store them out of direct... needle or a transfer needle. Use a clean needle for ? each animal to prevent the transmission of disease. for protecting meat quality. Always use this method if it is an option given on the label. Intramuscularly (IM). ? This injection goes...

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    OPTIMIZATION OF INJECTION INTO VAPOR-DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS CONSIDERING ADSORPTION governing the behavior of vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. These mechanisms affect both was to determine the most effective injection strategy once these two effects are considered. Geothermal reservoir

  4. Evaluation of Profile Injection Attacks In Collaborative Recommender Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Marcus

    Evaluation of Profile Injection Attacks In Collaborative Recommender Systems Chad Williams, Runa recommender systems. The open nature of collaborative filtering allows attackers to inject biased profile data identified attack profiles. Second, we analyze the effectiveness of a supervised classification approach

  5. STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STIPE STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hørding Pedersen Björn Kjellström Thomas Koch Erik Balck stempelmotor med dampindsprøjtning". English title: "Steam injected piston engine, a feasibility study...........................................................................................................................10 Gas turbine technology

  6. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  7. Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

  8. INJECTION STRAIGHT PULSED MAGNET ERROR TOLERANCE STUDY FOR TOP-OFF INJECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.: Fliller; R.; Parker; B.; Heese; R.; Kowalski; S.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    NSLS II is designed to work in top-off injection mode. The injection straight includes a septum and four fast kicker magnets. The pulsed magnet errors will excite a betatron oscillation. This paper gives the formulas of each error contribution to the oscillation amplitude at various source points in the ring. These are compared with simulation results. Based on the simple formulas, we can specify the error tolerances on the pulsed magnets with the goal to minimize the injection transient and scale it to similar machines. The NSLS-II is a 3 GeV third generation synchrotron light source under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Due to its short lifetime, NSLS-II storage ring requires the top-off injection (once per minute) during which the stored beam orbit is highly desired as transparent. But the errors, from the SR pulsed magnets at the injection straight - kickers (non-closed injection bump) and pulsed septum (time-dependent stray field), excite a stored beam betatron oscillation. The magnitude of the perturbation can be large disturning some of the user experiments. In 2010 injection straight review, based on the experts experiences in ALS, DIAMOND, SLS and SPEAR, we came to the conclusion that the acceptable oscillation amplitude at the long straight is set as 100 {micro}m (i.e. 0.7 {sigma}x) in horizontal plane and 12 {micro}m, 2.5 {sigma}y, in vertical plane for NSLS II. This paper gives the analysis estimate of the different error source tolerance from the pulse magnets and scales it to our requirements. The result is compared with simulation.

  9. NumericalS imulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NumericalS imulation of Cooling Gas Injection Using Adaptive Multiscale Techniques Wolfgang Dahmen words:fi nite volume method,fi lm cooling, cooling gas injection, multiscale techniques, grid adaptation#ciency is investigated. Keywords: Finite Volum Method,Film cooling, Cooling gas injection, Multiscale techniques, Grid

  10. Injection and acceleration of H at Earth's bow shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Injection and acceleration of H and He2 at Earth's bow shock M. Scholer1 , H. Kucharek1 , K the injection and subsequent acceleration of part of the solar wind ions at the Earth's bow shock. The shocks particles does not contribute to ion injection. Acceleration models that permit thermal particles to scatter

  11. Analysis of Power System Dynamics Subject to Stochastic Power Injections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Abstract--We propose a framework to study the impact of stochastic active/reactive power injections. In this framework the active/reactive power injections evolve according to a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model. The DAE model is linearized around a nominal set of active/reactive power injections

  12. Active flow control in an advanced serpentine jet engine inlet duct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, Aaron Michael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    control devices were installed to deliver varying degrees of boundary layer suction, suction and steady fluid injection, and suction and oscillatory injection. Testing showed that suction alone could delay flow separation and improve the pressure recovery...

  13. A study of steam injection in fractured media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dindoruk, M.D.S.; Aziz, K.; Brigham, W.; Castanier, L.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam injection is the most widely used thermal recovery technique for unfractured reservoirs containing heavy oil. There have been numerous studies on theoretical and experimental aspects of steam injection for such systems. Fractured reservoirs contain a large fraction of the world supply of oil, and field tests indicate that steam injection is feasible for such reservoirs. Unfortunately there has been little laboratory work done on steam injection in such systems. The experimental system in this work was designed to understand the mechanisms involved in the transfer of fluids and heat between matrix rocks and fractures under steam injection.

  14. Operational considerations for high level blast furnace fuel injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poveromo, J.J. [Quebec Cartier Mining Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection levels of over 400 lbs/NTHM for coal, over 250 lbs/NTHM for natural gas and over 200 lbs/NTHM for oil have been achieved. Such high levels of fuel injection has a major impact on many aspects of blast furnace operation. In this paper the author begins by reviewing the fundamentals of fuel injection with emphasis on raceway thermochemical phenomena. The operational impacts which are generic to high level injection of any injectant are then outlined. The author will then focus on the particular characteristics of each injectant, with major emphasis on coal and natural gas. Operational considerations for coping with these changes and methods of maximizing the benefits of fuel injection will be reviewed.

  15. Current generation by phased injection of pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By phasing the injection of frozen pellets into a tokamak plasma, it is possible to generate current. The current occurs when the electron flux to individual members of an array of pellets is asymmetric with respect to the magnetic field. The utility of this method for tokamak reactors, however, is unclear; the current, even though free in a pellet-fueled reactor, may not be large enough to be worth the trouble. Uncertainty as to the utility of this method is, in part, due to uncertainty as to proper modeling of the one-pellet problem.

  16. Resonantly pumped optical pumping injection cavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santilli, Michael Robert; McAlpine, T. C.; Greene, K. R.; Olafsen, L. J.; Bewley, W. W.; Felix, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Meyer, J. R.; Lee, H.; Martinelli, R. U.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the optically pumped devices have thus far produced much higher powers than their diode counterparts. 4–8 To en- sure the efficient injection of carriers, these optically pumped lasers have employed two main approaches to maximize the absorption of pump photons... of active QWs. The first OPIC lasers to be investigated 12,13 were de- signed for pumping by a Q-switched Ho:YAG laser emitting at 2100 nm. Whereas the cavity resonance wavelength sl cav d for normal incidence, as determined from the transmittance spectrum...

  17. Injectible bodily prosthetics employing methacrylic copolymer gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Anderson, Brian C.

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides novel block copolymers as structural supplements for injectible bodily prosthetics employed in medical or cosmetic procedures. The invention also includes the use of such block copolymers as nucleus pulposus replacement materials for the treatment of degenerative disc disorders and spinal injuries. The copolymers are constructed by polymerization of a tertiary amine methacrylate with either a (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) polymer, such as the commercially available Pluronic.RTM. polymers, or a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether polymer.

  18. JET multi-pellet injection experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kupschus, P.; Bartlett, D.V.; Behringer, K.; Campbell, D.J.; Cheetham, A.; Cordey, J.G.; Corti, S.; Gadeberg, M.; Gondhalekar, A.; Gottardi, N.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Morgan, P.; O'Rourke, J.; Sadler, G.; Snipes, J.; Stubberfield, D.; Taroni, A.; Tubbing, B.; Von Hellermann, M. (JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (UK)); Baylor, L.R.; Houlberg, W.A.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Galvao, R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multiple injection of deuterium pellets into JET plasmas under various scenarios for limiter and X-point discharges with currents up to 5 MA with pure ohmic, neutral beam and RF heating has been undertaken in a collaborative effort between JET and an USDOE team under the umbrella of the EURATOM-USDOE (US Department of Energy) Fusion Agreement on Pellet Injection using an ORNL built 3-barrel, repetitive multi-pellet launcher. The best plasma performance with pellet injection and additional heating so far has been obtained by injecting early into 3 MA, 3.1 T pulses while centrally depositing the pellet mass, with N{sub eo} initially well in excess of 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}. Subsequent central heating of this dense and clean core by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) with H and {sup 3}He minorities in the 10 MW range yields T{sub eo} up to 12 keV and T{sub io} up to more than 10 keV, while n{sub eo} is decreasing (within up to 1.5s) decaying to 0.6 {times} 10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3}, suggesting an enhanced central energy confinement in limiter discharges with only modestly improved global L-mode confinement. In this plasma core electron pressures of more than 1 bar with gradients in the order of 4 bar*m{sup {minus}1} have been reached with the total pressure approaching ballooning stability limits. The resulting total neutron rate from D-D reactions of up to 4.5*10{sup 15} s{sup {minus}1} so far increases strongly with RF power and can exceed that of similar non-enhanced shots by factors of 3 to 5. n{sub D}(O)*T{sub i}(O)*{tau}{sub E}(a) products in the range of 1 to 2*10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} keVs are obtained but combined power with neutral beams (up to 28 MW total), generally degrades the performance though leading to higher neutron rates of up to 7*10{sup 15} s{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  20. Optimizing injected solvent fraction in stratified reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moon, Gary Michael

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . . . 22 4. 2 Water-Oil and Water-Solvent Fractional Flow Curves . . 4. 3 Mobility of Water-Oil-Solvent Mixtures. . . . . . . . 25 5. 1 Injected Solvent Displacing Formation Oil at 0. 5 PVI . . . . 31 5. 2 Comparison of Simulator Results and Buckley...-Levcrctt Analytic Solution at 0. 3 PVI . 5. 3 Comparison of Simulator Results and Walsh-Lake Analytic Solution for Secondary Flood (S, =- S;?= 0. 2) at "Equal Velocity" f?& (f, & ? 0. 35) and 0. 3 PVI?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. 4 Saturation Plot...

  1. Proper Injection Techniques in Dairy Cattle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villarino, Mario A.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    labeled for use in dairy ? cattle. Refer to the vaccine label for this information. Using a vaccine in an animal species for which it is not labeled is illegal. Give the proper dosage as indicated on the label. ? Always give an injection in the body... for consumption is called the withdrawal time. The withdrawal times for meat and milk may be different. It is illegal to sell meat or milk that contains medicine residue and sellers are subject to large fines. If there is a withdrawal time ? on the label...

  2. Category:Injectivity Test | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual Model Add.pngpage?sourcehelp ispage?Injectivity

  3. Ejector device for direct injection fuel jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upatnieks, Ansis (Livermore, CA)

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device for increasing entrainment and mixing in an air/fuel zone of a direct fuel injection system. The device comprises an ejector nozzle in the form of an inverted funnel whose central axis is aligned along the central axis of a fuel injector jet and whose narrow end is placed just above the jet outlet. It is found that effective ejector performance is achieved when the ejector geometry is adjusted such that it comprises a funnel whose interior surface diverges about 7.degree. to about 9.degree. away from the funnel central axis, wherein the funnel inlet diameter is about 2 to about 3 times the diameter of the injected fuel plume as the fuel plume reaches the ejector inlet, and wherein the funnel length equal to about 1 to about 4 times the ejector inlet diameter. Moreover, the ejector is most effectively disposed at a separation distance away from the fuel jet equal to about 1 to about 2 time the ejector inlet diameter.

  4. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection ( lithiumization'). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li[sup +] line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li[sup +] emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from [approximately]0.3 to [approximately]7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  5. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  6. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4. 1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  7. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described. (LEW)

  8. Nuclear reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingham, R.V.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has power setback means for use in an emergency. On initiation of a trip-signal a control rod is injected into the core in two stages, firstly, by free fall to effect an immediate power-set back to a safe level and, secondly, by controlled insertion. Total shut-down of the reactor under all emergencies is avoided. 4 claims.

  9. Continuous active-source seismic monitoring of CO2 injection in a brine aquifer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Thomas M.; Solbau, Ray D.; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INTERPRETATION The injection of CO 2 causes a decrease in seismicseismic monitoring during injection. Although quantitative interpretation

  10. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Lung Ablation Combined with Transbronchial Saline Injection: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawai, T., E-mail: t-kawai@hosp.yoka.hyogo.jp; Kaminou, T., E-mail: kaminout@grape.med.tottori-u.ac.jp; Sugiura, K.; Hashimoto, M.; Ohuchi, Y.; Adachi, A. [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Fujioka, S.; Ito, H. [Tottori University, Division of Organ Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Nakamura, K. [Hakuai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ihaya, T. [Sanin Rosai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ogawa, T. [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the efficacy of radiofrequency lung ablation with transbronchial saline injection. The bilateral lungs of eight living swine were used. A 13-gauge bone biopsy needle was inserted percutaneously into the lung, and 1 ml of muscle paste was injected to create a tumor mimic. In total, 21 nodules were ablated. In the saline injection group (group A), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was performed for 11 nodules after transbronchial saline injection under balloon occlusion with a 2-cm active single internally cooled electrode. In the control group (group B), conventional RFA was performed for 10 nodules as a control. The infused saline liquid showed a wedge-shaped and homogeneous distribution surrounding a tumor mimic. All 21 RFAs were successfully completed. The total ablation time was significantly longer (13.4 {+-} 2.8 min vs. 8.9 {+-} 3.5 min; P = 0.0061) and the tissue impedance was significantly lower in group A compared with group B (73.1 {+-} 8.8 {Omega} vs. 100.6 {+-} 16.6 {Omega}; P = 0.0002). The temperature of the ablated area was not significantly different (69.4 {+-} 9.1{sup o}C vs. 66.0 {+-} 7.9{sup o}C; P = 0.4038). There was no significant difference of tumor mimic volume (769 {+-} 343 mm{sup 3} vs. 625 {+-} 191 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.2783). The volume of the coagulated area was significantly larger in group A than in group B (3886 {+-} 1247 mm{sup 3} vs. 2375 {+-} 1395 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.0221). Percutaneous radiofrequency lung ablation combined with transbronchial saline injection can create an extended area of ablation.

  11. EPA's (Environmental Protection Agency's) program for evaluation and demonstration of low-cost retrofit LIMB (Limestone Injection Multistage Burner) technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.D.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses program objectives, approaches, current status and results, future activities, and schedules for EPA's program for research and development, field evaluation, and demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology. Primary emphasis is on: (1) the full-scale demonstration being conducted on Ohio Edison's 104-MW wall-fired Edgewater Station Unit 4; (2) evaluation on a 50 million Btu/hr tangentially fired prototype nearing completion; (3) on-going field evaluation on Richmond Power and Light's 61-MW tangentially fired Whitewater Valley Generating Station Unit 2. The new program for demonstration on Virginia Electric Power's 180-MW tangentially fired Yorktown II Plant is also described. The LIMB process is based on injecting dry sorbents into the boiler for direct capture of SO/sub 2/ from the combustion gases. LIMB combines sorbent injection for SO/sub 2/ control with the use of low-NOx burners, in which staged combustion is utilized for NOx control.

  12. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN); Cernohous, Bob R. (Rochester, MN); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kumar, Sameer (White Plains, NY); Parker, Jeffrey J. (Rochester, MN)

    2011-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  13. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen Ellis

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system for a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with quartz...

  14. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  15. Control of impurities in toroidal plasma devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro (La Jolla, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for plasma impurity control in closed flux plasma systems such as Tokamak reactors is disclosed. Local axisymmetrical injection of hydrogen gas is employed to reverse the normally inward flow of impurities into the plasma.

  16. MR-guided Periarterial Ethanol Injection for Renal Sympathetic Denervation: A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streitparth, F., E-mail: florian.streitparth@charite.de; Walter, A.; Stolzenburg, N.; Heckmann, L.; Breinl, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Rinnenthal, J. L. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Neuropathology (Germany); Beck, A.; De Bucourt, M.; Schnorr, J. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany); Bernhardt, U. [InnoRa GmbH (Germany); Gebauer, B.; Hamm, B.; Guenther, R. W. [Charite, Humboldt University, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of image-guided periarterial ethanol injection as an alternative to transluminal radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Unilateral renal periarterial ethanol injection was performed under general anesthesia in 6 pigs with the contralateral kidney serving as control. All interventions were performed in an open 1.0 T MRI system under real-time multiplanar guidance. The injected volume was 5 ml (95 % ethanol labelled marked MR contrast medium) in 2 pigs and 10 ml in 4 pigs. Four weeks after treatment, the pigs underwent MRI including MRA and were killed. Norepinephrine (NE) concentration in the renal parenchyma served as a surrogate parameter to analyze the efficacy of sympathetic denervation. In addition, the renal artery and sympathetic nerves were examined histologically to identify evidence of vascular and neural injury. Results. In pigs treated with 10 ml ethanol, treatment resulted in neural degeneration. We found a significant reduction of NE concentration in the kidney parenchyma of 53 % (p < 0.02) compared with the untreated contralateral kidney. In pigs treated with 5 ml ethanol, no significant changes in histology or NE were observed. There was no evidence of renal arterial stenosis in MRI, macroscopy or histology in any pig. Conclusion. MR-guided periarterial ethanol injection was feasible and efficient for renal sympathetic denervation in a swine model. This technique may be a promising alternative to the catheter-based approach in the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension.

  17. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  18. V-170: Apache Subversion Hook Scripts Arbitrary Command Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    script while processing filenames and can be exploited to inject and execute arbitrary shell commands via a specially crafted request. Successful exploitation requires that...

  19. assembly injection moulding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    management of moulds and dies : a contribution to improved design and manufacture of tooling for injection moulding. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Thesis (PhD...

  20. SLOW DEGRADATION AND ELECTRON INJECTION IN SODIUM-B ALUMINAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer of 703 XBB 804 4126 Degradation of sulfur side ofsilver staining. The degradation layer becomes more uniformMaterials Science SLOW DEGRADATION AND ELECTRON INJECTION IN

  1. Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Morin, Et Al., 1993) Exploration Activity...

  2. Injectivity Test At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Farrar...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Details Location Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Injectivity Test Activity Date 1999 - 1999 Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes A second...

  3. Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties. 1 Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation Roger Busch Common Rail...

  4. Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers, California, Geothermal Field; 2010...

  5. Investigation of injection-induced seismicity using a coupled fluid ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    injection of fluid for the extraction of geothermal heat: Journal of Geo- physical ... earthquakes: Disposal of waste fluids into a deep well has triggered earth-.

  6. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    100 bar injection pressure Simulated turbocharging based on hydrogen PFI turbo results Operation limited due to peak cylinder pressure Only early DI possible...

  7. Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-low Emissions Diesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Motivation and background * Adaptive Injection Strategy (AIS) * Simulation and optimization - Two-Stage Combustion (TSC -- HCCI + Diffusion combustion) optimization using AIS...

  8. Advanced Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High EGR level and multiple- injection Application to DI Diesel Combustion Optimization Marc ZELLAT, Driss ABOURI, Thierry CONTE CD-adapco Group The development of CFD...

  9. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

  10. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  11. Diesel Combustion Control with Closed-Loop Control of the Injection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * SEnergy studies onDie Casting CopperStrategy

  12. Calculation of Neutral Beam Injection into SSPX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Hill, D N; LoDestro, L L; McLean, H S

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The SSPX spheromak experiment has achieved electron temperatures of 350eV and confinement consistent with closed magnetic surfaces. In addition, there is evidence that the experiment may be up against an operational beta limit for Ohmic heating. To test this barrier, there are firm plans to add two 0.9MW Neutral Beam (NB) sources to the experiment. A question is whether the limit is due to instability. Since the deposited Ohmic power in the core is relatively small the additional power from the beams is sufficient to significantly increase the electron temperature. Here we present results of computations that will support this contention. We have developed a new NB module to calculate the orbits of the injected fast fast-ions. The previous computation made heavy use of tokamak ordering which fails for a tight-aspect-ratio device, where B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub pol}. The model calculates the deposition from the NFREYA package [1]. The neutral from the CX deposition is assumed to be ionized in place, a high-density approximation. The fast ions are then assumed to fill a constant angular momentum orbit. And finally, the fast ions immediately assume the form of a dragged down distribution. Transfer rates are then calculated from this distribution function [2]. The differential times are computed from the orbit times and the particle weights in each flux zone (the sampling bin) are proportional to the time spent in the zone. From this information the flux-surface-averaged profiles are obtained and fed into the appropriate transport equation. This procedure is clearly approximate, but accurate enough to help guide experiments. A major advantage is speed: 5000 particles can be processed in under 4s on our fastest LINUX box. This speed adds flexibility by enabling a ''large'' number of predictive studies. Similar approximations, without the accurate orbit calculation presented here, had some success comparing with experiment and TRANSP [3]. Since our procedure does not have multiple CX and relies on disparate time scales, more detailed understanding requires a ''complete'' NB package such as the NUBEAM [4] module, which follows injected fast ions along with their generations until they enter the main thermal distribution.

  13. HIGH RESOLUTION PREDICTION OF GAS INJECTION PROCESS PERFORMANCE FOR HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin M. Orr, Jr.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report describes and summarizes results of a research effort to investigate physical mechanisms that control the performance of gas injection processes in heterogeneous reservoirs and to represent those physical effects in an efficient way in simulations of gas injection processes. The research effort included four main lines of research: (1) Efficient compositional streamline methods for 3D flow; (2) Analytical methods for one-dimensional displacements; (3) Physics of multiphase flow; and (4) Limitations of streamline methods. In the first area, results are reported that show how the streamline simulation approach can be applied to simulation of gas injection processes that include significant effects of transfer of components between phases. In the second area, the one-dimensional theory of multicomponent gas injection processes is extended to include the effects of volume change as components change phase. In addition an automatic algorithm for solving such problems is described. In the third area, results on an extensive experimental investigation of three-phase flow are reported. The experimental results demonstrate the impact on displacement performance of the low interfacial tensions between the gas and oil phases that can arise in multicontact miscible or near-miscible displacement processes. In the fourth area, the limitations of the streamline approach were explored. Results of an experimental investigation of the scaling of the interplay of viscous, capillary, and gravity forces are described. In addition results of a computational investigation of the limitations of the streamline approach are reported. The results presented in this report establish that it is possible to use the compositional streamline approach in many reservoir settings to predict performance of gas injection processes. When that approach can be used, it requires substantially less (often orders of magnitude) computation time than conventional finite difference compositional simulation.

  14. Case history of pressure maintenance by gas injection in the 26R gravity drainage reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, M.H.; Yu, J.P.; Moore, D.M.; Ezekwe, N. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); Querin, M.E. (USDOE Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, Tupman, CA (United States)); Williams, L.L. (Chevron U.S.A., Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a field case history on the performance of the 26R Reservoir. This is a gravity drainage reservoir under pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection. The 26R Reservoir is a highly layered Stevens turbidite sandstone. The reservoir is located in the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR{number sign}1) in Elk Hills, Kern County, California. The 26R Reservoir is contained within the steeply dipping southwestern limb of the 31S Anticline. The reservoir had an initial oil column of 1800 feet. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) was estimated at 424 million barrels. Pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection was initiated immediately after production began in October 1976. The total volume of gas injected is about 586 BCF. This exceeds one reservoir pore volume. Reservoir pressure has declined from 3030 psi to 2461 psi. This pressure decline believe to be due to migration of injected gas into the overlaying shale reservoirs. Under the gas injection pressure maintenance strategy, reserves are estimated to be approximately 212 million barrels. Reservoir studies have concluded that the aquifer at the base of the reservoir has been relatively inactive. Well recompletions, deepenings, and horizontal wells are used to improve oil recovery. An aggressive program of controlling gas production began in the mid 1980's by the installation of multiple packers and sleeves. As the gas-oil contact (GOC) has dropped, sand intervals have subsequently been isolated behind packers. A cased hole logging program was recently undertaken to identify possible remaining reserves in the gas cap. 15 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Case history of pressure maintenance by gas injection in the 26R gravity drainage reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, M.H.; Yu, J.P.; Moore, D.M.; Ezekwe, N. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); Querin, M.E. [USDOE Naval Petroleum Reserves in California, Tupman, CA (United States); Williams, L.L. [Chevron U.S.A., Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a field case history on the performance of the 26R Reservoir. This is a gravity drainage reservoir under pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection. The 26R Reservoir is a highly layered Stevens turbidite sandstone. The reservoir is located in the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR{number_sign}1) in Elk Hills, Kern County, California. The 26R Reservoir is contained within the steeply dipping southwestern limb of the 31S Anticline. The reservoir had an initial oil column of 1800 feet. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) was estimated at 424 million barrels. Pressure maintenance by crestal gas injection was initiated immediately after production began in October 1976. The total volume of gas injected is about 586 BCF. This exceeds one reservoir pore volume. Reservoir pressure has declined from 3030 psi to 2461 psi. This pressure decline believe to be due to migration of injected gas into the overlaying shale reservoirs. Under the gas injection pressure maintenance strategy, reserves are estimated to be approximately 212 million barrels. Reservoir studies have concluded that the aquifer at the base of the reservoir has been relatively inactive. Well recompletions, deepenings, and horizontal wells are used to improve oil recovery. An aggressive program of controlling gas production began in the mid 1980`s by the installation of multiple packers and sleeves. As the gas-oil contact (GOC) has dropped, sand intervals have subsequently been isolated behind packers. A cased hole logging program was recently undertaken to identify possible remaining reserves in the gas cap. 15 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical simulation of cooling gas injection using adaptive multiscale techniques Wolfgang Dahmen is investigated. Keywords: Finite Volume Method, Film cooling, Cooling gas injection, Multiscale techniques, Grid Mathematik, RWTH Aachen, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen Abstract The interaction of a jet of cooling gas

  17. Assessing the Impact of Cache Injection on Parallel Application Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maccabe, Barney

    ´on University of New Mexico leon@cs.unm.edu 1 Introduction The memory wall [13], the continuing disparity by the NIC (producer). This producer-initiated model makes cache injection prone to cache pollution to inject into the cache to minimize pollution. In Section 4, I character- ize application sensitivity

  18. The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, Thomas N.

    177 The Human Plutonium Injection Experiments William Moss and Roger Eckhardt T he human plutonium that was pertinent to those and LouisHempelmann #12;similar radiation experi- ments with humans. This article injection experiments carried out during and after the Manhattan Project have received tremendous noto

  19. Experimental investigation of caustic steam injection for heavy oils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhavan, Rajiv

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study has been conducted to compare the effect of steam injection and caustic steam injection in improving the recovery of San Ardo and Duri heavy oils. A 67 cm long x 7.4 cm O.D (outer diameter), steel ...

  20. Spin injection and manipulation in organic semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Karthik (Karthik Raman)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of organic semiconductors to enable organic spintronic devices requires the understanding of transport and control of the spin state of the carriers. This thesis deals with the above issue, focusing on the interface ...

  1. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  2. How the world's largest seawater injection system was designed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, J.B.; Jorque, M.A.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world's largest seawater injection system went on stream in Saudi Arabia in June 1978 to furnish 4.2 million bpd of water for pressure maintenance in the Uthmaniyah sector of the giant Ghawar Field. The operator, Aramco, first began water injection along the flanks in this field in 1966 using gravity injection wells. This gravity system gave way to a pressurized system under a program started in 1973. During this period, the primary source for injection was saline water from the Wasia Aquifer in the Uthmaniyah area. In 1974 it was determined that this aquifer could not supply the design requirement of 4.2 million bpd of saline water. Therefore, it was decided to convert the injection system to seawater obtained from the Arabian Gulf. This required the design and construction of a seawater treating plant and installation of pipelines and intermediate pump stations to transport the water from the treating plant to the existing Uthmaniyah Water Supply Station.

  3. Economics of dry FGD by sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulty, D.J.; Hooper, R.G.; McDowell, D.A.; Scheck, R.W.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The body of information in this paper is directed to engineers involved in desulfurization of boiler flue gas. The problems of wet scrubbing SO/sub 2/ from power plant flue gases have been well documented. The utility industry has been interested in developing new processes that would overcome problems associated with wet slurry systems. While spray dryer technology for FGD may alleviate many of these problems, this concept has problems as well. Dry injection FGD takes the development process one step further to a totally dry system, thus eliminating the difficulties of wet slurry handling. The concept of using the fabric filter as a chemical contactor for the SO/sub 2/ absorption was proposed in the late 1960s by Chaffee and Hill. In the early 1970s, Superior Oil Company, Wheelabrator Frye, Carborundum, and others investigated the use of nahcolite for SO/sub 2/ removal. Nahcolite is a natural occurring sodium bicarbonate found in great quantities in the oil shale regions of Colorado. In general, these developments were found viable in certain circumstances, but commercialization was hampered by the lack of nahcolite suppliers.

  4. Suppression of Tritium Retention in Remote Areas of ITER by Nonperturbative Reactive Gas Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabares, F. L.; Ferreira, J. A.; Ramos, A. [As Euratom-Ciemat, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rooij, G. van; Westerhout, J.; Al, R.; Rapp, J. [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafysica Rijnhuizen, EURATOM Association, TEC, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Drenik, A.; Mozetic, M. [As Euratom-MHEST, Institut Jozef Stefan, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique based on reactive gas injection in the afterglow region of the divertor plasma is proposed for the suppression of tritium-carbon codeposits in remote areas of ITER when operated with carbon-based divertor targets. Experiments in a divertor simulator plasma device indicate that a 4 nm/min deposition can be suppressed by addition of 1 Pa{center_dot}m{sup 3} s{sup -1} ammonia flow at 10 cm from the plasma. These results bolster the concept of nonperturbative scavenger injection for tritium inventory control in carbon-based fusion plasma devices, thus paving the way for ITER operation in the active phase under a carbon-dominated, plasma facing component background.

  5. EIA Workshop, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 19-22, 2000 1 USE OF INSAR IN SURVEILLANCE AND CONTROL OF A LARGE FIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    21st EIA Workshop, Edinburgh, Scotland, September 19-22, 2000 1 USE OF INSAR IN SURVEILLANCE, injection data SQL Database Control & optimization Data integration & inversion Off-line On-line Field injection project Far field sensors Near field sensors Production, injection data SQL Database Control

  6. Enahancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved demonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit W, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. At each site where the techno!o@es were to be demonstrated, petiormance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NO. and 50 percent for SO2. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 67.2% and S02 emissions by 52.6%. For the cyclone-fired unit, NOX emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9%.

  7. Enhancing the Use of Coals by Gas Reburning - Sorbent Injection Volume 5 - Guideline Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Guideline Manual is to provide recommendations for the application of combined gas reburning-sorbent injection (GR-SI) technologies to pre-NSPS boilers. The manual includes design recommendations, performance predictions, economic projections and comparisons with competing technologies. The report also includes an assessment of boiler impacts. Two full-scale demonstrations of gas reburning-sorbent injection form the basis of the Guideline Manual. Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 1), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, specifically oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (S02). Other project sponsors were the Gas Research Institute and the Illinois State Department of Commerce and Community Affairs. The project involved d,emonstrating the combined use of Gas Reburning and Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) to assess the air emissions reduction potential of these technologies.. Three potential coal-fired utility boiler host sites were evaluated: Illinois Power's tangentially-fired 71 MWe (net) Hennepin Unit #1, City Water Light and Power's cyclone- fired 33 MWe (gross) Lakeside Unit #7, and Central Illinois Light Company's wall-fired 117 MWe (net) Edwards Unit #1. Commercial demonstrations were completed on the Hennepin and Lakeside Units. The Edwards Unit was removed from consideration for a site demonstration due to retrofit cost considerations. Gas Reburning (GR) controls air emissions of NOX. Natural gas is introduced into the furnace hot flue gas creating a reducing reburning zone to convert NOX to diatomic nitrogen (N,). Overfire air is injected into the furnace above the reburning zone to complete the combustion of the reducing (fuel) gases created in the reburning zone. Sorbent Injection (S1) consists of the injection of dry, calcium-based sorbents into furnace hot flue gas to achieve S02 capture. `At each site where the technologies were to be demonstrated, performance goals were set to achieve air emission reductions of 60 percent for NOX and 50 percent for S02. These performance goals were exceeded during long term demonstration testing. For the tangentially fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 67.2?40 and SOZ emissions by 52.6Y0. For the cyclone-fired unit, NO, emissions were reduced by 62.9% and SOZ emissions by 57.9Y0.

  8. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  9. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    , attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

  10. Mixed mode control method and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kesse, Mary L. (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL)

    2007-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of mixed mode operation of an internal combustion engine includes the steps of controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing in a given engine cycle, and controlling a conventional charge injection event to be at least a predetermined time after the homogeneous charge combustion event. An internal combustion engine is provided, including an electronic controller having a computer readable medium with a combustion timing control algorithm recorded thereon, the control algorithm including means for controlling a homogeneous charge combustion event timing and means for controlling a conventional injection event timing to be at least a predetermined time from the homogeneous charge combustion event.

  11. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hailin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dai, Zhenxue [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jiao, Zunsheng [Wyoming State Geological Survey; Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Surdam, Ronald C. [Wyoming State Geological Survey

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline aquifer and surrounding formations. This uncertainty in leakage will be used to feed into risk assessment modeling.

  12. Fusion reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plummer, D.A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma kinetic temperature and density changes, each per an injected fuel density rate increment, control the energy supplied by a thermonuclear fusion reactor in a power production cycle. This could include simultaneously coupled control objectives for plasma current, horizontal and vertical position, shape and burn control. The minimum number of measurements required, use of indirect (not plasma parameters) system measurements, and distributed control procedures for burn control are to be verifiable in a time dependent systems code. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has the need to feedback control both the fusion output power and the driven plasma current, while avoiding damage to diverter plates. The system engineering of fusion reactors must be performed to assure their development expeditiously and effectively by considering reliability, availability, maintainability, environmental impact, health and safety, and cost.

  13. Parasitic load control system for exhaust temperature control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strauser, Aaron D. (Washington, IL); Coleman, Gerald N. (Peterborough, GB); Coldren, Dana R. (Fairbury, IL)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A parasitic load control system is provided. The system may include an exhaust producing engine and a fuel pumping mechanism configured to pressurize fuel in a pressure chamber. The system may also include an injection valve configured to cause fuel pressure to build within the pressure chamber when in a first position and allow injection of fuel from the pressure chamber into one or more combustion chambers of the engine when in a second position. The system may further include a controller configured to independently regulate the pressure in the pressure chamber and the injection of fuel into the one or more combustion chambers, to increase a load on the fuel pumping mechanism, increasing parasitic load on the engine, thereby increasing a temperature of the exhaust produced by the engine.

  14. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the accuracy and precision of the models, while reducing epistemic uncertainties.

  15. Engine combustion control via fuel reactivity stratification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reitz, Rolf Deneys; Hanson, Reed M; Splitter, Derek A; Kokjohn, Sage L

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression ignition engine uses two or more fuel charges having two or more reactivities to control the timing and duration of combustion. In a preferred implementation, a lower-reactivity fuel charge is injected or otherwise introduced into the combustion chamber, preferably sufficiently early that it becomes at least substantially homogeneously dispersed within the chamber before a subsequent injection is made. One or more subsequent injections of higher-reactivity fuel charges are then made, and these preferably distribute the higher-reactivity matter within the lower-reactivity chamber space such that combustion begins in the higher-reactivity regions, and with the lower-reactivity regions following thereafter. By appropriately choose the reactivities of the charges, their relative amounts, and their timing, combustion can be tailored to achieve optimal power output (and thus fuel efficiency), at controlled temperatures (and thus controlled NOx), and with controlled equivalence ratios (and thus controlled soot).

  16. Compendium of Regulatory Requirements Governing Underground Injection of Drilling Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, Markus G.; Bryson, Bill; Veil, John A.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies.

  17. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Ray A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID); McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers.

  18. Pressurized feed-injection spray-forming apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, R.A.; Fincke, J.R.; McHugh, K.M.

    1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray apparatus and method are disclosed for injecting a heated, pressurized liquid in a first predetermined direction into a pressurized gas flow that is flowing in a second predetermined direction, to provide for atomizing and admixing the liquid with the gas to form a two-phase mixture. A valve is also disposed within the injected liquid conduit to provide for a pulsed injection of the liquid and timed deposit of the atomized gas phase. Preferred embodiments include multiple liquid feed ports and reservoirs to provide for multiphase mixtures of metals, ceramics, and polymers. 22 figs.

  19. Thermal Particle Injection in Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald C. Ellison; Pasquale Blasi; Stefano Gabici

    2005-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle acceleration in collisionless astrophysical shocks, i.e., diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), is the most likely mechanism for producing cosmic rays, at least below 10^{15} eV. Despite the success of this theory, several key elements, including the injection of thermal particles, remains poorly understood. We investigate injection in strongly nonlinear shocks by comparing a semi-analytic model of DSA with a Monte Carlo model. These two models treat injection quite differently and we show, for a particular set of parameters, how these differences influence the overall acceleration efficiency and the shape of the broad-band distribution function.

  20. Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

  1. Fluid escape from reservoirs: implications from cold seeps, fractures and injected sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Adriano

    Abstract Fluid escape from reservoirs: implications from cold seeps, fractures and injected sands fluids escape from hydrocarbon reservoirs through permeable networks of fractures, injected sands. Within fractures and injected sands, oxidation of chained hydrocarbons supplies bicarbonate to the co

  2. Idaho Application for Permit to Convert a Geothermal Injection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Idaho Application for Permit to Convert a Geothermal Injection Well - Form 4003-3 Form Type ApplicationNotice Form...

  3. Premixed direct injection nozzle for highly reactive fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Uhm, Jong Ho; Zuo, Baifang

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel/air mixing tube for use in a fuel/air mixing tube bundle is provided. The fuel/air mixing tube includes an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis between an inlet end and an exit end, the outer tube wall having a thickness extending between an inner tube surface having a inner diameter and an outer tube surface having an outer tube diameter. The tube further includes at least one fuel injection hole having a fuel injection hole diameter extending through the outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. The feasibility of deep well injection for brine disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spongberg, Martin Edward

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    feasibility. The methodology is utilized to make a preliminary evaluation of a proposed brine injection project in the Dove Creek area of King and Stonewall Counties, North Central Texas. Four known deep aquifers are modeled, using the SWIFT/486 software...

  5. Collagen scaffolds and injectable biopolymer gels for cardiac tissue engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Karen Kailin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds have begun to shown promise for cell delivery for cardiac tissue engineering. Although various polymers and material forms have been explored, there is a need for: injectable gels ...

  6. The design, manufacturing and use of economically friendly injection molds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchok, Aaron (Aaron J.)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much of the polymer manufacturing done today involves the process of injection molding. It can be difficult to gain experience in the art of designing and building tooling for this process outside of industry. The goal of ...

  7. Lithium pellet injection into high pressure magnetically confined plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Böse, Brock (Brock Darrel)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ablation of solid pellets injected into high temperature magnetically confined plasmas is characterized by rapid oscillations in the ablation rate, and the formation of field aligned filaments in the ablatant. High ...

  8. Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Resistivity...

  9. Improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery using polymer injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchett, R.T.; McGough, K.M.; Luttrell, G.H.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reports the improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery process using polymer injection technology. Field test and economic analysis are also included in the paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by Emulsification With Injected Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez Cedillo, Arturo Rey

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In-situ oil-in-water emulsion generation, using modified silica hydrophilic nanoparticles as emulsifier, has been proposed as an enhanced oil recovery process. The nanoparticles are injected as an aqueous dispersion; its hydrophilic character allows...

  11. INJECTION AND THERMAL BREAKTHROUGH IN FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    injection into a fractured reservoir system. A reservoirIn the case of fractured reservoirs, Equations (25) and (26)c ww q a >> For fractured reservoirs, the former expression

  12. Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9 4.5.3 Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers, California, Geothermal Field...

  13. Transport of Injected Isobutane by Thermal Groundwater in Long...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Injected Isobutane by Thermal Groundwater in Long Valley Caldera, California, USA, In- Water-Rock Interaction-11 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  14. Development of an injection augmentation program at the Dixie...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and constructing a polyethylene pipeline to a dedicated injector.During the first two years of this program four different injectors have been utilized and tested.An injection...

  15. Injectivity and stability for a generic class of generalized Radon ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    then show injectivity and stability for an open, dense subset of smooth generalized Radon ..... ei(s??(y,?))s w(y, ?)J(y, ?)f(y) dVol(y) ds. = ?. M1. KRw (s

  16. CTI in NSTX, Proposal for Compact Toroid Injection in NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Raman

    2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final Report summarizing the activities of the proposal to invetigate the potential of deep fueling a spherical torus or tokamak using high velocity injection of compact toroids.

  17. Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. ace009wallner2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Optimization of Direct-Injection H2 Combustion Engine Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions H2...

  18. First results on disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Yaowei [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Kim, Young-Ok; Kim, Hak-Kun; Kim, Hong-Tack; Kim, Woong-Chae; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Son, Soo-Hyun; Bang, Eun-Nam; Hong, Suk-Ho; Yoon, Si-Woo [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Zhuang Huidong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen Zhongyong [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive gas injection (MGI) system was developed on Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) in 2011 campaign for disruption studies. The MGI valve has a volume of 80 ml and maximum injection pressure of 50 bar, the diameter of valve orifice to vacuum vessel is 18.4 mm, the distance between MGI valve and plasma edge is {approx}3.4 m. The MGI power supply employs a large capacitor of 1 mF with the maximum voltage of 3 kV, the valve can be opened in less than 0.1 ms, and the amount of MGI can be controlled by the imposed voltage. During KSTAR 2011 campaign, MGI disruptions are carried out by triggering MGI during the flat top of circular and limiter discharges with plasma current 400 kA and magnetic field 2-3.5 T, deuterium injection pressure 39.7 bar, and imposed voltage 1.1-1.4 kV. The results show that MGI could mitigate the heat load and prevent runaway electrons with proper MGI amount, and MGI penetration is deeper under higher amount of MGI or lower magnetic field. However, plasma start-up is difficult after some of D{sub 2} MGI disruptions due to the high deuterium retention and consequently strong outgassing of deuterium in next shot, special effort should be made to get successful plasma start-up after deuterium MGI under the graphite first wall.

  19. Optoelectronic device with nanoparticle embedded hole injection/transport layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qingwu (Chelmsford, MA); Li, Wenguang (Andover, MA); Jiang, Hua (Methuen, MA)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic device is disclosed that can function as an emitter of optical radiation, such as a light-emitting diode (LED), or as a photovoltaic (PV) device that can be used to convert optical radiation into electrical current, such as a photovoltaic solar cell. The optoelectronic device comprises an anode, a hole injection/transport layer, an active layer, and a cathode, where the hole injection/transport layer includes transparent conductive nanoparticles in a hole transport material.

  20. Injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Livermore, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Dublin, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection locked oscillator system for pulsed metal vapor lasers is disclosed. The invention includes the combination of a seeding oscillator with an injection locked oscillator (ILO) for improving the quality, particularly the intensity, of an output laser beam pulse. The present invention includes means for matching the first seeder laser pulses from the seeding oscillator to second laser pulses of a metal vapor laser to improve the quality, and particularly the intensity, of the output laser beam pulse.

  1. The Armco/B and W coal injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, J.R. [AK Steel Corp., Ashland, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A general presentation is given of the development of pulverized coal injection at the Ashland Works from the initial installation in 1963 to the present. An explanation of the flow sheets for pulverization and injection along with safety and explosion prevention will be discussed. The unique parameters of the Armco/B and W system will be explained and the operations at various steel plants presented.

  2. Heat transfer and film cooling with steam injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Gary Eugene

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEAT TRANSFER AND FILM COOLING WITH STEAM INJECTION A Thesis by GARY EUGENE CONKLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND FILM COOLING WITH STEAM INJECTION A Thesis by GARY EUGENE CONKLIN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (Member) (Memb e r) (Me r (Head Departme ) May 1982 ABSTRACT Heat...

  3. An investigation of thermal spray structural reaction injection molded composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Bryan William

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SPRAY STRUCTURAL REACTION INJECTION MOLDED COMPOSITES A Thesis BRYAN WILLIAM HILL, IH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AJtM University in partial fulfilhnent of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL SPRAY STRUCTURAL REACTION INJECTION MOLDED COMPOSITES A Thesis by BRYAN WILLIAM HILL, III Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  4. Rep-Rated Target Injection for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, D.T.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Drake, T.J.; Egli, W.; Vermillion, B.A.; Klasen, R.; Cleary, M.M

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) with laser drivers is a pulsed power generation system that relies on repetitive, high-speed injection of targets into a fusion reactor. To produce an economically viable IFE power plant the targets must be injected into the reactor at a rate between 5 and 10 Hz.To survive the injection process, direct drive (laser fusion) targets (spherical capsules) are placed into protective sabots. The sabots separate from the target and are stripped off before entering the reactor chamber. Indirect drive (heavy ion fusion) utilizes a hohlraum surrounding the spherical capsule and enters the chamber as one piece.In our target injection demonstration system, the sabots or hohlraums are injected into a vacuum system with a light gas gun using helium as a propellant. To achieve pulsed operation a rep-rated injection system has been developed. For a viable power plant we must be able to fire continuously at 6 Hz. This demonstration system is currently set up to allow bursts of up to 12 targets at 6 Hz. Using the current system, tests have been successfully run with direct drive targets to show sabot separation under vacuum and at barrel exit velocities of {approx}400 m/s.The existing revolver system along with operational data will be presented.

  5. Injection efficiency in a cyclic induction accelerator with constant driving field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simukhin, N.; Chakhlov, V.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The injection efficeincy as a function of the accelerating voltage for injection currents of varying duration and amplitudes for the cyclic induction electron accelerator has been determined. (AIP)

  6. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where fly ash is sold as a by-product.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of contaminant injection location and injection method on the determination of overall relative room ventilation efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen Dale

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate an emerging concept called ventilation effectiveness at several points in a real room. Ventilation effectiveness was calculated using the pulse and step-up injection methods which were performed in four...

  8. Climate Control Using Nuclear Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moninder Singh Modgil

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine implications of anthropogenic low pressure regions, - created by injecting heat from nuclear reactors, into atmosphere. We suggest the possibility that such artificially generated low pressure regions, near hurricanes could disrupt their growth, path, and intensity. This method can also create controlled tropical stroms, which lead to substantial rainfall in arid areas, such as - (1)Sahara desert, (2) Australian interior desert, and (3) Indian Thar desert. A simple vortex suction model is developed to study, effect on atmospheric dynamics, by such a nuclear heat injection system.

  9. Methods, systems and apparatus for optimization of third harmonic current injection in a multi-phase machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, system and apparatus are provided for increasing voltage utilization in a five-phase vector controlled machine drive system that employs third harmonic current injection to increase torque and power output by a five-phase machine. To do so, a fundamental current angle of a fundamental current vector is optimized for each particular torque-speed of operating point of the five-phase machine.

  10. Optimal Waterflood Management under Geologic Uncertainty Using Rate Control: Theory and Field Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alhuthali, Ahmed Humaid H.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Waterflood optimization via rate control is receiving increased interest because of rapid developments in the smart well completions and I-field technology. The use of inflow control valves (ICV) allows us to optimize the production/injection rates...

  11. Analysis of PWR RCS Injection Strategy During Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, S.-J. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chiang, K.-S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taiwan (China); Chiang, S.-C. [Taiwan Power Company, Taiwan (China)

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactor coolant system (RCS) injection is an important strategy for severe accident management of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Maanshan is a typical Westinghouse PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) with large, dry containment. The severe accident management guideline (SAMG) of Maanshan NPP is developed based on the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) SAMG.The purpose of this work is to analyze the RCS injection strategy of PWR system in an overheated core condition. Power is assumed recovered as the vessel water level drops to the bottom of active fuel. The Modular Accident Analysis Program version 4.0.4 (MAAP4) code is chosen as a tool for analysis. A postulated station blackout sequence for Maanshan NPP is cited as a reference case for this analysis. The hot leg creep rupture occurs during the mitigation action with immediate injection after power recovery according to WOG SAMG, which is not desired. This phenomenon is not considered while developing the WOG SAMG. Two other RCS injection methods are analyzed by using MAAP4. The RCS injection strategy is modified in the Maanshan SAMG. These results can be applied for typical PWR NPPs.

  12. Experimental study of curved guide tubes for pellet injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, S.K.; Baylor, L.R.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Milora, S.L.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of curved guide tubes for transporting frozen hydrogen pellets offers great flexibility for pellet injection into plasma devices. While this technique has been previously employed, an increased interest in its applicability has been generated with the recent ASDEX Upgrade experimental data for magnetic high-field side (HFS) pellet injection. In these innovative experiments, the pellet penetration appeared to be significantly deeper than for the standard magnetic low-field side injection scheme, along with corresponding greater fueling efficiencies. Thus, some of the major experimental fusion devices are planning experiments with HFS pellet injection. Because of the complex geometries of experimental fusion devices, installations with multiple curved guide tube sections will be required for HFS pellet injection. To more thoroughly understand and document the capability of curved guide tubes, an experimental study is under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In particular, configurations and pellet parameters applicable for the DIII-D tokamak and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) were simulated in laboratory experiments. Initial test results with nominal 2.7- and 10-mm-diam deuterium pellets are presented and discussed.

  13. Fueling efficiency of pellet injection on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ali Mahdavi, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection has been used on the DIII-D tokamak to study density limits and particle transport in H-mode and inner wall limited L-mode plasmas. These experiments have provided a variety of conditions in which to examine the fueling efficiency of pellets injected into DIII-D plasmas. The fueling efficiency defined as the total increase in number of plasma electrons divided by the number of pellet fuel atoms, is determined by measurements of density profiles before and just after pellet injection. The authors have found that there is a decrease in the pellet fueling efficiency with increased neutral beam injection power. The pellet penetration depth also decreases with increased neutral beam injection power so that, in general, fueling efficiency increases with penetration depth. The fueling efficiency is generally 25% lower in ELMing H-mode discharges than in L-mode due to an expulsion of particles with a pellet triggered ELM. A comparison with fueling efficiency data from other tokamaks shows similar behavior.

  14. Active noise control of supersonic impinging jet using pulsed microjets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Seung Hyuck

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis concerns an active noise control of supersonic impinging jet flow using unsteady microjet injection. Supersonic impinging jet involves several problems such as lift loss, ground erosion, significant noise ...

  15. Persistent Density Perturbations at Rational q Surfaces Following Pellet Injection in the Joint European Torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persistent Density Perturbations at Rational q Surfaces Following Pellet Injection in the Joint European Torus

  16. Coupled reservoir-geomechanical analysis of CO2 injection and ground deformations at In Salah, Algeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutqvist, J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO 2 sequestration; In Salah; geomechanics; ground surfaceCO 2 injection, geomechanics, and ground surface

  17. Massive Gas Injection Experiments at JET – Performance and Characterisation of the Disruption Mitigation Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massive Gas Injection Experiments at JET – Performance and Characterisation of the Disruption Mitigation Valve

  18. NON-ISOTHERMAL INJECTION MOULDING WITH RESIN CURE AND PREFORM DEFORMABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preziosi, Luigi

    Transfer Molding), SRIM (Structural Resin Injection Molding), SCRIMP (Seeman Com- posite Resin Infusion

  19. Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing Kjetil M. D. Hals1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Juan

    fluid to create fracture networks in rock layers with low permeabilities. A fracking fluid is injected

  20. The application of high frequency seismic monitoring methods for the mapping of fluid injections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes experimental work using seismic methods for monitoring the path of fluid injections. The most obvious application is the high pressure fluid injections for the purpose of hydrofracturing. Other applications are the injection of grout into shallow subsurface structures and the disposal of fluids in the geothermal and toxic waste industries. In this paper hydrofracture monitoring and grout injections will be discussed.

  1. Measurement of the Fractional Thermonuclear Neutron Yield during Deuterium Neutral-Beam Injection into Deuterium Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the Fractional Thermonuclear Neutron Yield during Deuterium Neutral-Beam Injection into Deuterium Plasmas

  2. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device. This project is conducted in three phases at each site: (1) Design and Permitting, (2) Construction and Startup, and (3) Operation, Data Collection, Reporting and Disposition. Progress is discussed.

  3. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, is on hold'' because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80{endash}85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device.

  4. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device.

  5. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on three coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices; tangential, wall, and cyclone fired. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80--85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace, at the superheater exit or into the ducting following the air heater. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates and sulfites, which are collected in the particulate control device.

  6. Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

  7. Experimental study of enhancement of injectivity and in-situ oil upgrading by steam-propane injection for the Hamaca heavy oil field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility of using propane as a steam additive to accelerate oil production and improve steam injectivity in the Hamaca field, Venezuela. The experiments utilized a vertical injection cell into which a...

  8. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program Hot Oxygen Injection Into The Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael F. Riley

    2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased levels of blast furnace coal injection are needed to further lower coke requirements and provide more flexibility in furnace productivity. The direct injection of high temperature oxygen with coal in the blast furnace blowpipe and tuyere offers better coal dispersion at high local oxygen concentrations, optimizing the use of oxygen in the blast furnace. Based on pilot scale tests, coal injection can be increased by 75 pounds per ton of hot metal (lb/thm), yielding net savings of $0.84/tm. Potential productivity increases of 15 percent would yield another $1.95/thm. In this project, commercial-scale hot oxygen injection from a ''thermal nozzle'' system, patented by Praxair, Inc., has been developed, integrated into, and demonstrated on two tuyeres of the U.S. Steel Gary Works no. 6 blast furnace. The goals were to evaluate heat load on furnace components from hot oxygen injection, demonstrate a safe and reliable lance and flow control design, and qualitatively observe hot oxygen-coal interaction. All three goals have been successfully met. Heat load on the blowpipe is essentially unchanged with hot oxygen. Total heat load on the tuyere increases about 10% and heat load on the tuyere tip increases about 50%. Bosh temperatures remained within the usual operating range. Performance in all these areas is acceptable. Lance performance was improved during testing by changes to lance materials and operating practices. The lance fuel tip was changed from copper to a nickel alloy to eliminate oxidation problems that severely limited tip life. Ignition flow rates and oxygen-fuel ratios were changed to counter the effects of blowpipe pressure fluctuations caused by natural resonance and by coal/coke combustion in the tuyere and raceway. Lances can now be reliably ignited using the hot blast as the ignition source. Blowpipe pressures were analyzed to evaluate ht oxygen-coal interactions. The data suggest that hot oxygen increases coal combustion in the blow pipe and tuyere by 30, in line with pilot scale tests conducted previously.

  9. Injection and acceleration of Au31+ in the BNL AGS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer,W.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, W.; Huang, H.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Thieberger, P.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, S.Y.; Zeno, K.; Omet, C.; Spiller, P.

    2008-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection and acceleration of ions in a lower charge state reduces space charge effects, and, if further elcctron stripping is needed, may allow elimination of a stripping stage and the associated beam losses. The former is of interest to the accelerators in the GSI FAIR complex, the latter for BNL RHIC collider operation at energies lower than the current injection energy. Lower charge state ions, however, have a higher likelihood of electron stripping which can lead to dynamic pressures rises and subsequent beam losses. We report on experiments in the AGS where Au{sup 31+} ions were injected and accelerated instead of the normally used Au{sup 77+} ions. Beam intensities and the average pressure in the AGS ring are recorded, and compared with calculations for dynamic pressures and beam losses. The experimental results will be used to benchmark the StrahlSim dynamic vacuum code and will be incorporated in the GSI FAIR SIS100 design.

  10. Plasma and Ion Beam Injection into an FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.; Bystritskii, V.; Garate, E.; Rostoker, N.; Song, Y.; Drie, A. van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy Inc., Foothill Ranch, CA, 92610 (United States); Isakov, I. [Institute of High Voltage Technology, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2005-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments on the transverse injection of intense (5-20 A/cm{sup 2}), wide cross-section (10-cm), neutralized, {approx}100-eV H{sup +} plasma and 100-keV H{sup +} ion beams into a preformed B-field reversed configuration (FRC) are described. The FRC background plasma temperature was {approx}5 eV with densities of {approx}10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. In contrast to earlier experiments, the background plasma was generated by separate plasma gun arrays. For the startup of the FRC, a betatron-type 'slow' coaxial source was used. Injection of the plasma beam into the preformed FRC resulted in a 30-40% increase of the FRC lifetime and the amplitude of the reversed magnetic field. As for the ion beam injection experiment into the preformed FRC, there was evidence of beam capture within the configuration.

  11. Injection Related Background due to the Transverse Feedback

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, F.J.; Akre, R.; Fisher, A.; Iverson, R.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The background in the BaBar detector is especially high during injection, when most components are actually having reduced voltages. The situation is worse for the beam in High Energy Ring (HER) when the LER beam is present. It was found that the transverse feedback system plays an important role when stacking more charge on top of existing bunches. Lowering the feedback gain helped and it was realized later that the best scenario would be to gate off the feedback for only the one bunch, which got additional charge injected into it. The explanation is that the blown-up, but centered, original HER bunch plus the small injected off-axis bunch (each with half the charge) would stay in the ring if not touched, but the feedback system sees half the offset and wants to correct it, therefore disturbing and scraping the blown-up part.

  12. Design and performance of a punch mechanism based pellet injector for alternative injection in the large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, J. S. [Graduate University for Advanced Studies, SOKENDAI Toki, 509-5292 (Japan); Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Matsuyama, A.; Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low speed single barrel pellet injector, using a mechanical punch device has been developed for alternative injection in the large helical device. A pellet is injected by the combined operation of a mechanical punch and a pneumatic propellant system. The pellet shape is cylindrical, 3 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length. Using this technique the speed of the pellet can be controlled flexibly in the range of 100-450 m/s, and a higher speed can be feasible for a higher gas pressure. The injector is equipped with a guide tube selector to direct the pellet to different injection locations. Pellets are exposed to several curved parts with the curvature radii R{sub c}= 0.8 and 0.3 m when they are transferred in guided tubes to the respective injection locations. Pellet speed variation with pressure at different pellet formation temperatures has been observed. Pellet intactness tests through these guide tubes show a variation in the intact speed limit over a range of pellet formation temperatures from 6.5 to 9.8 K. Pellet speed reduction of less than 6% has been observed after the pellet moves through the curved guide tubes.

  13. Heat transfer and film cooling with steam injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Gary Eugene

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The cooling medium was injected through the side of the test section into the blade. The apparatus and test section are shown in Figure 3. Great care was taken in the design of the wind tunnel which was designed to be subsonic with uniform flow and a low... 48 inch overall length. The blade was positioned 24 inches from the leading edge of the test section. D. Test Material The aluminum blade was a straight airfoil with a cir- cular leading edge and three staggered rows of injection holes. Using...

  14. Dynamical switching characteristics of a bistable injection laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Harder, C.; Yariv, A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switching characteristics of a bistable injection laser with very large hysteresis is examined. Switch-on delays are shown to exhibit a ''critical'' part and a ''noncritical'' part, both of which can be reduced by increasing the overdrive current. It is possible to obtain fairly fast switching time (<20 ns) with a strong overdrive. Nominal delays of 100--200 ns result under moderate overdrives. These long time scales are due to long carrier lifetimes in the carrier-depleted absorption section, a property intrinsic to these bistable injection lasers.

  15. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  16. A bulk-flow model of angled injection Lomakin bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soulas, Thomas Antoine Theo

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and null or even negative whirl frequency ratios. K i m and Lee [24] present rotordynamic coefficients and leakage test results for annular seals which use an anti-swirl self- injection concept to yield significant... of cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and null or even negative whirl frequency ratios. K i m and Lee [24] present rotordynamic coefficients and leakage test results for annular seals which use an anti-swirl self- injection concept to yield significant...

  17. Materials for High-Pressure Fuel Injection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.; Shyam, A.; Hubbard, C.; Howe, J.; Trejo, R.; Yang, N. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center) [Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center; Pollard, M. (Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center) [Caterpillar, Inc. Technical Center

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-level goal of this multi-year effort was to facilitate the Advanced Combustion Engine goal of 20% improvement (compared to 2009 baseline) of commercial engine efficiency by 2015. A sub-goal is to increase the reliability of diesel fuel injectors by investigating modelbased scenarios that cannot be achieved by empirical, trial and error methodologies alone. During this three-year project, ORNL developed the methodology to evaluate origins and to record the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks emanating from holes that were electrodischarge machined (EDM), the method used to form spray holes in fuel injector tips. Both x-ray and neutron-based methods for measuring residual stress at four different research facilities were evaluated to determine which, if any, was most applicable to the fuel injector tip geometry. Owing to the shape and small volumes of material involved in the sack area, residual stress data could only be obtained in the walls of the nozzle a few millimeters back from the tip, and there was a hint of only a small compressive stress. This result was consistent with prior studies by Caterpillar. Residual stress studies were suspended after the second year, reserving the possibility of pursuing this in the future, if and when methodology suitable for injector sacks becomes available. The smooth specimen fatigue behavior of current fuel injector steel materials was evaluated and displayed a dual mode initiation behavior. At high stresses, cracks started at machining flaws in the surface; however, below a critical threshold stress of approximately 800 MPa, cracks initiated in the bulk microstructure, below the surface. This suggests that for the next generation for high-pressure fuel injector nozzles, it becomes increasingly important to control the machining and finishing processes, especially if the stress in the tip approaches or exceeds that threshold level. Fatigue tests were also conducted using EDM notches in the gage sections. Compared to the smooth specimens, EDM notching led to a severe reduction in total fatigue life. A reduction in fatigue life of nearly four orders of magnitude can occur at an EDM notch the approximate size of fuel injector spray holes. Consequently, the initiation and propagation behavior of cracks from small spray holes is relevant for generation of design quality data for the next generation diesel fuel injection devices. This is especially true since the current design methodologies usually rely on the less conservative smooth specimen fatigue testing results, and since different materials can have varying levels of notch fatigue resistance.

  18. VAX/VMS file protection on the STC (Scientific and Technical Computing) VAXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is a guide to use the file protection mechanisms available on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Scientific and Technical Computing (STC) System VAXes. User identification codes (UICs) and general identifiers are discussed as a basis for understanding UIC-based and access control list (ACL) protection. 5 figs.

  19. VAX/VMS file protection on the KSV VAXes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is a guide to use of the file protection mechanisms available on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. KSV VAXes. User identification codes (UICs) and general identifiers are discussed as a basis for understanding UIC-based and access control list (ACL) protection.

  20. Pressure modulated injection and its effect on combustion and emissions of a HD diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlach, H.; Chmela, F.; Cartellieri, W.; Herzog, P.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the concept selection, design and performance of a fuel injection equipment (FIE) which provides high flexibility in shaping the injection rate. With this injection system standard and boot shaped injection rates as well as pilot injections and post injections can be achieved throughout the hole speed and load range. Special emphasis was drawn to realize boot rate shaping by pressure modulation rather than by throttling the fuel flow (i.e.: the system is operated with fully opened needle during the whole injection period and no throttling device limits the fuel flow in front of the nozzle to reduce the injection rate). Initial engine tests on a single cylinder research engine with 2 liter displacement were carried out at one operating point (1,000 rpm, 200 mm{sup 3}/str = 75% of full load fueling). Boot and pilot (split) injection rate shaping strategies are compared to a standard injection without rate shaping. At constant smoke and BSFC the boot injection shows a considerable improvement potential in NOx emissions of up to {minus}14%, or NOx and BSFC can be reduced simultaneously by {minus}9% and {minus}7%, respectively. The results with pilot injection are less promising than the results with boot injection. Furthermore, they are sensitive to pilot timing and to injection pressure as well as fueling during pilot injection.

  1. The Ampersand 1 November 2000 UIC Honors College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    Honors Council annual conference in Washington D.C. Along with Dean Madia, Randi Zillmer, and Jennifer

  2. The Ampersand 1 April 2001 UIC Honors College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    , Maria Valareza, Esmeralda Vazquez, Kristina Veljkovic, Vidhya Viswanathan, Magdalena Wadowska, Zhou Min

  3. The Ampersand 1 April 2000 UIC Honors College

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Arie, Jezekiel

    -Carons,Anne Panek, Rena Patel, Michelle Prestidge, Kristin Rylko, Daniel Swartz, Esmeralda Vasquez, and Sofiya

  4. WSDE Online System for Registering UIC Wells webpage | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwide Permit webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI

  5. University of Illinois Chicago UIC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtleCooperative Place:2.850084°, -96.793108°

  6. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mines, Greg

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  7. Production and Injection data for NV Binary facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Greg

    2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Excel files are provided with well production and injection data for binary facilities in Nevada. The files contain the data that reported montly to the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology (NBMG) by the facility operators. this data has been complied into Excel spreadsheets for each of the facilities given on the NBMG web site.

  8. Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wünsche, Hans-Jürgen "Ede"

    Mutually injecting semiconductor lasers: simulations for short and zero delay Nikolay Korneyev a und Stochastik, Mohrenstr. 39, 10117 Berlin, Germany ABSTRACT Distant lasers with mutual optical the relaxation oscillation period. In order to illuminate the role of these short delays, the ultimate zero

  9. Acceleration Rates and Injection Efficiencies in Oblique Shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Ellison; M. G. Baring; F. C. Jones

    1995-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate at which particles are accelerated by the first-order Fermi mechanism in shocks depends on the angle, \\teq{\\Tbone}, that the upstream magnetic field makes with the shock normal. The greater the obliquity the greater the rate, and in quasi-perpendicular shocks rates can be hundreds of times higher than those seen in parallel shocks. In many circumstances pertaining to evolving shocks (\\eg, supernova blast waves and interplanetary traveling shocks), high acceleration rates imply high maximum particle energies and obliquity effects may have important astrophysical consequences. However, as is demonstrated here, the efficiency for injecting thermal particles into the acceleration mechanism also depends strongly on obliquity and, in general, varies inversely with \\teq{\\Tbone}. The degree of turbulence and the resulting cross-field diffusion strongly influences both injection efficiency and acceleration rates. The test particle \\mc simulation of shock acceleration used here assumes large-angle scattering, computes particle orbits exactly in shocked, laminar, non-relativistic flows, and calculates the injection efficiency as a function of obliquity, Mach number, and degree of turbulence. We find that turbulence must be quite strong for high Mach number, highly oblique shocks to inject significant numbers of thermal particles and that only modest gains in acceleration rates can be expected for strong oblique shocks over parallel ones if the only source of seed particles is the thermal background.

  10. Compendium of regulatory requirements governing underground injection of drilling waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puder, M. G.; Bryson, B.; Veil, J. A.

    2002-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Large quantities of waste are produced when oil and gas wells are drilled. The two primary types of drilling wastes include used drilling fluids (commonly referred to as muds), which serve a variety of functions when wells are drilled, and drill cuttings (rock particles ground up by the drill bit). Some oil-based and synthetic-based muds are recycled; other such muds, however, and nearly all water-based muds, are disposed of. Numerous methods are employed to manage drilling wastes, including burial of drilling pit contents, land spreading, thermal processes, bioremediation, treatment and reuse, and several types of injection processes. This report provides a comprehensive compendium of the regulatory requirements governing the injection processes used for disposing of drilling wastes; in particular, for a process referred to in this report as slurry injection. The report consists of a narrative discussion of the regulatory requirements and practices for each of the oil- and gas-producing states, a table summarizing the types of injection processes authorized in each state, and an appendix that contains the text of many of the relevant state regulations and policies. The material included in the report was derived primarily from a review of state regulations and from interviews with state oil and gas regulatory officials.

  11. September 26th, 2006 The Use of Water Injection for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    methane Coal surface Desorption of Methane and Gas Production #12;Coal surface Abandoned CBM Well Depleted Reservoir #12;Coal surface CO2 Injection Process CO2 molecule #12;Coal surface Free CO2 on the Cleat System for Reservoir Data Model Design Conclusions, Publications, Redesign #12;Defining the Model #12;Model Design

  12. EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION INTO FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-57 SGP-TR-57 EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION INTO FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS: A SUMMARY INTO FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS A SUMMARY OP EXPERImCE WORtDWIDE Roland N. Horne Stanford University ABSTRACT Reinjection of water i n t o fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both f o r

  13. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  14. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  15. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  16. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  17. New Pellet Injection Schemes on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, P.M.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Jernigan, T.C.; Robinson, J.I.

    1999-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The pellet fueling system on DIII-D has been modified for injection of deuterium pellets from two vertical ports and two inner wall locations on the magnetic high-field side (HFS) of the tokamak. The HFS pellet injection technique was first employed on ASDEX-Upgrade with significant improvements reported in both pellet penetration and fueling efficiency. The new pellet injection schemes on DIII-D required the installation of new guide tubes. These lines are {approx_equal}12.5 m in total length and are made up of complex bends and turns (''roller coaster'' like) to route pellets from the injector to the plasma, including sections inside the torus. The pellet speed at which intact pellets can survive through the curved guide tubes is limited ({approx_equal}200-300 m/s for HFS injection schemes). Thus, one of the three gas guns on the injector was modified to provide pellets in a lower speed regime than the original guns (normal speed range {approx_equal}500 to 1000 m/s). The guide tube installations and gun modifications are described along with the injector operating parameters, and the latest test results are highlighted.

  18. Overview of Recent Developments in Pellet Injection for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Maruyama, So [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pellet injection is the primary fueling technique planned for core fueling of ITER burning plasmas. Also, the injection of relatively small pellets to purposely trigger rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) has been proposed as a possible solution to the heat flux damage from larger natural ELMs likely to be an issue on the ITER divertor surfaces. The ITER pellet injection system is designed to inject pellets into the plasma through both inner and outer wall guide tubes. The inner wall guide tubes will provide high throughput pellet fueling while the outerwall guide tubes will be used primarily to trigger ELMs at a high frequency (>15 Hz). The pellet fueling rate ofeach injector is to be up to 120 Pa-m3/s, which will require the formation of solid D-T at a volumetric rate of ~1500 mm3/s. Two injectors are to be provided for ITER at the startup with a provision for up to six injectorsduring the D-T phase. The required throughput of each injector is greater than that of any injector built to date, and a novel twin-screw continuous extrusion system is being developed to meet the challenging design parameters. Status of the development activities will be presented, highlighting recent progress.

  19. Duct injection technology prototype development: Nozzle development Subtask 4.1, Atomizer specifications for duct injection technology. Topical report 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Babcock & Wilcox has conducted a program to identify atomizers appropriate for successful in-duct injection of humidification water and lime slurries. The purpose of this program was to identify and quantify atomizer spray and performance criteria that affect the operations and reliability of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal process, and compare commercially available atomizers to these criteria.

  20. Reservoir characterization based on tracer response and rank analysis of production and injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Refunjol, B.T. [Lagoven, S.A., Pdvsa (Venezuela); Lake, L.W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of the spatial distribution of properties is important for many reservoir-engineering applications. But, before applying any reservoir-characterization technique, the type of problem to be tackled and the information available should be analyzed. This is important because difficulties arise in reservoirs where production records are the only information for analysis. This paper presents the results of a practical technique to determine preferential flow trends in a reservoir. The technique is a combination of reservoir geology, tracer data, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. The Spearman analysis, in particular, will prove to be important because it appears to be insightful and uses injection/production data that are prevalent in circumstances where other data are nonexistent. The technique is applied to the North Buck Draw field, Campbell County, Wyoming. This work provides guidelines to assess information about reservoir continuity in interwell regions from widely available measurements of production and injection rates at existing wells. The information gained from the application of this technique can contribute to both the daily reservoir management and the future design, control, and interpretation of subsequent projects in the reservoir, without the need for additional data.

  1. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Pablo Gentil; Nazli Demiroren

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details progress on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project is to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Jensen et al. (2005) and Yousef et al. (2005), and herein referred to as the ''capacitance model'', produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. We have focused on the following items: (1) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (2) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the capacitance model and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Initial tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (3) Spectral analysis of injection and production data to estimate interwell connectivity and to assess the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. Development of methods and analysis are ongoing. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of the capacitance method. These methods include revising the solution method to simultaneously estimate {lambda} and {tau} for each well pair. This approach allows for further constraints to be imposed during the computation, such as limiting {tau} to a range of values defined by the sampling interval and duration of the field data. This work is proceeding. Further work on this project includes the following: (1) Refinement and testing of the waterflood optimization process, including optimization on more complex situations e.g., time effects on revenue and water injection and disposal costs. (2) Completion of the spectral-based analysis and determination of the effects of near-wellbore gas on the results. (3) Revision of the capacitance model procedures to provide more robust results which are insensitive to the initial estimates of {tau} needed in the nonlinear regression.

  2. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  3. Method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, Brian P.; Dwyer, Stephen F.; Vigil, Francine S.; Stewart, Willis E.

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and apparatus for injecting particulate media into the ground for constructing underground permeable reactive barriers, which are used for environmental remediation of subsurface contaminated soil and water. A media injector sub-assembly attached to a triple wall drill string pipe sprays a mixture of active particulate media suspended in a carrier fluid radially outwards from the sub-assembly, at the same time that a mixing fluid is sprayed radially outwards. The media spray intersects the mixing spray at a relatively close distance from the point of injection, which entrains the particulate media into the mixing spray and ensures a uniform and deep dispersion of the active media in the surrounding soil. The media injector sub-assembly can optionally include channels for supplying compressed air to an attached down-the-hole hammer drive assembly for use during drilling.

  4. Injection/Extraction Studies for the Muon FFAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasternak, J. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); STFC/RAL/ISIS, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Aslaninejad, M. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Berg, J. Scott [BNL, Upton, Long Island, New York (United States); Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S. [STFC/ASTeC/RAL, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring is a candidate muon accelerator in the Neutrino Factory complex according to the present baseline, which is currently being addressed by the International Design Study (IDS-NF). In order to achieve small orbit excursion, motivated by magnet cost reduction, and small time of flight variation, dictated by the need to use high RF frequency, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry dictates very difficult constraints on the injection/extraction systems. Beam dynamics in the non-scaling FFAG is studied using codes capable of correctly tracking with large transverse amplitude and momentum spread. The feasibility of injection/extraction is studied and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. Finally the parameters of the resulting kicker magnets are estimated.

  5. End-fire injection of guided light into optical microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shuai; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Kaiyang; Xiao, Shumin; Lyu, Quan; Song, Qinghai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling light into microdisk plays a key role in a number of applications such as resonant filters and optical sensors. While several approaches have successfully coupled light into microdisk efficiently, most of them suffer from the ultrahigh sensitivity to the environmental vibration. Here we demonstrate a robust mechanism, which is termed as end-fire injection. By connecting an input waveguide to a circular microdisk directly, the mechanism shows that light can be efficiently coupled into optical microcavity. The coupling efficiency can be as high as 0.75 when the input signals are on resonances. Our numerical results reveal that the high coupling efficiency is attributed to the constructive interference between the whispering gallery modes and the input signals. We have also shown that the end-fire injection can be further extended to the long-lived resonances with low refractive index such as n = 1.45. We believe our results will shed light on the applications of optical microcavities.

  6. Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterjis; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

  7. Numerical analysis of a microwave torch with axial gas injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Davydov, A. M.; Kossyi, I. A., E-mail: kossyi@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Kulumbaev, E. B. [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation)] [National Research University Belgorod State University (Russian Federation); Lelevkin, V. M. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)] [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of a microwave discharge in an argon jet injected axially into a coaxial channel with a shortened inner electrode are numerically analyzed using a self-consistent equilibrium gas-dynamic model. The specific features of the excitation and maintenance of the microwave discharge are determined, and the dependences of the discharge characteristics on the supplied electromagnetic power and gas flow rate are obtained. The calculated results are compared with experimental data.

  8. Electrically injected visible vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, R.P.; Lott, J.A.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Visible laser light output from an electrically injected vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VSCEL) diode is enabled by the addition of phase-matching spacer layers on either side of the active region to form the optical cavity. The spacer layers comprise InAlP which act as charge carrier confinement means. Distributed Bragg reflector layers are formed on either side of the optical cavity to act as mirrors. 5 figs.

  9. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  10. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff, E-mail: mkireeffcovo@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  11. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal with particular reference to the coals from the Illinois Basin. Although this research is not yet completed the results to date support the following conclusions: (1) based on the results of computer modeling, lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois Basin, compare well in their injection properties with a variety of other bituminous coals, although the replacement ratio improves with increasing rank; (2) based on the results of petrographic analysis of material collected from an active blast furnace, it is clear the coal derived char is entering into the raceway of the blast furnace; (3) the results of reactivity experiments on a variety of coal chars at a variety of reaction temperatures show that lower rank bituminous coals, including coal from the Illinois basin, yield chars with significantly higher reactivities in both air and CO{sub 2} than chars from higher rank Appalachian coals and blast furnace coke. These results indicate that the chars from the lower rank coals should have a superior burnout rate in the tuyere and should survive in the raceway environment for a shorter time. These coals, therefore, will have important advantages at high rates of injection that may overcome their slightly lower replacement rates.

  12. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the...

  13. Parenteral Hydrocarbon Injection and Associated Toxicities: Two Case Reports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Michael E.; Nasr, Isam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual Report of the American Association of Poison ControlCenters’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 29 th AnnualToxikon Consortium, Illinois Poison Control Center, Chicago,

  14. U-129: RSA enVision Bugs Permit Cross-Site Scripting, SQL Injection...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    U-129: RSA enVision Bugs Permit Cross-Site Scripting, SQL Injection, and Directory Traversal Attacks U-129: RSA enVision Bugs Permit Cross-Site Scripting, SQL Injection, and...

  15. Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Lean-NOx Trap Fuel Consumption and NOx Trade-offs on a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Gasoline...

  16. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  17. Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications Calibraton of a Directly Injected Natural Gas HD Engine for Class 8 Truck Applications This...

  18. Assessing the hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct injection spark ignited engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Radovanovic, Michael S

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of researching hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in a direct-injection spark ignited (DISI) engine, five experiments were performed. These experiments clarified the role of coolant temperature, injection pressure, ...

  19. Knock limits in spark ignited direct injected engines using gasoline/ethanol blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasseris, Emmanuel P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct Fuel Injection (DI) extends engine knock limits compared to Port Fuel Injection (PFI) by utilizing the in-cylinder charge cooling effect due to fuel evaporation. The use of gasoline/ethanol blends in DI is therefore ...

  20. Investigation of Hybrid Steam/Solvent Injection to Improve the Efficiency of the SAGD Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardali, Mojtaba

    2013-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    but also reservoir properties and operational conditions such as operating pressure and injection strategy. Pure heated solvent injection requires significant quantities. A vaporized solvent chamber is not sustainable due to low latent heat of the solvents...

  1. Soot formation in direct injection spark ignition engines under cold-idle operating conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketterer, Justin Edward

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct injection spark ignition engines are growing rapidly in popularity, largely due to the fuel efficiency improvements in the turbo-downsized engine configuration that are enabled by direct injection technology. ...

  2. Fault prophet : a fault injection tool for large scale computer systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tchwella, Tal

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I designed and implemented a fault injection tool, to study the impact of soft errors for large scale systems. Fault injection is used as a mechanism to simulate soft errors, measure the output variability ...

  3. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to better understand production mechanisms involved in steam-propane injection and to investigate effects of expected field pressure and temperature conditions on steam-propane injection...

  4. The Future of Injection Molding in Food Packaging for the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissbach, Kenneth

    2005-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    threaten the future of injection molding. Continued development of materials, and processing equipment as well as the use of in mold labeling and integrated tamper evident packaging are opportunities for injection molding. The environmental issues...

  5. A top-injection bottom-production cyclic steam stimulation method for enhanced heavy oil recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matus, Eric Robert

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method to enhance oil production during cyclic steam injection has been developed. In the Top-Injection and Bottom-Production (TINBOP) method, the well contains two strings separated by two packers (a dual and a ...

  6. Tritium flow through a non-symmetrical source. Simulation of gas flow through an injection hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharipov, Felix

    Tritium flow through a non-symmetrical source. Simulation of gas flow through an injection hole of source in injection rarefaction parameter µ0 viscosity of tritium at T0 Pa s 2 #12;Ll = 5074.5 Lr = 5007

  7. Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambers, James

    Coarse-scale Modeling of Flow in Gas-injection Processes for Enhanced Oil Recovery James V. Lambers of gas-injection processes for enhanced oil recovery may exhibit geometrically complex features

  8. V-075: EMC AlphaStor Command Injection and Format String Flaws...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5: EMC AlphaStor Command Injection and Format String Flaws Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-075: EMC AlphaStor Command Injection and Format String Flaws Let Remote Users...

  9. Design and characterization of a compact voice coil for a needle-free injection device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lui, Diana, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional needle-free injection (NFI) devices are driven by a pressure source generated by either a compressed spring mechanism or compressed inert gas, which have fixed injection (pressure versus time) profiles. The ...

  10. A Lorentz-force actuated needle-free intraocular injection device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, James E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intravitreal injection is a common treatment in ophthalmology, but it can lead to considerable patient anxiety and numerous complications. Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injection has been shown to successfully ...

  11. CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

  12. Coanda injection system for axially staged low emission combustors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evulet, Andrei Tristan (Clifton Park, NY); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); ElKady, Ahmed Mostafa (Niskayuna, NY); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The low emission combustor includes a combustor housing defining a combustion chamber having a plurality of combustion zones. A liner sleeve is disposed in the combustion housing with a gap formed between the liner sleeve and the combustor housing. A secondary nozzle is disposed along a centerline of the combustion chamber and configured to inject a first fluid comprising air, at least one diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to a downstream side of a first combustion zone among the plurality of combustion zones. A plurality of primary fuel nozzles is disposed proximate to an upstream side of the combustion chamber and located around the secondary nozzle and configured to inject a second fluid comprising air and fuel to an upstream side of the first combustion zone. The combustor also includes a plurality of tertiary coanda nozzles. Each tertiary coanda nozzle is coupled to a respective dilution hole. The tertiary coanda nozzles are configured to inject a third fluid comprising air, at least one other diluent, fuel, or combinations thereof to one or more remaining combustion zones among the plurality of combustion zones.

  13. High-Resolution Simulations of Coal Injection in A Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tingwen [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Gel, Aytekin [Aeolus Research Inc.; Syamlal, M [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study demonstrates an approach to effectively combine high- and low-resolution simulations for design studies of industrial coal gasifier. The flow-field data from a 10 million cell full-scale simulation of a commercial-scale gasifier were used to construct a reduced configuration to economically study the coal injection in detail. High-resolution numerical simulations of the coal injection were performed using the open-source code MFIX running on a high performance computing system. Effects of grid resolution and numerical discretization scheme on the predicted behavior of coal injection and gasification kinetics were analyzed. Pronounced differences were predicted in the devolatilization and steam gasification rates because of different discretization schemes, implying that a high-order numerical scheme is required to predict well the unsteady gasification process on an adequately resolved grid. Computational costs for simulations of varying resolutions are presented to illustrate the trade-off between the accuracy of solution and the time-to-solution, an important consideration when engineering simulations are used for the design of commercial-scale units.

  14. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  15. Pellet injection in the RFP (Reversed Field Pinch)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G.A.; Weber, P.G.; Munson, C.P.; Cayton, T.E.; Bunting, C.A.; Carolan, P.G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observation of pellets injected into the ZT-40M Reversed Field Pinch has allowed a new twist on the usual tokamak ablation physics modeling. The RFP provides a strong ohmic heating regime with relatively high electron drift parameter (xi/sub drift/ /approximately/ 0.2), in the presence of a highly sheared magnetic field geometry. In situ photos of the pellet ablation cloud using a grated-intensified CCD camera, as well as two-view integrated photos of the pellet trajectory show substantial modification of the original pellet trajectory, in both direction and speed. Depending on the launch geometry, increases in the initial 500 m/s pellet speed by 50% have been observed, and a ski jump deflector plate in the launch port has been used to counteract strong poloidal curvature. In contrast to the tokamak, the D/sub ..cap alpha../ light signature is strongest near the edge, and weaker in the plasma center. Additional information on ion temperature response to pellet injection with 20 ..mu..sec time resolution has been obtained using a 5-channel neutral particle analyzer (NPA). The energy confinement is transiently degraded while the beta is largely unchanged. This may be indicative of pellet injection into a high-beta plasma operating at fixed beta. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Simulations of plasma behavior during pellet injection in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaywittaphat, P., E-mail: thawatchai@siit.tu.ac.th; Onjun, T. [Thammasat University, School of Manufacturing Systems and Mechanical Engineering, Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma behavior during pellet injection in ITER is investigated using a 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code. In these simulations, the pellet ablation is described using the neutral gas shielding (NGS) model developed by Parks and Turnbull [Phys. Fluids 21, 1735 (1978)]. The NGS pellet ablation model that includes the {nabla}B drift effect is coupled with a plasma core transport model, which is a combination of an MMM95 anomalous transport model and an NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The combination of core transport models, together with pellet model, is used to simulate the time evolution of plasma current, ion and electron temperatures, and density profiles for ITER standard type-I ELMy H-mode discharges during the pellet injection. It is found that the injection of pellet can result in either enhancement or degradation of plasma performance. The {nabla}B drift effect on the pellet deposition is very strong in ITER. The plasma density with high field side pellets, which favorable with the {nabla}B drift effect, is much higher and pellet can penetrate much deeper than that with low field side pellets.

  17. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

  18. Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Gerry A

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , CONCLUSIONS 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 7. APPENDIX 8. REFERENCES 9. BIBLIOGRAPHY 25 26 33 337588 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES Figures Flow Diagram of Displacement Equipment Oil Production vs Slug Size for various injection rates , (Sand Coluxnn No. 1) 15... Oil Production vs. Slug Size for various injection rates , (Sand Column No. 2) 16 Oil Production vs Slug Size for various injection rates , (Sand Column No. 3) 17 Oil Production vs Slug Size for various injection rates , (Sand Column No. 4) 18...

  19. Summary and comments on the month's production and injection................. Using the production table...................................................................................

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Summary and comments on the month's production and injection................. Using the production table................................................................................... Monthly Oil and Gas Production........................................................................ Using

  20. Imaging of CO2 injection during an enhanced-oil-recovery experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gritto, Roland; Daley, Thomas M.; Myer, Larry R.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection during an Enhanced-Oil-Recovery Experiment RolandEnergy (DOE) as an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project, was

  1. Treatment of Inadvertent Pericardial Placement of a Tunneled Dialysis Catheter by Direct Thrombin Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costantino, Mary Marcelle [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, L-340 (United States); Barton, Robert [Oregon Health and Science University, Dotter Interventional Institute L-605 (United States); Slater, Matthew [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, L-353 (United States); McAnulty, John H. [Legacy Clinic Northwest (United States); Keller, Frederick S. [Oregon Health and Science University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, L-605 (United States)], E-mail: kellerf@ohsu.edu

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An inadvertent case of pericardial placement of a central venous catheter was successfully treated by direct thrombin injection.

  2. Analysis of plasma waves observed within local plasma injections seen in Saturn's magnetosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Analysis of plasma waves observed within local plasma injections seen in Saturn's magnetosphere J; published 17 May 2008. [1] Plasma injections or density depletion regions have been reported plasma in a cooler, locally produced plasma background. The injected plasma undergoes dispersion

  3. Achieving Consistent Maximum Brake Torque with Varied Injection Timing in a DI Diesel Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroeger, Timothy H

    2013-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The brake torque of a direct-injection diesel engine is known to plateau over a range of injection timings. Injection timing affects the engine’s ignition delay and the fractions of fuel which burn in premixed and diffusion modes. Therefore...

  4. Steady improved confinement in FTU high field plasmas sustained by deep pellet injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Steady improved confinement in FTU high field plasmas sustained by deep pellet injection D to the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T) by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas also feature high to the input power due to particle concentration in the well confined hot core. Deep pellet injection (e

  5. Steady Improved Confinement in FTU High Field Plasmas Sustained by Deep Pellet Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    Steady Improved Confinement in FTU High Field Plasmas Sustained by Deep Pellet Injection D at the maximum nominal toroidal field (8 T), and lower, by deep multiple pellet injection. These plasmas featured due to particle concentration in the well confined hot core. Deep pellet injection in Alcator C high

  6. HEAT TRANSFER ON A HYPERSONIC SPHERE WITH DIFFUSE RAREFIED-GAS INJECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riabov, Vladimir V.

    HEAT TRANSFER ON A HYPERSONIC SPHERE WITH DIFFUSE RAREFIED-GAS INJECTION Vladimir V. Riabov* Rivier numbers Re0,R.3-7 Mass injection can be considered as an effective way of the reduction of heat transfer in the case of small Reynolds numbers. Moss12 found that mass injection dramatically reduces heat transfer

  7. Optical properties and modulation characteristics of ultra-strong injection-locked distributed feedback lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Hyuk-Kee; Lau, Erwin K.; Wu, Ming C.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Ultra-Strong Injection-Locked Distributed Feedback LasersUltra-high, 72 GHz resonance fre- quency and 44 GHz bandwidth of injection-locked 1.55-µm DFB lasers,”ultra-strong optical injection. The dynamic response of the slave laser

  8. 300 Area Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Williams, Mark D.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the treatability test was to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium-contaminated groundwater in situ. A test site consisting of an injection well and 15 monitoring wells was installed in the 300 Area near the process trenches that had previously received uranium-bearing effluents. This report summarizes the work on the polyphosphate injection project, including bench-scale laboratory studies, a field injection test, and the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the results. Previous laboratory tests have demonstrated that when a soluble form of polyphosphate is injected into uranium-bearing saturated porous media, immobilization of uranium occurs due to formation of an insoluble uranyl phosphate, autunite [Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2•nH2O]. These tests were conducted at conditions expected for the aquifer and used Hanford soils and groundwater containing very low concentrations of uranium (10-6 M). Because autunite sequesters uranium in the oxidized form U(VI) rather than forcing reduction to U(IV), the possibility of re-oxidation and subsequent re-mobilization is negated. Extensive testing demonstrated the very low solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of autunite. In addition to autunite, excess phosphorous may result in apatite mineral formation, which provides a long-term source of treatment capacity. Phosphate arrival response data indicate that, under site conditions, the polyphosphate amendment could be effectively distributed over a relatively large lateral extent, with wells located at a radial distance of 23 m (75 ft) reaching from between 40% and 60% of the injection concentration. Given these phosphate transport characteristics, direct treatment of uranium through the formation of uranyl-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., autunite) could likely be effectively implemented at full field scale. However, formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases using the selected three-phase approach was problematic. Although amendment arrival response data indicate some degree of overlap between the reactive species and thus potential for the formation of calcium-phosphate mineral phases (i.e., apatite formation), the efficiency of this treatment approach was relatively poor. In general, uranium performance monitoring results support the hypothesis that limited long-term treatment capacity (i.e., apatite formation) was established during the injection test. Two separate overarching issues affect the efficacy of apatite remediation for uranium sequestration within the 300 Area: 1) the efficacy of apatite for sequestering uranium under the present geochemical and hydrodynamic conditions, and 2) the formation and emplacement of apatite via polyphosphate technology. In addition, the long-term stability of uranium sequestered via apatite is dependent on the chemical speciation of uranium, surface speciation of apatite, and the mechanism of retention, which is highly susceptible to dynamic geochemical conditions. It was expected that uranium sequestration in the presence of hydroxyapatite would occur by sorption and/or surface complexation until all surface sites have been depleted, but that the high carbonate concentrations in the 300 Area would act to inhibit the transformation of sorbed uranium to chernikovite and/or autunite. Adsorption of uranium by apatite was never considered a viable approach for in situ uranium sequestration in and of itself, because by definition, this is a reversible reaction. The efficacy of uranium sequestration by apatite assumes that the adsorbed uranium would subsequently convert to autunite, or other stable uranium phases. Because this appears to not be the case in the 300 Area aquifer, even in locations near the river, apatite may have limited efficacy for the retention and long-term immobilization of uranium at the 300 Area site..

  9. Evaluation of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model. [Cyclic thermal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hammersheimb, E.; Sawyer, W.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the work performed under this directive is to assess whether gas hydrates could potentially be technically and economically recoverable. The technical potential and economics of recovering gas from a representative hydrate reservoir will be established using the cyclic thermal injection model, HYDMOD, appropriately modified for this effort, integrated with economics model for gas production on the North Slope of Alaska, and in the deep offshore Atlantic. The results from this effort are presented in this document. In Section 1, the engineering cost and financial analysis model used in performing the economic analysis of gas production from hydrates -- the Hydrates Gas Economics Model (HGEM) -- is described. Section 2 contains a users guide for HGEM. In Section 3, a preliminary economic assessment of the gas production economics of the gas hydrate cyclic thermal injection model is presented. Section 4 contains a summary critique of existing hydrate gas recovery models. Finally, Section 5 summarizes the model modification made to HYDMOD, the cyclic thermal injection model for hydrate gas recovery, in order to perform this analysis.

  10. Access to Sterile Syringes through San Francisco Pharmacies and the Association with HIV Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, Elise D.; Kral, Alex H.; Stopka, Thomas J.; Garfein, Richard S.; Reuckhaus, Paul; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    packets to increase injection drug users’ access to sterileBehavior among Injection Drug Users Elise D. Riley, Alex H.syringes among injection drug users (IDUs) and estimated

  11. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daro 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order to prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.

  12. In-Cylinder Reaction Chemistry and Kinetics During Negative Valve Overlap Fuel Injection Under Low-Oxygen Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Gao, Zhiming [ORNL] [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) as well as other forms of advanced combustion. During this event, at least a portion of the fuel hydrocarbons can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO, as well as other short chain hydrocarbons by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions, depending on the availability of oxygen and the time-temperature-pressure history. The resulting products alter the autoignition properties of the combined fuel mixture for HCCI. Fuel-rich chemistry in a partial oxidation environment is also relevant to other high efficiency engine concepts (e.g., the dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept from SWRI). In this study, we used a unique 6-stroke engine cycle to experimentally investigate the chemistry of a range of fuels injected during NVO under low oxygen conditions. Fuels investigated included iso-octane, iso-butanol, ethanol, and methanol. Products from NVO chemistry were highly dependent on fuel type and injection timing, with iso-octane producing less than 1.5% hydrogen and methanol producing more than 8%. We compare the experimental trends with CHEMKIN (single zone, 0-D model) predictions using multiple kinetic mechanisms available in the current literature. Our primary conclusion is that the kinetic mechanisms investigated are unable to accurately predict the magnitude and trends of major species we observed.

  13. Climatic response to large summertime injections of smoke into the atmosphere: changes in precipitation and the Hadley circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; MacCracken, M.C.; Walton, J.J.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) has been initialized with a 150 Tg summertime injection of smoke from post-war fires over Europe, Asia and North America. The smoke is subject to large-scale and convectice transport, dry deposition, coagulation and precipitation scavenging. The Hadley circulation is shown to respond in three stages. In the first stage, which lasts about one week depending on initial conditions, the Hadley circulation doubles in intensity. As the smoke spreads across the equator, and as the troposphere becomes more stable, the Hadley cell then weakens until it becomes actually weaker than in the control climate. In the final stage, as the smoke is removed, the Hadley cell gradually returns towards the control. Surface precipitation generally decreases as a result of the smoke. By the fourth week following the injection, zonal-mean surface precipitation in the tropics and summer hemisphere midlatitudes are about half of those in the control climate. The decrease is most notable over land, ocean precipitation being reduced only in the tropics. Penetrating convective precipitation is greatly reduced at all latitudes; large-scale precipitation is enhanced, becoming the dominant mode of precipitation in the simulation. Precipitation scavenging is shown to be the dominant removal process for particles larger than one micron in diameter. As a result, the lifetime of large particles increases several-fold due to the reduction in precipitation and the ''self-lofting'' of the smoke. For particles smaller than one micron in diameter, precipitation scavenging is found to be a much less efficient removal mechanism than both coagulation, which is important during the first week following the injection, and dry deposition at later times. 16 refs., 23 figs.

  14. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gooch, J.P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Dahlin, R.S.; Faulkner, M.G. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (United States)); Klett, M.G.; Buchanan, T.L.; Hunt, J.E. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (United States))

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gilbert Commonwealth, Southern Research Institute and the American Electric Power Service Corporation have embarked on a program to convert DOE's Duct Injection Test Facility located at the Muskingum River Power Plant of Ohio Power Company to test alternate duct injection technologies. The technologies to be tested include slurry sorbent injection of hydrated lime using dual fluid nozzles, or a rotary atomizer and pneumatic injection of hydrated lime, with flue gas humidification before or after sorbent injection. The literature review and analysis contained in this report is a part of the preparatory effort for the test program.

  15. A Comparison of Fueling with Deuterium Pellet Injection from Different Locations on the DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Gohil, P.; Houlberg, W.A.; Hsieh, C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Parks, P.B.

    1999-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Initial pellet injection experiments on DIII-D with high field side (HFS) injection have demonstrated that deeper pellet fuel deposition is possible even with HFS injected pellets that are significantly slower than pellets injected from the low field side (LFS) (outer midplane) location. A radial displacement of the pellet mass shortly after or during the ablation process is consistent with the observed mass deposition profiles measured shortly after injection. Vertical injection inside the magnetic axis shows some improvement in fueling efficiency over LFS injection and may provide an optimal injection location for fueling with high speed pellets.

  16. MoO3 as combined hole injection layer and tapered spacer in combinatorial multicolor microcavity organic light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, R.; Xu, Chun; Biswas, Rana; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multicolor microcavity ({mu}C) organic light-emitting diode (OLED) arrays were fabricated simply by controlling the hole injection and spacer MoO{sub 3} layer thickness. The normal emission was tunable from {approx}490 to 640 nm and can be further expanded. A compact, integrated spectrometer with two-dimensional combinatorial arrays of {mu}C OLEDs was realized. The MoO{sub 3} yields more efficient and stable devices, revealing a new breakdown mechanism. The pixel current density reaches {approx}4 A/cm{sup 2} and a maximal normal brightness {approx}140 000 Cd/m{sup 2}, which improves photoluminescence-based sensing and absorption measurements.

  17. Hingeless flow control over delta wing planforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Edward Brian

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , to inject into the moving freestream about a solid body via slots of nozzles. These jets create or manipulate vortical flows which generate forces that control the motion of the body. The application of PVC for modern combat aircraft is based upon... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering HINGELESS FLOW CONTROL OVER DELTA WING PLANFORMS A Thesis by EDWARD BRIAN MOELLER Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  18. The energy injection and losses in the Monte Carlo simulations of a diffusive shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) could be simulated by some well-established models, the assumption of the injection rate from the thermal particles to the superthermal population is still a contentious problem. But in the self-consistent Monte Carlo simulations, because of the prescribed scattering law instead of the assumption of the injected function, hence particle injection rate is intrinsically defined by the prescribed scattering law. We expect to examine the correlation of the energy injection with the prescribed multiple scattering angular distributions. According to the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, the energy injection and the losses in the simulation system can directly decide the shock energy spectrum slope. By the simulations performed with multiple scattering law in the dynamical Monte Carlo model, the energy injection and energy loss functions are obtained. As results, the case applying anisotropic scattering law produce a small energy injection and large energy losses leading to a s...

  19. A Unified Force Controller for a Proportional-Injector Direct-Injection Monopropellant-Powered Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of an air compressor. This configuration incorporates a solenoid valve to meter the flow of hydrogen

  20. A Unified Force Controller for a Proportional-Injector Direct-Injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    a monopropellant gas generator in place of an air compressor. This configuration incorporates a solenoid valve to meter the flow of hydrogen peroxide through a catalyst pack and into a high- pressure hot-gas reservoir

  1. IEA's Webster injects note of realism into CO[sub 2] control debate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wamsted, D.

    1993-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency programs should top the list of actions taken to slow potential warming. At the same time, policymakers must realize that energy efficiency, by itself, simply will not solve the problem. The rate of deployment of energy efficient technologies will be much slower than needed to curb CO[sub 2] emissions, largely as a result of a scarcity of capital and risk avoidance by potential users. Nonetheless, the studies funded by the IEA greenhouse group should help pinpoint the best energy efficiency technologies. In turn, this information can be used to select technologies for particular applications, such as curbing energy demand growth in the developing countries. The overall goal of the greenhouse program is to conduct a comparative assessment of technologies used for abatement of greenhouse gases, specifically the CO[sub 2] emitted from fossil fuel power generation. Ultimately, the group plans to complete a full fuel cycle assessment for these various technologies. To date, a series of studies on power generation technologies and promising CO[sub 2] capture technologies has been completed, and the group is now in the process of looking at CO[sub 2] disposal technologies.

  2. Combustion Control of Diesel Engines Using Injection Timing M. Hillion, H. Buhlbuck, and J. Chauvin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is sufficient to provide a stable Diesel combustion at steady state. On the other hand, during transient

  3. UAC R371-7 - Underground Injection Control Program | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships JumpType B:7-15:Web Site:07 - Air

  4. Visualization experiments on steam injection in Hele-Shaw cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Xianli; Haghighi, M.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow visualization experiments have been successfully employed in reservoir engineering research for many years. They involve 2-D geometries in transparent Hele-Shaw cells and glass micromodels. Although much work has been done on immiscible flows (drainage or imbibition), visualization of steamfloods, which constitute a major part of current EOR methods, has not been attempted to data. In this paper, we present experimental results on steam injection in a transparent, pyrex glass Hele-Shaw cell. Both synthetic (Dutrex 739) and natural heavy oils were used under a variety of conditions, including effects of gravity.

  5. Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    values at thermocouple locations. ................................. 45 IV Temperature values (K)at TC locations for LN2 injection on both gridsandtwoexperimentaldatasets................... 45 x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Basic elements of a spin... partialdiffr(rhovr)+ rhovr r = Sm (3.4) partialdiffrho partialdifft(rho vectorV + nabla?(rhovectorV vectorV )=-nablaP + nabla???tau + rhovectorg + vectorF (3.5) partialdiffrho partialdifft(rhoE)+nabla?( vectorV (rhoE + P)) = -nabla(kef f nablaT + ??tauef f...

  6. Wall conditioning experiments on TFTR using impurity pellet injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.D.; Mansfield, D.K.; Bell, M.G. [and others

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes experiments intended to optimize the limiter conditioning for TFTR supershots. It is shown that deposition of thin layers of lithium on the limiters by impurity pellet injection changes the plasma-wall interaction and improves supershot performance. Series of up to ten Ohmic plasmas each with two lithium pellets were useful in preconditioning the limiter. Generally, plasma performance increased with the amount of lithium deposited up to the maximal amount which could be deposited. Experiments were performed with different materials being deposited (carbon, boron and lithium) and with different methods of deposition.

  7. Injection locking of laser diodes for microwave signal generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ben-Mou

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coupler monitored by a power meter to get the highest power output. One output was plugged into the monochrometer to measure the spectrum. Finally, injection locking was obtained by adjusting the current and temperature of both lasers. The results... for the fixture of laser diode. To prevent 1), 2) and 3) the bridge resistors are chosen to be about 20K to 30K A. The bridge resistors except the thermistor are military rank resis- tors from Vishay, whose temperature coefficients are 10 ppm...

  8. Phase diagram for injection locking a superradiant laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin C. Cox; Joshua M. Weiner; James K. Thompson

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally and theoretically study the response of a superradiant or bad-cavity laser to an applied coherent drive. We observe two forms of synchronization (injection locking) between the superradiant ensemble and the applied drive: one attractive and one repulsive in nature. We explain the region of repulsion as arising from the higher three-dimensional description of the atomic spin state that stores the laser coherence in a superradiant laser, as opposed to a two-parameter description of the electric field in a traditional good-cavity laser. We derive a phase diagram of predicted behavior and experimentally measure the response of the system across various trajectories therein.

  9. Rotordynamic evaluation of a tangential-injection hybrid bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurant, Franck Jean

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure Ratio for Tangential and Radial-Injection Bearings at Small Clearance. O Pressure Ratio Optimum 0. 58 e Tangential Radial dp (mm) 2. 01 1. 62 LS LP MP HP 0. 48 0, 46 0. 43 0. 38 0. 34 0. 3 I MS HS LP MP HP LP MP HP 0. 50 0. 45 0. 41 0. 61 0. 55 0... eccentricity and pressure ratio, larger differences could be found. The absolute average difference for eccentric cases is +19'ro. This difference decreases with speed and increases with supply pressure to reach +31'ro at LS, HP. At a given static load...

  10. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  11. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  12. Development of an engine fuel and spark controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suter, William Gregory

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to develop an engine control unit (ECU) for a four cylinder engine to be used in a Formula SAE racers. The ECU must provide effective fuel injection and spark ignition control and provide for easy adjustment...

  13. Energy Injection in Gamma-ray Burst Afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Margutti, Raffaella; Perley, Daniel; Zauderer, B Ashley; Sari, Re'em; Fong, Wen-fai

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present multi-wavelength observations and modeling of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) that exhibit a simultaneous re-brightening in their X-ray and optical light curves, and are also detected at radio wavelengths. We show that the re-brightening episodes can be modeled by injection of energy into the blastwave and that in all cases the energy injection rate falls within the theoretical bounds expected for a distribution of energy with ejecta Lorentz factor. Our measured values of the circumburst density, jet opening angle, and beaming corrected kinetic energy are consistent with the distribution of these parameters for long-duration GRBs at both z~1 and z>6, suggesting that the jet launching mechanism and environment of these events are similar to that of GRBs that do not have bumps in their light curves. However, events exhibiting re-brightening episodes have lower radiative efficiencies than average, suggesting that a majority of the kinetic energy of the outflow is carried by slow-moving ejecta, which is furthe...

  14. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, A.K.; Maxson, J.A.; Hensinger, D.M.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure. 24 figures.

  15. Simulations of Merging Helion Bunches on the AGS Injection Porch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    During the setup of helions for the FY2014 RHIC run it was discovered that the standard scheme for merging bunches on the AGS injection porch required an injection kicker pulse shorter than what was available. To overcome this difficulty, K. Zeno proposed and developed an interesting and unusual alternative which uses RF harmonic numbers 12, 4, 2 (rather than the standard 8, 4, 2) to merge 8 helion bunches into 2. In this note we carry out simulations that illustrate how the alternative scheme works and how it compares with the standard scheme. This is done in Sections 13 and 14. A scheme in which 6 bunches are merged into 1 is simulated in Section 15. This may be useful if more helions per merged bunch are needed in future runs. General formulae for the simulations are given in Sections 9 through 12. For completeness, Sections 1 through 8 give a derivation of the turn-by-turn equations of longitudinal motion at constant magnetic field. The derivation is based on the work of MacLachlan. The reader may wish to skip over these Sections and start with Section 9.

  16. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Delayed energy injection model for gamma-ray burst afterglows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, J. J.; Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B. [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, X. F., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The shallow decay phase and flares in the afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely believed to be associated with the later activation of the central engine. Some models of energy injection involve a continuous energy flow since the GRB trigger time, such as the magnetic dipole radiation from a magnetar. However, in the scenario involving a black hole accretion system, the energy flow from the fall-back accretion may be delayed for a fall-back time ?t {sub fb}. Thus, we propose a delayed energy injection model. The delayed energy would cause a notable rise to the Lorentz factor of the external shock, which will 'generate' a bump in the multiple band afterglows. If the delayed time is very short, our model degenerates to the previous models. Our model can explain the significant re-brightening in the optical and infrared light curves of GRB 081029 and GRB 100621A. A considerable fall-back mass is needed to provide the later energy; this indicates that GRBs accompanied with fall-back material may be associated with a low energy supernova so that the fraction of the envelope can survive during eruption. The fall-back time can give meaningful information on the properties of GRB progenitor stars.

  18. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  19. Jet plume injection and combustion system for internal combustion engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oppenheim, Antoni K. (Kensington, CA); Maxson, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Hensinger, David M. (Albany, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved combustion system for an internal combustion engine is disclosed wherein a rich air/fuel mixture is furnished at high pressure to one or more jet plume generator cavities adjacent to a cylinder and then injected through one or more orifices from the cavities into the head space of the cylinder to form one or more turbulent jet plumes in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition of the rich air/fuel mixture in the cavity of the jet plume generator. The portion of the rich air/fuel mixture remaining in the cavity of the generator is then ignited to provide a secondary jet, comprising incomplete combustion products which are injected into the cylinder to initiate combustion in the already formed turbulent jet plume. Formation of the turbulent jet plume in the head space of the cylinder prior to ignition has been found to yield a higher maximum combustion pressure in the cylinder, as well as shortening the time period to attain such a maximum pressure.

  20. Direct Injection Compression Ignition Diesel Automotive Technology Education GATE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Carl L

    2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The underlying goal of this prqject was to provide multi-disciplinary engineering training for graduate students in the area of internal combustion engines, specifically in direct injection compression ignition engines. The program was designed to educate highly qualified engineers and scientists that will seek to overcome teclmological barriers preventing the development and production of cost-effective high-efficiency vehicles for the U.S. market. Fu1iher, these highly qualified engineers and scientists will foster an educational process to train a future workforce of automotive engineering professionals who are knowledgeable about and have experience in developing and commercializing critical advanced automotive teclmologies. Eight objectives were defmed to accomplish this goal: 1. Develop an interdisciplinary internal co1nbustion engine curriculum emphasizing direct injected combustion ignited diesel engines. 2. Encourage and promote interdisciplinary interaction of the faculty. 3. Offer a Ph.D. degree in internal combustion engines based upon an interdisciplinary cuniculum. 4. Promote strong interaction with indusuy, develop a sense of responsibility with industry and pursue a self sustaining program. 5. Establish collaborative arrangements and network universities active in internal combustion engine study. 6. Further Enhance a First Class educational facility. 7. Establish 'off-campus' M.S. and Ph.D. engine programs of study at various indusuial sites. 8. Extend and Enhance the Graduate Experience.

  1. Sample extraction and injection with a microscale preconcentrator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood (Advanced Sensor Technologies, Albuquerque, NM); Chan, Helena Kai Lun

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the development of a microfabricated preconcentrator that functions as a fully integrated chemical extractor-injector for a microscale gas chromatograph (GC). The device enables parts-per-billion detection and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air with size and power advantages over macro-scale systems. The 44 mm{sup 3} preconcentrator extracts VOCs using highly adsorptive, granular forms of graphitized carbon black and carbon molecular sieves. The micron-sized silicon cavities have integrated heating and temperature sensing allowing low power, yet rapid heating to thermally desorb the collected VOCs (GC injection). The keys to device construction are a new adsorbent-solvent filling technique and solvent-tolerant wafer-level silicon-gold eutectic bonding technology. The product is the first granular adsorbent preconcentrator integrated at the wafer level. Other advantages include exhaustive VOC extraction and injection peak widths an order of magnitude narrower than predecessor prototypes. A mass transfer model, the first for any microscale preconcentrator, is developed to describe both adsorption and desorption behaviors. The physically intuitive model uses implicit and explicit finite differences to numerically solve the required partial differential equations. The model is applied to the adsorption and desorption of decane at various concentrations to extract Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters from effluent curve measurements where properties are unknown a priori.

  2. Impurity pellet injection experiments at TFTR. Final performance report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmar, E.S.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Impurity (Li and C) pellet injection experiments on TFTR have produced a number of new and significant results. (1) We observe reproducible improvements of TFTR supershots after wall-conditioning by Li pellet injection (`lithiumization`). (2) We have made accurate measurements of the pitch angle profiles of the internal magnetic field using two novel techniques. The first measures the internal field pitch from the polarization angles of Li{sup +} line emission from the pellet ablation cloud, while the second measures the pitch angle profiles by observing the tilt of the cigar-shaped Li{sup +} emission region of the ablation cloud. (3) Extensive measurements of impurity pellet penetration into plasmas with central temperatures ranging from {approximately}0.3 to {approximately}7 keV have been made and compared with available theoretical models. Other aspects of pellet cloud physics have been investigated. (4) Using pellets as a well defined perturbation has allowed study of transport phenomena. In the case of small pellet perturbations, the characteristics of the background plasmas are probed, while with large pellets, pellet induced effects are clearly observed. These main results are discussed in more detail in this paper.

  3. A microfluidic device to control bio actuators of microorganisms, an application to Vorticella convallaria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsudaira, Paul T.

    We demonstrate a microfluidic device to control the motion of Vorticella convallaria by changing solution. Floating cells of V. convallaria were injected and cultured inside the device. Approximately 35 cells of V. convallaria ...

  4. Effects of charge motion control during cold start of SI engines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongkun

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of various intake charge motion control approaches on the cold start-up process of a port fuel injected SI engine. Engine experiments were performed to assess ...

  5. A Fully Integrated Multi-Band Multi-Output Synthesizer with Wide-Locking-Range 1/3 Injection Locked Divider Utilizing Self-Injection Technique for Multi-Band Microwave Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Hun

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation reports the development of a new multi-band multi-output synthesizer, 1/2 dual-injection locked divider, 1/3 injection-locked divider with phase-tuning, and 1/3 injection-locked divider with self-injection using 0.18-micrometer...

  6. Dream controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L; Wang, Qiang; Chow, Andrew J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for intelligently controlling continuous process variables. A Dream Controller comprises an Intelligent Engine mechanism and a number of Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controllers, each of which is suitable to control a process with specific behaviors. The Intelligent Engine can automatically select the appropriate MFA controller and its parameters so that the Dream Controller can be easily used by people with limited control experience and those who do not have the time to commission, tune, and maintain automatic controllers.

  7. Analytical modeling of a fracture-injection/falloff sequence and the development of a refracture-candidate diagnostic test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, David Paul

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    -injection/falloff sequence Cartesian after-closure analysis graph. ......................... 152 5.11 Fracture-injection/falloff sequence variable-storage type-curve match. ............................... 153 5.12 GM 543-33 Mesaverde formation fracture...-injection/falloff sequence. ................................ 159 5.13 GM 543-33 Mesaverde formation fracture-injection/falloff sequence G-function derivative analysis...

  8. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1--June 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to evaluate and demonstrate a cost effective emission control technology for acid rain precursors, oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and sulfur (SO{sub x}), on two coal fired utility boilers in Illinois. The units selected are representative of pre-NSPS design practices: tangential and cyclone fired. Work on a third unit, wall fired, is ``on hold`` because of funding limitations. The specific objectives are to demonstrate reductions of 60 percent in NO{sub x} and 50 percent in SO{sub x} emissions, by a combination of two developed technologies, gas reburning (GR) and sorbent injection (SI). With GR, about 80{endash}85 percent of the coal fuel is fired in the primary combustion zone. The balance of the fuel is added downstream as natural gas to create a slightly fuel rich environment in which NO{sub x} is converted to N{sub 2}. The combustion process is completed by overfire air addition. SO{sub x} emissions are reduced by injecting dry sorbents (usually calcium based) into the upper furnace. The sorbents trap SO{sub x} as solid sulfates that are collected in the particulate control device.

  9. Identification of limiting case between DBA and SBDBA (CL break area sensitivity): A new model for the boron injection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, R.; Petruzzi, A.; D'Auria, F. [San Piero A Grado Nuclear Research Group GRNSPG, Univ. of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291-56122, San Piero a Grado - Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, O. [Nucleo-electrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed PHWR reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and (e.g., oblique Control Rods, Positive Void coefficient) required a developed and validated complex three dimensional (3D) neutron kinetics (NK) coupled thermal hydraulic (TH) model. Reactor shut-down is obtained by oblique CRs and, during accidental conditions, by an emergency shut-down system (JDJ) injecting a highly concentrated boron solution (boron clouds) in the moderator tank, the boron clouds reconstruction is obtained using a CFD (CFX) code calculation. A complete LBLOCA calculation implies the application of the RELAP5-3D{sup C} system code. Within the framework of the third Agreement 'NA-SA - Univ. of Pisa' a new RELAP5-3D control system for the boron injection system was developed and implemented in the validated coupled RELAP5-3D/NESTLE model of the Atucha 2 NPP. The aim of this activity is to find out the limiting case (maximum break area size) for the Peak Cladding Temperature for LOCAs under fixed boundary conditions. (authors)

  10. Development of the hydraulically actuated electronically controlled unit injector for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yudanov, S.V.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The key design factors of a Hydraulically actuated Electronically controlled Unit Injector (HEUI) which determine its injection rate, pressure, energy efficiency and accuracy of fuel delivery, and the correlations between these design factors and performance parameters, have been established. Two methods of fuel metering within an HEUI are compared in terms of injection accuracy, reliability and controllability. An HEUI design guidelines are outlined. The test results of latest HEUI developed for diesel engines with displacement 1--2.2 liter/cyl. are shown. It provides high injection pressure, rate and accuracy, low energy consumption, unusually wide range of fuel deliveries and readily fits into existing engines.

  11. Bandpass calibration of a wideband spectrometer using pulse injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Nipanjana; Ekers, Ron; Roberts, Paul

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel time domain concept for determining the bandpass response of a system by injecting a nanosecond pulse and capturing the system voltage output. A pulse of sub-nanosecond duration contains all frequency components with constant amplitude up to 1~GHz. Hence, this method can accurately determine the system bandpass response to a broadband signal. A train of pulses are coherently accumulated providing very high signal-to-noise calibration. The basic concept is demonstrated using a pulse generator-accumulator setup realised in a Bedlam board which is a high speed digital signal processing unit. The same system was used at the Parkes Radio Telescope between 2--13 October 2013 and we demonstrate its powerful diagnostic capability. We also present some initial test data from this experiment.

  12. Optical re-injection in cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leen, J. Brian, E-mail: b.leen@lgrinc.com; O’Keefe, Anthony [Los Gatos Research, 67 E. Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-mode-matched cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry (e.g., cavity ringdown spectroscopy and integrated cavity output spectroscopy) is commonly used for the ultrasensitive detection of trace gases. These techniques are attractive for their simplicity and robustness, but their performance may be limited by the reflection of light from the front mirror and the resulting low optical transmission. Although this low transmitted power can sometimes be overcome with higher power lasers and lower noise detectors (e.g., in the near-infrared), many regimes exist where the available light intensity or photodetector sensitivity limits instrument performance (e.g., in the mid-infrared). In this article, we describe a method of repeatedly re-injecting light reflected off the front mirror of the optical cavity to boost the cavity's circulating power and deliver more light to the photodetector and thus increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the absorption measurement. We model and experimentally demonstrate the method's performance using off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OA-CRDS) with a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser. The power coupled through the cavity to the detector is increased by a factor of 22.5. The cavity loss is measured with a precision of 2 × 10{sup ?10} cm{sup ?1}/?(Hz;) an increase of 12 times over the standard off-axis configuration without reinjection and comparable to the best reported sensitivities in the mid-infrared. Finally, the re-injected CRDS system is used to measure the spectrum of several volatile organic compounds, demonstrating the improved ability to resolve weakly absorbing spectroscopic features.

  13. The effect of fuel injection angle and pressure on combustor performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael Lee

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    )ed in the areas of combustion and fuels. Michael is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Society of Automotive Engineers, and Pi Tau Sigma. Mr. Brown's permanent address is: P. O. Box 495 Duluth, Georgia 30136 The typist.... Furthermore, FAR can effect combustor performance. Two different mass flows, 2. 9 and 14. 7 pounds per hour, yielding two different FARs were run at each injection angle and pressure. Concerning fuel injection parameters, six different injection angles (0...

  14. Film cooling and heat transfer of steam through an inclined injection hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hun Way

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer coefficient at blowing rate M 0. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 NOMENCLATURE Symbol Description area circumference of the cross sectional area Cp D E, , Es, Es drag coefficient specific heat diameter of the injection hole minor... the experimental data at low blowing rates; however, the extension to higher injection rates is not correct, and an injected fluid other than air is not discussed. Goldstein [2] reviewed a number of semi- empirical correlations and predictions for two...

  15. Fuel injection system and method of operating the same for an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Topinka, Jennifer Ann (Niskayuna, NY); DeLancey, James Peter (Corinth, NY); Primus, Roy James (Niskayuna, NY); Pintgen, Florian Peter (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel injector is coupled to an engine. The fuel injector includes an injection opening configured to vary in cross-section between a open state and a fully closed state. The fuel injector is configured to provide a plurality of discrete commanded fuel injections into an engine cylinder by modulating the size of the injection opening without completely closing the opening to the fully closed state.

  16. Attempted transfer of a learned geotropic response via injections of whole brain homogenate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas Calvin

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or inhibited by injection of chemicals that facilitate or inhibit protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Cook, Davidson, Davis, Green and Fellows (1963) reported that injections of yeast-RNA facilitated learning. Post-trial injections of strychnine (McGaugh, 1... 966), tricyanoami nopropene (Essman, 1968), and magnesium pemoline (Doty and Howard, 1968) are all reported to enhance consolidation of long-term memory. Puromycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, has been shown to block the memory of a previously...

  17. Injection System and Engine Strategies for Advanced Emission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equipment VTG Variable Turbine Geometry EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation TC Turbo Charger Control Strategies Packaging Fuel Consumption Costs 3 DS-CVNE 686 0130e | 8...

  18. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and...

  19. A study of diesel combustion process under the condition of EGR and high-pressure fuel injection with gas sampling method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimazaki, Naoki; Hatanaka, Hirokazu; Yokota, Katsuhiko; Nakahira, Toshio

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that a high-pressure fuel injection is effective for the reduction in particulates and smoke emissions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective for the reduction in NO{sub x} emission. In this study an experiment aiming to understand more comprehensive combustion under the condition of EGR and high-pressure fuel injection was carried out by using gas sampling method for the purpose of understanding what occurred inside the spray before and after combustion. The number of combustion cycles in this engine can be controlled in order to change EGR conditions by adjusting the residual gas concentration in the cylinder. Main results were: (1) close to the nozzle tip, the sampling gas data showed little reaction which implies that combustion never occurs in this area during the injection period; (2) in the case of high-pressure fuel injection O{sub 2} concentration decreased faster and air dilution was more active and earlier, this may cause the decrease of smoke emissions due to accelerated soot oxidation; (3) in the case of EGR, combustion was poor since oxygen concentration was insufficient, thus, inactivity of oxidation reaction caused reduction in NO{sub x} emission; (4) in the case of increasing the amounts of N{sub 2} gas while keeping the O{sub 2} content constant (same amount as without EGR), NO{sub x} emission decreased without deterioration of smoke emission and Pmi.

  20. Interwell Connectivity and Diagnosis Using Correlation of Production and Injection Rate Data in Hydrocarbon Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry L. Jensen; Larry W. Lake; Ali Al-Yousef; Dan Weber; Ximing Liang; T.F. Edgar; Nazli Demiroren; Danial Kaviani

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details progress and results on inferring interwell communication from well rate fluctuations. Starting with the procedure of Albertoni and Lake (2003) as a foundation, the goal of the project was to develop further procedures to infer reservoir properties through weights derived from correlations between injection and production rates. A modified method, described in Yousef and others (2006a,b), and herein referred to as the 'capacitance model', is the primary product of this research project. The capacitance model (CM) produces two quantities, {lambda} and {tau}, for each injector-producer well pair. For the CM, we have focused on the following items: (1) Methods to estimate {lambda} and {tau} from simulated and field well rates. The original method uses both non-linear and linear regression and lacks the ability to include constraints on {lambda} and {tau}. The revised method uses only non-linear regression, permitting constraints to be included as well as accelerating the solution so that problems with large numbers of wells are more tractable. (2) Approaches to integrate {lambda} and {tau} to improve connectivity evaluations. Interpretations have been developed using Lorenz-style and log-log plots to assess heterogeneity. Testing shows the interpretations can identify whether interwell connectivity is controlled by flow through fractures, high-permeability layers, or due to partial completion of wells. Applications to the South Wasson and North Buck Draw Fields show promising results. (3) Optimization of waterflood injection rates using the CM and a power law relationship for watercut to maximize economic return. Tests using simulated data and a range of oil prices show the approach is working. (4) Investigation of methods to increase the robustness of {lambda} and {tau} estimates. Human interventions, such as workovers, also cause rate fluctuations and can be misinterpreted by the model if bottom hole pressure data are not available. A revised method, called the 'segmented capacitance model', identifies times when production changes might not be caused strictly by water injection changes. Application to data from Monument Butte Field shows encouraging results. Our results show the CM and its modified forms can be an important tool for waterflood management. We have moved beyond the proof of principle stage to show it can actually be applied to assess connectivity in field situations. Several shortcomings, however, remain to be addressed before the CM can be routinely applied by field operators. The CM and its modifications analyze well rates in the time domain. We also explored the assessment of interwell connectivity in the spectral domain. We applied conventional methods, based on analyzing passive linear electrical networks, to the analysis of injection and production data. In particular, we assessed the effects of near-wellbore gas on the apparent connectivity. With only oil and water in the system, the results were as expected, giving good connectivity estimates. In the presence of gas, however, the methods could not produce useful estimates of connectivity.