Sample records for initiator conformance gel

  1. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate, (3) using partially formed gels, (4) using combinations of high and low molecular weight (Mw) polymers, (5) using secondary crosslinking reactions, (6) injecting un-hydrated polymer particles, and (7) incorporating particulates. All of these methods showed promise in some aspects, but required performance improvements in other aspects. All materials investigated to date showed significant performance variations with fracture width. High pressure gradients and limited distance of penetration are common problems in tight fractures. Gravity segregation and low resistance to breaching are common problems in wide fractures. These will be key issues to address in future work. Although gels can exhibit disproportionate permeability reduction in fractures, the levels of permeability reduction for oil flow are too high to allow practical exploitation in most circumstances. In contrast, disproportionate permeability reduction provided by gels that form in porous rock (adjacent to the fractures) has considerable potential in fractured systems.

  2. Radiation content of Conformally flat initial data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. O. Lousto; R. H. Price

    2004-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the radiation of energy and linear momentum emitted to infinity by the headon collision of binary black holes, starting from rest at a finite initial separation, in the extreme mass ratio limit. For these configurations we identify the radiation produced by the initially conformally flat choice of the three geometry. This identification suggests that the radiated energy and momentum of headon collisions will not be dominated by the details of the initial data for evolution of holes from initial proper separations $L_0\\geq7M$. For non-headon orbits, where the amount of radiation is orders of magnitude larger, the conformally flat initial data may provide a relative even better approximation.

  3. Hom Gel'fand-Dorfman bialgebras and Hom-Lie conformal algebras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Lamei, E-mail: lmyuan@hit.edu.cn [Science Research Center, Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)] [Science Research Center, Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the notions of Hom Gel'fand-Dorfman bialgebra and Hom-Lie conformal algebra. In this paper, we give four constructions of Hom Gel'fand-Dorfman bialgebras. Also, we provide a general construction of Hom-Lie conformal algebras from Hom-Lie algebras. Finally, we prove that a Hom Gel'fand-Dorfman bialgebra is equivalent to a Hom-Lie conformal algebra of degree 2.

  4. Reducing spurious gravitational radiation in binary-black-hole simulations by using conformally curved initial data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey Lovelace

    2008-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At early times in numerical evolutions of binary black holes, current simulations contain an initial burst of spurious gravitational radiation (also called "junk radiation") which is not astrophysically realistic. The spurious radiation is a consequence of how the binary-black-hole initial data are constructed: the initial data are typically assumed to be conformally flat. In this paper, I adopt a curved conformal metric that is a superposition of two boosted, non-spinning black holes that are approximately 15 orbits from merger. I compare junk radiation of the superposed-boosted-Schwarzschild (SBS) initial data with the junk of corresponding conformally flat, maximally sliced (CFMS) initial data. The SBS junk is smaller in amplitude than the CFMS junk, with the junk's leading-order spectral modes typically being reduced by a factor of order two or more.

  5. Puncture black hole initial data in the conformal thin-sandwich formalism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas W. Baumgarte

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the construction of puncture black hole initial data in the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition of Einstein's constraint equations. It has been shown previously that this approach cannot yield quasiequilibrium wormhole data, which connect two asymptotically flat spatial infinities. This argument does not apply to trumpet data, which connect the spatial infinity in one universe with the future timelike infinity of another. As a numerical demonstration we present results for a single boosted trumpet-puncture black holes, constructed in the original version of the conformal thin-sandwich formalism.

  6. Conformally curved binary black hole initial data including tidal deformations and outgoing radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan K. Johnson-McDaniel; Nicolas Yunes; Wolfgang Tichy; Benjamin J. Owen

    2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abridged) By asymptotically matching a post-Newtonian (PN) metric to two tidally perturbed Schwarzschild metrics, we generate approximate initial data (in the form of a 4-metric) for a nonspinning black hole binary in a circular orbit. We carry out this matching through O(v^4) in the binary's orbital velocity v, so the resulting data are conformally curved. Far from the holes, we use the appropriate PN metric that accounts for retardation, which we construct using the highest-order PN expressions available to compute the binary's past history. The data set's uncontrolled remainders are thus O(v^5) throughout the timeslice; we also generate an extension to the data set that has uncontrolled remainders of O(v^6) in the purely PN portion of the timeslice (i.e., not too close to the holes). The resulting data are smooth, since we join all the metrics together by smoothly interpolating between them. We perform this interpolation using transition functions constructed to avoid introducing excessive additional constraint violations. Due to their inclusion of tidal deformations and outgoing radiation, these data should substantially reduce the initial spurious ("junk") radiation observed in current simulations that use conformally flat initial data. Such reductions in the nonphysical components of the initial data will be necessary for simulations to achieve the accuracy required to supply Advanced LIGO and LISA with the templates necessary for parameter estimation.

  7. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types of chemical/ water buffers before and after the SPI mix ensured that pre-gelled SPI mix got out into the formation before setting into a gel. SPI gels were found to be 3 to 10 times stronger than any commercially available cross-linked polyacrylamide gels based on Penetrometer and Bulk Gel Shear Testing. Because of SPI’s unique chemistry with CO{sub 2}, both laboratory and later field tests demonstrated that multiple, smaller volume SPI treatments maybe more effective than one single large SPI treatment. CO{sub 2} injectivities in injection well in both fields were reduced by 33 to 70% indicating that injected CO{sub 2} is now going into new zones. This reduction has lasted 1+ year in Field A. Oil production increased and CO{sub 2} production decreased in 5 Field A production wells, offsets to Well #1 injector, for a total of about 2,250 m{sup 3} (600,000 gallons/ 14,250 bbls) of incremental oil production- a $140 / SPI bbl return. Treated marginal production well, Field A Well #2, immediately began showing increased oil production totaling 238 m{sup 3} (63,000 gallons/ 1500 BBLs) over 1 year and an immediate 81% reduced gas-oil ratio.

  8. Conformal nets II: conformal blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  9. Bio-Gel HT Bio-Gel HTP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Bio-Gel® HT Bio-Gel HTP DNA Grade Bio-Gel HTP Hydroxyapatite Instruction Manual #12;Table of Contents Section 1 Properties of Bio-Gel HT, HTP, and DNA Grade HTP Hydroxyapatite......... 1 1.1 Bio-Gel HT Fully Hydrated Hydroxyapatite .... 3 1.2 Bio-Gel HTP Powder

  10. Conformable seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neef, W.S.; Lambert, D.R.

    1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface deforms to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  11. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  12. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  13. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  14. Chemomechanical oscillations in a responsive gel induced by an autocatalytic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Kai [Department of Civil Engineering, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei, Anhui 230601 (China); Wu, Peiyi [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cai, Shengqiang, E-mail: shqcai@ucsd.edu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we investigate dynamic behaviors of a gel layer attached to a rigid substrate and submerged in a continuous stirred tank reactor. With a continuous feed of fresh reactants in the reactor, the concentrations of reactants stay constant on the surface of the gel layer. However, the concentrations of reactants inside the gel are inhomogeneous and vary with time, which are determined by the diffusion and chemical reactions of the reactants. Additionally, both monotonic and oscillatory swelling-shrinking dynamics are predicted in the gel if the swelling capability of the gel depends on the concentration of a reactant. Based on autocatalytic reaction, kinetic model, and nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory of gels, in this article, we investigate the effect of the thickness of the gel layer, lateral prestretches in the gel and the initial concentrations of reactants in the gel on its dynamic behaviors. We have also calculated the evolution of the swelling force that the gel layer exerts on its constrained substrate. The results of this article may find potential applications in using responsive gels to make chemo-mechanical sensors, actuators, biomimetic devices, and even drug delivery systems.

  15. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  16. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  17. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R A T O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunUC-1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings NilgunPaper Sol-gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  18. Lights, Conformational Change... Action!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the flashes, they collected the x-ray scattering data. Analysis of the data revealed the build-up of large conformational changes between the two structures at the nanometer...

  19. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials, Elsevier, .O R Y Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer1600 Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings Nilgun Ozer

  20. A conjugated polymer plastic gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a gel route to process highly oriented conjugated polymer films and fibers. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropanol, a strong and stable dipolar group, to the polythiophene backbone enhances the solubility ...

  1. Gravity on Conformal Superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Kelleher

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The configuration space of general relativity is superspace - the space of all Riemannian 3-metrics modulo diffeomorphisms. However, it has been argued that the configuration space for gravity should be conformal superspace - the space of all Riemannian 3-metrics modulo diffeomorphisms and conformal transformations. Taking this conformal nature seriously leads to a new theory of gravity which although very similar to general relativity has some very different features particularly in cosmology and quantisation. It should reproduce the standard tests of general relativity. The cosmology is studied in some detail. The theory is incredibly restrictive and as a result admits an extremely limited number of possible solutions. The problems of the standard cosmology are addressed and most remarkably the cosmological constant problem is resolved in a natural way. The theory also has several attractive features with regard to quantisation particularly regarding the problem of time.

  2. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhia, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  3. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  4. The Initial Value Problem Using Metric and Extrinsic Curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James W. York

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The initial value problem is introduced after a thorough review of the essential geometry. The initial value equations are put into elliptic form using both conformal transformations and a treatment of the extrinsic curvature introduced recently. This use of the metric and the extrinsic curvature is manifestly equivalent to the author's conformal thin sandwich formulation. Therefore, the reformulation of the constraints as an elliptic system by use of conformal techniques is complete.

  5. Nonlinear conformation of secondary protein folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Januar, M; Handoko, L T

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model to describe the mechanism of conformational dynamics in secondary protein based on matter interactions is proposed. The approach deploys the lagrangian method by imposing certain symmetry breaking. The protein backbone is initially assumed to be nonlinear and represented by the Sine-Gordon equation, while the nonlinear external bosonic sources is represented by $\\phi^4$ interaction. It is argued that the nonlinear source induces the folding pathway in a different way than the previous work with initially linear backbone. Also, the nonlinearity of protein backbone decreases the folding speed.

  6. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  7. Generalization of Conformal Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. I. Garas'ko

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal transformations of a Euclidean (complex) plane have some kind of completeness (sufficiency) for the solution of many mathematical and physical-mathematical problems formulated on this plane. There is no such completeness in the case of Euclidean, pseudo-Euclidean and polynumber spaces of dimension greater than two. In the present paper we show that using the concepts of analogical geometries allows us to generalize conformal transformations not only to the case of Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, but also to the case of Finsler spaces, analogous to the spaces of affine connectedness. Examples of such transformations in the case of complex and hypercomplex numbers H_4 are presented. In the general case such transformations form a group of transitions, the elements of which can be viewed as transitions between projective Euclidean geometries of a distinguished class fixed by the choice of metric geometry admitting affine coordinates. The correlation between functions realizing generalized conformal transformations and generalized analytical functions can appear to be productive for the solution of fundamental problems in theoretical and mathematical physics.

  8. Molecular conformations, interactions, and properties associated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular conformations, interactions, and properties associated with drug efficiency and clinical performance among VEGFR TK inhibitors Molecular conformations, interactions, and...

  9. Commercial applications of block copolymer photonic gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lou, Sally S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Block copolymer photonic gels are a simple and easily processed material which responds rapidly to environmental stimuli through a color change. The diblock copolymer that forms the gel self-assembles into a lamellar ...

  10. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klimov, Victor L.; Petruska, Melissa A.

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for preparing a solid composite having colloidal nanocrystals dispersed within a sol-gel matrix, the process including admixing colloidal nanocrystals with an amphiphilic polymer including hydrophilic groups selected from the group consisting of --COOH, --OH, --SO3H, --NH2, and --PO3H2 within a solvent to form an alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex, admixing the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complex and a sol-gel precursor material, and, forming the solid composite from the admixture. The present invention is also directed to the resultant solid composites and to the alcohol-soluble colloidal nanocrystal-polymer complexes.

  11. More constraining conformal bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferdinando Gliozzi

    2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently an efficient numerical method has been developed to implement the constraints of crossing symmetry and unitarity on the operator dimensions and OPE coefficients of conformal field theories (CFT) in diverse space-time dimensions. It appears that the calculations can be done only for theories lying at the boundary of the allowed parameter space. Here it is pointed out that a similar method can be applied to a larger class of CFT's, whether unitary or not, and no free parameter remains, provided we know the fusion algebra of the low lying primary operators. As an example we calculate using first principles, with no phenomenological input, the lowest scaling dimensions of the local operators associated with the Yang-Lee edge singularity in three and four space dimensions. The edge exponents compare favorably with the latest numerical estimates. A consistency check of this approach on the 3d critical Ising model is also made.

  12. Probing Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Dynamics. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Dynamics. Probing Single-Molecule Protein Conformational Dynamics. Abstract: Protein conformational fluctuations and dynamics, often...

  13. Ring polymers in crowded environment: conformational properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Haydukivska; V. Blavatska

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the universal size characteristics of flexible ring polymers in solutions in presence of structural obstacles (impurities) in d dimensions. One encounters such situations when considering polymers in gels, colloidal solutions, intra- and extracellular environments. A special case of extended impurities correlated on large distances r according to a power law \\sim r^{-a} is considered. Applying the direct polymer renormalization scheme, we evaluate the estimates for averaged gyration radius $\\langle R_{g\\,{\\rm ring}} \\rangle$ and spanning radius $\\langle R_{1/2\\,{\\rm ring}} \\rangle$ of typical ring polymer conformation up to the first order of double \\varepsilon=4-d, \\delta=4-a expansion. Our results quantitatively reveal an extent of the effective size and anisotropy of closed ring macromolecules in disordered environment. In particular, the size ratio of ring and open (linear) polymers of the same molecular weight grows when increasing the strength of disorder according to $\\langle R^2_{g\\,{\\rm ring}} \\rangle / \\langle R^2_{g\\,{\\rm chain}} \\rangle =\\frac{1}{2} \\left(1+\\frac{13}{48}\\delta \\right)$.

  14. Technique for converting non-conforming hexahedral-to-hexahedral interfaces into conforming interfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staten, Matthew L.; Shepherd, Jason F.; Ledoux, Frank; Shimada, Kenji; Merkley, Karl G.; Carbonera, Carlos

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for conforming an interface between a first mesh and a second mesh is disclosed. A first interface surface in the first mesh and a second interface surface in the second mesh residing along the interface are identified. The first and second interface surfaces are initially non-conforming along the interface. Chords within the first and second interface surfaces that fall within a threshold separation distance of each other are paired. Sheets having chords that reside within the first or second interface surfaces are recursively inserted into or extracted from one or both of the first and second meshes until all remaining chords within the first interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the second interface surface and all remaining chords within the second interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the first interface surface.

  15. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that it does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.

  16. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  17. Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Buzzaccaro; Eleonora Secchi; Giovanni Brambilla; R. Piazza; Luca Cipelletti

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the sedimentation of colloidal gels by using a combination of light scattering, polarimetry and video imaging. The asymptotic concentration profiles $\\varphi(z,t\\rightarrow \\infty)$ exhibit remarkable scaling properties: profiles for gels prepared at different initial volume fractions and particle interactions can be superimposed onto a single master curve by using suitable reduced variables. We show theoretically that this behavior stems from a power law dependence of the compressive elastic modulus \\textit{vs} $\\varphi$, which we directly test experimentally. The sedimentation kinetics comprises an initial latency stage, followed by a rapid collapse where the gel height $h$ decreases at constant velocity, and a final compaction stage characterized by a stretched exponential relaxation of $h$ towards a plateau. Analogies and differences with previous works are briefly discussed.

  18. Mediating gel formation from structurally controlled poly(electrolytes) through multiple "head-to-body" electrostatic interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hassan Srour; Olivier Ratel; Mathieu Leocmach; Emma A. Adams; Sandrine Denis-Quanquin; Vinukrishnan Appukuttan; Nicolas Taberlet; Sébastien Manneville; Jean-Charles Majesté; Christian Carrot; Chantal Andraud; Cyrille Monnereau

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Tuning the chain-end functionality of a short-chain cationic homopolymer, owing to the nature of the initiator used in the ATRP polymerisation step, can be used to mediate the formation of a gel of this poly(electrolyte) in water. While a neutral end group gives a solution of low viscosity, a highly homogeneous gel is obtained with a phosphonate anionic moiety, as characterized by rheometry and diffusion NMR. This novel type of supramolecular control over poly(electrolytic) gel formation could find potential use in a variety of applications in the field of electroactive materials.

  19. Sol-gel manufactured energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  20. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Swansiger, Rosalind W. (Livermore, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  1. SCB initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  2. SCB initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Renlund, Anita M. (Albuquerque, NM); Stanton, Philip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  3. Production of cerium oxide microsheres by an internal gelation sol-gel process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wegener, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiative DSC Differential Scanning Calorimetry DOE Department of Energy HMTA Hexamethylenetetramine MOX Mixed Oxide NERI Nuclear Energy Research Initiative ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PUREX Plutonium and Uranium Extraction RTV Room... Page Figure 1 Dried UO2 spheres (~1000 ?m diameter, left) and sintered UO2 spheres (500 to 532 ?m diameter, right) ........................................... 11 Figure 2 Diagram of Oak Ridge internal gelation sol-gel system...

  4. Production of cerium oxide microsheres by an internal gelation sol-gel process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wegener, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiative DSC Differential Scanning Calorimetry DOE Department of Energy HMTA Hexamethylenetetramine MOX Mixed Oxide NERI Nuclear Energy Research Initiative ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory PUREX Plutonium and Uranium Extraction RTV Room... Page Figure 1 Dried UO2 spheres (~1000 ?m diameter, left) and sintered UO2 spheres (500 to 532 ?m diameter, right) ........................................... 11 Figure 2 Diagram of Oak Ridge internal gelation sol-gel system...

  5. Universality class in conformal inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei, E-mail: kallosh@stanford.edu, E-mail: alinde@stanford.edu [Department of Physics and SITP, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a new class of chaotic inflation models with spontaneously broken conformal invariance. Observational consequences of a broad class of such models are stable with respect to strong deformations of the scalar potential. This universality is a critical phenomenon near the point of enhanced symmetry, SO(1,1), in case of conformal inflation. It appears because of the exponential stretching of the moduli space and the resulting exponential flattening of scalar potentials upon switching from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame in this class of models. This result resembles stretching and flattening of inhomogeneities during inflationary expansion. It has a simple interpretation in terms of velocity versus rapidity near the Kähler cone in the moduli space, similar to the light cone of special theory of relativity. This effect makes inflation possible even in the models with very steep potentials. We describe conformal and superconformal versions of this cosmological attractor mechanism.

  6. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Final report, September 25, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Buller, C.; McCool, S.; Vossoughi, S.; Michnick, M.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the research program were to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems--KUSP1 systems that contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethyl phthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to supercritical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  7. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems. Annual report, September 25, 1994--September 24, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the research program are to (1) identify and develop polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) develop methods to predict their performance in field applications. The research focused on four types of gel systems -- KUSP1 systems which contain an aqueous polysaccharide designated KUSP1, phenolic-aldehyde systems composed of resorcinol and formaldehyde, colloidal-dispersion systems composed of polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate, and a chromium-based system where polyacrylamide is crosslinked by chromium(III). Gelation behavior of the resorcinol-formaldehyde systems and the KUSP1-borate system was examined. Size distributions of aggregates that form in the polyacrylamide-aluminum colloidal-dispersion gel system were determined. Permeabilities to brine of several rock materials were significantly reduced by gel treatments using the KUSP1 polymer-ester (monoethylphthalate) system, the KUSP1 polymer-boric acid system, and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system. The KUSP1 polymer-ester system and the sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde system were also shown to significantly reduce the permeability to super-critical carbon dioxide. A mathematical model was developed to simulate the behavior of a chromium redox-polyacrylamide gel system that is injected through a wellbore into a multi-layer reservoir in which crossflow between layers is allowed. The model describes gelation kinetics and filtration of pre-gel aggregates in the reservoir. Studies using the model demonstrated the effect filtration of gel aggregates has on the placement of gel systems in layered reservoirs.

  8. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Oil Saturated Core (Exp#7) ........................... 154 Fig. 4.64 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 1st PV of VW (Exp#7) ...... 155 Fig. 4.65 ? Vertical Slice CT Images of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 1st PV of VW (Exp#7...) ........................................................................................... 157 xiv Fig. 4.68 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 2nd PV of VW (Exp#7) ..... 158 Fig. 4.69 ? Vertical Slice CT Images of Oil Saturated Core Flooded With 2nd PV of VW (Exp#7...

  9. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) .................................................... 203 Fig. 4.110 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.111 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 3 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.112 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core (CGI-Fracked...) ...................................... 204 Fig. 4.113 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI- Fracked) .................................................................................................. 204 Fig. 4.114 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after...

  10. Simulation and Economic Screening of Improved Oil Recovery Methods with Emphasis on Injection Profile Control Including Waterflooding, Polymer Flooding and a Thermally Activated Deep Diverting Gel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okeke, Tobenna

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    permeability, swept zones. This research was initiated to evaluate the potential effectiveness of the latter method, known as deep diverting gels (DDG) to plug thief zones deep within the reservoir and far from the injection well. To evaluate the performance...

  11. Conformal relativity with hypercomplex variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ulrych

    2014-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Majorana's arbitrary spin theory is considered in a hyperbolic complex representation. The underlying differential equation is embedded into the gauge field theories of Sachs and Carmeli. In particular, the approach of Sachs can serve as a unified theory of general relativity and electroweak interactions. The method is extended to conformal space with the intention to introduce the strong interaction. It is then possible to use the wave equation, operating on representation functions of the conformal group, to describe the dynamics of matter fields. The resulting gauge groups resemble closely the gauge symmetries of Glashow-Salam-Weinberg and the Standard Model.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Gels; Stress from Confined Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Scherer

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract for Grant DE-FG02-97ER45642 Period: 1997-2002 Mechanical Properties of Gels 2002-2008 Stress from Confined Fluids Principal investigator: Prof. George W. Scherer Dept. Civil & Env. Eng./PRISM Eng. Quad. E-319 Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Recipient organization: Trustees of Princeton University 4 New South Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Abstract: The initial stage of this project, entitled Mechanical Properties of Gels, was dedicated to characterizing and explaining the properties of inorganic gels. Such materials, made by sol-gel processing, are of interest for fabrication of films, fibers, optical devices, advanced insulation and other uses. However, their poor mechanical properties are an impediment in some applications, so understanding the origin of these properties could lead to enhanced performance. Novel experimental methods were developed and applied to measure the stiffness and permeability of gels and aerogels. Numerical simulations were developed to reproduce the growth process of the gels, resulting in structures whose mechanical properties matched the measurements. The models showed that the gels are formed by the growth of relatively robust clusters of molecules that are joined by tenuous links whose compliance compromises the stiffness of the structure. Therefore, synthetic methods that enhance the links could significantly increase the rigidity of such gels. The next stage of the project focused on Stress from Confined Fluids. The first problem of interest was the enhanced thermal expansion coefficient of water that we measured in the nanometric pores of cement paste. This could have a deleterious effect on the resistance of concrete to rapid heating in fires, because the excessive thermal expansion of water in the pores of the concrete could lead to spalling and collapse. A series of experiments demonstrated that the expansion of water increases as the pore size decreases. To explain this behavior, we undertook a collaboration with Prof. Stephen Garofalini (Rutgers), who has developed the best simulations of water ever reported by use of molecular dynamics. Simulated heating of water in small pores provided quantitative agreement with experiments, and showed that the origin of the high expansion is the altered structure of water in the first two molecular layers adjacent to the pore wall. The final focus of the project was to understand the damage done by crystals growing in small pores. For example, the primary cause of damage to ancient monuments in the Mediterranean Basin is growth of salt crystals in the pores of the stone. Salt may enter stone as a result of capillary rise of groundwater, by leaching of mortar joints, deposition of marine spray, or reactions with atmospheric pollutants (such as oxides of nitrogen or sulfur). As the water evaporates, the salt solution becomes supersaturated and crystals precipitate. Stress results, because the salt usually repels the minerals in the pore walls. Our goal was to identify the factors contributing to the repulsion, so that we could develop a chemical treatment to reduce the repulsion and hence the stress. (We have recently demonstrated an effective treatment as part of a separately funded study.) In collaboration with Prof. Garofalini, molecular dynamics simulations have been done that correctly reproduce the structure of water around dissolved ions of sodium and chloride. We simulated the interaction between crystals of sodium chloride and quartz, and found that this particular system exhibits attractive forces, in agreement with experiment. The origin of the attraction is the orientation of dipolar water molecules near the surfaces of the crystals. Similar calculations now must be done in systems, such as potassium chloride and quartz, where the interaction is repulsive. This grant supported the education of two doctoral students, Hang-Shing Ma (Ph.D., 2002) and Melanie Webb (Ph.D. expected 2010), three post-doctoral researchers, Joachim Gross, Gudrun Reichenauer, and Shuangyan (Sonia) Xu, and five undergraduates (for senior theses or independent projects

  13. Initial Proposal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News linkThermal PhenomenaInitial

  14. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  15. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  16. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozer, N.; Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic devices have increasing application in display devices, switchable mirrors and smart windows. A variety of vacuum deposition technologies have been used to make electrochromic devices. The sol- gel process offers an alternative approach to the synthesis of optical quality and low cost electrochromic device layers. This study summarizes the developments in sol-gel deposited electrochromic films. The sol-gel process involves the formation of oxide networks upon hydrolysis-condensation of alkoxide precursors. In this study we cover the sol-gel deposited oxides of WO[sub 3], V[sub 2]O[sub 5], TiO[sub 2], Nb[sub 2]O[sub 5], and NiO[sub x].

  17. K-Basin gel formation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.A.

    1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

  18. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  19. Random Curves by Conformal Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Astala; P. Jones; A. Kupiainen; E. Saksman

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a conformally invariant random family of closed curves in the plane by welding of random homeomorphisms of the unit circle given in terms of the exponential of Gaussian Free Field. We conjecture that our curves are locally related to SLE$(\\kappa)$ for $\\kappa<4$.

  20. Random Curves by Conformal Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astala, K; Kupiainen, A; Saksman, E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct a conformally invariant random family of closed curves in the plane by welding of random homeomorphisms of the unit circle given in terms of the exponential of Gaussian Free Field. We conjecture that our curves are locally related to SLE$(\\kappa)$ for $\\kappa<4$.

  1. Conformal Relativity: Theory and Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Pervushin; V. Zinchuk; A. Zorin

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical and observational arguments are listed in favor of a new principle of relativity of units of measurements as the basis of a conformal-invariant unification of General Relativity and Standard Model by replacement of all masses with a scalar (dilaton) field. The relative units mean conformal observables: the coordinate distance, conformal time, running masses, and constant temperature. They reveal to us a motion of a universe along its hypersurface in the field space of events like a motion of a relativistic particle in the Minkowski space, where the postulate of the vacuum as a state with minimal energy leads to arrow of the geometric time. In relative units, the unified theory describes the Cold Universe Scenario, where the role of the conformal dark energy is played by a free minimal coupling scalar field in agreement with the most recent distance-redshift data from type Ia supernovae. In this Scenario, the evolution of the Universe begins with the effect of intensive creation of primordial W-Z-bosons explaining the value of CMBR temperature, baryon asymmetry, tremendous deficit of the luminosity masses in the COMA-type superclusters and large-scale structure of the Universe.

  2. Denaturing Urea PAGE -Large Gel Preparation of Glass Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    tube. Mix. Pour ~2.5 mls on inside surface of long glass plate. Spread and polish with Kimwipes. Repeat gel solution down middle of glass plates with 25 ml pipette. Do not trap bubbles in gel. Adjust flow rate with tilt of gel. Place gel close to horizontal (top end slightly elevated). Insert comb. Do

  3. Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.

  4. All conformally flat pure radiation metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Brian Edgar; Garry Ludwig

    1996-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The complete class of conformally flat, pure radiation metrics is given, generalising the metric recently given by Wils.

  5. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  6. Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational Preference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational conformational isomers of propanal, cis and gauche, are investigated by the vacuum-UV mass- analyzed thresholdV and 9.9516 ( 0.0006 eV, respectively. cis-Propanal, which is the more stable conformer in the neutral

  7. SYPRO Ruby Protein Gel Stain Advanced staining technology for 2-D gels and proteomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    of hazardous organic waste generated is greatly reduced compared to silver staining, minimizing the hassles protocol results in very consistent gel-to-gel results; same-spot inten- sity comparisons between identical associ- ated with waste disposal. Technical Information TC0161-2 SYPRO is a registered trademark

  8. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  9. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume Garriga; Alexander Vilenkin

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  10. Black Hole Initial Data with a Horizon of Prescribed Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Smith

    2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to construct asymptotically flat, time symmetric initial data with an apparent horizon of prescribed intrinsic geometry. To do this, we use the parabolic partial differential equation for prescribing scalar curvature. In this equation the horizon geometry is contained within the freely specifiable part of the metric. This contrasts with the conformal method in which the geometry of the horizon can only be specified up to a conformal factor.

  11. Characterization of gels prepared from silicon ethoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Su-Jin

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by heating to a high temperature, with low heating rates. Tg and Tc were correlated to water gt alcohol contents in presence of HCI or HF. Aerogels were found to have high pore volume, low bulk density, large pore size, and weak mechanical strength.... Structures of dried gels 2. 3, Densification 13 14 15 19 19 CHAPTER III 3. 1. Raw materials 3. 2. Xerogel preparation 3. 3. Aerogel preparation 3. 4. Characterization of dried gels 3, 4. 1. Mercury porosimetry 3. 4. 2. BET analysis 3. 4, 3...

  12. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  13. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  14. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, J.M.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  15. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  16. Characterization of gels prepared from silicon ethoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Su-Jin

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by heating to a high temperature, with low heating rates. Tg and Tc were correlated to water gt alcohol contents in presence of HCI or HF. Aerogels were found to have high pore volume, low bulk density, large pore size, and weak mechanical strength.... Structures of dried gels 2. 3, Densification 13 14 15 19 19 CHAPTER III 3. 1. Raw materials 3. 2. Xerogel preparation 3. 3. Aerogel preparation 3. 4. Characterization of dried gels 3, 4. 1. Mercury porosimetry 3. 4. 2. BET analysis 3. 4, 3...

  17. Conformational Transitions in Molecular Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Bachmann; Wolfhard Janke

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Proteins are the "work horses" in biological systems. In almost all functions specific proteins are involved. They control molecular transport processes, stabilize the cell structure, enzymatically catalyze chemical reactions; others act as molecular motors in the complex machinery of molecular synthetization processes. Due to their significance, misfolds and malfunctions of proteins typically entail disastrous diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, the understanding of the trinity of amino acid composition, geometric structure, and biological function is one of the most essential challenges for the natural sciences. Here, we glance at conformational transitions accompanying the structure formation in protein folding processes.

  18. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  19. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  20. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  1. Gel-forming reagents and uses thereof for preparing microarrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golova, Julia (Burr Ridge, IL); Chernov, Boris (Burr Ridge, IL); Perov, Alexander (Woodridge, IL)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.

  2. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA)

    2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  3. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satcher Jr., Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  4. "Dark energy" as conformal dynamics of space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Burlankov

    2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The exact solution for dynamic of conform-flat space homogeneous since dynamic equation is given. Conform mode of space metric changing in Global time theory has negative energy density. Swap of energy to this mode from another ones lead to increasing of Universe homogeneity although probability of this swap from local objects is negligibly small. Conform mode is corresponding to "dark energy" in observation astronomy.

  5. Conformal Lifshitz Gravity from Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Griffin; Petr Horava; Charles M. Melby-Thompson

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that holographic renormalization of relativistic gravity in asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes naturally reproduces the structure of gravity with anisotropic scaling: The holographic counterterms induced near anisotropic infinity take the form of the action for gravity at a Lifshitz point, with the appropriate value of the dynamical critical exponent $z$. In the particular case of 3+1 bulk dimensions and $z=2$ asymptotic scaling near infinity, we find a logarithmic counterterm, related to anisotropic Weyl anomaly of the dual CFT, and show that this counterterm reproduces precisely the action of conformal gravity at a $z=2$ Lifshitz point in 2+1 dimensions, which enjoys anisotropic local Weyl invariance and satisfies the detailed balance condition. We explain how the detailed balance is a consequence of relations among holographic counterterms, and point out that a similar relation holds in the relativistic case of holography in $AdS_5$. Upon analytic continuation, analogous to the relativistic case studied recently by Maldacena, the action of conformal gravity at the $z=2$ Lifshitz point features in the ground-state wavefunction of a gravitational system with an interesting type of spatial anisotropy.

  6. Identifying Transition State Features of Enzymatic Conformational...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Identifying Transition State Features of Enzymatic Conformational Cycles Thursday, January 5, 2012 - 11:00am SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Dr. Dimitar Pachov, HHMI Research...

  7. Dynamic coupling drives conformational evolution of branched...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization Dynamic coupling drives conformational evolution of branched polymers in solutions March 06, 2015 Inter-particle collision time (filled circles) and...

  8. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matlock, Peter [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India)

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra.

  9. Review Article Polymers and Gels as Molecular Recognition Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    -responsive hydrogels (10). These hydro- gels are semi-interpenetrating polymer networks with complementary antibodyReview Article Polymers and Gels as Molecular Recognition Agents Nicholas A. Peppas1,2,3 and Yanbin Huang1 Received December 7, 2001; accepted February 6, 2002 Synthetic polymers and gels capable

  10. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  11. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  12. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  13. Conformational Transitions upon Ligand Binding: Holo-Structure Prediction from Apo Conformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    Conformational Transitions upon Ligand Binding: Holo- Structure Prediction from Apo Conformations Daniel Seeliger, Bert L. de Groot* Computational Biomolecular Dynamics Group, Max design. Hence, if only an unbound (apo) structure is available distinct from the ligand

  14. Conformal Frame Dependence of Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domènech, Guillem

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  15. Fusion rules in conformal field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Fuchs

    1993-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in twodimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme.

  16. Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Zannias

    1994-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

  17. Conformal nets III: fusion of defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2015-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

  18. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Bhatia, Rimple (Albuquerque, NM); Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  19. www.postersession.com Conformal Conservation Laws and Geometric Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Brian

    Equations · Schrdinger Equations · Shallow-Water Equations Many conservation laws are derived directly from in conformal multi-symplectic form Residual in local conformal probability Residual in total conformal

  20. Investigation of the Peroxovanadate Sol-Gel Process and Characterization of the Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Joseph Fontenot

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In general, the peroxovanadate solution sol-gel process can be thought of as consisting of two parts: (1) the decomposition of the peroxo species and (2) cation hydrolysis leading to gelation. By controlling the synthesis conditions, both layered and amorphous compounds can be created. However, the type of water coordination observed in these gels was found to be identical no matter what the long-range order. The current work clarified many of the discrepancies found in the literature and offered much new valuable information. Highlights include the types of vanadium environments present at various stages of hydration, the role of adsorbed water, oxygen exchange from adsorbed water into the gel sites, and the ability to create metastable VMoO solid solution phases. These results could have a variety of impacts on future catalysis research.

  1. Vibration atomic layer deposition for conformal nanoparticle coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Suk Won; Woo Kim, Jun; Jong Choi, Hyung; Hyung Shim, Joon, E-mail: shimm@korea.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A vibration atomic layer deposition reactor was developed for fabricating a conformal thin-film coating on nanosize particles. In this study, atomic layer deposition of 10–15-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films was conducted on a high-surface-area acetylene black powder with particle diameters of 200–250?nm. Intense vibration during the deposition resulted in the effective separation of particles, overcoming the interparticle agglomeration force and enabling effective diffusion of the precursor into the powder chunk; this phenomenon led to the formation of a conformal film coating on the nanopowder particles. It was also confirmed that the atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films initially grew on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder particles as discrete islands, presumably because chemisorption of the precursor and water occurred only on a few sites on the high-surface-area acetylene black powder surface. Relatively sluggish growth of the films during the initial atomic layer deposition cycles was identified from composition analysis.

  2. EIS-0470: Cape Wind Energy Project, Final General Conformity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    70: Cape Wind Energy Project, Final General Conformity Determination EIS-0470: Cape Wind Energy Project, Final General Conformity Determination Cape Wind Energy Project, Final...

  3. Clean Air Act General Conformity Requirements and the National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clean Air Act General Conformity Requirements and the National Environmental Policy Act Process Clean Air Act General Conformity Requirements and the National Environmental Policy...

  4. Matching univalent functions and conformal welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grong, Erlend; Vasil'ev, Alexander

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a conformal mapping $f$ of the unit disk $\\mathbb D$ onto a simply connected domain $D$ in the complex plane bounded by a closed Jordan curve, we consider the problem of constructing a matching conformal mapping, i.e., the mapping of the exterior of the unit disk $\\mathbb D^*$ onto the exterior domain $D^*$ regarding to $D$. The answer is expressed in terms of a linear differential equation with a driving term given as the kernel of an operator dependent on the original mapping $f$. Examples are provided. This study is related to the problem of conformal welding and to representation of the Virasoro algebra in the space of univalent functions.

  5. Matching univalent functions and conformal welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlend Grong; Pavel Gumenyuk; Alexander Vasil'ev

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Given a conformal mapping $f$ of the unit disk $\\mathbb D$ onto a simply connected domain $D$ in the complex plane bounded by a closed Jordan curve, we consider the problem of constructing a matching conformal mapping, i.e., the mapping of the exterior of the unit disk $\\mathbb D^*$ onto the exterior domain $D^*$ regarding to $D$. The answer is expressed in terms of a linear differential equation with a driving term given as the kernel of an operator dependent on the original mapping $f$. Examples are provided. This study is related to the problem of conformal welding and to representation of the Virasoro algebra in the space of univalent functions.

  6. Computational Studies of Glycan Conformations in Glycoproteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jo, Sunhwan

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . Heather Desaire for introducing me the world of glycobiology and Dr. Alex MacKerell Jr. for providing early access of the carbohydrate force field that was under development in his lab. I am also grateful to Dr. Jeffrey Klauda for his valuable comments... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 5.2.3 Selection of PDB entries for comparison of conformational preference . . . 76 5.2.4 Coarse-graining of conformational state using glycosidic torsion angle . . . 76 5.2.5 Transfer entropy (TE) between conformational state and the formation...

  7. Novel Approach to Conformal FINFET Extension Doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zschaetzsch, G.; Vandervorst, W. [imec Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Hoffmann, T. Y.; Horiguchi, N. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Hautala, J.; Shao, Y. [TEL Epion Inc., 37 Manning Road, Billerica, MA, 01821 (United States)

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a novel strategy to achieve conformal FINFET extension doping with low tilt-angle beam-line ion implantation. The process relies on the self-aligned cap layer formation exclusively on top of the FIN to tune doping levels in this particular area by partial dopant trapping. The conformality itself is evaluated for n- and p-type dopants by a novel extraction method applied to FIN resistor test structures. Furthermore, the process was integrated into a full NMOS device flow and compared to a highly tilted and more conformal As implant condition.

  8. Selective gel treatments in the Countyline Unit, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasti, J.K.; Zambrano, L.G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A waterflood optimization work program was conducted in a ``Type`` fault block in the Countyline Unit, Sho-Vel-Tum Field, Oklahoma. Selective gels were used to block random thief zones in the Upper Fusulinia Formation. There were eleven workovers, selective gel treatments in five injection wells, and a shift of water injection to downdip wells. Results show that the program has been successful in increasing production and ultimate recovery with significant improvements in the water injection profiles. in addition, a new gel injection procedure has been discovered while carrying out the project. The procedure involves pulsing the reservoir to increase the amount of gel that can be injected into the matrix (while maintaining the injection pressure below the formation fracture pressure), thereby improving the gel`s blocking capability.

  9. Conformable apparatus in a drill string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube. The metal tube may be adapted to stretch as the drill pipes stretch.

  10. Experimental: Gel Electrolyte The gel mixtures were designed to be cast as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -electrolyte Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (LC) by quasi-solid-state constructions (SC) adopting organic with an active area of 2.5 cm2. Gel Electrolyte Application in Large Area Dye-sensitized Modules Matteo Biancardo layer of Pedot:PSS reduces the transmittance of the cell mostly in the N.I.R. where the N3* dye do

  11. The Principle of Maximum Conformality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J; /SLAC; Giustino, Di; /SLAC

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A key problem in making precise perturbative QCD predictions is the uncertainty in determining the renormalization scale of the running coupling {alpha}{sub s}({mu}{sup 2}). It is common practice to guess a physical scale {mu} = Q which is of order of a typical momentum transfer Q in the process, and then vary the scale over a range Q/2 and 2Q. This procedure is clearly problematic since the resulting fixed-order pQCD prediction will depend on the renormalization scheme, and it can even predict negative QCD cross sections at next-to-leading-order. Other heuristic methods to set the renormalization scale, such as the 'principle of minimal sensitivity', give unphysical results for jet physics, sum physics into the running coupling not associated with renormalization, and violate the transitivity property of the renormalization group. Such scale-setting methods also give incorrect results when applied to Abelian QED. Note that the factorization scale in QCD is introduced to match nonperturbative and perturbative aspects of the parton distributions in hadrons; it is present even in conformal theory and thus is a completely separate issue from renormalization scale setting. The PMC provides a consistent method for determining the renormalization scale in pQCD. The PMC scale-fixed prediction is independent of the choice of renormalization scheme, a key requirement of renormalization group invariance. The results avoid renormalon resummation and agree with QED scale-setting in the Abelian limit. The PMC global scale can be derived efficiently at NLO from basic properties of the PQCD cross section. The elimination of the renormalization scheme ambiguity using the PMC will not only increases the precision of QCD tests, but it will also increase the sensitivity of colliders to new physics beyond the Standard Model.

  12. Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Christine Chihfan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically Conductive Oxide Aerogels: New Materials in2003). Electrochemical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Aerogelsand Aerogel Nanocomposites . Journal of Sol-Gel Science and

  13. allopurinol gel mitigates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  14. aloe vera gel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  15. aluminum hydroxide gel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  16. a-007 topical gel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  17. alginate gel beads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  18. active polar gels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  19. agarose gel electrophoresis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  20. agarose gel electrophoretic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  1. agar gel immunodiffusion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  2. acetate isobutyrate gels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  3. Spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance, solitons, and gravitational waves in theories of conformally invariant gravitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchami, Jihene [Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Paranjape, M. B. [Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Center for Quantum Spacetime, Department of Physics, Sogang University, Shinsu-dong 1, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study conformal gravity as an alternative theory of gravitation. For conformal gravity to be phenomenologically viable requires that the conformal symmetry is not manifest at the energy scales of the other known physical forces. Hence we are required to find a mechanism for the spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance. In this paper we study the possibility that conformal invariance is spontaneously broken due to interactions with conformally coupled matter fields. The vacuum of the theory admits conformally noninvariant solutions corresponding to maximally symmetric space-times and variants thereof. These are either de Sitter space-time or anti-de Sitter space-time in the full four space-time dimensions and we find new solutions corresponding to maximal symmetry restricted to a lower dimensional subspace. We also consider normalizable, linearized gravitational perturbations around the anti-de Sitter background. We show to second order, that these gravitational fluctuations carry zero energy momentum. Finally we also show the possibility of domain wall solitons interpolating between the ground states of spontaneously broken conformal symmetry that we have found. These solitons necessarily require the vanishing of the scalar field. This offers a way of eschewing the recent suggestion and its consequences [E. Flanagan, Phys. Rev. D 74, 023002 (2006).] that the conformal symmetry could be quarantined to a sterile sector of the theory by choosing an appropriate field redefinition.

  4. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  5. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  6. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    indispensable advice. Finally this work would not have been completed without all the help and facilities provided by my group members. I thank my group members Roger, Xiaojia, Rene, Arjun and Faisal for all their support and encouragement. Finally I would...

  7. Reese 4/2004 GRADIENT GELS FOR SDS-PAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doering, Tamara

    and back white plates, 24 spacers and 12 18-space combs - buffers: - Separating gel buffer: 1.5 M tris. Then close, transfer whatever ran through back, and put the heavy solution in the empty chamber. 6 with distilled water, drain off (can dry by inserting filter paper). Then mix up stacker: Separating gel 4

  8. Tactile measurement with a GelSight sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Wenzhen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis introduces a method of measuring contact force with GelSight. GelSight is an optical-based tactile sensor that uses a piece of coated elastomer as the contact medium. A camera records the distortion of the ...

  9. LIGHT SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY OF PULYDIMETHYLSILOXANE-TOLUENE GELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1499 LIGHT SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY OF PULYDIMETHYLSILOXANE-TOLUENE GELS J. P. MUNCH, P. LEMARÉCHAL varie avec la concentration en polymère selon une loi de puissance avec un exposant plus élevé que celui- siloxane-toluene gels formed either by swelling permanent networks or by dissolving linear macro- molecules

  10. Pore-Level Examination of Gel Destruction During Oil Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Pore-Level Examination of Gel Destruction During Oil Flow R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum-scale X-ray computed microtomography (XMT) images were obtained at a variety of oil (hexadecane(III)-acetate-hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel]. For each pore in our image volume, we followed oil and water saturations

  11. Long-range forces extending from polymer-gel surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-ming Zheng; Gerald H. Pollack

    2003-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous suspensions of microspheres were infused around gels of varying composition. The solutes were excluded from zones on the order of 100 micrometers from the gel surface. We present evidence that this finding is not an artifact, and that solute-repulsion forces exist at distances far greater than conventional theory predicts. The observations imply that solutes may interact over an unexpectedly long range.

  12. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  13. Sol-gel coatings for optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avellaneda, C.O.; Macedo, M.A.; Florentino, A.O.; Aegerter, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} prepared by a sol-gel process in form of coatings and aerogels are new materials which present interesting properties: (a) The coatings present electrochromic properties and exhibit a blue coloration under Li{sup +} insertion with 100% reversible variation of the optical transmission in the visible and near infrared range between 80% and 200% and have a high chemical stability (tested up to 2,000 cycles). (b) They are semiconductor and present a photoelectric effect when illuminating in the UV region ({lambda} < 360 nm). These films are therefore very promising to be used in electrochromic devices, as electrodes for photoelectrochemical purpose and the development of nanocrystalline solar cell. (c) When prepared in aerogel form, the high BET surface area of the powders is a promising asset to use these new materials for catalytic purposes for air pollution control.

  14. KINETICS OF PITTING CORROSION IN GELS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ISAACS, H.S.; ADZIC, G.

    2000-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation has been carried out on stainless steel to determine the important parameters that related the changes in pH around pits to the current coming from the pits. Potentiodynamic measurements at 1 mV/s were made on Type 302 stainless steel in agar containing 1M NaCl and a wide range pH indicator. Many pits suddenly appeared at the pitting potential, as indicated by the red, low pH region around the pits. Simulations of the changes in pH were based on diffusion from a point current source. The results also were considered in terms of the effects of a minimum detectable thickness of pH change within the gel.

  15. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1991-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product any be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  16. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenny, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omalete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1992-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  17. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Dean-Mo (Richmond, CA); Chen, I-Wei (Swarthmore, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  18. Conformal Higgs model: predicted dark energy density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. K. Nesbet

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Postulated universal Weyl conformal scaling symmetry provides an alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm for cosmology. Recent applications to galactic rotation velocities, Hubble expansion, and a model of dark galactic halos explain qualitative phenomena and fit observed data without invoking dark matter. Significant revision of theory relevant to galactic collisions and clusters is implied, but not yet tested. Dark energy is found to be a consequence of conformal symmetry for the Higgs scalar field of electroweak physics. The present paper tests this implication. The conformal Higgs model acquires a gravitational effect described by a modified Friedmann cosmic evolution equation, shown to fit cosmological data going back to the cosmic microwave background epoch. The tachyonic mass parameter of the Higgs model becomes dark energy in the Friedmann equation. A dynamical model of this parameter, analogous to the Higgs mechanism for gauge boson mass, is derived and tested here. An approximate calculation yields a result consistent with the empirical magnitude inferred from Hubble expansion.

  19. QCD evolution equations from conformal symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Braun; A. N. Manashov

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    QCD evolution equations in $\\text{MS}$-like schemes can be recovered from the same equations in a modified theory, QCD in non-integer $d=4-2\\epsilon$ dimensions, which enjoys exact scale and conformal invariance at the critical point. Restrictions imposed by the conformal symmetry of the modified theory allow one to obtain complete evolution kernels in integer (physical) dimensions at the given order of perturbation theory from the spectrum of anomalous dimensions added by the calculation of the special conformal anomaly at one order less. We use this technique to derive two-loop evolution equations for flavor-nonsinglet quark-antiquark light-ray operators that encode the scale dependence of generalized hadron parton distributions.

  20. Infrared modification of gravity from conformal symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gegenberg, Jack; Seahra, Sanjeev S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We reconsider a gauge theory of gravity in which the gauge group is the conformal group SO(4,2) and the action is of the Yang-Mills form, quadratic in the curvature. The resulting gravitational theory exhibits local conformal symmetry and reduces to Weyl-squared gravity under certain conditions. When the theory is linearized about flat spacetime, we find that matter which couples to the generators of special conformal transformations reproduces Newton's inverse square law. Conversely, matter which couples to generators of translations induces a constant and possibly repulsive force far from the source, which may be relevant for explaining the late time acceleration of the universe. The coupling constant of theory is dimensionless, which means that it is potentially renormalizable.

  1. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  2. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Simonovi?, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB ?-distortion.

  3. On conformal higher spin wave operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teake Nutma; Massimo Taronna

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze free conformal higher spin actions and the corresponding wave operators in arbitrary even dimensions and backgrounds. We show that the wave operators do not factorize in general, and identify the Weyl tensor and its derivatives as the obstruction to factorization. We give a manifestly factorized form for them on (A)dS backgrounds for arbitrary spin and on Einstein backgrounds for spin 2. We are also able to fix the conformal wave operator in d=4 for s=3 up to linear order in the Riemann tensor on generic Bach-flat backgrounds.

  4. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  5. Black hole initial data with a horizon of prescribed intrinsic and extrinsic geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Smith

    2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to construct asymptotically flat, time symmetric initial data with an apparent horizon of prescribed intrinsic and extrinsic geometry. To do this, we use the parabolic partial differential equation for prescribing scalar curvature. In this equation the horizon geometry is contained within the freely specifiable part of the metric. This contrasts with the conformal method in which the geometry of the horizon can only be specified up to a conformal factor.

  6. Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazel, Mohamadreza, E-mail: m.fazel@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Tehran, North Kargar Avenue, Teharn 14395-547 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini, E-mail: sa.hosseinimansoori@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrödinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.

  7. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yalin

    Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions Yalin Wang1,2 , Xianfeng Gu3 a brain surface to a multi-hole disk. The re- sulting parameterizations do not have any singularities of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, in- cluding the hippocampi and the cerebral cortices

  8. Algebraic conformal quantum field theory in perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl-Henning Rehren

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Conformal quantum field theory is reviewed in the perspective of Axiomatic, notably Algebraic QFT. This theory is particularly developped in two spacetime dimensions, where many rigorous constructions are possible, as well as some complete classifications. The structural insights, analytical methods and constructive tools are expected to be useful also for four-dimensional QFT.

  9. Stretchable liquid crystal blue phase gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Castles; S. M. Morris; J. M. C. Hung; M. M. Qasim; A. D. Wright; S. Nosheen; S. S. Choi; B. I. Outram; S. J. Elston; C. Burgess; L. Hill; T. D. Wilkinson; H. J. Coles

    2014-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystalline polymers are materials of considerable scientific interest and technological value to society [1-3]. An important subset of such materials exhibit rubber-like elasticity; these can combine the remarkable optical properties of liquid crystals with the favourable mechanical properties of rubber and, further, exhibit behaviour not seen in either type of material independently [2]. Many of their properties depend crucially on the particular mesophase employed. Stretchable liquid crystalline polymers have previously been demonstrated in the nematic, chiral nematic, and smectic mesophases [2,4]. Here were report the fabrication of a stretchable gel of blue phase I, which forms a self-assembled, three-dimensional photonic crystal that may have its optical properties manipulated by an applied strain and, further, remains electro-optically switchable under a moderate applied voltage. We find that, unlike its undistorted counterpart, a mechanically deformed blue phase exhibits a Pockels electro-optic effect, which sets out new theoretical challenges and new possibilities for low-voltage electro-optic devices.

  10. active polymer gel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that the anomalous diffusivity of the trapped particles can be analyzed in terms of a fractal Gaussian network gel model for the entire time range probed by DLS technique. This...

  11. alginate gel polymer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that the anomalous diffusivity of the trapped particles can be analyzed in terms of a fractal Gaussian network gel model for the entire time range probed by DLS technique. This...

  12. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA gel electrophoresis is a critical analytical step in a wide spectrum of genomic analysis assays. Great efforts have been directed to the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems (“lab-on-a-chip” systems) to perform low-cost, high...

  13. Collagen scaffolds and injectable biopolymer gels for cardiac tissue engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Karen Kailin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds have begun to shown promise for cell delivery for cardiac tissue engineering. Although various polymers and material forms have been explored, there is a need for: injectable gels ...

  14. The Geospatial Information Sciences Yulia R. Gel, PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    The Geospatial Information Sciences Program Presents Yulia R. Gel, PhD Associate Professor Society (TIES). GeospatialInformationSciences ColloquiumSeries (Light lunch will be served from 1pm ­ 1

  15. Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Dennis M. (Livermore, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

  16. Creep and Fracture of a Protein Gel under Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu Leocmach; Christophe Perge; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomaterials such as protein or polysaccharide gels are known to behave qualitatively as soft solids and to rupture under an external load. Combining optical and ultrasonic imaging to shear rheology we show that the failure scenario of a protein gel is reminiscent of brittle solids: after a primary creep regime characterized by a power-law behavior which exponent is fully accounted for by linear viscoelasticity, fractures nucleate and grow logarithmically perpendicularly to shear, up to the sudden rupture of the gel. A single equation accounting for those two successive processes nicely captures the full rheological response. The failure time follows a decreasing power law with the applied shear stress, similar to the Basquin law of fatigue for solids. These results are in excellent agreement with recent fiber-bundle models that include damage accumulation on elastic fibers and exemplify protein gels as model, brittle-like soft solids.

  17. Wall Adhesion and Constitutive Modelling of Strong Colloidal Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel R. Lester; Richard Buscall; Anthony D. Stickland; Peter J. Scales

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Wall adhesion effects during batch sedimentation of strongly flocculated colloidal gels are commonly assumed to be negligible. In this study in-situ measurements of colloidal gel rheology and solids volume fraction distribution suggest the contrary, where significant wall adhesion effects are observed in a 110mm diameter settling column. We develop and validate a mathematical model for the equilibrium stress state in the presence of wall adhesion under both viscoplastic and viscoelastic constitutive models. These formulations highlight fundamental issues regarding the constitutive modeling of colloidal gels, specifically the relative utility and validity of viscoplastic and viscoelastic rheological models under arbitrary tensorial loadings. The developed model is validated against experimental data, which points toward a novel method to estimate the shear and compressive yield strength of strongly flocculated colloidal gels from a series of equilibrium solids volume fraction profiles over various column widths.

  18. Energy Security Initiatives Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Spring 2009 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—lists Federal government energy security initiatives.

  19. Initiating Business with INL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Initiating Business with INL The INL Small Business Program Office (SBPO) serves as the advocate and point of contact for businesses seeking contracting opportunities. We ask you...

  20. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  1. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives...

  2. Electric-magnetic duality implies (global) conformal invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung-Pil Moon; Sang-Jin Lee; Ji-Hye Lee; Jae-Hyuk Oh

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have examined quantum theories of electric magnetic duality invariant vector fields enjoying classical conformal invariance in 4-dimensional flat spacetime. We extend Dirac's argument about "the conditions for a quantum field theory to be relativistic" to "those for a quantum theory to be conformal". We realize that electric magnetic duality invariant vector theories together with classical conformal invariance defined in 4-$d$ flat spacetime are still conformally invariant theories when they are quantized in a way that electric magnetic duality is manifest.

  3. Conformal welding and the sewing equations Eric Schippers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schippers, Eric

    Conformal welding and the sewing equations Eric Schippers Department of Mathematics University of Manitoba Winnipeg Rutgers 2014 Eric Schippers (Manitoba) Conformal welding Rutgers 1 / 41 #12;Introduction Schippers (Manitoba) Conformal welding Rutgers 2 / 41 #12;Introduction Our work in general We began

  4. On New Conformal Field Theories with Affine Fusion Rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doron Gepner

    1999-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Some time ago, conformal data with affine fusion rules were found. Our purpose here is to realize some of these conformal data, using systems of free bosons and parafermions. The so constructed theories have an extended $W$ algebras which are close analogues of affine algebras. Exact character formulae is given, and the realizations are shown to be full fledged unitary conformal field theories.

  5. A conformance relation for model-based testing of PLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A conformance relation for model-based testing of PLC Anais Guignard Jean-Marc Faure Ecole-marc.faure@lurpa.ens-cachan.fr) Abstract: This paper focuses on the execution of conformance testing of PLC with I/O scanning which of conformance test of real devices, like Pro- grammable Logic Controllers (PLC 1 ) that execute a con- trol code

  6. Formation and Rupture of Ca$^{2+}$ Induced Pectin Biopolymer Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajib Basak; Ranjini Bandyopadhyay

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    When calcium salts are added to an aqueous solution of polysaccharide pectin, ionic cross-links form between pectin chains, giving rise to a gel network in dilute solution. In this work, dynamic light scattering (DLS) is employed to study the microscopic dynamics of the fractal aggregates (flocs) that constitute the gels, while rheological measurements are performed to study the process of gel rupture. As calcium salt concentration is increased, DLS experiments reveal that the polydispersities of the flocs increase simultaneously with the characteristic relaxation times of the gel network. Above a critical salt concentration, the flocs become interlinked to form a reaction-limited fractal gel network. Rheological studies demonstrate that the limits of the linear rheological response and the critical stresses required to rupture these networks both decrease with increase in salt concentration. These features indicate that the ion-mediated pectin gels studied here lie in a `strong link' regime that is characterised by inter-floc links that are stronger than intra-floc links. A scaling analysis of the experimental data presented here demonstrates that the elasticities of the individual fractal flocs exhibit power-law dependences on the added salt concentration. We conclude that when pectin and salt concentrations are both increased, the number of fractal flocs of pectin increases simultaneously with the density of crosslinks, giving rise to very large values of the bulk elastic modulus.

  7. A Materials Facilities Initiative -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Materials Facilities Initiative - FMITS & MPEX D.L. Hillis and ORNL Team Fusion & Materials for Nuclear Systems Division July 10, 2014 #12;2 Materials Facilities Initiative JET ITER FNSF Fusion Reactor Challenges for materials: fluxes and fluence, temperatures 50 x divertor ion fluxes up to 100 x neutron

  8. A conformal nano-adhesive via initiated chemical vapor deposition for microfluidic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Patrick S.

    (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polycarbonate (PC), and poly(tetrafluoro ethylene) (PTFE). Introduction Microfluidic consumption of reagents and analytes, low cost of manufacture, low consumption of power, high throughput

  9. Relaxation time of non-conformal plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Buchel

    2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study effective relaxation time of viscous hydrodynamics of strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma using gauge theory/string theory correspondence. We compute leading corrections to the conformal plasma relaxation time from the relevant deformations due to dim-2 and dim-3 operators. We discuss in details the relaxation time tau_eff of N=2^* plasma. For a certain choice of masses this theory undergoes a phase transition with divergent specific heat c_V ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2). Although the bulk viscosity remains finite all the way to the critical temperature, we find that tau_eff diverges near the critical point as tau_eff ~ |1-T_c/T|^(-1/2).

  10. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  11. Braneworlds, Conformal Fields and Dark Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rui Neves

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Randall-Sundrum scenario we analize the dynamics of a spherically symmetric 3-brane when matter fields propagate in the bulk. For a well defined class of conformal fields of weight -4 we determine a new set of exact 5-dimensional solutions which localize gravity in the vicinity of the brane and are stable under radion field perturbations. Geometries which describe the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust, generalized dark radiation and homogeneous polytropic dark energy are shown to belong to this set.

  12. Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sladkowski, J

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.

  13. Coadjoint Orbits and Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington Taylor IV

    1993-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new approach to conformal field theory. This approach combines the method of coadjoint orbits with resolutions and chiral vertex operators to give a construction of the correlation functions of conformal field theories in terms of geometrically defined objects. Explicit formulae are given for representations of Virasoro and affine algebras in terms of a local gauge choice on the line bundle associated with geometric quantization of a given coadjoint orbit; these formulae define a new set of explicit bosonic realizations of these algebras. The coadjoint orbit realizations take the form of dual Verma modules, making it possible to avoid the technical difficulties associated with the two-sided resolutions which arise from Feigin-Fuchs and Wakimoto realizations. Formulae are given for screening and intertwining operators on the coadjoint orbit representations. Chiral vertex operators between Virasoro modules are constructed, and related directly to Virasoro algebra generators in certain cases. From the point of view taken in this thesis, vertex operators have a geometric interpretation as differential operators taking sections of one line bundle to sections of another. A suggestion is made that by connecting this description with recent work deriving field theory actions from coadjoint orbits, a deeper understanding of the geometry of conformal field theory might be achieved.

  14. Scalar-tensor gravity and conformal continuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirill A. Bronnikov

    2002-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Global properties of vacuum static, spherically symmetric configurations are studied in a general class of scalar-tensor theories (STT) of gravity in various dimensions. The conformal mapping between the Jordan and Einstein frames is used as a tool. Necessary and sufficient conditions are found for the existence of solutions admitting a conformal continuation (CC). The latter means that a singularity in the Einstein-frame manifold maps to a regular surface S_(trans) in the Jordan frame, and the solution is then continued beyond this surface. S_(trans) can be an ordinary regular sphere or a horizon. In the second case, S_(trans) proves to connect two epochs of a Kantowski-Sachs type cosmology. It is shown that, in an arbitrary STT, with arbitrary potential functions $U(\\phi)$, the list of possible types of causal structures of vacuum space-times is the same as in general relativity with a cosmological constant. This is true even for conformally continued solutions. It is found that when S_(trans) is an ordinary sphere, one of the generic structures appearing as a result of CC is a traversable wormhole. Two explicit examples are presented: a known solution illustrating the emergence of singularities and wormholes, and a nonsingular 3-dimensional model with an infinite sequence of CCs.

  15. Development of conformal respirator monitoring technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonka, J.J.; Weismann, J.J.; Logan, R.J. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a Small Business Innovative Research Phase II project to develop a modular, surface conforming respirator monitor to improve upon the manual survey techniques presently used by the nuclear industry. Research was performed with plastic scintillator and gas proportional modules in an effort to find the most conducive geometry for a surface conformal, position sensitive monitor. The respirator monitor prototype developed is a computer controlled, position-sensitive detection system employing 56 modular proportional counters mounted in molds conforming to the inner and outer surfaces of a commonly used respirator (Scott Model 801450-40). The molds are housed in separate enclosures and hinged to create a {open_quotes}waffle-iron{close_quotes} effect so that the closed monitor will simultaneously survey both surfaces of the respirator. The proportional counter prototype was also designed to incorporate Shonka Research Associates previously developed charge-division electronics. This research provided valuable experience into pixellated position sensitive detection systems. The technology developed can be adapted to other monitoring applications where there is a need for deployment of many traditional radiation detectors.

  16. Spherically symmetric conformal gravity and "gravitational bubbles"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Berezin; V. I. Dokuchaev; Yu. N. Eroshenko

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The general structure of the spherically symmetric solutions in the Weyl conformal gravity is described. The corresponding Bach equation are derived for the special type of metrics, which can be considered as the representative of the general class. The complete set of the pure vacuum solutions is found. It consists of two classes. The first one contains the solutions with constant two-dimensional curvature scalar of our specific metrics, and the representatives are the famous Robertson-Walker metrics. One of them we called the "gravitational bubbles", which is compact and with zero Weyl tensor. The second class is more general, with varying curvature scalar. We found its representative as the one-parameter family. It appears that it can be conformally covered by the thee-parameter Mannheim-Kazanas solution. We also investigated the general structure of the energy-momentum tensor in the spherical conformal gravity and constructed the vectorial equation that reveals clearly the same features of non-vacuum solutions. One of them, the metrics a la Vaidya, is explicitly written.

  17. Conformality in twelve-flavour QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasumichi Aoki; Tatsumi Aoyama; Ed Bennett; Masafumi Kurachi; Toshihide Maskawa; Kohtaroh Miura; Kei-ichi Nagai; Hiroshi Ohki; Enrico Rinaldi; Akihiro Shibata; Koichi Yamawaki; Takeshi Yamazaki

    2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectrum of twelve-flavor QCD has been studied in details by the LatKMI collaboration. In this proceeding we present our updated results for the spectrum obtained with the HISQ action at two lattice spacings, several volumes and fermion masses. In particular, we emphasize the existence of a flavor-singlet scalar state parametrically light with respect to the rest of the spectrum, first reported in our paper. This feature is expected to be present for theories in the conformal window, but the lattice calculation of such a state is difficult and requires noise-reduction techniques together with large statistics, in order to evaluate disconnected diagrams. Being able to provide a robust observed connection between a light flavor-singlet scalar and (near-)conformality is an important step towards observing a light composite Higgs boson in walking technicolor theories on the lattice. We also show updated results for the mass anomalous dimension $\\gamma_m$ obtained from various spectral quantities, including the string tension, under the assumption that the theory is inside the conformal window.

  18. Initial data engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr T. Chrusciel; James Isenberg; Daniel Pollack

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a local gluing construction for general relativistic initial data sets. The method applies to generic initial data, in a sense which is made precise. In particular the trace of the extrinsic curvature is not assumed to be constant near the gluing points, which was the case for previous such constructions. No global conditions on the initial data sets such as compactness, completeness, or asymptotic conditions are imposed. As an application, we prove existence of spatially compact, maximal globally hyperbolic, vacuum space-times without any closed constant mean curvature spacelike hypersurface.

  19. "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    98 "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97) Samples to be digested in the gel are run in as few lanes as possible and alkylated prior to electrophoresis. Note that an alternate buffer system is also provided for LysC digestion

  20. A least-squares error minimization approach in the determination of ferric ion diffusion coefficient of Fricke-infused dosimeter gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tseng, Y.J.; Huang, S.-C.; Chu, W.C. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University Systems of Taiwan-National Yang Ming University, Pei-Tou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Institutes of Biomedical Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University Systems of Taiwan-National Yang Ming University, Pei-Tou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A least-squares error minimization approach was adopted to assess ferric ion diffusion coefficient of Fricke-agarose gels. Ferric ion diffusion process was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped degradation kernel operating on an initial concentration distribution. Diffusion coefficient was iteratively determined by minimizing the error function defined as the difference between the theoretically calculated and the experimentally measured dose distributions. A rapid MR image-based differential gel dosimetry technique that time resolves the evolution of the ferric ion diffusion process minimizes smearing of the dose distribution. Our results showed that for a Fricke-agarose gel contained 1 mM ammonium ferrous sulfate, 1% agarose, 1 mM sodium chloride, and 50 mM sulfuric acid, its ferric ion diffusion coefficient is (1.59{+-}0.28)x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} at room temperature. This value falls within the 1.00-2.00x10{sup -2} cm{sup 2} h{sup -1} range previously reported under varying gelling ingredients and concentrations. This method allows a quick, nondestructive evaluation of the ferric ion diffusion coefficient that can be used in conjunction with the in situ gel dosimetry experiment to provide a practical diffusion characterization of the dosimeter gel.

  1. The President's Biofuels Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Biofuels Initiative Neil Rossmeissl Office of the Biomass Program Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Why Can't We Regulate Our Way There? 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970 1980 1990 2000...

  2. Mississippi Clean Energy Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2010, the Mississippi Legislature enacted [http://billstatus.ls.state.ms.us/documents/2010/pdf/HB/1700-1799/HB1701S... HB 1701], establishing the Mississippi Clean Energy Initiative. This...

  3. President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Workshop on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Washington, DC July 13, 2005 JoAnn Milliken DOE Hydrogen Program Planning U.S. Energy Dependence is...

  4. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  5. Local structure and dynamics in colloidal fluids and gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takehiro Ohtsuka; C. Patrick Royall; Hajime Tanaka

    2009-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gels in soft-matter systems are an important nonergodic state of matter. We study a colloid-polymer mixture which is quenched by increasing the polymer concentration, from a fluid to a gel. Using confocal microscopy, we study both the static structure and dynamics in three dimensions (3D). Between the dynamically arrested gel and ergodic fluid comprised of isolated particles we find an intermediate 'cluster fluid' state, where the 'bonds' between the colloidal particles have a finite lifetime. The local dynamics are reminiscent of a fluid, while the local structure is almost identical to that of the gel. Simultaneous real-time local structural analysis and particle tracking in 3D at the single-particle level yields the following interesting information. Particles in the clusters move in a highly correlated manner, but, at the same time, exhibit significant dynamical heterogeneity, reflecting the enhanced mobility near the free surface. Deeper quenching eventually leads to a gel state where the 'bond' lifetime exceeds that of the experiment, although the local structure is almost identical to that of the 'cluster fluid'.

  6. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, F.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work will establish how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. This report describes progress made during the first year of this three-year study the following tasks: gel screening studies; impact of gelation pH, rock permeability, and lithology on the performance of a monomer-based gel; preliminary study of the permeability reduction for CO{sub 2} and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; preliminary study of permeability reduction for oil and water using a resorcinol-formaldehyde gel; rheology of Cr(III)-xanthan gel and gelants in porous media; impact of diffusion, dispersion, and viscous fingering on gel placement in injection wells; examination of flow-profile changes for field applications of gel treatments in injection wells; and placement of gels in production wells. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  8. Conformational properties of polymers in anisotropic environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Haydukivska; V. Blavatska

    2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the conformational properties of polymer macromolecules in solutions in presence of extended structural obstacles of (fractal) dimension $\\varepsilon_d$ causing the anisotropy of environment. Applying the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), we obtain numerical estimates for scaling exponents and universal shape parameters of polymers in such environments for a wide range $0polymer renormalization scheme. Both numerical and analytical studies qualitatively confirm the existence of two characteristic length scales of polymer chain in directions parallel and perpendicular to the extended defects.

  9. Major Conformed Contract Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on ArmedManufacturingJunePracticeShippingConformed Contract

  10. Penser Conformed Contract (EM0003383) - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTestPhysicsParticipantsPartnersC.PayrollConformed Contract

  11. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E. [Cambridge Centre for Medical Materials, Materials Science and Metallurgy Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wardale, R. J., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk [Division of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  12. Structure Transition in PSS/Lysozyme Complexes: A Chain-Conformation-Driven Process, as Directly Seen by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jérémie Gummel; Fabrice Cousin; François Boué

    2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of chain conformation in proteins/polyelectrolytes complexes (lysozyme and PSSNa) show that the crossover observed between an open structure -a chain network crosslinked by the proteins, and a globular one - dense globules of ~ 10 nm aggregated in a fractal way, results from a conformation modification prior to the transition. Before showing this, we have widened the parameters range for the observation of the transition. We had shown before that the two structures can be formed depending on chain length (for a given [PSS]/[lysozyme] ratio): gel for large chains, globules for short chains. We show here that the crossover between these two regimes can also be reached as a function of chains concentration or salinity of the buffer. Since all these crossover parameters act on chains overlapping concentration c*, we reinforce the idea of a transition from the dilute to the semi-dilute regime, but c* is shifted compared to pure PSS solutions. In order to understand this, we have measured by SANS the conformation of a single chain of PSS in presence of proteins within the complexes. This is achieved by a specific labeling trick where we take advantage of the fact that lysozyme and hydrogenated PSS chains have the same neutron scattering length density. In the gel structure, the PSS chains keep a wormlike structure as in pure solutions, but their persistence length is strongly reduced, from 50 {\\AA} without proteins to 20 {\\AA} in average with lysozyme. With this value of 20 {\\AA}, we calculate new overlapping thresholds (concentration, mass, ionic strength) in agreement with observed ones. In a second stage, after the globular structure is formed, the PSS chains get a third conformation, no longer wormlike, but more collapsed, within the globules.

  13. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  14. Initiatives | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on Armed ServicesDepartmentInformationInitiatives Initiatives

  15. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A. (Lexington, MA); Li, Jiali (Fayetteville, AR); Stein, Derek (Delft, NL); Gershow, Marc H. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  16. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  17. Bulk viscosity and the conformal anomaly in the pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

    2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the bulk viscosity of the massive pion gas within Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory. We obtain a low temperature peak arising from explicit conformal breaking due to the pion mass and another peak near the critical temperature, dominated by the conformal anomaly through gluon condensate terms. The correlation between bulk viscosity and conformal breaking supports a recent QCD proposal. We discuss the role of resonances, heavier states and large-$N_c$ counting.

  18. Conformal Scaling Gauge Symmetry and Inflationary Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue-Liang Wu

    2004-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Considering the conformal scaling gauge symmetry as a fundamental symmetry of nature in the presence of gravity, a scalar field is required and used to describe the scale behavior of universe. In order for the scalar field to be a physical field, a gauge field is necessary to be introduced. A gauge invariant potential action is constructed by adopting the scalar field and a real Wilson-like line element of the gauge field. Of particular, the conformal scaling gauge symmetry can be broken down explicitly via fixing gauge to match the Einstein-Hilbert action of gravity. As a nontrivial background field solution of pure gauge has a minimal energy in gauge interactions, the evolution of universe is then dominated at earlier time by the potential energy of background field characterized by a scalar field. Since the background field of pure gauge leads to an exponential potential model of a scalar field, the universe is driven by a power-law inflation with the scale factor $a(t) \\sim t^p$. The power-law index $p$ is determined by a basic gauge fixing parameter $g_F$ via $p = 16\\pi g_F^2[1 + 3/(4\\pi g_F^2) ]$. For the gauge fixing scale being the Planck mass, we are led to a predictive model with $g_F=1$ and $p\\simeq 62$.

  19. Yangian Superalgebras in Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Creutzig

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum Yangian symmetry in several sigma models with supergroup or supercoset as target is established. Starting with a two-dimensional conformal field theory that has current symmetry of a Lie superalgebra with vanishing Killing form we construct non-local charges and compute their properties. Yangian axioms are satisfied, except that the Serre relations only hold for a subsector of the space of fields. Yangian symmetry implies that correlation functions of fields in this sector satisfy Ward identities. We then show that this symmetry is preserved by certain perturbations of the conformal field theory. The main example are sigma models of the supergroups PSL(N|N), OSP(2N+2|2N) and D(2,1;\\alpha) away from the WZW point. Further there are the OSP(2N+2|2N) Gross-Neveu models and current-current perturbations of ghost systems, both for the disc as world-sheet. The latter we show to be equivalent to CP^{N-1|N} sigma models, while the former are conjecturally dual to supersphere sigma models.

  20. Conformality in twelve-flavour QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aoki, Yasumichi; Bennet, Ed; Kurachi, Masafumi; Maskawa, Toshihide; Miura, Kohtaroh; Nagai, Kei-ichi; Ohki, Hiroshi; Rinaldi, Enrico; Shibata, Akihiro; Yamawaki, Koichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectrum of twelve-flavor QCD has been studied in details by the LatKMI collaboration. In this proceeding we present our updated results for the spectrum obtained with the HISQ action at two lattice spacings, several volumes and fermion masses. In particular, we emphasize the existence of a flavor-singlet scalar state parametrically light with respect to the rest of the spectrum, first reported in our paper. This feature is expected to be present for theories in the conformal window, but the lattice calculation of such a state is difficult and requires noise-reduction techniques together with large statistics, in order to evaluate disconnected diagrams. Being able to provide a robust observed connection between a light flavor-singlet scalar and (near-)conformality is an important step towards observing a light composite Higgs boson in walking technicolor theories on the lattice. We also show updated results for the mass anomalous dimension $\\gamma_m$ obtained from various spectral quantities, including th...

  1. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  2. GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Taran

    #12;THE GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE: Using Systematic Inventories to Meet Country and Regional Needs International #12;Table of Contents Introduction 1 I. Using Inventories to Build Capacity and Advance the GTI 2 for systematic inventories. A major component of the workshop addressed how systematic inventories can serve

  3. BRAZIL RESEARCH INITIATIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    BRAZIL RESEARCH INITIATIVES Michigan State University (MSU) identifies Brazil as a global priority and challenges become increasingly part of the U.S.-Brazil agenda, MSU desires partnerships aimed at producing in the U.S. and one in Brazil, to share research strategies and explore joint projects in several research

  4. ----------------IRI ---------------Initiative & Referendum Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    results a conservative cast: · Marijuana rejected. Marijuana proponents went 0-4 on election night. California's Propo- sition 19 that would have legalized marijuana was one of the highest profile initiatives this year. In early polls, it led substantially but ended up failing 45-55. The silver lining for marijuana

  5. Staff Initials ______ Membership Application*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOT include the basketball gym. #12;Staff Initials ______ Furman University Fitness Center Acknowledgement and Release Form I, the undersigned, acknowledge that I am at least 18 years of age and that I am voluntarily here) I acknowledge that I am aware of the possible risks, dangers, and hazards associated with my

  6. The Sustainability "Green Initiative"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    sustainability approach aimed at: ·Lowering energy use and cost ·Reducing greenhouse gases ·Water and waste waterThe Sustainability "Green Initiative" At LAPPA October, 2008 #12;Sustainability is the capacity ·Carbon Footprint ·Ozone Friendly ·Global Warming ·Renewable Energy ·Biodegradable What does this whole

  7. New Concept Conformal Antennas Utilizing Metamaterial and Transformation Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Yu

    In this letter, we show by theoretical analysis and computer simulation that conformal antennas can be designed using metamaterial with inhomogeneous constitutive parameters by applying the electromagnetic coordinate ...

  8. Force Field Modeling of Conformational Energies: Importance of Multipole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Jay

    Force Field Modeling of Conformational Energies: Importance of Multipole Moments and Intramolecular as the molecules become more polar. Inclusion of multipole moments and intramolecular polarization can improve

  9. Conformational Dynamics and Proton Relay Positioning in Nickel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamics and Proton Relay Positioning in Nickel Catalysts for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation. Conformational Dynamics and Proton Relay Positioning in Nickel Catalysts for...

  10. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  11. Solid friction in gel electrophoresis S. F. Burlatskya)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutch, John

    Solid friction in gel electrophoresis S. F. Burlatskya) and John M. Deutch Department of Chemistry 1995 We study the influence of solid frictional forces acting on polymer chains moving in a random environment. We show that the total reduction in the chain tension resulting from the small friction between

  12. MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOL-GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    mechanical behavior of polysilicate aerogels, prepared using the sol-gel process. Two series of materials were prepared, derivatized with silylating agents, processed into coating solutions, and characterized properties of aerogel thin films were characterized. vi #12;Table of Contents Abstract

  13. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1991-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are a new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  14. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  15. Gel and process for preventing carbon dioxide break through

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandiford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for retarding the flow of carbon dioxide in carbon dioxide break-through fingers in a subterranean formation, the process comprising: (a) introducing a gas selected from the group consisting of carbon dioxide and gases containing carbon dioxide into a subterranean deposit containing carbon dioxide break-through fingers; (b) after the carbon dioxide break-through fingers have sorbed a predetermined amount of the gas, stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, (c) after stopping the flow of the gas into the subterranean formation, introducing an effective amount of a gel-forming composition into the subterranean formation and into the carbon dioxide break-through fingers, the gel-forming composition being operable, when contacting carbon dioxide break-through fingers containing the brine which has absorbed substantial amounts of carbon dioxide to form a gel in the fingers which is operable for retarding the flow of the gas in the finger. The gel-forming composition comprises: i. an aqueous solution comprising a first substance selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers, and mixtures thereof, and ii. an amount of a second substance selected from the group consisting of aldehydes, aldehyde generating substances, acetals, acetal generating substances, and mixtures thereof.

  16. Biomimetic ratcheting motion of a soft, slender, sessile gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    Biomimetic ratcheting motion of a soft, slender, sessile gel L. Mahadevan* , S. Daniel , and M. K, just as in a mechanical ratchet. Worms use a combination of unidirectional waves and the inequality­heal cycle in response to periodic unidirectional pulses producing a material ratchet (1, 4); snakes use

  17. Sol-gel matrices for direct colorimetric detection of analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA); Sasaki, Darryl (Albuquerque, NM); Yamanaka, Stacey (Dallas, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  18. Micro-PIXE characterization of interactions between a sol-gel derived bioactive glass and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Micro-PIXE characterization of interactions between a sol-gel derived bioactive glass the different steps of this bioactivity process via a complete micro-PIXE characterization of a sol- gel derived

  19. Degradation of Guar-Based Fracturing Gels: A Study of Oxidative and Enzymatic Breakers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarwar, Muhammad Usman

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Unbroken gel and residue from guar-based fracturing gels can be a cause for formation damage. The effectiveness of a fracturing treatment depends on better achieveing desired fracture geometry, proper proppant placement and after that, a good clean...

  20. Demonstration of DeconGel (TM) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 2026

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cellular Bioengineering Inc. (CBI) has developed decontamination gels (DeconGel™ 1101, 1120 and 1121) that when dried allow efficient removal of contamination from surfaces in a peelable film that...

  1. New insights into uranium (VI) sol-gel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (USA)); King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) investigations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been extremely useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sup 17}O NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, ((UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}){sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results will be presented to illustrate that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2} ((UO{sub 2}){sub 8} O{sub 4} (OH){sub 10}) {center dot} 8H{sub 2}O. This compound is the precursor to sintered UO{sub 2} ceramic fuel. 23 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL] [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL] [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  3. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  4. Conformal chemically resistant coatings for microflow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A.; Zdeblick, Mark

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for coating the inside surfaces of silicon microflow devices, such as electrophoresis microchannels, with a low-stress, conformal (uniform) silicon nitride film which has the ability to uniformly coat deeply-recessed cavities with, for example, aspect ratios of up to 40:1 or higher. The silicon nitride coating allows extended exposure to caustic solutions. The coating enables a microflow device fabricated in silicon to be resistant to all classes of chemicals: acids, bases, and solvents. The process involves low-pressure (vacuum) chemical vapor deposition. The ultra-low-stress silicon nitride deposition process allows 1-2 .mu.m thick films without cracks, and so enables extended chemical protection of a silicon microflow device against caustics for up to 1 year. Tests have demonstrated the resistance of the films to caustic solutions at both ambient and elevated temperatures to 65.degree. C.

  5. Conformal Bootstrap, Universality and Gravitational Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven Jackson; Lauren McGough; Herman Verlinde

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the conformal bootstrap equations to study the non-perturbative gravitational scattering between infalling and outgoing particles in the vicinity of a black hole horizon in AdS. We focus on irrational 2D CFTs with large $c$ and only Virasoro symmetry. The scattering process is described by the matrix element of two light operators (particles) between two heavy states (BTZ black holes). We find that the operator algebra in this regime is (i) universal and identical to that of Liouville CFT, and (ii) takes the form of an exchange algebra, specified by an R-matrix that exactly matches with the scattering amplitude of 2+1 gravity. The R-matrix is given by a quantum 6j-symbol and the scattering phase by the volume of a hyperbolic tetrahedron. We comment on the relevance of our results to scrambling and the holographic reconstruction of the bulk physics near black hole horizons.

  6. Conformally Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a universe where, according to the standard cosmological models, some 97% of the total mass-energy is still "missing in action" it behooves us to spend at least a little effort critically assessing and exploring radical alternatives. Among possible, (dare we say plausible), nonstandard but superficially viable models, those spacetimes conformal to the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker class of cosmological models play a very special role --- these models have the unique and important property of permitting large non-perturbative geometric deviations from Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology without unacceptably distorting the cosmic microwave background. Performing a "cosmographic" analysis, (that is, temporarily setting aside the Einstein equations, since the question of whether or not the Einstein equations are valid on galactic and cosmological scales is essentially the same question as whether or not dark matter/dark energy actually exist), and using both supernova data and informat...

  7. CONFORMAL WELDING AND KOEBE'S THEOREM CHRISTOPHER J. BISHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Christopher

    CONFORMAL WELDING AND KOEBE'S THEOREM CHRISTOPHER J. BISHOP Abstract. It is well known that not every orientation preserving homeomorphism of the circle to itself is a conformal welding, but in this paper we prove several results which state that every homeomorphism is \\almost" a welding in a precise

  8. Capturing Molecular Energy Landscapes with Probabilistic Conformational Roadmaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    1 Capturing Molecular Energy Landscapes with Probabilistic Conformational Roadmaps Mehmet Serkan1 and Biochemistry2 Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Abstract: Probabilistic roadmaps roadmap (PCR) tries to capture the connectivity of the low-energy subset of a conformational space

  9. Reversible Ratchet Effects for Vortices in Conformal Pinning Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Reichhardt; D. Ray; C. J. Olson Reichhardt

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the six-fold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transverse to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. The enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.

  10. Computation of Conformational Coupling in Allosteric Brian A. Kidd1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, David

    Computation of Conformational Coupling in Allosteric Proteins Brian A. Kidd1 , David Baker2 States of America, 3 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America BA, Baker D, Thomas WE (2009) Computation of Conformational Coupling in Allosteric Proteins. PLo

  11. The Conformal Universe I: Physical and Mathematical Basis of Conformal General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renato Nobili

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first of three papers on Conformal General Relativity (CGR), which aims to generalize Einstein's General Relativity (GR) by requiring action-integral invariance under local scale transformations in addition to general coordinate transformations. The theory is constructed in the semiclassical approximation as a preliminary approach to a quantum theoretical implementation. The idea of a conformal extension of GR was advanced by Weyl in 1919 and fully developed by Cartan in the early 1920s. For several decades it had little impact on physics, as CGR implies that all fields have zero mass. Today this does not appear to be an unsurmountable difficulty since we know that mass parameters may result from the spontaneous breakdown of a symmetry. This paper is devoted to introducing the formalism necessary to implement this idea. The implementation of local conformal symmetry is carried out and a number of interesting consequences are reported, in particular: 1) CGR is equivalent to a conformal--invariant field theory equipped with a ghost scalar field of non--zero vacuum expectation value and invested with geometric meaning, here called the dilation field (ghosts are not so fatal to S-matrix unitarity if energy density is bounded from below); 2) the interaction of this field with a physical scalar field results in the production of a Higgs field of dynamically evolving mass which is capable of promoting a huge energy transfer from geometry to matter; 3) CGR is only possible in 4D--spacetime and satisfies the Mach-Einstein principle in the form clarified by G\\"ursey in 1963.

  12. A DNA Pairing-enhanced Conformation of Bacterial RecA Proteins* Received for publication, August 4, 2003, and in revised form, October 3, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Michael M.

    A DNA Pairing-enhanced Conformation of Bacterial RecA Proteins* Received for publication, August 4A proteins of Escherichia coli (Ec) and Deino- coccus radiodurans (Dr) both promote a DNA strand exchange- stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB). In the absence of SSB, the initiation of strand exchange is greatly en

  13. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  14. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  15. UNLV Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hechanova, Anthony E.; Johnson, Allen; O'Toole, Brendan; Trabia, Mohamed; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of the Crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 617 and Alloy 276 under constant K at ambient temperature has been completed. Creep deformation of Alloy 230 at different temperature range and load level has been completed and heat to heat variation has been noticed. Creep deformation study of Alloy 276 has been completed under an applied initial stress level of 10% of yield stress at 950ºC. The grain size evaluation of the tested creep specimens of Alloy 276 has been completed.

  16. World Consensus Initiative 2004

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfires may contribute more toConsensus Initiative 2004 Texas

  17. Precision flyer initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  18. Precision flyer initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Alan M. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  19. X-ray Crystal Structures Elucidate the Nucleotidyl Transfer Reaction of Transcript Initiation Using Two Nucleotides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M Gleghorn; E Davydova; R Basu; L Rothman-Denes; K Murakami

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the pre- and postcatalytic forms of the initiation complex of bacteriophage N4 RNA polymerase that provide the complete set of atomic images depicting the process of transcript initiation by a single-subunit RNA polymerase. As observed during T7 RNA polymerase transcript elongation, substrate loading for the initiation process also drives a conformational change of the O helix, but only the correct base pairing between the +2 substrate and DNA base is able to complete the O-helix conformational transition. Substrate binding also facilitates catalytic metal binding that leads to alignment of the reactive groups of substrates for the nucleotidyl transfer reaction. Although all nucleic acid polymerases use two divalent metals for catalysis, they differ in the requirements and the timing of binding of each metal. In the case of bacteriophage RNA polymerase, we propose that catalytic metal binding is the last step before the nucleotidyl transfer reaction.

  20. Measurement of Dynamic Light Scattering Intensity in Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochas, Cyrille

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the scientific literature little attention has been given to the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) as a tool for extracting the thermodynamic information contained in the absolute intensity of light scattered by gels. In this article we show that DLS yields reliable measurements of the intensity of light scattered by the thermodynamic fluctuations, not only in aqueous polymer solutions, but also in hydrogels. In hydrogels, light scattered by osmotic fluctuations is heterodyned by that from static or slowly varying inhomogeneities. The two components are separable owing to their different time scales, giving good experimental agreement with macroscopic measurements of the osmotic pressure. DLS measurements in gels are, however, tributary to depolarised light scattering from the network as well as to multiple light scattering. The paper examines these effects, as well as the instrumental corrections required to determine the osmotic modulus. For guest polymers trapped in a hydrogel the measured intensity...

  1. Bridging from particle to macroscopic scales in uniaxial magnetic gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreas M. Menzel

    2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Connecting the different length scales of characterization is an important, but often very tedious task for soft matter systems. Here we carry out such a procedure for the theoretical description of anisotropic uniaxial magnetic gels. The so-far undetermined material parameters in a symmetry-based macroscopic hydrodynamic-like description are determined starting from a simplified mesoscopic particle-resolved model. This mesoscopic approach considers chain-like aggregates of magnetic particles embedded in an elastic matrix. Our procedure provides an illustrative background to the formal symmetry-based macroscopic description. There are presently other activities to connect such mesoscopic models as ours with more microscopic polymer-resolved approaches; together with these activities, our study complements a first attempt of scale-bridging from the microscopic to the macroscopic level in the characterization of magnetic gels.

  2. Fluid Diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes progress made during the second year of the three-year project, Fluid diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes.'' The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gasfloods. The work examines how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. 93 refs., 39 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Scaffold Architecture and Fibrin Gels Promote Meniscal Cell Proliferation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawelec, K. M.; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.; Wardale, R. J.

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    cultured on a soft collagen gel scaffold AIP Conf. Proc. 1503, 61 (2012); 10.1063/1.4769918 Selective fibronectin adsorption against albumin and enhanced stem cell attachment on helium atmospheric pressure glow discharge treated titanium J. Appl. Phys... . 109, 124701 (2011); 10.1063/1.3599885 Free energy landscape of receptor-mediated cell adhesion J. Chem. Phys. 126, 045103 (2007); 10.1063/1.2424985 This article is copyrighted as indicated in the article. Reuse of AIP content is subject...

  4. Genetic distances in the tribe Bovini studied by gel electrophoresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butts, Kelley Elaine McRae

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 2b. Electrophoretic patterns of esterase d, 22 22 25 25 Figure 3a. Electrophoretic patterns of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase I and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase 2. . . . . . 27 Figure 3b. Electrophoretic patterns of glyoxalase I..., phosphoglucomutase 2, and phosphoglucomutase 3 40 Figure 9a. Electrophoretic patterns of peptidase a. Figure 9b. Electrophoretic patterns of peptidase a, second gel Figure 10a. Electrophoretic patterns of peptidase b. Figure 10b. Electrophoretic patterns...

  5. The Role of Non-Bonded Interactions in the Conformational Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Bonded Interactions in the Conformational Dynamics of Organophosphorous Hydrolase Adsorbed onto Functionalized The Role of Non-Bonded Interactions in the Conformational...

  6. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  7. Inflation and deformation of conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garriga, Jaume; Urakawa, Yuko, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: yurakawa@ffn.ub.es [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has recently been suggested that a strongly coupled phase of inflation may be described holographically in terms of a weakly coupled quantum field theory (QFT). Here, we explore the possibility that the wave function of an inflationary universe may be given by the partition function of a boundary QFT. We consider the case when the field theory is a small deformation of a conformal field theory (CFT), by the addition of a relevant operator O, and calculate the primordial spectrum predicted in the corresponding holographic inflation scenario. Using the Ward-Takahashi identity associated with Weyl rescalings, we derive a simple relation between correlators of the curvature perturbation ? and correlators of the deformation operator O at the boundary. This is done without specifying the bulk theory of gravitation, so that the result would also apply to cases where the bulk dynamics is strongly coupled. We comment on the validity of the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality, relating the bi-spectrum and tri-spectrum of the curvature perturbation.

  8. Targeting the Conformal Window: Scalars on the Lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evan Weinberg; Rich Brower; Anna Hasenfratz; Claudio Rebbi; Oliver Witzel

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The light Higgs boson of the Standard Model could arise as the consequence of the weakly broken conformal symmetry in a strongly interacting gauge theory. Here we present a novel idea to study the transition from conformal to confining behavior using an SU(3) gauge theory with four light and eight heavy flavors. This system interpolates between the 12-flavor conformal and the 4 flavor chirally broken theory as the mass of the heavy flavors are varied. We show first results on our determination of the iso-singlet 0++ state.

  9. The Dark Energy Regulated by Emergent Conformal Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yongsung Yoon

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found a mechanism which regulates the dark energy in our universe. With an emergent conformal symmetry, the dark energy density is regulated to the order of a conformal anomaly parameter in the conformally coupled gravity. In the late time cosmological evolution, we have obtained a set of exact cosmological equations which deviate from the Friedmann equations significantly. Based on the recent observational cosmic expansion data, it is shown that the dark energy density is about 1/4 of the matter density at present, which is quite smaller than determined by General Relativity. The jerk parameter at present is also determined as a definite value 0.47.

  10. In-gel Tryptic Digest for Protein ID by Mass Spectrometry David Miyamoto 2/12/2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    to dehydrating with acetonitrile (step 2). 1. Excise band from Coomassie or silver stained gel. Cut gel band. Remove excess water with pipet. Add 25-35 µL acetonitrile to tube to cover gel pieces. Incubate 10 minutes at RT to dehydrate and shrink gel pieces. 3. Remove acetonitrile with pipet. Speed-vac to dryness

  11. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact associated with biomass usage, an understanding of forest management trends including harvesting and fuel processing methods, and the carbon profile of utilizing forest based woody biomass for the emerging biomass markets. Each of the tasks and subtasks have provided an increased level of understanding to support new directives, policies and adaptation of existing regulations within Massachusetts. The project has provided the essential information to allow state policymakers and regulators to address emerging markets, while ensuring forest sustainability and understanding the complex science on CO2 accounting and impacts as a result of biomass harvesting for power generation. The public at large and electricity ratepayers in Massachusetts will all benefit from the information garnered through this project. This is a result of the state’s interest to provide financial incentives to only biomass projects that demonstrate an acceptable carbon profile, an efficient use of the constrained supply of fuel, and the harvest of biomass to ensure forest sustainability. The goals of the Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative as proposed in 2006 were identified as: increase the diversity of the Massachusetts energy mix through biomass; promote economic development in the rural economy through forest industry job creation; help fulfill the state’s energy and climate commitments under the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard and Climate Protection Plan; assist the development of a biomass fuel supply infrastructure to support energy project demands; provide education and outreach to the public on the benefits and impacts of bioenergy; improve the theory and practice of sustainable forestry in the Commonwealth. Completed project activities summarized below will demonstrate the effectiveness of the project in meeting the above goals. In addition, as discussed above, Massachusetts DOER needed to make some modifications to its work plan and objectives during the term of this project due to changing public policy demands brought forth in the course of the public discours

  12. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, John

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy'Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will determine how fuel cells Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?taken as systems behave over periods of time that should show how their reformers and other subsystems deteriorate with time.

  13. Woodland Park Healthy Forest Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March 2010 Woodland Park Healthy Forest Initiative Collaboration Case Study #12;Woodland Park Healthy Forest Initiative 1 1 Colorado Forest Restoration Institute Collaboration Case Study: Woodland at Colorado State University, to conduct case studies of two collaborative forest health efforts

  14. Digital Library Initiative Rice University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digital Library Initiative Rice University Project Management General guidelines for digital projects Contact: dli (at) rice (dot) edu October, 2007 #12;Digital Library Initiative, Rice University................................................................................................8 #12;Guidelines for managing digital projects Page 2 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE We recognized

  15. Energy of a Conformal Scalar Dyon Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Radinschi

    2000-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain the energy of a conformal scalar dyon black hole (CSD) by using the energy-momentum complexes of Tolman and M{\\o}ller. The total gravitational energy is given by the CSD charge in the both prescriptions.

  16. Geometry-Based Sampling of Conformational Transitions in Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Groot, Bert

    Structure Article Geometry-Based Sampling of Conformational Transitions in Proteins Daniel Seeliger of the binding site when using a holo structure, or by not identifying the correct binding pose when using an apo

  17. Unitary Fermi gas, epsilon expansion, and nonrelativistic conformal field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuke Nishida; Dam Thanh Son

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We review theoretical aspects of unitary Fermi gas (UFG), which has been realized in ultracold atom experiments. We first introduce the epsilon expansion technique based on a systematic expansion in terms of the dimensionality of space. We apply this technique to compute the thermodynamic quantities, the quasiparticle spectrum, and the critical temperature of UFG. We then discuss consequences of the scale and conformal invariance of UFG. We prove a correspondence between primary operators in nonrelativistic conformal field theories and energy eigenstates in a harmonic potential. We use this correspondence to compute energies of fermions at unitarity in a harmonic potential. The scale and conformal invariance together with the general coordinate invariance constrains the properties of UFG. We show the vanishing bulk viscosities of UFG and derive the low-energy effective Lagrangian for the superfluid UFG. Finally we propose other systems exhibiting the nonrelativistic scaling and conformal symmetries that can be in principle realized in ultracold atom experiments.

  18. On Fusion Rules in Logarithmic Conformal Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Flohr

    1996-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We find the fusion rules for the c_{p,1} series of logarithmic conformal field theories. This completes our attempts to generalize the concept of rationality for conformal field theories to the logarithmic case. A novelty is the appearance of negative fusion coefficients which can be understood in terms of exceptional quantum group representations. The effective fusion rules (i.e. without signs and multiplicities) resemble the BPZ fusion rules for the virtual minimal models with conformal grid given via c = c_{3p,3}. This leads to the conjecture that (almost) all minimal models with c = c_{p,q}, gcd(p,q) > 1, belong to the class of rational logarithmic conformal field theories.

  19. Bianchi type-I models with conformally invariant scalar field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Accioly, A.J.; Vaidya, A.N.; Som, M.M.

    1983-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The solutions of the Einstein equations with the trace-free energy-momentum tensor of conformally invariant scalar field as source are obtained in a spatially homogeneous anisotropic space-time. Some interesting features of the solutions are discussed.

  20. Increasing Stability Reduces Conformational Heterogeneity in a Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Increasing Stability Reduces Conformational Heterogeneity in a Protein Folding Intermediate, the results show that protein folding intermediates are ensembles of different structural forms direct experi- mental evidence in support of a basic tenet of energy landscape theory for protein folding

  1. STUDIES ON THE CONFORMATIONAL STABILITY, DYNAMICS AND VISCOSITY OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thakkar, Santoshanand Vijay

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    strength and temperature were used to probe the response of proteins, both at low and high concentrations. Different monoclonal antibodies within IgG1 isotype were used to investigate interrelationships between protein dynamics and conformational stability...

  2. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  3. Process Modeling for Process Improvement A Process Conformance Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process Modeling for Process Improvement - A Process Conformance Approach Sigurd Thunem September processes. In order to improve these processes, knowledge about them is necessary. To support process improve- ment the organization should collect process data, transform process data into knowledge

  4. Oklahoma GSHP Initiative Jim Bullington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10/1/2012 1 Oklahoma GSHP Initiative Jim Bullington Trade & Industrial Education Oklahoma the Oklahoma CareerTech GSHP Initiative Model · Provide my contact information for you to share with your and Technical Education · Encourage you to contact them to get an initiative rolling Who is Oklahoma Career

  5. Structural Insight into pH-Induced Conformational Changes within the Native Human Transthyretin Tetramer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaninathan, Satheesh K.; Mohamedmohaideen, Nilofar N.; Snee, William C.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM); (Scripps)

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Acidification of the transthyretin (TTR) tetramer facilitates dissociation and conformational changes in the protein, allowing alternatively folded monomers to self-assemble into insoluble amyloid fibers by a downhill polymerization mechanism in vitro. To investigate the influence of acidification on the quaternary and tertiary structures of TTR, crystal structures of wild-type human TTR at pH 4.0 and pH 3.5 have been determined to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The acidic pH crystals are isomorphous to most of the previously reported TTR structures, containing two subunits in the asymmetric unit (the so-called A and B subunits) but forming a tetramer through crystallographic symmetry. The pH 4.0 crystal structure reveals that the native fold of the tetramer remains mostly undisturbed. In particular, subunit A of the TTR pH 4.0 structure is very similar to the wild-type TTR pH 7.4 structure with an r.m.s.d. of 0.38 {angstrom}. In contrast, subunit B of the TTR pH 4.0 structure exhibits several significant changes. The EF-helix (residues 75-81) and the adjacent EF-loop (residues 82-90) show an r.m.s.d. greater than 2.0 {angstrom}. The acidic residues within this region (Glu72, Asp74, Glu89, and Glu92) undergo significant conformational changes that instigate movement of the EF helix-loop region and make residues Lys70, Lys76, His88, and His90 orient their side chains toward these acidic residues. In particular, Glu89 undergoes a maximum deviation of 5.6 {angstrom}, occupying Phe87's initial position in the wild-type TTR pH 7.4 structure, and points its side chain into a hydrophobic pocket of the neighboring subunit. In the pH 3.5 structure, the EF helix-loop region is completely disordered. These results demonstrate that acidic conditions increase the susceptibility of the EF helix-loop region of the TTR B subunit to undergo conformational changes and unfold, likely destabilizing the tetramer and identifying at least the initial conformational changes likely occurring within the tetramer that leads to the amyloidogenic monomer.

  6. Fusion Algebras and Characters of Rational Conformal Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Eholzer

    1995-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the notion of (nondegenerate) strongly-modular fusion algebras. Here strongly-modular means that the fusion algebra is induced via Verlinde's formula by a representation of the modular group whose kernel contains a congruence subgroup. Furthermore, nondegenerate means that the conformal dimensions of possibly underlying rational conformal field theories do not differ by integers. Our first main result is the classification of all strongly-modular fusion algebras of dimension two, three and four and the classification of all nondegenerate strongly-modular fusion algebras of dimension less than 24. Secondly, we show that the conformal characters of various rational models of W-algebras can be determined from the mere knowledge of the central charge and the set of conformal dimensions. We also describe how to actually construct conformal characters by using theta series associated to certain lattices. On our way we develop several tools for studying representations of the modular group on spaces of modular functions. These methods, applied here only to certain rational conformal field theories, are in general useful for the analysis rational models.

  7. Initial Cladding Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Siegmann

    2000-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in evaluating the post-closure performance of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) in relation to waste form degradation.

  8. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads.

  9. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  10. Structure of HIV-1 gp120 with gp41-interactive region reveals layered envelope architecture and basis of conformational mobility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pancera, Marie; Majeed, Shahzad; Ban, Yih-En Andrew; Chen, Lei; Huang, Chih-chin; Kong, Leopold; Kwon, Young Do; Stuckey, Jonathan; Zhou, Tongqing; Robinson, James E.; Schief, William R.; Sodroski, Joseph; Wyatt, Richard; Kwong, Peter D. (UWASH); (NIH); (Tulane); (DFCI)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The viral spike of HIV-1 is composed of three gp120 envelope glycoproteins attached noncovalently to three gp41 transmembrane molecules. Viral entry is initiated by binding to the CD4 receptor on the cell surface, which induces large conformational changes in gp120. These changes not only provide a model for receptor-triggered entry, but affect spike sensitivity to drug- and antibody-mediated neutralization. Although some of the details of the CD4-induced conformational change have been visualized by crystal structures and cryoelectron tomograms, the critical gp41-interactive region of gp120 was missing from previous atomic-level characterizations. Here we determine the crystal structure of an HIV-1 gp120 core with intact gp41-interactive region in its CD4-bound state, compare this structure to unliganded and antibody-bound forms to identify structurally invariant and plastic components, and use ligand-oriented cryoelectron tomograms to define component mobility in the viral spike context. Newly defined gp120 elements proximal to the gp41 interface complete a 7-stranded {beta}-sandwich, which appeared invariant in conformation. Loop excursions emanating from the sandwich form three topologically separate - and structurally plastic - layers, topped off by the highly glycosylated gp120 outer domain. Crystal structures, cryoelectron tomograms, and interlayer chemistry were consistent with a mechanism in which the layers act as a shape-changing spacer, facilitating movement between outer domain and gp41-associated {beta}-sandwich and providing for conformational diversity used in immune evasion. A 'layered' gp120 architecture thus allows movement among alternative glycoprotein conformations required for virus entry and immune evasion, whereas a {beta}-sandwich clamp maintains gp120-gp41 interaction and regulates gp41 transitions.

  11. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  12. Structure, Mechanism and Applications of Sol-Gel Clad Fiber-Optic Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fellows Olteanu, Marta Sarah

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    network. On the other hand, an aerogel forms when wet gel isdensity silica monoliths (aerogels) by hypercritical pointdrying, a low density aerogel is produced. On the other

  13. alkali-silica reaction gel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Description Engineering Websites Summary: , separations science, chemical catalysis and coatings science. By definition the sol-gel process starts materials. The resulting films,...

  14. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

  15. Facilitated diffusion framework for transcription factor search with conformational changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jérôme Cartailler; Jürgen Reingruber

    2015-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellular responses often require the fast activation or repression of specific genes, which depends on Transcription Factors (TFs) that have to quickly find the promoters of these genes within a large genome. Transcription Factors (TFs) search for their DNA promoter target by alternating between bulk diffusion and sliding along the DNA, a mechanism known as facilitated diffusion. We study a facilitated diffusion framework with switching between three search modes: a bulk mode and two sliding modes triggered by conformational changes between two protein conformations. In one conformation (search mode) the TF interacts unspecifically with the DNA backbone resulting in fast sliding. In the other conformation (recognition mode) it interacts specifically and strongly with DNA base pairs leading to slow displacement. From the bulk, a TF associates with the DNA at a random position that is correlated with the previous dissociation point, which implicitly is a function of the DNA structure. The target affinity depends on the conformation. We derive exact expressions for the mean first passage time (MFPT) to bind to the promoter and the conditional probability to bind before detaching when arriving at the promoter site. We systematically explore the parameter space and compare various search scenarios. We compare our results with experimental data for the dimeric Lac repressor search in E.Coli bacteria. We find that a coiled DNA conformation is absolutely necessary for a fast MFPT. With frequent spontaneous conformational changes, a fast search time is achieved even when a TF becomes immobilized in the recognition state due to the specific bindings. We find a MFPT compatible with experimental data in presence of a specific TF-DNA interaction energy that has a Gaussian distribution with a large variance.

  16. Probing the MgATP-Bound Conformation of the Nitrogenase Fe Protein By Solution Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, R.; Mulder, D.W.; Brecht, E.; Szilagyi, R.K.; Seefeldt, L.C.; Tsuruta, H.; Peters, J.W.; /Montana State U. /SLAC, SSRL /Utah State U.

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The MgATP-bound conformation of the Fe protein of nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii has been examined in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and compared to existing crystallographically characterized Fe protein conformations. The results of the analysis of the crystal structure of an Fe protein variant with a Switch II single-amino acid deletion recently suggested that the MgATP-bound state of the Fe protein may exist in a conformation that involves a large-scale reorientation of the dimer subunits, resulting in an overall elongated structure relative to the more compact structure of the MgADP-bound state. It was hypothesized that the Fe protein variant may be a conformational mimic of the MgATP-bound state of the native Fe protein largely on the basis of the observation that the spectroscopic properties of the [4Fe-4S] cluster of the variant mimicked in part the spectroscopic signatures of the native nitrogenase Fe protein in the MgATP-bound state. In this work, SAXS studies reveal that the large-scale conformational differences between the native Fe protein and the variant observed by X-ray crystallography are also observed in solution. In addition, comparison of the SAXS curves of the Fe protein nucleotide-bound states to the nucleotide-free states indicates that the conformation of the MgATP-bound state in solution does not resemble the structure of the variant as initially proposed, but rather, at the resolution of this experiment, it resembles the structure of the nucleotide-free state. These results provide insights into the Fe protein conformations that define the role of MgATP in nitrogenase catalysis.

  17. Stress localization, stiffening and yielding in a model colloidal gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jader Colombo; Emanuela Del Gado

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use numerical simulations and an athermal quasi-static shear protocol to investigate the yielding of a model colloidal gel. Under increasing deformation, the elastic regime is followed by a significant stiffening before yielding takes place. A space-resolved analysis of deformations and stresses unravel how the complex load curve observed is the result of stress localization and that the yielding can take place by breaking a very small fraction of the network connections. The stiffening corresponds to the stretching of the network chains, unbent and aligned along the direction of maximum extension. It is characterized by a strong localization of tensile stresses, that triggers the breaking of a few network nodes at around 30% of strain. Increasing deformation favors further breaking but also shear-induced bonding, eventually leading to a large-scale reorganization of the gel structure at the yielding. At low enough shear rates, density and velocity profiles display significant spatial inhomogeneity during yielding in agreement with experimental observations.

  18. Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundee, University of

    Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Roger Fletcher \\Lambda with the optimisation of distillation column models by non­ linear programming are considered. The paper presents of the distillation column model. A certain limiting case of the column model is examined, that of infinite reflux

  19. Innovative Manufacturing Initiative Recognition Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Innovative Manufacturing Initiative (IMI) Recognition Day (held in Washington, DC on June 20, 2012) showcased IMI projects selected by the Energy Department to help American manufacturers...

  20. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  1. New Puncture Initial Data for Black-Hole Binaries: High Spins and High Boosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ian Ruchlin; James Healy; Carlos O. Lousto; Yosef Zlochower

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We solve the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints of General Relativity for two black-holes with nearly extremal spins or ultra-relativistic boosts in the puncture formalism. We use a non-conformally-flat ansatz with an attenuated superposition of two conformally Kerr or Lorentz-boosted-Schwarzschild 3-metrics and their corresponding extrinsic curvatures. We compare evolutions of these data with the standard Bowen-York conformally-flat ansatz (technically limited to intrinsic spins $S/M_{\\text{ADM}}^2 = 0.928$ and boosts $P/M_{\\text{ADM}} = 0.897$), finding an order of magnitude smaller burst of spurious radiation. As a case study, we evolve two equal-mass black-holes from rest with an initial separation of $d = 12M$ and spins $S_i/m_i^2 = 0.99$, compute the waveforms produced by the collision, the energy radiated, and the recoil of the final remnant black-hole. We find that the black-hole trajectories curve at closer separation, which leads to the radiation of angular momentum. We also study orbiting (nonspinning) black-hole binaries and binaries with the two black-holes boosted towards each other at relativistic speeds. These non-spinning data also show a substantial reduction in the non-physical initial burst of radiation which leads to cleaner waveforms. Finally, we study different choices of the initial lapse and lapse evolution equation in the moving punctures approach to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the simulations.

  2. Systems Engineering Advancement Research Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Systems Engineering Advancement Research Initiative RESEARCH PORTFOLIO Fall 2008 About SEAri http://seari.mit.edu The Systems Engineering Advancement Research Initiative brings together a set of sponsored research projects and a consortium of systems engineering leaders from industry, government, and academia. SEAri is positioned within

  3. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  4. The conundrum of gel formation by molecular nanofibers, wormlike micelles, and filamentous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    , and supramolecular chemistry. In polymer science, a gel is said to be formed when polymer chains are linked of extended nanoscale fibers/ chains (e.g., supramolecular organo- and hydro-gels, wormlike micelles University, respectively. At UMCP, he heads the Complex Fluids and Nano- materials Group (http

  5. Impacts of Timing of Crosslinker Addition on Water Shut Off Polymer Gel Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriwal, Prashant

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cl in the makeup water gave weaker gel strengths than those prepared with fresh water with an average difference of four code levels. The pre-gel viscosity of a polymer solution was also compared to the timing of crosslinker addition at ambient temperature...

  6. Shake-gels: shear-induced gelation of laponite/PEO mixtures J. Zebrowski a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wendy

    (laponite), mixed with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) undergo a dramatic shear thickening when subjected to vigorous shaking, which transforms them from a low viscosity fluid into a `shake-gel', a solid with elasticity sufficient enough to support its own weight. The shake-gel is reversible, relaxing back to a fluid

  7. Surface interactions between two like-charged polyelectrolyte gels Xiao Wang ( 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Wei

    a liquid layer in the gap and prevents dry friction. This cor- relation is strongly supported by the direct of the low-friction phenomena on the surface of a polyelectrolyte gel. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.041803 PACS in an ionic solution. The repul- sion between double layers may be the origin of the low friction between gels

  8. Very slow propagating mode at audiofrequencies in gel J. C. Bacri, J. Dumas and A. Levelut

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    dilatational mode in a gel cylinder. 2. Theory. - In order to interpret the present very low frequency. Abstract. 2014 An elastic dilatational mode at very low frequency (100 Hz to 2 000 Hz) has been found vibrations in gel can be studied in three regions of frequencies which give different kinds of informa- tion

  9. Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otero, Toribio Fernández

    Use of polymer/ionic liquid plasticizers as gel electrolytes in electrochromic devices H. Bircana polymer configuration is commonly used when constructing electrochromic devices (ECDs) due to the expected)thienyl)-N-methylcarbazole] (PBEDOT-NMCz) as the two complementary electrochromic polymers for the device. A variety of gel

  10. Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsey, Stephen

    Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume, Tallahassee, Florida Received January 13, 1998 The structure of polyacrylamide gels was studied using proton of the crosslinker concentration were accounted for by introducing the proton par- tition coefficient, Keq , between

  11. Efficiency of Solute Release from Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Gels: Electrochemical Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciszkowska, Malgorzata "Maggie"

    Efficiency of Solute Release from Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Gels and efficiency of release of probe species from thermoresponsive gels due to their volume phase transition that found for the uncharged ferrocene derivative. The larger release efficiency for the charged probes

  12. Extended Conformal Symmetry and Recursion Formulae for Nekrasov Partition Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanno, Shoichi; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive an infinite set of recursion formulae for Nekrasov instanton partition function for linear quiver $U(N)$ supersymmetric gauge theories in 4D. They have a structure of a deformed version of ${\\mathcal{W}_{1+\\infty}}$ algebra which is called SH$^c$ algebra (or degenerate double affine Hecke algebra) in a literature. The algebra contains $W_N$ algebra with general central charge defined by a parameter $\\beta$, which gives the $\\Omega$ background in Nekrasov's analysis. Some parts of the formulae are identified with the conformal Ward identity for the conformal block function for Toda field theory.

  13. AdS Chern-Simons Gravity induces Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo Aros; Danilo E. Diaz

    2013-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional Conformal Gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauged-fixed, tractor-like) five-dimensional AdS connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program admits a readily generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.

  14. Conformally covariant boundary correlation functions with a quantum group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalle Kytölä; Eveliina Peltola

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Particular boundary correlation functions of conformal field theory are needed to answer some questions related to random conformally invariant curves known as Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLE). In this article, we introduce a correspondence and establish its fundamental properties, which are used in companion articles for explicitly solving two such problems. The correspondence associates Coulomb gas type integrals to vectors in a tensor product representation of a quantum group, a q-deformation of the Lie algebra sl2. We show that desired properties of the functions are guaranteed by natural representation theoretical properties of the vectors.

  15. Superintegrability in a non-conformally-flat space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. G. Kalnins; J. M. Kress; W. Miller Jr

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Superintegrable systems in two- and three-dimensional spaces of constant curvature have been extensively studied. From these, superintegrable systems in conformally flat spaces can be constructed by Staeckel transform. In this paper a method developed to establish the superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system in two dimensions is extended to higher dimensions and a superintegrable system on a non-conformally-flat four-dimensional space is found. In doing so, curvature corrections to the corresponding classical potential are found to be necessary. It is found that some subalgebras of the symmetry algebra close polynomially.

  16. Dark Energy Regulation with Approximate Emergent Conformal Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yongsung Yoon

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A cosmic potential which can relax the vacuum energy is proposed in a framework of scalar-tensor gravity. In the phase of the gravity scalar field around the evolution with an approximate emergent conformal symmetry, we have obtained a set of cosmological equations with the dark energy regulated to the order of a conformal anomaly parameter. Through a role of the cosmic potential, the vacuum energy which could be generated in matter Lagrangian does not contribute to the dark energy in the phase.

  17. Conformation changes and protein folding induced by \\phi^4 interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Januar, M; Handoko, L T; 10.1142/9789814335614_0047

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model to describe the mechanism of conformational dynamics in protein based on matter interactions using lagrangian approach and imposing certain symmetry breaking is proposed. Both conformation changes of proteins and the injected non-linear sources are represented by the bosonic lagrangian with an additional \\phi^4 interaction for the sources. In the model the spring tension of protein representing the internal hydrogen bonds is realized as the interactions between individual amino acids and nonlinear sources. The folding pathway is determined by the strength of nonlinear sources that propagate through the protein backbone. It is also shown that the model reproduces the results in some previous works.

  18. Optical fiber sensor having a sol-gel fiber core and a method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Jindal, Rajeev; Winstead, Christopher; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, economic wet chemical procedure is described for making sol-gel fibers. The sol-gel fibers made from this process are transparent to ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. Light can be guided in these fibers by using an organic polymer as a fiber cladding. Alternatively, air can be used as a low refractive index medium. The sol-gel fibers have a micro pore structure which allows molecules to diffuse into the fiber core from the surrounding environment. Chemical and biochemical reagents can be doped into the fiber core. The sol-gel fiber can be used as a transducer for constructing an optical fiber sensor. The optical fiber sensor having an active sol-gel fiber core is more sensitive than conventional evanescent wave absorption based optical fiber sensors.

  19. GE funds initiative to support STEM initiatives in Oklahoma ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEM Empowers OK: Initiative to enrich STEM education in Oklahoma Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share...

  20. LLaannggeerrhhaannss LLaabb PPrroottooccoollss Agarose Gel Electrophoresis.docx revised 11/2/12 by JW pg 1 of 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langerhans, Brian

    . When gels need to be discarded, put them into the receptacle (bag) in the hood with Hazardous Waste/2/12 by JW pg 1 of 3 Agarose Gel Electrophoresis Protocol (Making, Loading, Running, & Viewing) CAUTION: Wear

  1. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  2. Energy Efficient Schools Initiative- Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Efficient Schools Initiative was created in May 2008 to provide grants and [http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Code=TN57F&re... loans] to Tennessee school...

  3. Georgia Power- Advanced Solar Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: According to Georgia Power's website, the Advanced Solar Initiative's final program guidelines are due to be published on June 25th and the bidding period for is expected to open on July 10,...

  4. Initial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News linkThermal Phenomena

  5. Is the Standard Model saved asymptotically by conformal symmetry?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorsky, A; Morozov, A; Tomaras, T N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that the top-quark and Higgs masses and the Higgs VEV satisfy with great accuracy the relations 4m_H^2=2m_T^2=v^2, which are very special and reminiscent of analogous ones at Argyres - Douglas points with enhanced conformal symmetry. Furthermore, the RG evolution of the corresponding Higgs self-interaction and Yukawa couplings \\lambda(0)=1/8 and y(0)=1 leads to the free-field stable point \\lambda(M_Pl)= \\dot \\lambda(M_Pl)=0 in the pure scalar sector at the Planck scale, also suggesting enhanced conformal symmetry. Thus, it is conceivable that the Standard Model is the low-energy limit of a distinct special theory with (super?) conformal symmetry at the Planck scale. In the context of such a "scenario" one may further speculate that the Higgs particle is the Goldstone boson of (partly) spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. This would simultaneously resolve the hierarchy and Landau pole problems in the scalar sector and would provide a nearly flat potential with two almost degenerate minima...

  6. Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy under conformal transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angus Prain; Vincenzo Vitagliano; Valerio Faraoni; Marianne Lapierre-Léonard

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive a formula describing the transformation of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy under a conformal rescaling of the spacetime metric. A known formula for the transformation of the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass is recovered as a special case.

  7. Lattice Models of Peptide Aggregation: Evaluation of Conformational Search Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    , University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom 2 School of Computer Science and Information Technology represented by a face-centered cubic lattice model with the conformational energies calculated using or by partial unfolding of the protein from its native state. One striking feature of protein aggregation

  8. Symmetry breaking and low energy conformational fluctuations in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drabold, David

    Symmetry breaking and low energy conformational fluctuations in amorphous graphene Y. Li and D. A. Drabold* Department of Physics and Astronomy, Condensed Matter Surface Science Program, Ohio University Published online 21 December 2012 Keywords amorphous graphene, low-energy excitation, symmetry breaking

  9. Water-Peptide Dynamics during Conformational Transitions Dmitry Nerukh*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    Water-Peptide Dynamics during Conformational Transitions Dmitry Nerukh*, and Sergey Karabasov are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water

  10. Introduction to conformal field theory and string theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, L.J.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These lectures are meant to provide a brief introduction to conformal field theory (CFT) and string theory for those with no prior exposure to the subjects. There are many excellent reviews already available, and most of these go in to much more detail than I will be able to here. 52 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Conformal gravity from the AdS/CFT mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aros, Rodrigo; Romo, Mauricio; Zamorano, Nelson [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Av. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Avda Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We explicitly calculate the induced gravity theory at the boundary of an asymptotically anti-de Sitter five dimensional Einstein gravity. We also display the action that encodes the dynamics of radial diffeomorphisms. It is found that the induced theory is a four dimensional conformal gravity plus a scalar field. This calculation confirms some previous results found by a different approach.

  12. Click Dimers To Target HIV TAR RNA Conformation Sunil Kumar,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    with high affinity toward TAR show promising anti-HIV activity. Ribonucleic acid-protein interactionsClick Dimers To Target HIV TAR RNA Conformation Sunil Kumar, Patrick Kellish, W. Edward Robinson and length in the linker region to target the human immunode- ficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) TAR RNA region

  13. Photoreversible Control of Pre-Amyloid Oligomer Conformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    . The wrapping of hexamers into dodecamers is similar to the formation of amyloid fibrils which form fromPhotoreversible Control of Pre-Amyloid Oligomer Conformation Andrea Hamill and C. Ted Lee, Jr laterally associate, wrapping around one another to form dodecamers that retain the corkscrew-like twist

  14. Is the Standard Model saved asymptotically by conformal symmetry?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gorsky; A. Mironov; A. Morozov; T. N. Tomaras

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that the top-quark and Higgs masses and the Higgs VEV satisfy with great accuracy the relations 4m_H^2=2m_T^2=v^2, which are very special and reminiscent of analogous ones at Argyres - Douglas points with enhanced conformal symmetry. Furthermore, the RG evolution of the corresponding Higgs self-interaction and Yukawa couplings \\lambda(0)=1/8 and y(0)=1 leads to the free-field stable point \\lambda(M_Pl)= \\dot \\lambda(M_Pl)=0 in the pure scalar sector at the Planck scale, also suggesting enhanced conformal symmetry. Thus, it is conceivable that the Standard Model is the low-energy limit of a distinct special theory with (super?) conformal symmetry at the Planck scale. In the context of such a "scenario" one may further speculate that the Higgs particle is the Goldstone boson of (partly) spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. This would simultaneously resolve the hierarchy and Landau pole problems in the scalar sector and would provide a nearly flat potential with two almost degenerate minima at the electroweak and Planck scales.

  15. Finding the needle in the haystack: Algorithms for conformational optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andricioaei, I.; Straub, J.E.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Algorithms are given for comformational optimization of proteins. The protein folding problems is regarded as a problem of global energy mimimization. Since proteins have hundreds of atoms, finding the lowest-energy conformation in a many-dimensional configuration space becomes a computationally demanding problem.{copyright} {ital American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Sequence Recognition of DNA by Protein-Induced Conformational Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Loren

    Sequence Recognition of DNA by Protein-Induced Conformational Transitions Derrick Watkins1 The binding of proteins to specific sequences of DNA is an important feature of virtually all DNA transactions. Proteins recognize specific DNA sequences using both direct readout (sensing types and positions of DNA

  17. The QCD string spectrum and conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keisuke Jimmy Juge; Julius Kuti; Colin Morningstar

    2002-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The low energy excitation spectrum of the critical Wilson surface is discussed between the roughening transition and the continuum limit of lattice QCD. The fine structure of the spectrum is interpreted within the framework of two-dimensional conformal field theory.

  18. Jet initiation of PBX 9502

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAfee, J.M.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details the progress of an effort to determine the quantitative aspects of the initiation of PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F 800) by copper jets. The particular jet used was that produced by the LAW warhead (66-mm diameter, 42/sup 0/ angle cone, copper-lined, conical shaped charge). Fifteen experiments, in various configurations, have been fired to define the essential parameters for quantitatively measuring the jet performance and initiation of bare PBX 9502. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Gel'fand-Graev's Reconstruction Formula in the 3D Real Space --A Framework towards a General Interior Tomography Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    Gel'fand-Graev's Reconstruction Formula in the 3D Real Space -- A Framework towards a General-ye@uiowa.edu, hengyong-yu@ieee.org, ge-wang@ieee.org In [1-4], I. M. Gel'fand and M. I. Graev proposed inversion formulas for x-ray transforms in different spaces. In particular, Gel'fand-Graev's inversion formula [1

  20. Southface Energy Institute: Advanced Commercial Buildings Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southface Energy Institute: Advanced Commercial Buildings Initiative - 2015 Peer Review Southface Energy Institute: Advanced Commercial Buildings Initiative - 2015 Peer Review...

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit: Lightweighting Breakout Session Summary Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Midwest Regional Summit: Lightweighting...

  2. Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal Electrical Power Generation Systems Using Oilfield Fluids Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature...

  3. 222-S LAS&T Contract No. DE-AC27-10RV15051 Conformed thru Initial Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >InternshipDepartment ofAugustDecember 201420th Century 20thContract No.

  4. Parallel ContinuationBased Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Parallel Continuation­Based Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding­ pecially protein folding. Global minimization problems are difficult to solve when the objective functions­ cluding energy functions for molecular conformation and protein folding. Mathematical theory

  5. Parallel ContinuationBased Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Parallel Continuation­Based Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding protein folding. Global minimization problems are difficult to solve when the objective functions have energy functions for molecular conformation and protein folding. Mathematical theory for the method

  6. A functional-analytic proof of the conformal welding Eric Schippers1 Wolfgang Staubach 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schippers, Eric

    A functional-analytic proof of the conformal welding theorem Eric Schippers1 Wolfgang Staubach 2 1 Universitet Uppsala, Sweden CMS Winter Meeting 2012 Eric Schippers (Manitoba) Conformal welding theorem CMS Winter Meeting 2012 1 / 21 #12;Statement of the theorem Conformal welding theorem Definition

  7. ACM Reference Format Weber, O., Gotsman, C. 2010. Controllable Conformal Maps for Shape Deformation and Interpolation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazhdan, Michael

    ACM Reference Format Weber, O., Gotsman, C. 2010. Controllable Conformal Maps for Shape Deformation.1145/1778765.1778815 Controllable Conformal Maps for Shape Deformation and Interpolation Ofir Weber Craig Gotsman Technion ­ Israel Institute of Technology weber@cs.technion.ac.il gotsman@cs.technion.ac.il Figure 1: Conformal deformation

  8. Hybrid Probabilistic Roadmap and Monte Carlo Methods for Biomolecule Conformational Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Li

    1 Hybrid Probabilistic Roadmap and Monte Carlo Methods for Biomolecule Conformational Changes Li Han 1 Keywords: Conformation space, conformational changes, Monte Carlo, probabilistic roadmaps. 1. In this work, we have developed a hybrid Probabilistic Roadmap and Monte Carlo planner for biomolecule

  9. Conformance Checking with Constraint Logic Programming: The Case of Feature Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egyed, Alexander

    . On the semantic level, a PLM is defined as the collection of all the product models that can be derived from it. Therefore checking the conformance of the PLM is equivalent to checking the conformance of all the product of a PLM. Despite the importance of PLM conformance checking, very few research works have been published

  10. CX-010520: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silica Polymer Initiator Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B3.11 Date: 06/17/2013 Location(s): Oklahoma Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  11. CX-007409: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silica Polymer Initiator Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Date: 12/21/2011 Location(s): Oklahoma Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  12. Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Ian Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu 2 S,routes to more efficient photovoltaics using conformal Cu 2on grid-parity. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  13. Eliminating the Renormalization Scale Ambiguity for Top-Pair Production Using the Principle of Maximum Conformality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Wu, Xing-Gang; /Chongqing U.

    2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty in setting the renormalization scale in finite-order perturbative QCD predictions using standard methods substantially reduces the precision of tests of the Standard Model in collider experiments. It is conventional to choose a typical momentum transfer of the process as the renormalization scale and take an arbitrary range to estimate the uncertainty in the QCD prediction. However, predictions using this procedure depend on the choice of renormalization scheme, leave a non-convergent renormalon perturbative series, and moreover, one obtains incorrect results when applied to QED processes. In contrast, if one fixes the renormalization scale using the Principle of Maximum Conformality (PMC), all non-conformal {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-terms in the perturbative expansion series are summed into the running coupling, and one obtains a unique, scale-fixed, scheme-independent prediction at any finite order. The PMC renormalization scale {mu}{sub R}{sup PMC} and the resulting finite-order PMC prediction are both to high accuracy independent of choice of the initial renormalization scale {mu}{sub R}{sup init}, consistent with renormalization group invariance. Moreover, after PMC scale-setting, the n!-growth of the pQCD expansion is eliminated. Even the residual scale-dependence at fixed order due to unknown higher-order {l_brace}{beta}{sub i}{r_brace}-terms is substantially suppressed. As an application, we apply the PMC procedure to obtain NNLO predictions for the t{bar t}-pair hadroproduction cross-section at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. There are no renormalization scale or scheme uncertainties, thus greatly improving the precision of the QCD prediction. The PMC prediction for {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} is larger in magnitude in comparison with the conventional scale-setting method, and it agrees well with the present Tevatron and LHC data. We also verify that the initial scale-independence of the PMC prediction is satisfied to high accuracy at the NNLO level: the total cross-section remains almost unchanged even when taking very disparate initial scales {mu}{sub R}{sup init} equal to m{sub t}, 20 m{sub t}, {radical}s.

  14. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP7-0973 1 Introduction In the design INITIATED BY: INITIATED

  15. Plutonium Decontamination Using CBI Decon Gel 1101 in Highly Contaminated and Unique Areas at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, M; Fischer, R P; Thoet, M M; O'Neill, M; Edgington, G

    2008-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly contaminated glove-box at LLNL containing plutonium was decontaminated using a strippable decontamination gel. 6 x 12 inch quadrants were mapped out on each of the surfaces. The gel was applied to various surfaces inside the glove-box and was allowed to cure. The radioactivity in each quadrant was measured using a LLNL Blue Alpha meter with a 1.5 inch standoff distance. The results showed decontamination factors of 130 and 210 on cast steel and Lexan{reg_sign} surfaces respectively after several applications. The gel also absorbed more than 91% of the radiation emitted from the surfaces during gel curing. The removed strippable film was analyzed by neutron multiplicity counting and gamma spectroscopy, yielding relative mass information and radioisotopic composition respectively.

  16. Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gakhar, Kush

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Excess water production is a major economic and environmental problem for the oil and gas industry. The cost of processing excess water runs into billions of dollars. Polymer gel technology has been successfully used in controlling water influx...

  17. Impacts of Timing of Crosslinker Addition on Water Shut Off Polymer Gel Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shriwal, Prashant

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In preparation of gelant solution for making crosslinked polymer gels for water shutoff applications unpublished experiments plus chemical intuition suggest that, unless hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) polymer is fully hydrated before addition...

  18. Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional silica sol-gel chemistry is limited for the production of transparent ultralow-density aerogels because (1) gelation is either slow or unachievable, and (2) even when gelation is achieved, the large pore sizes result in loss of transparency for aerogels <.020 g/cc. We have developed a two-step sol-gel process that circumvents the limitations of the conventional process and allows the formation of ultralow-density gels in a matter of hours. we have found that the gel time is dependent on the catalyst concentration. After supercritical extraction, the aerogels are transparent, uncracked tiles with densities as low as .003 g/cc. 6 figs., 11 refs.

  19. The physics and chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals in sol-gel derived optical microcavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Yinthai

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The incorporation of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) into sol-gel derived matrices presents both novel applications as well as a robust platform in which to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of NCs. This thesis ...

  20. Rapid Gel Formation and Adhesion in Photocurable and Biodegradable Block Copolymers with High DOPA Content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapid Gel Formation and Adhesion in Photocurable and Biodegradable Block Copolymers with High DOPA Content Bruce P. Lee, Chi-Yang Chao, F. Nelson Nunalee, Emre Motan, Kenneth R. Shull, and Phillip B

  1. Bioremediation of the organophosphate pesticide, coumaphos, using microorganisms immobilized in calcium-alginate gel beads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ha, Jiyeon

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    -alginate immobilization may have contributed to a slightly increased reaction rate in pure solution. Diffusion coefficients of chlorferon and DETP into Ca-alginate gel beads were studied to assist in designing and operating bioreactor systems. Diffusion coefficients...

  2. Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Ben

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    . Despite proven economic benefit, the hydraulic fracture fluid damages the producing formation and the propped fracture. To analyze the gel damage effect quantitatively, the filter cake thickness is used as a parameter that has not been measured before...

  3. Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Ben

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    . Despite proven economic benefit, the hydraulic fracture fluid damages the producing formation and the propped fracture. To analyze the gel damage effect quantitatively, the filter cake thickness is used as a parameter that has not been measured before...

  4. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  5. Effects of varying ethanol and water concentrations as a gold nanoparticle gel solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Thomas Gerard

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Striped gold nanoparticles are unique in several of their characteristics and applications. Recent experiments have determined a new medium with which contain the nanoparticles is that of a chemical gel. The nanoparticles ...

  6. Bicontinuous and mixed gels in binary mixtures of patchy colloidal particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel de las Heras; José Maria Tavares; Margarida M. Telo da Gama

    2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermodynamics and percolation regimes of model binary mixtures of patchy colloidal particles. The particles of each species have three sites of two types, one of which promotes bonding of particles of the same species while the other promotes bonding of different species. We find up to four percolated structures at low temperatures and densities: two gels where only one species percolates, a mixed gel where particles of both species percolate but neither species percolates separately, and a bicontinuous gel where particles of both species percolate separately forming two interconnected networks. The competition between the entropy and the energy of bonding drives the stability of the different percolating structures. Appropriate mixtures exhibit one or more connectivity transitions between the mixed and bicontinuous gels, as the temperature and/or the composition changes.

  7. Deformations of infrared-conformal theories in two dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Akerlund; Philippe de Forcrand

    2014-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study two exactly solvable two-dimensional conformal models, the critical Ising model and the Sommerfield model, on the lattice. We show that finite-size effects are important and depend on the aspect ratio of the lattice. In particular, we demonstrate how to obtain the correct massless behavior from an infinite tower of finite-size-induced masses and show that it is necessary to first take the cylindrical geometry limit in order to get correct results. In the Sommerfield model we also introduce a mass deformation to measure the mass anomalous dimension, $\\gamma_m$. We find that the explicit scale breaking of the lattice setup induces corrections which must be taken into account in order to reproduce $\\gamma_m$ at the infrared fixed point. These results can be used to improve the methodology in the search for the conformal window in QCD-like theories with many flavors.

  8. Construction of conformally invariant higher spin operators using transvector algebras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eelbode, D., E-mail: David.Eelbode@ua.ac.be [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Antwerp, Campus Middelheim, G-Building, Middelheimlaan 1, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Raeymaekers, T., E-mail: Tim.Raeymaekers@UGent.be [Clifford Research Group, Department of Mathematical Analysis, Ghent University, Galglaan 2, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with a systematic construction of higher spin operators, defined as conformally invariant differential operators acting on functions on flat space R{sup m} with values in an arbitrary half-integer irreducible representation for the spin group. To be more precise, the higher spin version of the Dirac operator and associated twistor operators will be constructed as generators of a transvector algebra, hereby generalising the well-known fact that the classical Dirac operator on R{sup m} and its symbol generate the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1,2). To do so, we will use the extremal projection operator and its relation to transvector algebras. In the second part of the article, the conformal invariance of the constructed higher spin operators will be proven explicitly.

  9. Targeting the conformal window with 4+8 flavors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rich Brower; Anna Hasenfratz; Claudio Rebbi; Evan Weinberg; Oliver Witzel

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the transition between spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and conformal behavior in the SU(3) theory with multiple fermion flavors. Instead of the traditional approach of changing the number of flavors, we keep the number of fermions fixed but lift the mass of a subset, keeping the remaining fermions near to the massless chiral limit. This way we can interpolate continuously between the conformal and chirally broken dynamics. In particular, we consider four light and eight heavy flavors and investigate the running/walking gauge coupling and the low energy meson spectrum, including the 0++ iso-singlet scalar state in this system. Our preliminary data reveal an iso-singlet scalar that is considerably lighter than the pion at large fermion mass but becomes heavier at smaller masses. This behavior is of particular phenomenological interest.

  10. Higgs Critical Exponents and Conformal Bootstrap in Four Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Antipin; Esben Mølgaard; Francesco Sannino

    2015-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate relevant properties of composite operators emerging in nonsupersymmetric, four-dimensional gauge-Yukawa theories with interacting conformal fixed points within a precise framework. The theories investigated in this work are structurally similar to the standard model of particle interactions, but differ by developing perturbative interacting fixed points. We investigate the physical properties of the singlet and the adjoint composite operators quadratic in the Higgs field, and discover that the singlet anomalous dimension is substantially larger than the adjoint one. The numerical bootstrap results are then compared to precise four dimensional conformal field theoretical results. To accomplish this, it was necessary to calculate explicitly the crossing symmetry relations for the global symmetry group SU($N$)$\\times$SU($N$).

  11. Lepton Number Violation within the Conformal Inverse Seesaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humbert, Pascal; Patra, Sudhanwa; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel framework within the conformal inverse seesaw scheme allowing large lepton number violation while the neutrino mass formula is still governed by the low-scale inverse seesaw mechanism. This model includes new contributions to rare low-energy lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay. We find that the lifetime for this rare process due to heavy sterile neutrinos can saturate current experimental limits. The characteristic collider signature of the present conformal inverse seesaw scheme includes, same-sign dilepton plus two jets and same-sign dilepton plus four jets. Finally, we comment on the testability of the model at the Large Hadron Collider since there are new scalars, new fermions and an extra neutral gauge boson with masses around few 100 GeV to few TeV.

  12. Super-KMS functionals for graded-local conformal nets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robin Hillier

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by a few preceding papers and a question of R. Longo, we introduce super-KMS functionals for graded translation-covariant nets over R with superderivations, roughly speaking as a certain supersymmetric modification of classical KMS states on translation-covariant nets over R, fundamental objects in chiral algebraic quantum field theory. Although we are able to make a few statements concerning their general structure, most properties will be studied in the setting of specific graded-local (super-) conformal models. In particular, we provide a constructive existence and partial uniqueness proof of super-KMS functionals for the supersymmetric free field, for certain subnets, and for the super-Virasoro net with central charge c>= 3/2. Moreover, as a separate result, we classify bounded super-KMS functionals for graded-local conformal nets over S^1 with respect to rotations.

  13. Conformal field theories with infinitely many conservation laws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, Ivan [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques F-91440, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)] [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques F-91440, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Globally conformal invariant quantum field theories in a D-dimensional space-time (D even) have rational correlation functions and admit an infinite number of conserved (symmetric traceless) tensor currents. In a theory of a scalar field of dimension D-2 they were demonstrated to be generated by bilocal normal products of free massless scalar fields with an O(N), U(N), or Sp(2N) (global) gauge symmetry [B. Bakalov, N. M. Nikolov, K.-H. Rehren, and I. Todorov, 'Unitary positive energy representations of scalar bilocal fields,' Commun. Math. Phys. 271, 223-246 (2007); e-print arXiv:math-ph/0604069v3; and 'Infinite dimensional Lie algebras in 4D conformal quantum field theory,' J. Phys. A Math Theor. 41, 194002 (2008); e-print arXiv:0711.0627v2 [hep-th

  14. Simulated Interdiction: Proliferation Security Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ………………………………... Technical Capabilities to Support PSI ………………………………… Foreign Policy and External Relations ………………………............... Republic of Bevostan ………………………………………………………….. Geography ……………………………………………………………... iii 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 10... Security, Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) Texas A&M University May 6, 2009 Simulated Interdiction: The Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) Acknowledgements The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department...

  15. Zentrum fr Nutzfahrzeugtechnologie Initial situation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Karsten

    with a vehicle model in the MKS software for the study of vehicle dynamic behavior. Schindler03_2012_03 Zentrum to calculate the tyre dynamic behavior when travelling through the soil surface. It can be fur- ther integratedZentrum für Nutzfahrzeugtechnologie Initial situation: The study on the trafficability

  16. Managing Critical Management Improvement Initiatives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides requirements and responsibilities for planning, executing and assessing critical management improvement initiatives within DOE. DOE N 251.59, dated 9/27/2004, extends this Notice until 10/01/2005. Archived 11-8-10. Does not cancel other directives.

  17. The Xi-transform for conformally flat space-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George Sparling

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Xi-transform is a new spinor transform arising naturally in Einstein's general relativity. Here the example of conformally flat space-time is discussed in detail. In particular it is shown that for this case, the transform coincides with two other naturally defined transforms: one a two-variable transform on the Lie group SU(2, C), the other a transform on the space of null split octaves. The key properties of the transform are developed.

  18. The non chiral fusion rules in rational conformal field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rida; T. Sami

    2000-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a general method in order to construct the non chiral fusion rules which determine the operator content of the operator product algebra for rational conformal field theories. We are particularly interested in the models of the complementary D-like solutions of modular invariant partition functions with cyclic center Zn. We find that the non chiral fusion rules have a Zn-grading structure.

  19. A Semidefinite Program Solver for the Conformal Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce SDPB: an open-source, parallelized, arbitrary-precision semidefinite program solver, designed for the conformal bootstrap. SDPB significantly outperforms less specialized solvers and should enable many new computations. As an example application, we compute a new rigorous high-precision bound on operator dimensions in the 3d Ising CFT, $\\Delta_\\sigma=0.518151(6)$, $\\Delta_\\epsilon=1.41264(6)$.

  20. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample. Baseline differences in functional abilities before the initiation of irradiation suggested that other factors influence functional outcomes above and beyond the effects of irradiation.

  1. Polyphenoloxidases immobilized in organic gels: Properties and applications in the detoxification of aromatic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crecchio, C.; Ruggiero, P.; Pizzigallo, M.D.R. [Univ. di Bari (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Agraria

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Gelatine gels originate from water in oil microemulsions in which the ternary system consists of isooctane/sulfosuccinic acid bis [2-ethyl hexyl] ester/water; the solubilization of gelatin in the water pool of these microemulsions transforms them into viscous gels in which it is possible to cosolubilize various reactive molecules. These gels were used to immobilize two phenoloxidases, a laccase from Trametes versicolor and a tyrosinase from mushroom. The best balance between gel retention and catalytic activity was reached at a gelatine concentration of 2.5% (w/v) in the case of tyrosinase, while laccase immobilization was independent of gelatine concentration. Both enzymes kept the same optimum pH as the corresponding soluble controls, while a partial loss of activity was observed when they were immobilized. Immobilized enzymes showed an increased stability when incubated for several days at 4 C with a very low release from the gels in the incubation solutions. The immobilization of tyrosinase and of laccase enhanced stability to thermal inactivation. Furthermore, gel-entrapped tyrosinase was almost completely preserved from proteolysis: more than 80% of the activity was maintained, while only 25% of the soluble control activity was detected after the same proteolytic treatments. A column packed with gel-immobilized tyrosinase was used to demonstrate that enzymes immobilized with this technique may be reused several times in the same reaction without loosing their efficiency. Finally, gel-entrapped tyrosinase and laccase were capable of removing naturally occurring and xenobiotic aromatic compounds from aqueous suspensions with different degrees of efficiency.

  2. Stretch fast dynamo mechanism via conformal mapping in Riemannian manifolds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, UERJ Rua Sao Fco. Xavier 524, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Maracana, CEP:20550-003 (Brazil)

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new analytical solutions of the self-induction equation in Riemannian manifolds are presented. The first represents a twisted magnetic flux tube or flux rope in plasma astrophysics, where the rotation of the flow implies that the poloidal field is amplified from toroidal field, in the spirit of dynamo theory. The value of the amplification depends on the Frenet torsion of the magnetic axis of the tube. Actually this result illustrates the Zeldovich stretch, twist, and fold method to generate dynamos from straight and untwisted ropes. Based on the fact that this problem was previously handled, using a Riemannian geometry of twisted magnetic flux ropes [Phys Plasmas 13, 022309 (2006)], investigation of a second dynamo solution, conformally related to the Arnold kinematic fast dynamo, is obtained. In this solution, it is shown that the conformal effect on the fast dynamo metric enhances the Zeldovich stretch, and therefore a new dynamo solution is obtained. When a conformal mapping is performed in an Arnold fast dynamo line element, a uniform stretch is obtained in the original line element.

  3. Open-cap Conformation of Intramembrane Protease GlpG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Y.; Ha, Y.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The active sites of intramembrane proteases are positioned in the lipid bilayer to facilitate peptide bond hydrolysis in the membrane. Previous crystallographic analysis of Escherichia coli GlpG, an intramembrane protease of the rhomboid family, has revealed an internal and hydrophilic active site in an apparently closed conformation. Here we describe the crystal structure of GlpG in a more open conformation, where the capping loop L5 has been lifted, exposing the previously buried and catalytically essential Ser-201 to outside aqueous solution. A water molecule now moves into the putative oxyanion hole that is constituted of a main-chain amide (Ser-201) and two conserved side chains (His-150 and Asn-154). The loop movement also destabilizes a hydrophobic side chain (Phe-245) previously buried between transmembrane helices S2 and S5 and creates a side portal from the lipid to protease active site. These results provide insights into the conformational plasticity of GlpG to accommodate substrate binding and catalysis and into the chirality of the reaction intermediate.

  4. Initiation disruptor systems and methods of initiation disruption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baum, Dennis W

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that may be used as an initiation disruption system (IDS) according to one embodiment includes an explosive charge; a plurality of particles in a layer at least partially surrounding the explosive charge; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles. A method for disabling an object according to one embodiment includes placing the system as recited above near an object; and causing the explosive charge to initiate, thereby applying mechanical loading to the object such that the object becomes disabled. Additional systems and methods are also presented. A device according to another embodiment includes a plurality of particles bound by a binder thereby defining a sidewall having an interior for receiving an explosive; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles and binder. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  5. Micelle-Induced Curvature in a Water-Insoluble HIV-1 Env Peptide Revealed by NMR Dipolar Coupling Measurement in Stretched Polyacrylamide Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, James

    Measurement in Stretched Polyacrylamide Gel James J. Chou, Joshua D. Kaufman, Stephen J. Stahl, Paul T

  6. SILICA GEL BEHAVIOR UNDER DIFFERENT EGS CHEMICAL AND THERMAL CONDITIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J D; Ezzedine, S M; Bourcier, W; Roberts, S

    2012-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractures and fracture networks are the principal pathways for migration of water and contaminants in groundwater systems, fluids in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), oil and gas in petroleum reservoirs, carbon dioxide leakage from geological carbon sequestration, and radioactive and toxic industrial wastes from underground storage repositories. When dealing with EGS fracture networks, there are several major issues to consider, e.g., the minimization of hydraulic short circuits and losses of injected geothermal fluid to the surrounding formation, which in turn maximize heat extraction and economic production. Gel deployments to direct and control fluid flow have been extensively and successfully used in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery. However, to the best of our knowledge, gels have not been applied to EGS to enhance heat extraction. In-situ gelling systems can either be organic or inorganic. Organic polymer gels are generally not thermostable to the typical temperatures of EGS systems. Inorganic gels, such as colloidal silica gels, however, may be ideal blocking agents for EGS systems if suitable gelation times can be achieved. In the current study, we explore colloidal silica gelation times and rheology as a function of SiO{sub 2} concentration, pH, salt concentration, and temperature, with preliminary results in the two-phase field above 100 C. Results at 25 C show that it may be possible to choose formulations that will gel in a reasonable and predictable amount of time at the temperatures of EGS systems.

  7. Some Structural Observations of Self-Assembling, Fibrillar Gels Composed of Two-Directional Bolaform Arborols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J.

    2005-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Arborols are dumbbell shaped molecules (bolaform amphiphiles) in which a hydrophobic spacer separates two hydrophilic end groups. They are a valuable model for naturally occurring fibers, such as actin or amyloid. Applications to materials science can be envisioned. On cooling from warm aqueous or methanolic solutions, arborols spontaneously assemble into long fibers. When the solutions are above a certain concentration that depends on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance, this leads to thermally reversible gels stabilized by a mechanism that is poorly understood. With the help of wide angle X-ray scattering, details of the arborol fiber and gel structure were obtained on wet gels. The characteristic dimensions of the fibers vary in a sensible fashion with the molecular specifics. Solvent character appears to affect the average domain length of arborols stacked into fibers. Fluorescently labeled arborols were prepared. The label does not prevent incorporation into the fibrillar structure, rendering fibril bundles visible in wet gels. Bundles are visible in concentrated gels, but not in less concentrated sols. These results are consistent with observations of dried arborols using atomic force microscopy and with previously published freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering experiments on dried gels.

  8. Characterization of Hafnia Powder Prepared from an Oxychloride Sol Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilvery, Catriona M. [Imperial College, London; De Gendt, S [Imperial College, London; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; MacKenzie, M [Imperial College, London; Craven, A J [Imperial College, London; McComb, D W [Imperial College, London

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hafnium containing compounds are of great importance to the semiconductor industry as a replacement for Si(O,N) with a high- gate dielectric. Whilst Hf is already being incorporated into working devices1, much is still to be understood about it. Here we investigate the crystallisation processes and chemistry of bulk HfO2 powders which will aid in interpretation of reactions and crystallisation events occurring in thin films used as gate dielectrics. Amorphous HfO2 powder was prepared via a sol-gel route using hafnium oxychloride (HfOCl2 xH2O) as a precursor. The powders were subjected to various heat treatments and analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques. It was found that a large change in the crystallisation pathway occurred when the sample was heated in an inert environment compared with in air. Instead of the expected monoclinic phase (m-HfO2), tetragonal HfO2 (t-HfO2) also formed under these conditions and was observed up to temperatures of ~760 C. The t-HfO2 particles, which are less than 30nm in size, eventually transform into m-HfO2 on further heating. Possible mechanisms for the crystallisation of t-HfO2 are discussed. It is proposed that within this temperature range t-HfO2 is stabilised due to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the inert environment, forming by the reduction of HfIV to HfIII. As the crystal grows in size as the temperature increases there are too few oxygen vacancies left in the structure to continue stabilising the t-HfO2 phase and so transformation to m-HfO2 occurs.

  9. California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission Staff Progress Report January 2008 #12;California Solar Initiative, CPUC Staff Progress Report, January 2008 This page intentionally left blank. #12;California Solar Initiative, CPUC Staff Progress Report, January 2008 Table of Contents

  10. Green Button Initiative Growing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Initiative Growing Green Button Initiative Growing May 17, 2013 - 1:17pm Addthis The Green Button initiative, which is the common-sense idea that electricity customers should...

  11. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  12. The President's Biofuels Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The President's Biofuels Initiative The President's Biofuels Initiative Presentation by Neil Rossmeissl at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed...

  13. Voluntary Initiative on Incentives: Toolkit Training Webinar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Voluntary Initiative on Incentives: Toolkit Training Webinar Voluntary Initiative on Incentives: Toolkit Training Webinar March 26, 2015 12:30PM to 2:0...

  14. Innovative Corridors Initiative: Business Model Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lingham, Viginia; Finson, Rachel S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wenger, Joyce. Business Models for Vehicle InfrastructureCorridors Initiative: Business Model Analysis Rachel S.Corridors Initiative: Business Model Analysis Task Order

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity Advanced Manufacturing Initiative Improves Turbine Blade Productivity May 20, 2011 - 2:56pm Addthis This is an...

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Cement: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Cement Sustainability Initiative Coordinated by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) helps the cement...

  17. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

  18. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  19. Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money...

  20. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book) | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book) Re-direct Destination: The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating,...

  1. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. [Four types of gels: resorcinol-formaldehyde; colloidal silica; Cr sup 3+ (chloride)-xanthan; and Cr sup 3+ (acetate)-polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  2. PH Sensitive Polymers for Improving Reservoir Sweep and Conformance Control in Chemical Flooring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul Sharma; Steven Bryant; Chun Huh

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an increasing opportunity to recover bypassed oil from depleted, mature oilfields in the US. The recovery factor in many reservoirs is low due to inefficient displacement of the oil by injected fluids (typically water). The use of chemical flooding methods to increase recovery efficiencies is severely constrained by the inability of the injected chemicals to contact the bypassed oil. Low sweep efficiencies are the primary cause of low oil recoveries observed in the field in chemical flooding operations even when lab studies indicate high oil recovery efficiency. Any technology that increases the ability of chemical flooding agents to better contact the remaining oil and reduce the amount of water produced in conjunction with the produced oil will have a significant impact on the cost of producing oil domestically in the US. This translates directly into additional economically recoverable reserves, which extends the economic lives of marginal and mature wells. The objective of this research project was to develop a low-cost, pH-triggered polymer for use in IOR processes to improve reservoir sweep efficiency and reservoir conformance in chemical flooding. Rheological measurements made on the polymer solution, clearly show that it has a low viscosity at low pH and exhibits a sudden increase in viscosity (by 2 orders of magnitude or more) at a pH of 3.5 to 4. This implies that the polymer would preferentially flow into zones containing water since the effective permeability to water is highest in these zones. As the pH of the zone increases due to the buffering capacity of the reservoir rock, the polymer solution undergoes a liquid to gel transition causing a sharp increase in the viscosity of the polymer solution in these zones. This allows operationally robust, in-depth conformance treatment of such water bearing zones and better mobility control. The rheological properties of HPAM solutions were measured. These include: steady-shear viscosity and viscoelastic behavior as functions of pH; shear rate; polymer concentration; salinity, including divalent ion effects; polymer molecular weight; and degree of hydrolysis. A comprehensive rheological model was developed for HPAM solution rheology in terms of: shear rate; pH; polymer concentration; and salinity, so that the spatial and temporal changes in viscosity during the polymer flow in the reservoir can be accurately modeled. A series of acid coreflood experiments were conducted to understand the geochemical reactions relevant for both the near-wellbore injection profile control and for conformance control applications. These experiments showed that the use hydrochloric acid as a pre-flush is not viable because of the high reaction rate with the rock. The use of citric acid as a pre-flush was found to be quite effective. This weak acid has a slow rate of reaction with the rock and can buffer the pH to below 3.5 for extended periods of time. With the citric acid pre-flush the polymer could be efficiently propagated through the core in a low pH environment i.e. at a low viscosity. The transport of various HPAM solutions was studied in sandstones, in terms of permeability reduction, mobility reduction, adsorption and inaccessible pore volume with different process variables: injection pH, polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, salinity, degree of hydrolysis, and flow rate. Measurements of polymer effluent profiles and tracer tests show that the polymer retention increases at the lower pH. A new simulation capability to model the deep-penetrating mobility control or conformance control using pH-sensitive polymer was developed. The core flood acid injection experiments were history matched to estimate geochemical reaction rates. Preliminary scale-up simulations employing linear and radial geometry floods in 2-layer reservoir models were conducted. It is clearly shown that the injection rate of pH-sensitive polymer solutions can be significantly increased by injecting it at a pH below 3.5 (at a fixed bottom-hole pressure). This improvement in injectivity by a fa

  3. Origin of Matter from Vacuum in Conformal Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Blaschke; V. Pervushin; D. Proskurin; S. Vinitsky; A. Gusev

    2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce the hypothesis that the matter content of the universe can be a product of the decay of primordial vector bosons. The effect of the intensive cosmological creation of these primordial vector $W, ~Z $ bosons from the vacuum is studied in the framework of General Relativity and the Standard Model where the relative standard of measurement identifying conformal quantities with the measurable ones is accepted. The relative standard leads to the conformal cosmology with the z-history of masses with the constant temperature, instead of the conventional z-history of the temperature with constant masses in inflationary cosmology. In conformal cosmology both the latest supernova data and primordial nucleosynthesis are compatible with a stiff equation of state associated with one of the possible states of the infrared gravitation field. The distribution function of the created bosons in the lowest order of perturbation theory exposes a cosmological singularity as a consequence of the theorem about the absence of the massless limit of massive vector fields in quantum theory. This singularity can be removed by taking into account the collision processes leading to a thermalization of the created particles. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature T=(M_W^2H_0)^{1/3} ~ 2.7 K occurs as an integral of motion for the universe in the stiff state. We show that this temperature can be attained by the CMB radiation being the final product of the decay of primordial bosons. The effect of anomalous nonconservation of baryon number due to the polarization of the Dirac sea vacuum by these primordial bosons is considered.

  4. Initial Decision and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.

    2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Decision and Risk Analysis capabilities will be developed for industry consideration and possible adoption within Year 1. These tools will provide a methodology for merging qualitative ranking of technology maturity and acknowledged risk contributors with quantitative metrics that drive investment decision processes. Methods and tools will be initially introduced as applications to the A650.1 case study, but modular spreadsheets and analysis routines will be offered to industry collaborators as soon as possible to stimulate user feedback and co-development opportunities.

  5. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City,EnrichedSupplementalAdministrationAdministration INITIATED

  6. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City,EnrichedSupplementalAdministrationAdministration INITIATED

  7. Entanglement entropy in Galilean conformal field theories and flat holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjun Bagchi; Rudranil Basu; Daniel Grumiller; Max Riegler

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analytical calculation of entanglement entropy for a class of two dimensional field theories governed by the symmetries of the Galilean conformal algebra, thus providing a rare example of such an exact computation. These field theories are the putative holographic duals to theories of gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. We provide a check of our field theory answers by an analysis of geodesics. We also exploit the Chern-Simons formulation of three-dimensional gravity and adapt recent proposals of calculating entanglement entropy by Wilson lines in this context to find an independent confirmation of our results from holography.

  8. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Criekingen, S. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA-Saclay, DEN/DM2S/SERMA/LENR Bat 470, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  9. Dangerous Liouville Wave -- exactly marginal but non-conformal deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu Man Ho; Yu Nakayama

    2008-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a non-trivially interacting field theory example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theory. The model is based on the exactly solvable Liouville field theory coupled with free scalars deformed by an exactly marginal operator. We show non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor by using the quantum Schwinger-Dyson equation for the Liouville field theory, which is a sophistication of the quantum higher equations of motion for the Liouville field theory introduced by Alyosha Zamolodchikov. Possibly dangerous implications for the super-critical string theory will be discussed.

  10. Confluent primary fields in the conformal field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajime Nagoya; Juanjuan Sun

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    For any complex simple Lie algebra, we generalize primary fileds in the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory with respect to the case of irregular singularities and we construct integral representations of hypergeometric functions of confluent type, as expectation values of products of generalized primary fields. In the case of sl(2), these integral representations coincide with solutions to confluent KZ equations. Computing the operator product expansion of the energy-momentum tensor and the generalized primary field, new differential operators appear in the result. In the case of sl(2), these differential operators are the same as those of the confluent KZ equations.

  11. Properties of electric double-layer capacitors with various polymer gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, X.; Osaka, Tetsuya [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based gel electrolytes with a mixture of ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate as plasticizer and lithium perchlorate were used to fabricate an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The performance of EDLCs with these gel electrolytes was investigated by using isotropic high-density graphite electrodes. The ion conductivities of various gel electrolytes were of the order of 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, and they decreased in the order PAN > PEO > PMMA at ambient temperature. Capacitances approaching the value of EDLCs using organic liquid electrolyte, 20 mF/cm{sup 2}, with an isotropic high-density graphite electrode were obtained in PAN and PMMA gel electrolytes. The EDLC with PMMA-based gel electrolyte showed good charge-discharge behavior over 10{sup 4} cycles at a charge potential of 3.0 V. The rapid progress in the development of electric vehicles and electronic devices has placed increased demand on high-power capacitors. The EDLC is attractive as a rechargeable pulse power source or backup power supply for such applications.

  12. An electrochemical double layer capacitor using an activated carbon electrode with gel electrolyte binder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, Tetsuya, Liu, X.; Nojima, Masashi; Momma, Toshiyuki [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)] [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) was prepared with an activated carbon powder electrode with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) based gel electrolyte. Ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC) were used as plasticizer and tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF{sub 4}) was used as the supporting electrolyte. An optimized gel electrolyte of PVdF-HFP/PC/EC/TEABF{sub 4} - 23/31/35/11 mass ratio exhibited high ionic conductivity of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm, high electrode capacitance, and good mechanical strength. An electrode consisting of activated carbon (AC) with the gel electrolyte as the binder (AC/PVdF-HFP based gel, 7/3 mass ratio) showed a higher specific capacitance and a lower ion diffusion resistance within the electrode than a carbon electrode, prepared with PVdF-HFP binder without plasticizer. This suggests that an electrode mixed with the gel electrolyte has a lower ion diffusion resistance inside the electrode. The highest specific capacitance of 123 F/g was achieved with an electrode containing AC with a specific surface area of 2500 m{sup 2}/g. A coin-type EDLC cell with optimized components showed excellent cycleability exceeding 10{sup 4} cycles with ca. 100% coulombic efficiency achieved when charging and discharging was repeated between 1.0 and 2.5 V at 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  13. Sol-gel synthesis of high-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dejneka, M.; Riman, R.E.; Snitzer, E. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Ceramics)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride glasses are excellent laser hosts and are very well suited for a broad spectrum of optical applications. However, current fluoride glass synthesis is expensive. The sol-gel method is an affordable alternative for producing high-performance, optical-quality heavy-metal fluoride glasses. The method involves forming a hydrous oxide gel of the constituent metal alkoxides and salts, polymerizing the solution to form a gel, fluorinating the gel with anhydrous HF, melting the amorphous material in an oxidizing atmosphere of SF[sub 6], and casting the melt into desired shapes. ZBLA (57ZrF[sub 4] [times] 36BaF[sub 2] [times] 4LaF[sub 3] [times] 3AlF[sub 3], in mol%) and Nd-doped (0.3 mol%) ZBLA glass rods were prepared by this process and their properties were measured. The sol-gel-based glasses had thermal and optical properties similar to those found in the literature for conventionally prepared fluorides.

  14. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  15. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  16. Toward Nanostructured Thermoelectrics: Synthesis and Characterization of Lead Telluride Gels and Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Brock, Stephanie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and characterization of lead telluride (PbTe) gels and aerogels with nanostructured features of potential benefit for enhanced thermoelectrics is reported. In this approach, discrete thiolate-capped PbTe nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution-based approach followed by oxidation-induced nanoparticle assembly with tetranitromethane or hydrogen peroxide to form wet gels. Drying of the wet gels by supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction yielded aerogels, whereas xerogels were produced by ambient pressure bench top drying. The gels consist of an interconnected network of colloidal nanoparticles and pores with surface areas up to 74 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. The thermal stability of the nanostructures relative to nanoparticles was probed with the help of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aerogels were observed to sublime at a higher temperature and over a larger range (425–500 °C) relative to the precursor nanoparticles. TGA-DSC suggests that organic capping groups can be removed in the region 250–450 °C, and melting of PbTe nanoparticles occurs near the temperature for bulk materials (ca. 920 °C). The good thermal stability combined with the presence of nanoscale interfaces suggests PbTe gels may show promise in thermoelectric devices.

  17. Topological Patterns in Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of DNA Knots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michieletto, Davide; Orlandini, Enzo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gel electrophoresis is a powerful experimental method to probe the topology of DNA and other biopolymers. While there is a large body of experimental work which allows us to accurately separate different topoisomers of a molecule, a full theoretical understanding of these experiments has not yet been achieved. Here we show that the mobility of DNA knots depends crucially and subtly on the physical properties of the gel, and in particular on the presence of dangling ends. The topological interactions between these and DNA molecules can be described in terms of an "entanglement number", and yield a non-monotonic mobility at moderate fields. Consequently, in two-dimensional electrophoresis, gel bands display a characteristic arc pattern; this turns into a straight line when the density of dangling ends vanishes. We also provide a novel framework to accurately predict the shape of such arcs as a function of molecule length and topological complexity, which may be used to inform future experiments.

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic conformational transition Sample...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ; Biology and Medicine ; Engineering 17 J. Mol. Hiol. (1983) 170, 723-764 Protein Folding by Restrained Energy Minimization Summary: , and the native conformation is found...

  19. Conformance Tool High Level Design Document: IEC 61850 Cyber Security Acceleration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, Thomas W.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the high level design document for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IEC 62351-3, 4 and 6 standards conformance test software toolkit.

  20. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  1. Direct laser initiation of PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Early, J. W. (James W.); Kennedy, J. E. (James E.)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early 1970s Yang and Menichelli demonstrated that direct laser illumination of low-density secondary explosive prr:ssings through a transparent window could produce detonation. 'The energy requirement for threshold initiation of detonation was reduced when a thin metal coating of metal covered the side of the window against which the low-density explosive was pressed. We have obtained experimental results that are in general agreement with the results of Renllund, Stanton and Trott (1 989) and recent: work by Nagayama, hou and Nakahara (2001). We report exploration of the effects of laser beam diameter, PEiTN density and specific surface area, and thickness of a titanium coating on the window.

  2. Sol-gel deposited electrochromic films for electrochromic smart window glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oezer, N. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science; Lampert, C.M. [Star Science (United States); Rubin, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic windows offer the ability to dynamically change the transmittance of a glazing. With the appropriate sensor and controls, this smart window can be used for energy regulation and glare control for a variety of glazing applications. The most promising are building and automotive applications. This work covers the use of sol-gel deposition processes to make active films for these windows. The sol-gel process offers a low-capital investment for the deposition of these active films. Sol-gel serves as an alternative to more expensive vacuum deposition processes. The sol-gel process utilizes solution coating followed by a hydrolysis and condensation. In this investigation the authors report on tungsten oxide and nickel oxide films made by the sol-gel process for electrochromic windows. The properties of the sol-gel films compare favorably to those of films made by other techniques. A typical laminated electrochromic window consists of two glass sheets coated with transparent conductors, which are coated with the active films. The two sheets are laminated together with an ionically conductive polymer. The range of visible transmission modulation of the tungsten oxide was 60% and for the nickel oxide was 20%. The authors used the device configuration of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/W0{sub 3}/polymer/Li{sub Z}NiO{sub x}H{sub y}/SnO{sub 2}:F glass to test the films. The nickel oxide layer had a low level of lithiation and possibly contained a small amount of water. Lithiated oxymethylene-linked poly(ethylene oxide) was used as the laminating polymer. Commercially available SnO{sub 2}:F/glass (LOF-Tec glass) was used as the transparent conducting glass. The authors found reasonable device switching characteristics which could be used for devices.

  3. Influence of aging time on porosity, morphology&structure of hexylene-bridged polysilsesouioxane gels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D. A. (Douglas A.); DeFriend, K. A. (Kimberly A.); Small, J. H. (James H.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes are hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of 1,6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane monomer 1. Previous studies showed that high surface area xerogels could be prepared from 2 with base catalyzed polymerizations while non-porous xerogels could be prepared with acidic catalysts. However, these xerogels were obtained from gels that had been aged for two weeks. The object of this study was to ascertain the influences of aging time (3, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days) on the properties of the resulting xerogels.

  4. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  5. CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES California Solar Initiative Thermal Program Handbook i 1. Introduction to CSI-Thermal Program....................................................................................3 2.1.1 Host Customer

  6. Childhood Cancer Tracking Initiative in Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Childhood Cancer Tracking Initiative in Massachusetts: Developing a New Electronic Tool Presented (CEH) Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) #12;Childhood Cancer Tracking Initiative "Develop methods for linking environmental databases with childhood cancer incidence data to identify

  7. California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission Staff Progress Report July 2008 #12;California Solar Initiative, CPUC Staff Progress Report, July 2008 Cover Photo Credits: Photographer: Andrew McKinney Name of Installer: Marin Solar System owner

  8. Na-A (LTA) zeolite synthesis directly from alumatrane and silatrane by sol-gel microwave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    , aqua- culture, agriculture, water treatment, etc. due to their absorption, ion exchange and size by approximately 20%. The increase of water ratio also affects the crystal size. As the water ratio increases membrane was produced on aAl2O3 support by dipping the support into the gel and then crystallizing the gel

  9. Alternative approaches to the fluorescence metrology of sol-gel nanoparticles using pH changes and thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    and thin films Alison Cleary, Jan Karolin, David Birch Photophysics Group, Department of Physics films of a few hundred nanometers for the encapsulation of biomolecules for microscopy. With such thin be used in the characterisation of sol-gels. Another important application of sol-gels is the use of thin

  10. ANA and GIS zeolite synthesis directly from alumatrane and silatrane by sol-gel process and microwave technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    ANA and GIS zeolite synthesis directly from alumatrane and silatrane by sol-gel process and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand b The Department of Chemical Engineering used as precursors to produce aluminosilicate via the sol-gel process. Due to their ability

  11. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Div. of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  12. Z .Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 7 2002 228 234 Slow dynamics in glasses, gels and foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Z .Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science 7 2002 228 234 Slow dynamics in glasses, gels and foams Luca CipellettiU , Laurence Ramos Groupe de Dynamique des Phases Condensees, Uni. Keywords: Aging; Lightscattering; Glass; Gel; Colloids; Rheolgy 1. Introduction Disordered, out

  13. aeolicus initiates primer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 203 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  14. a549 cells initial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 93 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  15. aspa initial results: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 192 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  16. areas initial results: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 269 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  17. aachen aspa initial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 137 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  18. aav initiator protein: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 94 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  19. aquifex aeolicus initiates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 44 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  20. adenocarcinomas initial clinical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Juan A. Valiente Kroon 2007-12-20 98 Column Initialization 1 Initializing Distillation Column Models 1 Mathematics Websites Summary: Column Initialization 1 Initializing...

  1. Voluntary Initiative: Partnering to Enhance Program Capacity...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to Enhance Program Capacity Better Buildings Residential Network Program Sustainability Peer Exchange Call Series: Voluntary Initiative: Partnering to Enhance Program...

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Video Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Video Addthis Description Industrial...

  3. Entanglement of low-energy excitations in Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Castilho Alcaraz; Miguel Ibanez Berganza; German Sierra

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a quantum critical chain, the scaling regime of the energy and momentum of the ground state and low lying excitations are described by conformal field theory (CFT). The same holds true for the von Neumann and Renyi entropies of the ground state, which display a universal logarithmic behaviour depending on the central charge. In this letter we generalize this result to those excited states of the chain that correspond to primary fields in CFT. It is shown that the n-th Renyi entropy is related to a 2n-point correlator of primary fields. We verify this statement for the critical XX and XXZ chains. This result uncovers a new link between quantum information theory and CFT.

  4. Boundary and Interface CFTs from the Conformal Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gliozzi, F; Meineri, M; Rago, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore some consequences of the crossing symmetry for defect conformal field theories, focusing on codimension one defects like flat boundaries or interfaces. We study surface transitions of the 3d Ising and other O(N) models through numerical solutions to the crossing equations with the method of determinants. In the extraordinary transition, where the low-lying spectrum of the surface operators is known, we use the bootstrap equations to obtain information on the bulk spectrum of the theory. In the ordinary transition the knowledge of the low-lying bulk spectrum allows to calculate the scale dimension of the relevant surface operator, which compares well with known results of two-loop calculations in 3d. Estimates of various OPE coefficients are also obtained. We also analyze in 4-epsilon dimensions the renormalization group interface between the O(N) model and the free theory and check numerically the results in 3d.

  5. Boundary and Interface CFTs from the Conformal Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gliozzi; P. Liendo; M. Meineri; A. Rago

    2015-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore some consequences of the crossing symmetry for defect conformal field theories, focusing on codimension one defects like flat boundaries or interfaces. We study surface transitions of the 3d Ising and other O(N) models through numerical solutions to the crossing equations with the method of determinants. In the extraordinary transition, where the low-lying spectrum of the surface operators is known, we use the bootstrap equations to obtain information on the bulk spectrum of the theory. In the ordinary transition the knowledge of the low-lying bulk spectrum allows to calculate the scale dimension of the relevant surface operator, which compares well with known results of two-loop calculations in 3d. Estimates of various OPE coefficients are also obtained. We also analyze in 4-epsilon dimensions the renormalization group interface between the O(N) model and the free theory and check numerically the results in 3d.

  6. Deflection of light to second order in conformal Weyl gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sultana, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.sultana@um.edu.mt [Department of Mathematics, University of Malta, Msida (Malta)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We reexamine the deflection of light in conformal Weyl gravity obtained in Sultana and Kazanas (2010), by extending the calculation based on the procedure by Rindler and Ishak, for the bending angle by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution, to second order in M/R, where M is the mass of the source and R is the impact parameter. It has recently been reported in Bhattacharya et al. (JCAP 09 (2010) 004; JCAP 02 (2011) 028), that when this calculation is done to second order, the term ?r in the Mannheim-Kazanas metric, yields again the paradoxical contribution ?R (where the bending angle is proportional to the impact parameter) obtained by standard formalisms appropriate to asymptotically flat spacetimes. We show that no such contribution is obtained for a second order calculation and the effects of the term ?r in the metric are again insignificant as reported in our earlier work.

  7. The Conformal Universe III: Basic Mechanisms of Matter Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renato Nobili

    2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the last of three papers on Conformal General Relativity (CGR), which describes inflation as a process primed by the spontaneous breakdown of a conformal-symmetric instable vacuum and the big bang as a sudden transfer of energy from geometry to matter. This process is driven by the interaction of a ghost scalar field $\\sigma$, called the {\\em dilation field}, with a scalar field $\\varphi$ behaving as a Higgs field of varying mass. Inflation ends when the interaction potential vanishes and $\\sigma,\\varphi$ amplitudes converge to their expectation values in a stable vacuum. Explicit solutions of $\\sigma, \\varphi$ dynamics in the semiclassical approximation are exemplified by numerical simulations. In order that the theory may survive quantization, the perfect vanishing of the total zero-point energy density of all involved fields must be postulated, which is equivalent to extending the correspondence principle of Bohr to quantum field theory. Since inflation actually is an adiabatic thermodynamic process, the temperature $T_B\\simeq 142$\\,GeV and the effective degeneracy $g_{*s}(T_B)\\simeq 0.887$ of Higgs-boson entropy at big bang are easily found. The application of entropy-conservation property then results in striking predictions. In particular, given the Higg-boson mass $\\mu_H\\simeq 126.5$ GeV and self-coupling constant $\\lambda\\simeq 0.132$, and the temperature $T_{BK}= 2.35\\times 10^{-13}$ and effective entropy degeneracy $g_{*s}(T_{BK})\\simeq 3.91$ of the current cosmic-background radiation, the cosmological constant $\\rho_{\\hbox{vac}}\\simeq 6.91\\times 10^{-47}$GeV$^4$ and expansion factor across inflation $F\\simeq 1.32\\times 10^{27}$ are predicted.

  8. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  9. California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission Staff Progress Report January 2009 #12;2 California Solar Initiative CPUC Staff Progress Report - January 2009 The California Public progress on the California Solar Initiative, the country's largest solar incentive program. In January 2007

  10. California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Solar Initiative California Public Utilities Commission Staff Progress Report October 2008 #12;2 California Solar Initiative CPUC Staff Progress Report - October 2008 The California Public progress on the California Solar Initiative, the country's largest solar incentive program. In January 2007

  11. Fabrication and characterization of poly(L-lactic acid) gels induced by fibrous complex crystallization with solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Yasuhiro [ORNL; Fukatsu, Akinobu [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan; Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Miyamoto, Kazuaki [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tasaka, Shigeru [Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu, Japan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex crystal induced gelation of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) solutions was studied for a series of solvents, including N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). By cooling the solutions prepared at elevated temperatures, PLLA gels were produced in solvents that induced complex crystals ( -crystals) with PLLA. Fibrous structure of PLLA in the gel with DMF was observed by polarizing optical microscopy, field emission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Upon heating, the crystal form of PLLA in the DMF gel changed from -crystal to a-crystal, the major crystal form in common untreated PLLA films, but the morphology and high elastic modulus of the gel remained until the a-crystal dissolved at higher temperature. In addition, a solvent exchanging method was developed, which allowed PLLA gels to be prepared in other useful solvents that do not induce -crystals without losing the morphology and mechanical properties.

  12. Nonlinear analysis of the three-dimensional datum transformation [conformal group C7(3)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuttgart, Universität

    of the stochasticity of both systems involved in the seven-datum transformation problem [conformal group C7ð3Þ algorithm to solve the seven-datum trans- formation problem [conformal group C7ð3Þ] taking algorithm to solve the seven-datum transformation problem [con- formal group C7ð3Þ] is presented in the work

  13. Lens chains and the geodesic algorithm for conformal mapping Donald E. Marshall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lens chains and the geodesic algorithm for conformal mapping Donald E. Marshall Abstract. We. This modification while improving the accuracy also allows us to give a simpler proof than in Marshall and Rohde [MR of conformal maps is described in Marshall and Rohde[MR]. Briefly, if z0, . . . , zn are distinct points

  14. BRAIN SURFACE CONFORMAL PARAMETERIZATION WITH THE RICCI FLOW Yalin Wang1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yalin

    BRAIN SURFACE CONFORMAL PARAMETERIZATION WITH THE RICCI FLOW Yalin Wang1,2 , Xianfeng Gu3 , Tony F and Brain Research Institute, UCLA School of Medicine 3 Computer Science Department, Stony Brook University conformally parameter- ize a brain surface via a mapping to a multi-hole disk. The resulting parameterizations

  15. Gas-Phase Conformation-Specific Photofragmentation of Proline-Containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    Gas-Phase Conformation-Specific Photofragmentation of Proline-Containing Peptide Ions Tae-Young Kim and an amide hydrogen. The latter is facilitated by a proline-stabilized gas-phase peptide conformation. (J Am analysis of peptides and proteins in the gas phase provides insight into their intrinsic intramolecular

  16. Automatic Selection of Near-Native Protein-Ligand Conformations using a Hierarchical Clustering and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taufer, Michela

    Automatic Selection of Near-Native Protein-Ligand Conformations using a Hierarchical Clustering is to reduce the resulting number of candi- dates up to 10 to 100 conformations based on energy values and then leave the scientists with the tedious task of sub- jectively selecting a possible near-native ligand

  17. Hawking radiation for a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Valtancoli

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The decomposition in normal modes of a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole leads to a Heun equation with simple coefficients thanks to conformal invariance. By applying the Damour-Ruffini method we can relate the critical exponent of the radial part at the horizon surface to the Hawking radiation of scalar particles.

  18. Characteristics of a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Conformed Longitudinally Around a Cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Characteristics of a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Conformed Longitudinally Around a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) conformed longitudinally around a cylinder. Measured and simulated are presented. Fig. 1: Schematic of LTSA with dimensions in cm. Fig. 2: LTSA wrapped around 90º curve. LTSA

  19. Conformational Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride). A Quantum Chemistry Study of Model Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Conformational Properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride). A Quantum Chemistry Study of Model of the conformers of HFH resembling crystalline polymorphs of PVDF, indicating that intermolecular interactions unfavorable second-order interactions between fluorine atoms occur in -CH2- centered t+t+ sequences and

  20. A POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATE FOR THE H(div) CONFORMING MIXED FINITE ELEMENT FOR THE COUPLED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yanqiu

    for the Darcy equation, and vice versa. Special techniques usually need to be employed. In [3], a conformingA POSTERIORI ERROR ESTIMATE FOR THE H(div) CONFORMING MIXED FINITE ELEMENT FOR THE COUPLED DARCY pro- posed for the coupled Darcy-Stokes flow in [30], which imposes normal con- tinuity

  1. Asymptotic symmetries at null infinity and local conformal properties of spin coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the symmetry algebra of asymptotically flat four dimensional spacetimes at null infinity in the sense of Newman and Unti is isomorphic to the direct sum of the abelian algebra of infinitesimal conformal rescalings with bms4. We then work out the local conformal properties of the relevant Newman-Penrose coefficients, as well as the surface charges and their algebra.

  2. Analysis of Conforming and Nonconforming Quadrilateral Finite Element Methods for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Dongwoo

    Analysis of Conforming and Nonconforming Quadrilateral Finite Element Methods for the Helmholtz in this analysis are the standard Q1 conforming finite element, the DSSY nonconforming element [5] and the P1-Santos-Sheen-Bennethum in [4]; also in the same paper a first rigorous finite element error analysis was carried out

  3. Free Energy Analysis of the Conformational Preferences of A and B Forms of DNA in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayaram, Bhyravabotla

    Free Energy Analysis of the Conformational Preferences of A and B Forms of DNA in Solution B in conformational preferences experimentally are accounted for by the calculations. Analysis of the results indicates the free energy associated with the explicit organization of the mobile counterions around

  4. Platform for in situ real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes of DNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platform for in situ real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes of DNA Philipp, 2009) A platform for in situ and real-time measurement of protein- induced conformational changes in ds. The platform can accommodate individual spots of microar- rayed dsDNA on individually controlled

  5. THE LYAPUNOV AND DIMENSION SPECTRA OF EQUILIBRIUM MEASURES FOR CONFORMAL EXPANDING MAPS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE LYAPUNOV AND DIMENSION SPECTRA OF EQUILIBRIUM MEASURES FOR CONFORMAL EXPANDING MAPS. HOWARD the dimension spectrum for equilibrium measures and the Lyapunov spectrum for conformal repellers. We explicitly compute the Lyapunov spectrum and show that it is a delta function. We observe that while the Lyapunov

  6. Conformations of Flexible Dendrimers: A Simulation Study I. O. Go1tze and C. N. Likos*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Likos, Christos N.

    the sizes and conformations of flexible dendrimers of generation numbers G ) 4 to G ) 9 by means of MonteConformations of Flexible Dendrimers: A Simulation Study I. O. Go1tze and C. N. Likos*,, Institut of the terminal generation. Moreover, we calculate the distribution of the end monomers, which turns out

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 061906 (2011) Mechanics of soft composites of rods in elastic gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKintosh, F.C.

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 061906 (2011) Mechanics of soft composites of rods in elastic gels Moumita of composites consisting of randomly distributed stiff fibers embedded in an elastic matrix in two and three of the compressibility of the composite relative to its shear compliance as a result of the addition of stiff rodlike

  8. Transport in polymer-gel composites: Theoretical methodology and response to an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reghan J. Hill

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A theoretical model of electromigrative, diffusive and convectivetransport polymer-gel composites is presented. Bulk properties are derived from the standard electrokinetic model with an impenetrable charged sphere embedded in an electrolyte-saturated Brinkman medium. Because the microstructure can be carefully controlled, these materials are promising candidates for enhanced gel-electrophoresis, chemical sensing, drug delivery, and microfluidic pumping technologies. The methodology provides `exact' solutions for situations where perturbations from equilibrium are induced by gradients of electrostatic potential, concentration and pressure. While the volume fraction of the inclusions should be small, Maxwell's well-known theory of conduction suggests that the theory may also be accurate at moderate volume fractions. In this work, the model is used to compute ion fluxes, electrical current density, and convective flow induced by an applied electric field. The electric-field-induced (electro-osmotic) flow is a sensitive indicator of the inclusion zeta-potential and size, electrolyte concentration, and Darcy permeability of the gel, while the electrical conductivity increment is most often independent of the polymer gel, and is much less sensitive to particle and electrolyte characteristics.

  9. Relaxation dynamics in a transient network fluid with competing gel and glass phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinaki Chaudhuri; Pablo I. Hurtado; Ludovic Berthier; Walter Kob

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use computer simulations to study the relaxation dynamics of a model for oil-in-water microemulsion droplets linked with telechelic polymers. This system exhibits both gel and glass phases and we show that the competition between these two arrest mechanisms can result in a complex, three-step decay of the time correlation functions, controlled by two different localization lengthscales. For certain combinations of the parameters, this competition gives rise to an anomalous logarithmic decay of the correlation functions and a subdiffusive particle motion, which can be understood as a simple crossover effect between the two relaxation processes. We establish a simple criterion for this logarithmic decay to be observed. We also find a further logarithmically slow relaxation related to the relaxation of floppy clusters of particles in a crowded environment, in agreement with recent findings in other models for dense chemical gels. Finally, we characterize how the competition of gel and glass arrest mechanisms affects the dynamical heterogeneities and show that for certain combination of parameters these heterogeneities can be unusually large. By measuring the four-point dynamical susceptibility, we probe the cooperativity of the motion and find that with increasing coupling this cooperativity shows a maximum before it decreases again, indicating the change in the nature of the relaxation dynamics. Our results suggest that compressing gels to large densities produces novel arrested phases that have a new and complex dynamics.

  10. Large amplitude oscillatory shear flow of gluten dough: A model power-law gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Trevor S. K.

    In a previous paper [T. S. K. Ng and G. H. McKinley, J. Rheol.52(2), 417–449 (2008)], we demonstrated that gluten gels can best be understood as a polymericnetwork with a power-law frequency response that reflects the ...

  11. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP)more »chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.« less

  12. Direct Detection of Membrane Channels from Gels Using Water-in-Oil Droplet Bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark

    Direct Detection of Membrane Channels from Gels Using Water-in-Oil Droplet Bilayers Andrew J. Heron lipid bilayers serve as simplified models of biological membranes and are widely used for the electrical in many situations. Alternative emulsion-based approaches to forming bilayers have also been reported,15

  13. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Beach, J.V.; Baugher, B.M.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J.; Tran, J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing modification of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  14. Gel and process for preventing loss of circulation, and combination process for enhanced recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandiford, B.B.; Zillmer, R.C.

    1987-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for reducing the loss of circulation fluids into flow passages of a subterranean formation during well drilling, completion, or workover operations, the circulation fluids being selected from the group consisting of drilling fluids, completion fluids and workover fluids. The process comprises: (a) stopping the injection of a circulation fluid selected from the group consisting of drilling fluids, completion fluids and workover fluids into a wellbore; (b) introducing into the flow passages, an effective amount of a gel-forming composition comprising i. an aqueous solution comprising a first substance selected from the group consisting of polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl alcohol copolymers, and mixtures thereof, ii. an amount of an aldehyde, and iii. an amount of a crosslinking catalyzing substance, which in combination with the aqueous solution and the aldehyde is operable for effecting gelation, at the temperature of the subterranean formation, of the gel-forming composition in a period of time no greater than about 12 minutes after being introduced into the subterranean formation; and (c) allowing the gel-forming composition to enter into the flow passages and to form a gel therein within the period of time mentioned in step (b), thereby reducing the loss of the circulation fluid upon resuming well drilling, completion or workover operation.

  15. Laminated electrochromic windows based on nickel oxide, tungsten oxide, and gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passerini, S.; Scrosati, B.; Hermann, V. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica); Holmblad, C.; Bartlett, T. (Medtronic Promeon, Minneapolis, MN (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristic and the performance of solid-state, laminated electrochromic windows using tungsten oxide as the principal electrochromic electrode and nonstoichiometric nickel oxide as the counterelectrode separated by selected gel electrolytes, are presented and discussed. These advanced-design, electro-optical devices show a very promising behavior in terms of light modulation and cyclability.

  16. Biodegradable Colloidal Gels as Malleable Tissue Scaffolds and Injectable Drug Carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Qun

    2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    for injectable filler to repair bone, such as cranial defects. The objective of this thesis is to use oppositely-charged poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles to create a novel cohesive colloidal gel. The relationship between composition...

  17. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  18. SolGel Electrophoretic Deposition for the Growth of Oxide Nanorods**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    ±gel processing is a wet chemical route for the synthesis and processing of inorganic and organic±inorganic hybrid materials. It is particularly useful in making complex metal oxides and temperature sensitive organic±inorganic and Guozhong Cao* 1. Introduction Metal oxides, particularly complex metal oxides, are impor- tant materials

  19. Tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels: A combined catalyst and sorbent for selective phenol removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, W.Q.; Payne, G.F. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    There are a series of examples in which phenols appear as contaminants in process streams and their selective removal is required for waste minimization. For the selective removal of a phenol from a mixture, the authors are exploiting the substrate specificity of the enzyme tyrosinase to convert phenols into reactive o-quinones which are then adsorbed onto the amine-containing polymer chitosan. To effectively package the enzyme and sorbent, tyrosinase was immobilized between two chitosan gel films. The entrapment of tyrosinase between the films led to little loss of activity during immobilization, while tyrosinase leakage during incubation was limited. The chitosan gels rapidly adsorb the tyrosinase-generated product(s) of phenol oxidation while the capacity of the gels is substantially greater than the capacity of chitosan flakes. The performance of tyrosinase-containing chitosan gels significantly depends on the ratio of tyrosinase-to-chitosan. High tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios result in less efficient use of tyrosinase, presumably due to suicide inactivation. However, the efficiency of chitosan use increases with increased tyrosinase-to-chitosan ratios.

  20. Structure and dynamics of colloidal depletion gels: coincidence of transitions and heterogeneity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Dibble; M. Kogan; M. J. Solomon

    2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Transitions in structural heterogeneity of colloidal depletion gels formed through short-range attractive interactions are correlated with their dynamical arrest. The system is a density and refractive index matched suspension of 0.20 volume fraction poly(methyl methacyrlate) colloids with the non-adsorbing depletant polystyrene added at a size ratio of depletant to colloid of 0.043. As the strength of the short-range attractive interaction is increased, clusters become increasingly structurally heterogeneous, as characterized by number-density fluctuations, and dynamically immobilized, as characterized by the single-particle mean-squared displacement. The number of free colloids in the suspension also progressively declines. As an immobile cluster to gel transition is traversed, structural heterogeneity abruptly decreases. Simultaneously, the mean single-particle dynamics saturates at a localization length on the order of the short-range attractive potential range. Both immobile cluster and gel regimes show dynamical heterogeneity. Non-Gaussian distributions of single particle displacements reveal enhanced populations of dynamical trajectories localized on two different length scales. Similar dependencies of number density fluctuations, free particle number and dynamical length scales on the order of the range of short-range attraction suggests a collective structural origin of dynamic heterogeneity in colloidal gels.

  1. Single-stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) Analysis The PCR reactions were performed with Advantage PCR Kits &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Kulvinder

    ATP, dTTP, dCTP 7.0 µL dH20 0.2 µL Advantage® Taq polymerase, 0.2µL S35 dATP, 1mCi stock* 0.2 µL (Gene manual. Take a 200/500 mL beaker/flask. Add 100mL of 8% polyacrylamide gel solution. Once the gel

  2. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  3. Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in vacuum; however ignition by resistively-heated tungsten wire was possible. Thin films of thermite were fabricated using a dispersed mixture of aluminum and iron oxide particles, but ignition and propagation of these films was difficult. The only ignition and propagation observed was in a preheated sample.

  4. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub l2}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sub 17}0 NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, ((UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}){sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}((UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 10}) {center dot} 8H{sub 2}0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0{sub 2} ceramic fuel.

  5. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); King, R.B. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Garber, A.R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub l2}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sub 17}0 NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}]{sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an ``intercalation`` cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 10}] {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0{sub 2} ceramic fuel.

  6. NMR studies of the conformation of a triazine dendrimer and the synthesis of a platinated triazine dendrimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, Karlos Xavier

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A general picture of dendrimer conformation has appeared through studies of various dendrimer systems. Though the studies define some conformational abilities of a dendrimer, the studies are only able to examine one portion of the general picture...

  7. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Masterâ??s program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Masterâ??s Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Masterâ??s Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research in the renewable and clean energy area. The educational outreach provided as a result of the grant included activities to introduce renewable and clean energy design projects into the Mechanical and Materials Engineering senior design class, the development of a geothermal energy demonstration unit, and the development of renewable energy learning modules for high school students. Finally, this grant supported curriculum development by Sinclair Community College for seven new courses and acquisition of necessary related instrumentation and laboratory equipment. These new courses, EGV 1201 Weatherization Training, EGV 1251 Introduction to Energy Management Principles, EGV 2301 Commercial and Industrial Assessment, EGV 2351 LEED Green Associate Exam Preparation, EGV 2251 Energy Control Strategies, EGV Solar Photovoltaic Design and Installation, and EGV Solar Thermal Systems, enable Sinclair to offer complete Energy Technology Certificate and an Energy Management Degree programs. To date, 151 students have completed or are currently registered in one of the seven courses developed through this grant. With the increasing interest in the Energy Management Degree program, Sinclair has begun the procedure to have the program approved by the Ohio Board of Regents.

  8. Response of initial field to stiffness perturbation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen-Wu Wu

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Response of initial elastic field to stiffness perturbation and its possible application is investigated. Virtual thermal softening is used to produce the stiffness reduction for demonstration. It is interpreted that the redistribution of the initial strain will be developed by the non-uniform temperature elevation, as which leads to the non-uniform reduction of the material stiffness. Therefore, the initial filed is related to the stiffness perturbation and incremental field in a matrix form after eliminating the thermal expansion effect.

  9. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and PAGE gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  10. SU-E-T-130: Dosimetric Evaluation of Tissue Equivalent Gel Dosimeter Using Saccharide in Radiotherapy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Y [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D; Jung, H; Ji, Y; Kim, K; Chang, U [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, S [Kyonggi University, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In this study, the dose responses of the MAGIC gel with various concentrations and type of saccharide are examined to clarify the roles of mono and disaccharide in the polymerization process. Then we focused on the tissue equivalence and dose sensitivity of MAGIC gel dosimeters. Methods: The gel is composed of HPLC, 8% gelatin, 2 × 10-3 M L-ascorbic acid, 1.8 × 10-2 M hydroquinone, 8 × 10-5 M copper(II)sulfate and 9% methacrylic acid, new polymer gels are synthesized by adding glucose(monosaccharide), sucrose(disaccharide) and urea in the concentration range of 5?35%. For irradiation of the gel, cesium-137 gamma-ray irradiator was used, radiation dose was delivered from 5?50 Gy. MRI images of the gel were acquired by using a 3.0 T MRI system. Results: When saccharide and urea were added, the O/C, O/N and C/N ratios agreed with those of soft tissue with 1.7%. The dose-response of glucose and sucrose gel have slope-to-intercept ratio of 0.044 and 0.283 respectively. The slope-to-ratio is one important determinant of gel sensitivity. R-square values of glucose and sucrose gel dosimeters were 0.984 and 0.994 respectively. Moreover when urea were added, the slope-to-intercept ratio is 0.044 and 0.073 respectively. R-square values of mono and disaccharide gel were 0.973 and 0.989 respectively. When a saccharide is added into the MAGIC gel dosimeter, dose sensitivity is increased. However when urea were added, dose sensitivity is slightly decreased. Conclusion: In this study, it was possible to obtain the following conclusions by looking at the dose response characteristics after adding mono-, di-saccharide and urea to a MAGIC gel dosimeter. Saccharide was a tendency of increasing dose sensitivity with disaccharide. Sa.ccharide is cost effective, safe, soft tissue equivalent, and can be used under various experimental conditions, making it a suitable dosimeter for some radiotherapy applications.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Advanced Manufacturing Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing Initiative (AMI) is a multiple-year, 3-way collaboration among TPI Composites, Iowa State University, and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this...

  12. TN Energy Efficient Schools Initiative GSHP Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    TN Energy Efficient Schools Initiative GSHP Program Principal Investigator : Terry E. Townsend, P.E. FASHRAE, LEEDAP Ground Source Heat Pumps Demonstration Projects May 19, 2010...

  13. Green Manufacturing Initiative Annual Report 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    Green Manufacturing Initiative Annual Report 2010 Dr. John Patten Dr. David Meade May 3, 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Herman Miller Energy Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

  14. SunShot Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    address below. Subscribe SUNSHOT SUBPROGRAMS Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Soft Costs Systems Integration Technology to Market Quick Links 2014 SunShot Initiative...

  15. Innovative Manufacturing Initiative Recognition Day, Advanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Innovative Manufacturing Initiative Recognition Day Advanced Manufacturing Office Overview Unlocking the Potential of Additive Manufacturing in the Fuel Cells Industry...

  16. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Letters of IntentAgreements The electric power sector participates in the Climate VISION program through the Electric Power Industry Climate Initiative (EPICI) and its Power...

  17. Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof. Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Readiness Plan | 1 Table of Contents Executive Summary...

  18. Rotary mode system initial instrument calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johns, B.R.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The attached report contains the vendor calibration procedures used for the initial instrument calibration of the rotary core sampling equipment. The procedures are from approved vendor information files.

  19. INITIAL COMMISSIONING OF NDCX-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lidia, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INITIAL COMMISSIONING OF NDCX-II* S. Lidia # , D. Arbelaez,the results of early commissioning studies that characterizeschematic and commissioning phases. The commissioning phases

  20. Jefferson Lab accelerator upgrade completed: Initial operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOE to begin initial operations of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as part of its ongoing 338 million upgrade. With the approval of Critical...

  1. Revolving Economic Development and Initiative (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Revolving Economic Development and Initiative (REDI) provides low interest loans to start-up firms, businesses that are expanding or relocating and local economic development corporations. The...

  2. commercial buildings initiative | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Buildings Initiative The DOE Building Technologies Office works with the commercial building industry to accelerate the use of energy efficiency technologies in both...

  3. DOE Science Education Initiative Announced Today | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Middle School students confer during JLab's inaugural Virginia Regional Middle School Science Bowl. DOE Science Education Initiative Announced Today July 8, 2004 Today, U.S....

  4. Blue Ball Properties – initiating responsible environmental stewardship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McColl, Jayne E.; Daly, Dorothy

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2002. Environmental Assessment, Blue Ball Properties Areamarkers at the site. Photo 1. Blue Ball Dairy Barn. Photo 2.BLUE BALL PROPERTIES – INITIATING RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL

  5. Green Initiatives Keep Hanford Site Environmentally Responsible...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and increasing recycling on site. "We at MSA are very proud to spearhead the site's green initiatives," said Lori Fritz, MSA's vice president of energy & environmental...

  6. SunShot Initiative | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SunShot Initiative Funding Opportunity: Solar Training and Education for Professionals Funding Opportunity: Solar Training and Education for Professionals This new funding program...

  7. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Forest Products

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA) supports the Climate VISION initiative to address climate change through enhanced research in technology and science, incentives, and...

  8. Strategic Initiatives Work Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE, contractor and worker representatives, provides a forum for information sharing; data collection and analysis; as well as, identifying best practices and initiatives to...

  9. Conformal Behavior at Four Loops and Scheme (In)Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas A. Ryttov

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We search for infrared zeros of the beta function and evaluate the anomalous dimension of the mass at the associated fixed point for asymptotically free vector-like fermionic gauge theories with gauge group SU(N). The fixed points of the beta function are studied at the two, three and four loop level in two different explicit schemes. These are the modified regularization invariant, RI', scheme and the minimal momentum subtraction, mMOM, scheme. The search is performed in Landau gauge where the beta function of the gauge parameter vanishes. We then compare our findings to earlier identical investigations performed in the modified minimal subtraction, $\\bar{\\text{MS}}$, scheme. It is found that the value of the anomalous dimension of the mass is smaller at three and four loops than at two loops. This seems to be a generic pattern that is observed in all three different schemes. We then estimate the value of the anomalous dimension to be $\\gamma \\sim 0.225-0.375$ for twelve fundamental flavors and three colors, $\\gamma \\sim 0.500 - 0.593$ for two adjoint flavors and two colors and finally $\\gamma \\sim 1.12-1.70$ for two two-indexed flavors and three colors with the lower and upper bound set by the minimum and maximum value respectively over all three schemes and at three and four loops. Our analysis suggests that the former two theories lie in the conformal window while the latter belongs to the chirally broken phase.

  10. Conformal symmetries of gravity from asymptotic methods: further developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, the symmetry structure of gravitational theories at null infinity is studied further, in the case of pure gravity in four dimensions and also in the case of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in $d$ dimensions with and without a cosmological constant. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the presentation of asymptotic methods (symmetries, solution space and surface charges) applied to gravity in the case of the BMS gauge in three and four spacetime dimensions. The second part of this thesis contains the original contributions. Firstly, it is shown that the enhancement from Lorentz to Virasoro algebra also occurs for asymptotically flat spacetimes defined in the sense of Newman-Unti. As a first application, the transformation laws of the Newman-Penrose coefficients characterizing solution space of the Newman-Unti approach are worked out, focusing on the inhomogeneous terms that contain the information about central extensions of the theory. These transformations laws make the conformal structure particularly transparent, and constitute the main original result of the thesis. Secondly, asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner in $d$ dimensions. In agreement with a recent conjecture, a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra is found not only in three dimensions but also in the four dimensional asymptotically flat case. These two parts of the thesis are supplemented by appendices.

  11. Why are all dualities conformal? Theory and practical consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zohar Nussinov; Gerardo Ortiz; Mohammad-Sadegh Vaezi

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We relate duality mappings to the "Babbage equation" F(F(z)) = z, with F a map linking weak- to strong-coupling theories. Under fairly general conditions F may only be a specific conformal transformation of the fractional linear type. This deep general result has enormous practical consequences. For example, one can establish that weak- and strong- coupling series expansions of arbitrarily large finite size systems are trivially related, i.e., after generating one of those series the other is automatically determined through a set of linear constraints between the series coefficients. This latter relation partially solve or, equivalently, localize the computational complexity of evaluating the series expansion to a simple fraction of those coefficients. As a bonus, those relations also encode non-trivial equalities between different geometric constructions in general dimensions, and connect derived coefficients to polytope volumes. We illustrate our findings by examining various models including, but not limited to, ferromagnetic and spin-glass Ising, and Ising gauge type theories on hypercubic lattices in 1< D <9 dimensions.

  12. The Structure of Lombricine Kinase: Implications for Phosphagen Conformational Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, D. Jeffrey; Kirillova, Olga; Clark, Shawn A.; Davulcu, Omar; Fabiola, Felcy; Xie, Qing; Somasundaram, Thayumanasamy; Ellington, W. Ross; Chapman, Michael S. (Oregon HSU); (FSU)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Lombricine kinase is a member of the phosphagen kinase family and a homolog of creatine and arginine kinases, enzymes responsible for buffering cellular ATP levels. Structures of lombricine kinase from the marine worm Urechis caupo were determined by x-ray crystallography. One form was crystallized as a nucleotide complex, and the other was substrate-free. The two structures are similar to each other and more similar to the substrate-free forms of homologs than to the substrate-bound forms of the other phosphagen kinases. Active site specificity loop 309-317, which is disordered in substrate-free structures of homologs and is known from the NMR of arginine kinase to be inherently dynamic, is resolved in both lombricine kinase structures, providing an improved basis for understanding the loop dynamics. Phosphagen kinases undergo a segmented closing on substrate binding, but the lombricine kinase ADP complex is in the open form more typical of substrate-free homologs. Through a comparison with prior complexes of intermediate structure, a correlation was revealed between the overall enzyme conformation and the substrate interactions of His{sup 178}. Comparative modeling provides a rationale for the more relaxed specificity of these kinases, of which the natural substrates are among the largest of the phosphagen substrates.

  13. Revisiting the conformal invariance of the scalar field: from Minkowski space to de Sitter space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Huguet; J. Queva; J. Renaud

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we clarify the link between the conformal (i.e. Weyl) correspondence from the Minkowski space to the de Sitter space and the conformal (i.e. SO(2,$d$)) invariance of the conformal scalar field on both spaces. We exhibit the realization on de Sitter space of the massless scalar representation of SO$(2,d)$. It is obtained from the corresponding representation in Minkowski space through an intertwining operator inherited from the Weyl relation between the two spaces. The de Sitter representation is written in a form which allows one to take the point of view of a Minkowskian observer who sees the effect of curvature through additional terms.

  14. Coupling sequencing by hybridization (SBH) with gel sequencing for an inexpensive analysis of genes and genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drmanac, S.; Labat, I.; Hauser, B.; Drmanac, R.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The speed and cost of DNA sequencing are bottlenecks in the analysis of genes end genomes. Sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is a versatile method with several applications which can accelerated DNA screening, mapping and sequencing. Requirements, achievements and problems in the development of the SBH format 1 (DNA samples arrayed) are presented and schemes for its synergetic coupling with gel sequencing techniques are discussed. It appears that by one hybridization machine with 24 boxes and four ABI gel sequencers 100- 300 Mb of DNA sequence can be determined per year. Various genetic studies based on computer assisted analysis of large collections of partial or complete DNA sequences (`sequenetics`) may be achieved in this century.

  15. Self-assembly and cooperative dynamics of a model colloidal gel network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jader Colombo; Emanuela Del Gado

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the assembly into a gel network of colloidal particles, via effective interactions that yield local rigidity and make dilute network structures mechanically stable. The self-assembly process can be described by a Flory-Huggins theory, until a network of chains forms, whose mesh size is on the order of, or smaller than, the persistence length of the chains. The localization of the particles in the network, akin to some extent to caging in dense glasses, is determined by the network topology, and the network restructuring, which takes place via bond breaking and recombination, is characterized by highly cooperative dynamics. We use NVE and NVT Molecular Dynamics as well as Langevin Dynamics and find a qualitatively similar time dependence of time correlations and of the dynamical susceptibility of the restructuring gel. This confirms that the cooperative dynamics emerge from the mesoscale organization of the network.

  16. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  17. Immobilizing tyrosinase within chitosan gels: A combination catalyst and sorbent for phenol removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei-Qiang; Payne, G.F. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenols are common contaminants in chemical process effluents. To remove we developed a two step bioremediation approach in which an these contaminants, we developed a two step bioremediation approach in which an enzymatic reaction was coupled with absorption. In the first step, weakly adsorbable phenols are converted to reactive o-quinones by the enzyme tyrosinase. The quinones are then strongly adsorbed onto the surface of a chitosan sorbent in the second steel. Our results show that this two step approach can selectively and efficiently remove phenols from solution. To reduce this approach into practice, we immobilized the tyrosinase within a chitosan gel yielding a combined catalyst-sorbent film. Using this tyrosinase-containing chitosan gel, phenols (i.e. phenol, cresol and catechol) can be completely removed from solution.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Don W. Green; Stan McCool; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the research are to improve the effectiveness of polymer gels to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes and to reduce water production in production wells. The research is based on experimental data and conceptual and mathematical models developed from interpretation of experimental data. This report describes two types of mathematical models that were developed. One model type simulates the chemical reactions where polymer molecules are crosslinked to form a 3-dimensional network or gel. The model is based on statistical probabilities of reactions and yields molecular weights averages and distributions as functions of conversion. The second model type simulates the transport of chromium acetate, a common polymer crosslinker, through porous dolomite rock and includes the mechanisms of dolomite dissolution and chromium precipitation. The chromium transport model reasonably agreed with experimental data.

  19. Development of novel sol-gel indicators (SGI`s) for in-situ environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R.R.; Wicks, G.G.; Baylor, L.C.; Whitaker, M.J.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic indicator molecules have been incorporated in a porous sol- gel matrix coated on the end of a fiber-optic lens assembly to create sensors for in situ environmental measurements. Probes have been made that are sensitive to pH and uranyl concentration. The use of fiber optics allows the probe to be lowered into a well or bore hole, while support equipment such as a spectrophotometer and computer may be situated hundreds of meters away.

  20. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Manning, M. [Formerly AEA Technology, Building 220, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Chambers, A. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.