National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for initiator conformance gel

  1. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types of chemical/ water buffers before and after the SPI mix ensured that pre-gelled SPI mix got out into the formation before setting into a gel. SPI gels were found to be 3 to 10 times stronger than any commercially available cross-linked polyacrylamide gels based on Penetrometer and Bulk Gel Shear Testing. Because of SPI’s unique chemistry with CO{sub 2}, both laboratory and later field tests demonstrated that multiple, smaller volume SPI treatments maybe more effective than one single large SPI treatment. CO{sub 2} injectivities in injection well in both fields were reduced by 33 to 70% indicating that injected CO{sub 2} is now going into new zones. This reduction has lasted 1+ year in Field A. Oil production increased and CO{sub 2} production decreased in 5 Field A production wells, offsets to Well #1 injector, for a total of about 2,250 m{sup 3} (600,000 gallons/ 14,250 bbls) of incremental oil production- a $140 / SPI bbl return. Treated marginal production well, Field A Well #2, immediately began showing increased oil production totaling 238 m{sup 3} (63,000 gallons/ 1500 BBLs) over 1 year and an immediate 81% reduced gas-oil ratio.

  2. Photo-initiated cross-linked polyacrylamide gels for microdevice electrophoresis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Shilpa

    2005-08-29

    initiators (e.g. ammonium persulfate/ Tetramethylethylenediamine) in order to determine the polymerization conditions necessary for optimum performance....

  3. Conformations Conformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Wolfgang

    (possibly biased towards certain multiples of 30 or 60 degrees). 4. Energy minimize the resulting conformation in dihedral angle space; that is, minimize energy by rotating bonds without changing bond lengths); the sign is determined randomly. 6. Minimize energy in Cartesian coordinates until the RMS gradient

  4. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshua B. Bostwick; Karen E. Daniels

    2013-10-16

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material, and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  5. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Callan-Jones; R. Voituriez

    2013-02-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  6. Conformable seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neef, W.S.; Lambert, D.R.

    1982-08-10

    Sealing apparatus and method, comprising first and second surfaces or membranes, at least one of which surfaces is deformable, placed in proximity to one another. Urging means cause these surfaces to contact one another in a manner such that the deformable surface deforms to conform to the geometry of the other surface, thereby creating a seal. The seal is capable of undergoing multiple cycles of sealing and unsealing.

  7. Fake conformal symmetry in conformal cosmological models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pi, So-Young

    We examine the local conformal invariance (Weyl invariance) in tensor-scalar theories used in recently proposed conformal cosmological models. We show that the Noether currents associated with Weyl invariance in these ...

  8. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of hydrocarbon combustion for energy, chemical and fertilizer plants. For example, coal fired power plants emit large amounts of CO{sub 2} in order to produce electrical energy. Carbon dioxide sequestration is gaining attention as concerns mount over possible global climate change caused by rising emissions of greenhouse gases. Removing the CO{sub 2} from the energy generation process would make these plants more environmentally friendly. In addition, CO{sub 2} flooding is an attractive means to enhance oil and natural gas recovery. Capture and use of the CO{sub 2} from these plants for recycling into CO{sub 2} flooding of marginal reservoirs provides a “dual use” opportunity prior to final CO{sub 2} sequestration in the depleted reservoir. Under the right pressure, temperature and oil composition conditions, CO{sub 2} can act as a solvent, cleaning oil trapped in the microscopic pores of the reservoir rock. This miscible process greatly increases the recovery of crude oil from a reservoir compared to recovery normally seen by waterflooding. An Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) project that uses an industrial source of CO{sub 2} that otherwise would be vented to the atmosphere has the added environmental benefit of sequestering the greenhouse gas.

  9. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adolf, Douglas B. (Albuquerque, NM); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Segalman, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Witkowski, Walter R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots.

  10. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  11. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  12. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  13. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petruska, Melissa A. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2012-06-12

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites

  14. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, David Glenn (Tucson, AZ); Pollard, John Randolph (Tucson, AZ); Brooks, Robert Aubrey (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  15. A conjugated polymer plastic gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We present a gel route to process highly oriented conjugated polymer films and fibers. The incorporation of hexafluoroisopropanol, a strong and stable dipolar group, to the polythiophene backbone enhances the solubility ...

  16. Formaldehyde RNA Gel Wear gloves.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    29 Formaldehyde RNA Gel · Wear gloves. · Use tips and tubes that are RNase-free and reserved dH20 74 ml 55.5 222 1% Agarose 1 g 0.75 g 3 g 10X MOPS 10 ml 7.5 ml 30 ml 37% Formaldehyde 16 ml 12. C. Add 37% Formaldehyde (Fisher, ACS grade, 12.3M, final concentration = 2M) D. Pour gel and allow

  17. Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Marc W.

    Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide Version B January 27, 2003 IM-1002 Novex® Pre-Cast Gel Electrophoresis Guide General information and protocols for using Novex® pre-cast gels www.invitrogen.com tech.....................................................................................................................1 Novex® Pre-Cast Gels

  18. Dilaton: Saving Conformal Symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederic Gretsch; Alexander Monin

    2013-08-18

    The characteristic feature of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is the presence of the Goldstone mode(s). For the conformal symmetry broken spontaneously the corresponding Goldstone boson is the dilaton. Coupling an arbitrary system to the dilaton in a consistent (with quantum corrections) way has certain difficulties due to the trace anomaly. In this paper we present the approach allowing for an arbitrary system without the gravitational anomaly to keep the dilaton massless at all orders in perturbation theory, i.e. to build a theory with conformal symmetry broken spontaneously.

  19. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhia, Brian D. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  20. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  1. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity Mikhail Lapine1,2 , Ilya V. Shadrivov1,2 , David A development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer

  2. Nonlinear conformation of secondary protein folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Januar, M; Handoko, L T

    2012-01-01

    A model to describe the mechanism of conformational dynamics in secondary protein based on matter interactions is proposed. The approach deploys the lagrangian method by imposing certain symmetry breaking. The protein backbone is initially assumed to be nonlinear and represented by the Sine-Gordon equation, while the nonlinear external bosonic sources is represented by $\\phi^4$ interaction. It is argued that the nonlinear source induces the folding pathway in a different way than the previous work with initially linear backbone. Also, the nonlinearity of protein backbone decreases the folding speed.

  3. Characterization of Sol-gel Encapsulated Proteins using Small-angle Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Guangming [ORNL; Zhang, Qiu [ORNL; Del Castillo, Alexis Rae [ORNL; Urban, Volker S [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Entrapment of biomolecules in silica-derived sol-gels has grown into a vibrant area of research since it was originally demonstrated. However, accessing the consequences of entrapment on biomolecules and the gel structure remains a major challenge in characterizing these biohybrid materials. We present the first demonstration that it is possible with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to study the conformation of dilute proteins that are entrapped in transparent and dense sol-gels. Using deuterium-labeled green fluorescent protein (GFP) and SANS with contrast variation, we demonstrate that the scattering signatures of the sol-gel and the protein can be separated. Analysis of the scattering curves of the sol-gels using a mass-fractal model shows that the size of the colloidal silica particles and the fractal dimensions of the gels were similar in the absence and presence of protein, demonstrating that GFP did not influence the reaction pathway for the formation of the gel. The major structural difference in the gels was that the pore size was increased 2-fold in the presence of the protein. At the contrast match point for silica, the scattering signal from GFP inside the gel became distinguishable over a wide q range. Simulated scattering curves representing a monomer, end-to-end dimer, and parallel dimer of the protein were calculated and compared to the experimental data. Our results show that the most likely structure of GFP is that of an end-to-end dimer. This approach can be readily applied and holds great potential for the structural characterization of complex biohybrid and other materials.

  4. Mechanical response of active gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. B. Liverpool; M. C. Marchetti; J. -F. Joanny; J. Prost

    2008-07-18

    We study a model of an active gel of cross-linked semiflexible filaments with additional active linkers such as myosin II clusters. We show that the coupling of the elasticity of the semiflexible filaments to the mechanical properties of the motors leads to contractile behavior of the gel, in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. The motors, however, soften the zero frequency elastic constant of the gel. When the collective motor dynamics is incorporated in the model, a stiffening of the network at high frequencies is obtained. The frequency controlling the crossover between low and high frequency network elasticity is estimated in terms of microscopic properties of motors and filaments, and can be as low as 10^(-3)Hz.

  5. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  6. Fusion of conformal interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Bachas; I. Brunner

    2008-03-04

    We study the fusion of conformal interfaces in the c=1 conformal field theory. We uncover an elegant structure reminiscent of that of black holes in supersymmetric theories. The role of the BPS black holes is played by topological interfaces, which (a) minimize the entropy function, (b) fix through an attractor mechanism one or both of the bulk radii, and (c) are (marginally) stable under splitting. One significant difference is that the conserved charges are logarithms of natural numbers, rather than vectors in a charge lattice, as for BPS states. Besides potential applications to condensed-matter physics and number theory, these results point to the existence of large solution-generating algebras in string theory.

  7. Conformations of Organophosphine Oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    De Silva, Nuwan; Zahariev, Federico; Hay, Benjamin P.; Gordon, Mark S.; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-07-29

    The conformations of a series of organophosphine oxides, OP(CH3)2R, where R = methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl, vinyl, and phenyl, are predicted using the MP2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. Comparison of potential energy surfaces for rotation about P–C bonds with crystal structure data reveals a strong correlation between predicted location and energetics of minima and histograms of dihedral angle distributions observed in the solid state. In addition, the most stable conformers are those that minimize the extent of steric repulsion between adjacent rotor substituents, and the torsional barriers tend to increase with the steric bulk of the rotating alkyl group. MM3 forcemore »field parameters were adjusted to fit the MP2 results, providing a fast and accurate model for predicting organophosphine oxides shapes—an essential part of understanding the chemistry of these compounds. The predictive power of the modified MM3 model was tested against MP2/cc-pVTZ conformations for triethylphosphine oxide, OP(CH2CH3)3, and triphenylphosphine oxide, OP(Ph)3.« less

  8. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  9. Commercial applications of block copolymer photonic gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lou, Sally S

    2008-01-01

    Block copolymer photonic gels are a simple and easily processed material which responds rapidly to environmental stimuli through a color change. The diblock copolymer that forms the gel self-assembles into a lamellar ...

  10. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  11. Fluorography of Gels Using PPO Step Description SDS-PAGE Gel Agarose Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    with plastic film, and place against pre-flashed film at -70°C. *DMSO may be re-used 10 times. Make hash platform. Use rotating platform. Use glass dish with glass top. Use glass dish with glass top. 1 Fixation solution. #AcCOOH is not re-used. Use a minimum volume (enough to cover gel). Discard after use. PPO stocks

  12. Eikonalization of Conformal Blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan; Matthew T. Walters; Junpu Wang

    2015-09-10

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the `eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator $T$ appears in the OPE $\\mathcal{O}(x) \\mathcal{O}(0)$, then the large spin $\\ell$ Fock space states $[TT \\cdots T]_{\\ell}$ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an $\\langle \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\rangle$ correlator build the classical `$T$ field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single $T$ exchange in the 4-pt correlator of $\\mathcal{O}$. Our results should be useful for systematizing $1/\\ell$ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading $\\log \\ell$ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest `triple-trace' operators.

  13. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE ?(x)?(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]? also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fockmore »space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/? perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ? dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  14. Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, N.L.

    1983-11-10

    Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

  15. Sol-Gel Deposited Electrochromic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozer, N.

    2010-01-01

    layer, (3) solid electrolyte or ion conductor, (4) ionof inorganic type solid electrolytes [20,21]. An all sol-gel

  16. Technique for converting non-conforming hexahedral-to-hexahedral interfaces into conforming interfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staten, Matthew L.; Shepherd, Jason F.; Ledoux, Frank; Shimada, Kenji; Merkley, Karl G.; Carbonera, Carlos

    2013-03-05

    A technique for conforming an interface between a first mesh and a second mesh is disclosed. A first interface surface in the first mesh and a second interface surface in the second mesh residing along the interface are identified. The first and second interface surfaces are initially non-conforming along the interface. Chords within the first and second interface surfaces that fall within a threshold separation distance of each other are paired. Sheets having chords that reside within the first or second interface surfaces are recursively inserted into or extracted from one or both of the first and second meshes until all remaining chords within the first interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the second interface surface and all remaining chords within the second interface surface are paired with corresponding chords in the first interface surface.

  17. Hunting for the Conformal Window

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Deuzeman; M. P. Lombardo; E. Pallante

    2008-10-17

    Undeniably, the imminent activity of LHC and the quest for the nature of physics beyond the standard model have raised renewed interest in the conformal and quasi-conformal behaviour of gauge field theories with matter content. Theoretically driven questions seem to now acquire a strong experimental appeal and might guide us towards a more realistic string theory to field theory connection, originally inspired by the AdS/CFT conjecture. In this brief report, we discuss the state of the art of our search for the conformal window in the SU(3) colour-gauge theory with fermions in the fundamental representation.

  18. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Shan-Yan [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)] [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Fu-Feng, E-mail: fufengliu@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan, E-mail: fufengliu@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China) [Department of Biochemical Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-12-14

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through ?-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  19. Einstein Gravity from Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Maldacena

    2011-06-09

    We show that that four dimensional conformal gravity plus a simple Neumann boundary condition can be used to get the semiclassical (or tree level) wavefunction of the universe of four dimensional asymptotically de-Sitter or Euclidean anti-de Sitter spacetimes. This simple Neumann boundary condition selects the Einstein solution out of the more numerous solutions of conformal gravity. It thus removes the ghosts of conformal gravity from this computation. In the case of a five dimensional pure gravity theory with a positive cosmological constant we show that the late time superhorizon tree level probability measure, $|\\Psi [ g ]|^2$, for its four dimensional spatial slices is given by the action of Euclidean four dimensional conformal gravity.

  20. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T; Schaich, David A

    2011-09-01

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  1. Nonlinear Elasticity in Biological Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornelis Storm; Jennifer J. Pastore; Fred C. MacKintosh; Tom C. Lubensky; Paul A. Janmey

    2004-06-01

    Unlike most synthetic materials, biological materials often stiffen as they are deformed. This nonlinear elastic response, critical for the physiological function of some tissues, has been documented since at least the 19th century, but the molecular structure and the design principles responsible for it are unknown. Current models for this response require geometrically complex ordered structures unique to each material. In this Article we show that a much simpler molecular theory accounts for strain stiffening in a wide range of molecularly distinct biopolymer gels formed from purified cytoskeletal and extracellular proteins. This theory shows that systems of semi-flexible chains such as filamentous proteins arranged in an open crosslinked meshwork invariably stiffen at low strains without the need for a specific architecture or multiple elements with different intrinsic stiffnesses.

  2. Conformal Gauge Transformations in Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bravetti; C. S. Lopez-Monsalvo; F. Nettel

    2015-06-23

    In this work we consider conformal gauge transformations of the geometric structure of thermodynamic fluctuation theory. In particular, we show that the Thermodynamic Phase Space is naturally endowed with a non-integrable connection, defined by all those processes that annihilate the Gibbs 1-form, i.e. reversible processes. Therefore the geometry of reversible processes is invariant under re-scalings, that is, it has a conformal gauge freedom. Interestingly, as a consequence of the non-integrability of the connection, its curvature is not invariant under conformal gauge transformations and, therefore, neither is the associated pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We argue that this is not surprising, since these two objects are associated with irreversible processes. Moreover, we provide the explicit form in which all the elements of the geometric structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space change under a conformal gauge transformation. As an example, we revisit the change of the thermodynamic representation and consider the resulting change between the two metrics on the Thermodynamic Phase Space which induce Weinhold's energy metric and Ruppeiner's entropy metric. As a by-product we obtain a proof of the well-known conformal relation between Weinhold's and Ruppeiner's metrics along the equilibrium directions. Finally, we find interesting properties of the almost para-contact structure and of its eigenvectors which may be of physical interest.

  3. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Swansiger, Rosalind W. (Livermore, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  4. Sol-gel manufactured energetic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2003-12-23

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  5. Normal force controlled rheology for thermoreversible gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosi Mao; Thibaut Divoux; Patrick Snabre

    2015-08-07

    A wide range of thermoreversible gels are prepared by cooling down to ambient temperature hot aqueous solutions of polymers. During the sol-gel transition, such soft solids may experience a volume contraction leading to experimental issues regarding rheological measurements such as the stress-induced release of solvent, and the partial loss of contact between the sample and the shear cell. In this article, we revisit the formation of thermoreversible gels through a series of benchmark experiments conducted on agar gels in a plate-plate geometry. Monitoring the gelation with a constant gap results in an artificial drift of the gel elastic modulus $G'$ because of the sample contraction. We show that maintaining a constant normal force equals to zero instead of a constant gap allows $G'$ to reach a plateau as the gap variation compensates the sample contraction. The latter method provides a way to measure more reliably the gel linear properties with either rough or smooth boundary conditions, and allows us to quantify the sample contraction. Furthermore, we also unravel two subtle artifacts associated with metallic boundary conditions that may impact rheological measurements during the early stage of the gelation. We show that the slow oxidation of the plate by the solution and/or the presence of an oil layer around the sample, that is traditionally used to prevent evaporation, may both lead to a premature and artificial growth of $G'$ which should not be misinterpreted as the formation of a pre-gel. Finally, we illustrate the relevance of the controlled normal force protocol, by investigating the influence of thermal history on the mechanical properties of agar gels. Our work offers an extensive review of the artifacts associated with the rheology of thermoreversible gels and paves the way for a more systematic use of normal force controlled rheology.

  6. Application of Polymer Gels as Conformance Control Agents for Carbon Dioxide for Floods in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Ali, Ali 1986-

    2012-10-15

    ) .................................................... 203 Fig. 4.110 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.111 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 3 PV of CO2 (CGI) .. 203 Fig. 4.112 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core (CGI-Fracked...) ...................................... 204 Fig. 4.113 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after Flooded with 1 PV of CO2 (CGI- Fracked) .................................................................................................. 204 Fig. 4.114 ? CT Image of Oil Saturated Core after...

  7. Mechanical Properties of Gels; Stress from Confined Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Scherer

    2009-12-01

    Abstract for Grant DE-FG02-97ER45642 Period: 1997-2002 Mechanical Properties of Gels 2002-2008 Stress from Confined Fluids Principal investigator: Prof. George W. Scherer Dept. Civil & Env. Eng./PRISM Eng. Quad. E-319 Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Recipient organization: Trustees of Princeton University 4 New South Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Abstract: The initial stage of this project, entitled Mechanical Properties of Gels, was dedicated to characterizing and explaining the properties of inorganic gels. Such materials, made by sol-gel processing, are of interest for fabrication of films, fibers, optical devices, advanced insulation and other uses. However, their poor mechanical properties are an impediment in some applications, so understanding the origin of these properties could lead to enhanced performance. Novel experimental methods were developed and applied to measure the stiffness and permeability of gels and aerogels. Numerical simulations were developed to reproduce the growth process of the gels, resulting in structures whose mechanical properties matched the measurements. The models showed that the gels are formed by the growth of relatively robust clusters of molecules that are joined by tenuous links whose compliance compromises the stiffness of the structure. Therefore, synthetic methods that enhance the links could significantly increase the rigidity of such gels. The next stage of the project focused on Stress from Confined Fluids. The first problem of interest was the enhanced thermal expansion coefficient of water that we measured in the nanometric pores of cement paste. This could have a deleterious effect on the resistance of concrete to rapid heating in fires, because the excessive thermal expansion of water in the pores of the concrete could lead to spalling and collapse. A series of experiments demonstrated that the expansion of water increases as the pore size decreases. To explain this behavior, we undertook a collaboration with Prof. Stephen Garofalini (Rutgers), who has developed the best simulations of water ever reported by use of molecular dynamics. Simulated heating of water in small pores provided quantitative agreement with experiments, and showed that the origin of the high expansion is the altered structure of water in the first two molecular layers adjacent to the pore wall. The final focus of the project was to understand the damage done by crystals growing in small pores. For example, the primary cause of damage to ancient monuments in the Mediterranean Basin is growth of salt crystals in the pores of the stone. Salt may enter stone as a result of capillary rise of groundwater, by leaching of mortar joints, deposition of marine spray, or reactions with atmospheric pollutants (such as oxides of nitrogen or sulfur). As the water evaporates, the salt solution becomes supersaturated and crystals precipitate. Stress results, because the salt usually repels the minerals in the pore walls. Our goal was to identify the factors contributing to the repulsion, so that we could develop a chemical treatment to reduce the repulsion and hence the stress. (We have recently demonstrated an effective treatment as part of a separately funded study.) In collaboration with Prof. Garofalini, molecular dynamics simulations have been done that correctly reproduce the structure of water around dissolved ions of sodium and chloride. We simulated the interaction between crystals of sodium chloride and quartz, and found that this particular system exhibits attractive forces, in agreement with experiment. The origin of the attraction is the orientation of dipolar water molecules near the surfaces of the crystals. Similar calculations now must be done in systems, such as potassium chloride and quartz, where the interaction is repulsive. This grant supported the education of two doctoral students, Hang-Shing Ma (Ph.D., 2002) and Melanie Webb (Ph.D. expected 2010), three post-doctoral researchers, Joachim Gross, Gudrun Reichenauer, and Shuangyan (Sonia) Xu, and five undergraduates (for senior theses or independent projects

  8. Hybrid black-hole binary initial data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno C. Mundim; Bernard J. Kelly; Yosef Zlochower; Hiroyuki Nakano; Manuela Campanelli

    2010-12-04

    Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class.Quant.Grav.27:114005,2010], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculation was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features.

  9. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, C.S.; Reed, S.T.

    1988-01-26

    An antireflection film made from reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  10. Sol-gel antireflective coating on plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    An antireflection film made from a reliquified sol-gel hydrolyzation, condensation polymeric reaction product of a silicon, alkoxides and/or metal alkoxides, or mixtures thereof. The film is particularly useful for coating plastics.

  11. Sample collection system for gel electrophoresis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olivares, Jose A.; Stark, Peter C.; Dunbar, John M.; Hill, Karen K.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Roybal, Gustavo

    2004-09-21

    An automatic sample collection system for use with an electrophoretic slab gel system is presented. The collection system can be used with a slab gel have one or more lanes. A detector is used to detect particle bands on the slab gel within a detection zone. Such detectors may use a laser to excite fluorescently labeled particles. The fluorescent light emitted from the excited particles is transmitted to low-level light detection electronics. Upon the detection of a particle of interest within the detection zone, a syringe pump is activated, sending a stream of buffer solution across the lane of the slab gel. The buffer solution collects the sample of interest and carries it through a collection port into a sample collection vial.

  12. Annular gel reactor for chemical pattern formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nosticzius, Zoltan (Budapest, HU); Horsthemke, Werner (Austin, TX); McCormick, William D. (Austin, TX); Swinney, Harry L. (Austin, TX); Tam, Wing Y. (Austin, TX)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an annular gel reactor suitable for the production and observation of spatiotemporal patterns created during a chemical reaction. The apparatus comprises a vessel having at least a first and second chamber separated one from the other by an annular polymer gel layer (or other fine porous medium) which is inert to the materials to be reacted but capable of allowing diffusion of the chemicals into it.

  13. Random Curves by Conformal Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Astala; P. Jones; A. Kupiainen; E. Saksman

    2009-12-17

    We construct a conformally invariant random family of closed curves in the plane by welding of random homeomorphisms of the unit circle given in terms of the exponential of Gaussian Free Field. We conjecture that our curves are locally related to SLE$(\\kappa)$ for $\\kappa<4$.

  14. Random Curves by Conformal Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astala, K; Kupiainen, A; Saksman, E

    2009-01-01

    We construct a conformally invariant random family of closed curves in the plane by welding of random homeomorphisms of the unit circle given in terms of the exponential of Gaussian Free Field. We conjecture that our curves are locally related to SLE$(\\kappa)$ for $\\kappa<4$.

  15. NISTIR 7771 Conformance Test Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by providing technical leadership for the Nation's measurement and standards infrastructure. ITL develops tests of technical, physical, administrative, and management standards and guidelines for the cost-effective security in the standards. Conformance testing captures the technical description of a specification and measures whether

  16. SCB initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  17. SCB initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Renlund, Anita M. (Albuquerque, NM); Stanton, Philip L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  18. Tantalum-Tungsten Oxide Thermite Composite Prepared by Sol-Gel Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervantes, O; Kuntz, J; Gash, A; Munir, Z

    2009-02-13

    Energetic composite powders consisting of sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide were produced with various amounts of micrometer-scale tantalum fuel metal. Such energetic composite powders were ignition tested and results show that the powders are not sensitive to friction, spark and/or impact ignition. Initial consolidation experiments, using the High Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HPSPS) technique, on the sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide produced samples with higher relative density than can be achieved with commercially available tungsten oxide. The sol-gel derived nanostructured tungsten oxide with immobilized tantalum fuel metal (Ta - WO{sub 3}) energetic composite was consolidated to a density of 9.17 g.cm{sup -3} or 93% relative density. In addition those parts were consolidated without significant pre-reaction of the constituents, thus the sample retained its stored chemical energy.

  19. Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational Preference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Ionization Spectroscopy of Conformational Isomers of Propanal: The Origin of the Conformational conformational isomers of propanal, cis and gauche, are investigated by the vacuum-UV mass- analyzed thresholdV and 9.9516 ( 0.0006 eV, respectively. cis-Propanal, which is the more stable conformer in the neutral

  20. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  1. Characterization of gels prepared from silicon ethoxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Su-Jin

    1990-01-01

    by heating to a high temperature, with low heating rates. Tg and Tc were correlated to water gt alcohol contents in presence of HCI or HF. Aerogels were found to have high pore volume, low bulk density, large pore size, and weak mechanical strength.... Structures of dried gels 2. 3, Densification 13 14 15 19 19 CHAPTER III 3. 1. Raw materials 3. 2. Xerogel preparation 3. 3. Aerogel preparation 3. 4. Characterization of dried gels 3, 4. 1. Mercury porosimetry 3. 4. 2. BET analysis 3. 4, 3...

  2. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  3. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, J.M.

    1993-04-20

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  4. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.

  5. Black Hole Initial Data with a Horizon of Prescribed Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Smith

    2007-10-04

    The purpose of this work is to construct asymptotically flat, time symmetric initial data with an apparent horizon of prescribed intrinsic geometry. To do this, we use the parabolic partial differential equation for prescribing scalar curvature. In this equation the horizon geometry is contained within the freely specifiable part of the metric. This contrasts with the conformal method in which the geometry of the horizon can only be specified up to a conformal factor.

  6. Dna electrophoresis in photopolymerized polyacrylamide gels on a microfluidic device 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lo, Chih-Cheng

    2009-05-15

    -throughput DNA gel electrophoresis. However, further progress toward dramatic improvements of separation performance over ultra-short distances requires a much more detailed understanding of the physics of DNA migration in the sieving gel matrix than is currently...

  7. Electroluminescence in ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, Shrivalli

    2011-07-12

    This thesis reports the light emission in ion gel gated, thin film organic semiconductor transistors and investigates the light emission mechanism behind these devices. We report that ion gel gated organic polymer semiconductor transistors emit...

  8. Physics of liquid crystals embedded in silica gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sungil, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) embedded in silica aerosil gels have been studied by means of high resolution X-ray scattering experiments. The silica particles form a hydrogen-bonded fractal gel network that introduces quenched ...

  9. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  10. Gel bead composition for metal adsorption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Woodward, Charlene A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a gel bead comprising propylene glycol alginate and bone gelatin and is capable of removing metals such as Sr and Cs from solution without adding other adsorbents. The invention could have application to the nuclear industry's waste removal activities.

  11. Encapsulation of nanoclusters in dried gel materials via an inverse micelle/sol gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, A.; Yamanaka, S.A.; Kawola, J.S.; Showalter, S.K.; Loy, D.A.

    1998-09-29

    A dried gel material sterically entrapping nanoclusters of a catalytically active material and a process to make the material via an inverse micelle/sol-gel synthesis are disclosed. A surfactant is mixed with an apolar solvent to form an inverse micelle solution. A salt of a catalytically active material, such as gold chloride, is added along with a silica gel precursor to the solution to form a mixture. To the mixture are then added a reducing agent for the purpose of reducing the gold in the gold chloride to atomic gold to form the nanoclusters and a condensing agent to form the gel which sterically entraps the nanoclusters. The nanoclusters are normally in the average size range of from 5--10 nm in diameter with a monodisperse size distribution. 1 fig.

  12. Encapsulation of nanoclusters in dried gel materials via an inverse micelle/sol gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM); Yamanaka, Stacey A. (Dallas, TX); Kawola, Jeffrey S. (Albuquerque, NM); Showalter, Steven K. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A dried gel material sterically entrapping nanoclusters of a catalytically active material and a process to make the material via an inverse micelle/sol-gel synthesis. A surfactant is mixed with an apolar solvent to form an inverse micelle solution. A salt of a catalytically active material, such as gold chloride, is added along with a silica gel precursor to the solution to form a mixture. To the mixture are then added a reducing agent for the purpose of reducing the gold in the gold chloride to atomic gold to form the nanoclusters and a condensing agent to form the gel which sterically entraps the nanoclusters. The nanoclusters are normally in the average size range of from 5-10 nm in diameter with a monodisperse size distribution.

  13. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA)

    2007-10-23

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  14. Metal-doped organic gels and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2003-09-02

    Disclosed herein is a sol-gel polymerization process for synthesizing metal-doped organic gels. The process polymerizes metal salts of hydroxylated benzenes or hydroxylated benzene derivatives with alkyl or aryl aldehydes to form metal-doped, wet, organic gels. The gels can then be dried by supercritical solvent extraction to form metal-doped aerogels or by evaporation to form metal-doped xerogels. The aerogels and xerogels can then be pyrolyzed.

  15. Gel-forming reagents and uses thereof for preparing microarrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golova, Julia (Burr Ridge, IL); Chernov, Boris (Burr Ridge, IL); Perov, Alexander (Woodridge, IL)

    2010-11-09

    New gel-forming reagents including monomers and cross-linkers, which can be applied to gel-drop microarray manufacturing by using co-polymerization approaches are disclosed. Compositions for the preparation of co-polymerization mixtures with new gel-forming monomers and cross-linker reagents are described herein. New co-polymerization compositions and cross-linkers with variable length linker groups between unsaturated C.dbd.C bonds that participate in the formation of gel networks are disclosed.

  16. Conformal Lifshitz Gravity from Holography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Griffin; Petr Horava; Charles M. Melby-Thompson

    2012-04-03

    We show that holographic renormalization of relativistic gravity in asymptotically Lifshitz spacetimes naturally reproduces the structure of gravity with anisotropic scaling: The holographic counterterms induced near anisotropic infinity take the form of the action for gravity at a Lifshitz point, with the appropriate value of the dynamical critical exponent $z$. In the particular case of 3+1 bulk dimensions and $z=2$ asymptotic scaling near infinity, we find a logarithmic counterterm, related to anisotropic Weyl anomaly of the dual CFT, and show that this counterterm reproduces precisely the action of conformal gravity at a $z=2$ Lifshitz point in 2+1 dimensions, which enjoys anisotropic local Weyl invariance and satisfies the detailed balance condition. We explain how the detailed balance is a consequence of relations among holographic counterterms, and point out that a similar relation holds in the relativistic case of holography in $AdS_5$. Upon analytic continuation, analogous to the relativistic case studied recently by Maldacena, the action of conformal gravity at the $z=2$ Lifshitz point features in the ground-state wavefunction of a gravitational system with an interesting type of spatial anisotropy.

  17. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  18. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous cerium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L; Chi, Anthony

    2013-05-07

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous cerium oxide gels contain a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous cerium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including cerium, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  19. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous hafnium oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L; Hunt, Rodney D; Montgomery, Frederick C

    2013-08-06

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous hafnium oxide gels contain a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous hafnium oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including hafnium, an acid, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  20. Conformational dynamics data bank: a database for conformational proteins and supramolecular protein assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Do-Nyun

    The conformational dynamics data bank (CDDB, http://www.cdyn.org) is a database that aims to provide comprehensive results on the conformational dynamics of high molecular weight proteins and protein assemblies. Analysis ...

  1. Approaching Conformality with Ten Flavors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Brower, Richard C.; Buchoff, Michael I.; Cheng, Michael; Cohen, Saul D.; Fleming, George T.; Kiskis, Joe; Lin, Meifeng; Na, Heechang; Neil, Ethan T.; Osborn, James C.

    2012-04-01

    We present first results for lattice simulations, on a single volume, of the low-lying spectrum of an SU(3) Yang-Mills gauge theory with N{sub f} = 10 light fermions in the fundamental representation. Fits to the fermion mass dependence of various observables are found to be globally consistent with the hypothesis that this theory is within or just outside the strongly-coupled edge of the conformal window, with mass anomalous dimension {gamma}* {approx} 1 over the range of scales simulated. We stress that we cannot rule out the possibility of spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking at scales well below our infrared cutoff. We discuss important systematic effects, including finite-volume corrections, and consider directions for future improvement.

  2. Conformal Frame Dependence of Inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillem Domènech; Misao Sasaki

    2015-10-15

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case.

  3. Black holes cannot support conformal scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Zannias

    1994-09-14

    It is shown that the only static asymptotically flat non-extrema black hole solution of the Einstein-conformally invariant scalar field equations having the scalar field bounded on the horizon, is the Schwarzschild one. Thus black holes cannot be endowed with conformal scalar hair of finite length.

  4. A SCORM-Conformant LMS Ch. Bouras,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A SCORM-Conformant LMS Ch. Bouras, Computer Engineering and Informatics Dept., Univ. of Patras tsiatsos@cti.gr Abstract: In this paper we propose a sample Learning Management System (LMS) that will be conformant with the SCORM v1.3 Specification. In particular, the sample LMS we propose will make use of both

  5. Conformal nets III: fusion of defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2015-02-21

    Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

  6. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nanoconjugates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pellegrino, T.; Sperling, R. A.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Parak, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gold-DNA conjugates were investigated in detail by a comprehensive gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. A controlled number of single-stranded DNA of different length was attached specifically via thiol-Au bonds to phosphine-stabilized colloidal gold nanoparticles. Alternatively, the surface of the gold particles was saturated with single stranded DNA of different length either specifically via thiol-Au bonds or by nonspecific adsorption. From the experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities, estimates for the effective diameters of the gold-DNA conjugates were derived by applying two different data treatment approaches. The first method is based on making a calibration curve for the relation between effectivemore »diameters and mobilities with gold nanoparticles of known diameter. The second method is based on Ferguson analysis which uses gold nanoparticles of known diameter as reference database. Our study shows that effective diameters derived from gel electrophoresis measurements are affected with a high error bar as the determined values strongly depend on the method of evaluation, though relative changes in size upon binding of molecules can be detected with high precision. Furthermore, in this study, the specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds to Au nanoparticles is compared to nonspecific adsorption of DNA. Also, the maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined.« less

  7. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Bhatia, Rimple (Albuquerque, NM); Singh, Anup K. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  8. Initial data for rotating cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Bizo?; Stefan Pletka; Walter Simon

    2015-08-28

    We revisit the construction of maximal initial data on compact manifolds in vacuum with positive cosmological constant via the conformal method. We discuss, extend and apply recent results of Hebey et al. [19] and Premoselli [31] which yield existence, non-existence, (non-)uniqueness and (linearisation-) stability of solutions of the Lichnerowicz equation, depending on its coefficients. We then focus on so-called $(t,\\phi)$-symmetric data as "seed manifolds", and in particular on Bowen-York data on the round hypertorus $\\mathbb{S}^2 \\times \\mathbb{S}$ (a slice of Nariai) and on Kerr-deSitter. In the former case, we clarify the bifurcation structure of the axially symmetric solutions of the Lichnerowicz equation in terms of the angular momentum as bifurcation parameter, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. As to the latter example, we show how dynamical data can be constructed in a natural way via conformal rescalings of Kerr-deSitter data.

  9. Initial data for rotating cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Bizo?; Stefan Pletka; Walter Simon

    2015-06-09

    We revisit the construction of maximal initial data on compact manifolds in vacuum with positive cosmological constant via the conformal method. We discuss, extend and apply recent results of Hebey et al. [19] and Premoselli [31] which yield existence, non-existence, (non-)uniqueness and (linearisation-) stability of solutions of the Lichnerowicz equation, depending on its coefficients. We then focus on so-called $(t,\\phi)$-symmetric data as "seed manifolds", and in particular on Bowen-York data on the round hypertorus $\\mathbb{S}^2 \\times \\mathbb{S}$ (a slice of Nariai) and on Kerr-deSitter. In the former case, we clarify the bifurcation structure of the axially symmetric solutions of the Lichnerowicz equation in terms of the angular momentum as bifurcation parameter, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. As to the latter example, we show how dynamical data can be constructed in a natural way via conformal rescalings of Kerr-deSitter data.

  10. Calculation of conformational transitions and barriers in solvated systems: Application to the alanine dipeptide in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Amedeo

    1998; accepted 19 October 1998 Optimal free energy paths OFEPs for conformational transitions are parallel to the mean force at every nonstationary point of the free energy landscape. In contrast are preferred. This result can be explained by the structure of the free energy landscape around the initial

  11. Stochastic Conformational Roadmaps for Computing Ensemble Properties of Molecular Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latombe, Jean-Claude

    Stochastic Conformational Roadmaps for Computing Ensemble Properties of Molecular Motion Mehmet intuition behind probabilistic roadmap planners for motion planning is that many collision-free paths stochas- tic conformational roadmap, whose nodes are randomly sampled molecule conformations. A roadmap

  12. Conformal Partial Waves: Further Mathematical Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolan, F A

    2011-01-01

    Further results for conformal partial waves for four point functions for conformal primary scalar fields in conformally invariant theories are obtained. They are defined as eigenfunctions of the differential Casimir operators for the conformal group acting on two variable functions subject to appropriate boundary conditions. As well as the scale dimension $\\Delta$ and spin $\\ell$ the conformal partial waves depend on two parameters $a,b$ related to the dimensions of the operators in the four point function. Expressions for the Mellin transform of conformal partial waves are obtained in terms of polynomials of the Mellin transform variables given in terms of finite sums. Differential operators which change $a,b$ by $\\pm 1$, shift the dimension $d$ by $\\pm 2$ and also change $\\Delta,\\ell$ are found. Previous results for $d=2,4,6$ are recovered. The trivial case of $d=1$ and also $d=3$ are also discussed. For $d=3$ formulae for the conformal partial waves in some restricted cases as a single variable integral re...

  13. Dynamics of Conformational Transition in Thermo-Sensitive Polymers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulations elucidating the coil-to-globule conformational changes in thermosensitive polymers. Atomistic simulations elucidating the coil-to-globule conformational changes in...

  14. Matching univalent functions and conformal welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grong, Erlend; Vasil'ev, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Given a conformal mapping $f$ of the unit disk $\\mathbb D$ onto a simply connected domain $D$ in the complex plane bounded by a closed Jordan curve, we consider the problem of constructing a matching conformal mapping, i.e., the mapping of the exterior of the unit disk $\\mathbb D^*$ onto the exterior domain $D^*$ regarding to $D$. The answer is expressed in terms of a linear differential equation with a driving term given as the kernel of an operator dependent on the original mapping $f$. Examples are provided. This study is related to the problem of conformal welding and to representation of the Virasoro algebra in the space of univalent functions.

  15. Matching univalent functions and conformal welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erlend Grong; Pavel Gumenyuk; Alexander Vasil'ev

    2008-06-05

    Given a conformal mapping $f$ of the unit disk $\\mathbb D$ onto a simply connected domain $D$ in the complex plane bounded by a closed Jordan curve, we consider the problem of constructing a matching conformal mapping, i.e., the mapping of the exterior of the unit disk $\\mathbb D^*$ onto the exterior domain $D^*$ regarding to $D$. The answer is expressed in terms of a linear differential equation with a driving term given as the kernel of an operator dependent on the original mapping $f$. Examples are provided. This study is related to the problem of conformal welding and to representation of the Virasoro algebra in the space of univalent functions.

  16. Static and dynamic properties of a reversible gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pablo I. Hurtado; Pinaki Chaudhuri; Ludovic Berthier; Walter Kob

    2008-11-10

    We study a microscopically realistic model of a physical gel and use computer simulations to investigate its static and dynamic properties at thermal equilibrium. The phase diagram comprises a sol phase, a coexistence region ending at a critical point, a gelation line, and an equilibrium gel phase unrelated to phase separation. The global structure of the gel is homogeneous, but the stress is supported by a fractal network. Gelation results in a dramatic slowing down of the dynamics, which can be used to locate the transition, which otherwise shows no structural signatures. Moreover, the equilibrium gel dynamics is highly heterogeneous as a result of the presence of particle families with different mobilities. An analysis of gel dynamics in terms of mobile and arrested particles allows us to elucidate several differences between the dynamics of equilibrium gels and that of glass-formers.

  17. Hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA); Carrano, Anthony V. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid slab-microchannel gel electrophoresis system. The hybrid system permits the fabrication of isolated microchannels for biomolecule separations without imposing the constraint of a totally sealed system. The hybrid system is reusable and ultimately much simpler and less costly to manufacture than a closed channel plate system. The hybrid system incorporates a microslab portion of the separation medium above the microchannels, thus at least substantially reducing the possibility of non-uniform field distribution and breakdown due to uncontrollable leakage. A microslab of the sieving matrix is built into the system by using plastic spacer materials and is used to uniformly couple the top plate with the bottom microchannel plate.

  18. National Nanotechnology Initiative's Signature Initiative Sustainable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will include manufactured products based on: * Carbon-based nanomaterials * Optical metamaterials * Cellulosic nanomaterials National Nanotechnology Initiative Three requirements...

  19. Conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masafumi Fukuma; Yuho Sakatani

    2012-05-28

    We present a generally covariant formulation of conformal higher-order viscoelastic fluid mechanics with strain allowed to take arbitrarily large values. We give a general prescription to determine the dynamics of a relativistic viscoelastic fluid in a way consistent with the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the second law of thermodynamics. We then elaborately study the transient time scales at which the strain almost relaxes and becomes proportional to the gradients of velocity. We particularly show that a conformal second-order fluid with all possible parameters in the constitutive equations can be obtained without breaking the hypothesis of local thermodynamic equilibrium, if the conformal fluid is defined as the long time limit of a conformal second-order viscoelastic system. We also discuss how local thermodynamic equilibrium could be understood in the context of the fluid/gravity correspondence.

  20. Conformable apparatus in a drill string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus in a drill string comprises an internally upset drill pipe. The drill pipe comprises a first end, a second end, and an elongate tube intermediate the first and second ends. The elongate tube and the ends comprising a continuous an inside surface with a plurality of diameters. A conformable metal tube is disposed within the drill pipe intermediate the ends thereof and terminating adjacent to the ends of the drill pipe. The conformable metal tube substantially conforms to the continuous inside surface of the metal tube. The metal tube may comprise a non-uniform section which is expanded to conform to the inside surface of the drill pipe. The non-uniform section may comprise protrusions selected from the group consisting of convolutions, corrugations, flutes, and dimples. The non-uniform section extends generally longitudinally along the length of the tube. The metal tube may be adapted to stretch as the drill pipes stretch.

  1. ISO 50001 Conformant Energy Management Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ISO 50001-conformant Energy Management Systems Aimee McKane Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory atmckane@lbl.gov 518-782-7002 April 2, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office...

  2. Author's personal copy Large deformation and electrochemistry of polyelectrolyte gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Wei

    Author's personal copy Large deformation and electrochemistry of polyelectrolyte gels Wei Hong and electrochemistry. A specific material model is described, including the effects of stretching the network, mixing

  3. Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis The present invention provides a mechanism for separating or isolating charged particles under the...

  4. Dispenser Printed Zinc Microbattery with an Ionic Liquid Gel Electrolyte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Christine Chihfan

    2010-01-01

    Electrically Conductive Oxide Aerogels: New Materials in2003). Electrochemical Properties of Vanadium Oxide Aerogelsand Aerogel Nanocomposites . Journal of Sol-Gel Science and

  5. Fingering to fracturing transition in a transient gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Foyart; Laurence Ramos; Serge Mora; Christian Ligoure

    2013-06-21

    Fracture processes are ubiquitous in soft materials, even in complex fluids, subjected to stresses. To investigate these processes in a simple geometry, we use a model self-assembled transient gel and study the instability patterns obtained in a radial Hele-Shaw cell when a low viscosity oil pushes the more viscous transient gel. Thanks to an analysis of the morphology of the patterns, we find a discontinuous transition between the standard Saffman-Taylor fingering instability and a fracturing instability as the oil injection rate increases. Our data suggest that the flow properties of the gel ahead of the finger tip controls the transition towards fracturing. By analyzing the displacement field of the gel in the vicinity of the fingers and cracks, we show that in the fingering regime, the oil gently pushes the gel, whereas in the fracturing regime, the crack tears apart the gel, resulting in a strong drop of the gel velocity ahead of the crack tip as compared to the tip velocity. We find a unique behavior for the whole displacement field of a gel around a crack, which is drastically different from that around a finger, and reveals the solid-like behavior of the gel at short time. Our experiments and analysis provide quantitative yet simple tools to unambiguously discriminate a finger from a crack in a visco-elastic material.

  6. Conformally Invariant Spinorial Equations in Six Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Batista

    2015-06-04

    This work deals with the conformal transformations in six-dimensional spinorial formalism. Several conformally invariant equations are obtained and their geometrical interpretation are worked out. Finally, the integrability conditions for some of these equations are established. Moreover, in the course of the article, some useful identities involving the curvature of the spinorial connection are attained and a digression about harmonic forms and more general massless fields is made.

  7. Curvature in Special Base Conformal Warped Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando Dobarro; Bulent Unal

    2008-04-29

    We introduce the concept of a base conformal warped product of two pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. We also define a subclass of this structure called as a special base conformal warped product. After, we explicitly mention many of the relevant fields where metrics of these forms and also considerations about their curvature related properties play important rolls. Among others, we cite general relativity, extra-dimension, string and super-gravity theories as physical subjects and also the study of the spectrum of Laplace-Beltrami operators on p-forms in global analysis. Then, we give expressions for the Ricci tensor and scalar curvature of a base conformal warped product in terms of Ricci tensors and scalar curvatures of its base and fiber, respectively. Furthermore, we introduce specific identities verified by particular families of, either scalar or tensorial, nonlinear differential operators on pseudo-Riemannian manifolds. The latter allow us to obtain new interesting expressions for the Ricci tensor and scalar curvature of a special base conformal warped product and it turns out that not only the expressions but also the analytical approach used are interesting from the physical, geometrical and analytical point of view. Finally, we analyze, investigate and characterize possible solutions for the conformal and warping factors of a special base conformal warped product, which guarantee that the corresponding product is Einstein. Besides, we apply these results to a generalization of the Schwarzschild metric.

  8. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted in sandpacks to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on DPR. All gels studied reduced the permeability to water by a greater factor than the factor by which the oil permeability was reduced. Greater DPR was observed as the concentrations of polymer and chromium were increased. A conceptual model of the mechanisms responsible for DPR is presented. Primary features of the model are (1) the development of flow channels through the gel by dehydration and displacement of the gel and by re-connection of pre-treatment, residual oil volume and (2) high flow resistance in the channels during water flow is caused by significant saturations of oil remaining in the channels. A similar study of DPR was conducted in Berea sandstone cores. Both oil and water permeabilities were reduced by much smaller factors in Berea sandstone cores than in similar treatments in sandpacks. Poor maturation of the gelant in the Berea rock was thought to be caused by fluid-rock interactions that interfered with the gelation process.

  9. Multiscale Conformational Heterogeneity in Staphylococcal Protein A: Possible Determinant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    to conformational heterogeneity in crys- tal structures, from diverse crystal contacts to functionally rele- vant

  10. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-03-19

    An apparatus is described for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  11. Apparatus for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  12. Direct visualization of flow-induced conformational transitions of single actin filaments in entangled solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchenbuechler, Inka; Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Koenderink, Gijsje H; Lettinga, M Paul

    2015-01-01

    While semi-flexible polymers and fibers are an important class of material due to their rich mechanical properties, it remains unclear how these properties relate to the microscopic conformation of the polymers. Actin filaments constitute an ideal model polymer system due to their micron-sized length and relatively high stiffness that allow imaging at the single filament level. Here we study the effect of entanglements on the conformational dynamics of actin filaments in shear flow. We directly measure the full three-dimensional conformation of single actin filaments, using confocal microscopy in combination with a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell. We show that initially entangled filaments form disentangled orientationally ordered hairpins, confined in the flow-vorticity plane. In addition, shear flow causes stretching and shear alignment of the hairpin tails, while the filament length distribution remains unchanged. These observations explain the strain-softening and shear-thinning behavior of entangl...

  13. Tactile measurement with a GelSight sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Wenzhen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    This thesis introduces a method of measuring contact force with GelSight. GelSight is an optical-based tactile sensor that uses a piece of coated elastomer as the contact medium. A camera records the distortion of the ...

  14. Pore-Level Examination of Gel Destruction During Oil Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Pore-Level Examination of Gel Destruction During Oil Flow R.S. Seright, SPE, New Mexico Petroleum-scale X-ray computed microtomography (XMT) images were obtained at a variety of oil (hexadecane(III)-acetate-hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) gel]. For each pore in our image volume, we followed oil and water saturations

  15. Generating Reservoir Conformations for Replica Exchange through the Use of the Conformational Space Annealing Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jooyoung

    of conformations to determine the minimum energy structure. We combine these methods by using conformations thermal kinetic energy, they will be able to overcome barriers, escape local minima, and explore the free Annealing Method Asim Okur,*, Benjamin T. Miller, Keehyoung Joo, Jooyoung Lee, and Bernard R. Brooks

  16. Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Conformality in(ALD) Conformality in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Atomic Layer DepositionAtomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Conformality in(ALD) Conformality in Nanopores, removal of template, and subsequent TEM analysis. Significance Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely in Nanopores Intellectual merit While atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables unprecedented control of atomic

  17. A dosimetric study of small photon fields using polymer gel and Gafchromic EBT films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassani, Hossein; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Zahmatkesh, Mohammad Hassan; Shirani, Kaveh

    2014-04-01

    The use of small field sizes is increasingly becoming important in radiotherapy particularly since the introduction of stereotactic radiosurgery and intensity-modulated radiation therapy techniques. The reliable measurement of delivered dose from such fields with conventional dosimeters, such as ionization chambers, is a challenging task. In this work, methacrylic and ascorbic acid in gelatin initiated by copper polymer gel dosimeters are employed to measure dose in 3 dimensions. Field sizes of 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}, 10 × 10 mm{sup 2}, 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}, and 30 × 30 mm{sup 2} are investigated for a 6-MV x-rays. The results show an agreement with Gafchromic film, with some variation in measured doses near the edge of the fields, where the film data decrease more rapidly than the other methods. Dose penumbra widths obtained with gel dosimeters and Gafchormic film were generally in agreement with each other. The results of this work indicate that polymer gel dosimetry could be invaluable for the quantification of the 3-dimensional dose distribution in small field size.

  18. Foam and gel methods for the decontamination of metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunez, Luis; Kaminski, Michael Donald

    2007-01-23

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment. In this invention, we discuss gel and foam based diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) chemical solutions that are unique in that these solutions can be applied at room temperature; provide protection to the base metal for continued applications of the equipment; and reduce the final waste form production to one step. The HEDPA gels and foams are formulated with benign chemicals, including various solvents, such as ionic liquids and reducing and complexing agents such as hydroxamic acids, and formaldehyde sulfoxylate. Gel and foam based HEDPA processes allow for decontamination of difficult to reach surfaces that are unmanageable with traditional aqueous process methods. Also, the gel and foam components are optimized to maximize the dissolution rate and assist in the chemical transformation of the gel and foam to a stable waste form.

  19. Method for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.

    2003-08-05

    Methods for preparing hydrous zirconium oxide spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, zirconium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, zirconium oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials, zirconium oxide fiber materials, hydrous zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, zirconium oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium zirconate. The hydrous zirconium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process are useful as inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  20. Acceptability and Use of the Diaphragm and Replens® Lubricant Gel for HIV Prevention in Southern Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    G, et al. Diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention of HIVT, et al. The diaphragm and lubricant gel for prevention ofDiaphragm and Replens Ò Lubricant Gel for HIV Prevention in

  1. Sol-gel coatings for optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avellaneda, C.O.; Macedo, M.A.; Florentino, A.O.; Aegerter, M.A. [Univ. of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Quimica

    1994-12-31

    Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} prepared by a sol-gel process in form of coatings and aerogels are new materials which present interesting properties: (a) The coatings present electrochromic properties and exhibit a blue coloration under Li{sup +} insertion with 100% reversible variation of the optical transmission in the visible and near infrared range between 80% and 200% and have a high chemical stability (tested up to 2,000 cycles). (b) They are semiconductor and present a photoelectric effect when illuminating in the UV region ({lambda} < 360 nm). These films are therefore very promising to be used in electrochromic devices, as electrodes for photoelectrochemical purpose and the development of nanocrystalline solar cell. (c) When prepared in aerogel form, the high BET surface area of the powders is a promising asset to use these new materials for catalytic purposes for air pollution control.

  2. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janney, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1991-07-02

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product any be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  3. Method for molding ceramic powders using a water-based gel casting process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jenny, Mark A. (Knoxville, TN); Omalete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG)

    1992-09-08

    A method for molding ceramic powders comprises forming a slurry mixture including ceramic powder, a dispersant, and a monomer solution. The monomer solution includes at least one monofunctional monomer and at least one difunctional monomer, a free-radical initiator, and a aqueous solvent. The slurry mixture is transferred to a mold, and the mold containing the slurry mixture is heated to polymerize and crosslink the monomer and form a firm polymer-solvent gel matrix. The solid product may be removed from the mold and heated to first remove the solvent and subsequently remove the polymer, whereafter the product may be sintered.

  4. Universal scaling in fast quantum quenches in conformal field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumit R. Das; Damian A. Galante; Robert C. Myers

    2015-03-05

    We study the time evolution of a conformal field theory deformed by a relevant operator under a smooth but fast quantum quench which brings it to the conformal point. We argue that when the quench time scale $\\delta t$ is small compared to the scale set by the relevant coupling, the expectation value of the quenched operator scales universally as $\\delta g/ \\delta t ^{2\\Delta-d}$ where $\\delta g$ is the quench amplitude. This growth is further enhanced by a logarithmic factor in even dimensions. We present explicit results for free scalar and fermionic field theories, supported by an analytic understanding of the leading contribution for fast quenches. Results from this Letter suggest that this scaling result, first found in holography, is in fact universal to quantum quenches. Our considerations also show that this limit of fast smooth quenches is quite different from an instantaneous quench from one time-independent Hamiltonian to another, where the Schrodinger picture state at the time of the quench simply serves as an initial condition for subsequent evolution with the final Hamiltonian.

  5. On conformal supergravity and harmonic superspace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Butter

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes a fully covariant approach to harmonic superspace. It is based on the conformal superspace description of conformal supergravity and involves extending the supermanifold M^{4|8} by the tangent bundle of CP^1. The resulting superspace M^{4|8} x TCP^1 can be identified in a certain gauge with the conventional harmonic superspace M^{4|8} x S^2. This approach not only makes the connection to projective superspace transparent, but simplifies calculations in harmonic superspace significantly by eliminating the need to deal directly with supergravity prepotentials. As an application of the covariant approach, we derive from harmonic superspace the full component action for the sigma model of a hyperkahler cone coupled to conformal supergravity. Further applications are also sketched.

  6. Infrared modification of gravity from conformal symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gegenberg, Jack; Seahra, Sanjeev S

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider a gauge theory of gravity in which the gauge group is the conformal group SO(4,2) and the action is of the Yang-Mills form, quadratic in the curvature. The resulting gravitational theory exhibits local conformal symmetry and reduces to Weyl-squared gravity under certain conditions. When the theory is linearized about flat spacetime, we find that matter which couples to the generators of special conformal transformations reproduces Newton's inverse square law. Conversely, matter which couples to generators of translations induces a constant and possibly repulsive force far from the source, which may be relevant for explaining the late time acceleration of the universe. The coupling constant of theory is dimensionless, which means that it is potentially renormalizable.

  7. Conformal Higgs model: predicted dark energy density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. K. Nesbet

    2014-11-03

    Postulated universal Weyl conformal scaling symmetry provides an alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm for cosmology. Recent applications to galactic rotation velocities, Hubble expansion, and a model of dark galactic halos explain qualitative phenomena and fit observed data without invoking dark matter. Significant revision of theory relevant to galactic collisions and clusters is implied, but not yet tested. Dark energy is found to be a consequence of conformal symmetry for the Higgs scalar field of electroweak physics. The present paper tests this implication. The conformal Higgs model acquires a gravitational effect described by a modified Friedmann cosmic evolution equation, shown to fit cosmological data going back to the cosmic microwave background epoch. The tachyonic mass parameter of the Higgs model becomes dark energy in the Friedmann equation. A dynamical model of this parameter, analogous to the Higgs mechanism for gauge boson mass, is derived and tested here. An approximate calculation yields a result consistent with the empirical magnitude inferred from Hubble expansion.

  8. Encapsulation of biomaterials in porous glass-like matrices prepared via an aqueous colloidal sol-gel process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Dean-Mo (Richmond, CA); Chen, I-Wei (Swarthmore, PA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for the encapsulation of biologically important proteins into transparent, porous silica matrices by an alcohol-free, aqueous, colloidal sol-gel process, and to the biological materials encapsulated thereby. The process is exemplified by studies involving encapsulated cytochrome c, catalase, myoglobin, and hemoglobin, although non-proteinaceous biomaterials, such as active DNA or RNA fragments, cells or even tissues, may also be encapsulated in accordance with the present methods. Conformation, and hence activity of the biomaterial, is successfully retained after encapsulation as demonstrated by optical characterization of the molecules, even after long-term storage. The retained conformation of the biomaterial is strongly correlated to both the rate of gelation and the subsequent drying speed of the encapsulatng matrix. Moreover, in accordance with this process, gelation is accelerated by the use of a higher colloidal solid concentration and a lower synthesis pH than conventional methods, thereby enhancing structural stability and retained conformation of the biomaterials. Thus, the invention also provides a remarkable improvement in retaining the biological activity of the encapsulated biomaterial, as compared with those involved in conventional alkoxide-based processes. It further provides new methods for the quantitative and qualitative detection of test substances that are reactive to, or catalyzed by, the active, encapsulated biological materials.

  9. Vacuum energy sequestering and conformal symmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Ruehle, Fabian; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In a series of recent papers Kaloper and Padilla proposed a mechanism to sequester standard model vacuum contributions to the cosmological constant. We study the consequences of embedding their proposal into a fully local quantum theory. In the original work, the bare cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ and a scaling parameter $\\lambda$ are introduced as global fields. We find that in the local case the resulting Lagrangian is that of a spontaneously broken conformal field theory where $\\lambda$ plays the role of the dilaton. A vanishing or a small cosmological constant is thus a consequence of the underlying conformal field theory structure.

  10. Static wormholes in vacuum for conformal gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julio Oliva; David Tempo; Ricardo Troncoso

    2009-07-07

    A static spherically symmetric wormhole solution for conformal gravity in vacuum is found. The solution possesses a single integration constant which determines the size of the neck connecting two static homogeneous universes of constant spatial curvature. Time runs at different rates on each side of the neck, and depending on the value of the parameter, the wormhole can develop a cosmological horizon only at one side. It is shown that the wormholes correspond to the matching of different Einstein spacetimes by means of improper conformal transformations.

  11. Novel Symmetries of Topological Conformal Field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Sonnenschein; S. Yankielowicz

    1991-08-20

    We show that various actions of topological conformal theories that were suggested recentely are particular cases of a general action. We prove the invariance of these models under transformations generated by nilpotent fermionic generators of arbitrary conformal dimension, $\\Q$ and $\\G$. The later are shown to be the $n^{th}$ covariant derivative with respect to ``flat abelian gauge field" of the fermionic fields of those models. We derive the bosonic counterparts $\\W$ and $\\R$ which together with $\\Q$ and $\\G$ form a special $N=2$ super $W_\\infty$ algebra. The algebraic structure is discussed and it is shown that it generalizes the so called ``topological algebra".

  12. Study of CO2 Mobility Control Using Cross-linked Gel Conformance Control and CO2 Viscosifiers in Heterogeneous Media 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Shuzong

    2011-10-21

    CO2 has been widely used as a displacement fluid in both immiscible and miscible displacement processes to obtain tertiary recovery from the field. There are several problems associated with the application of CO2 flooding, especially when...

  13. Copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 4-vinylpyridine using initiated chemical vapor deposition for surface modification and its applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, Ernesto, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the copolymerization of divinylbenzene and 4- vinylpyridine into organic thin films that exhibit conformal, stable, and uniform surface properties. Thin films were grown using initiated chemical ...

  14. Black hole temperature: Minimal coupling vs conformal coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fazel, Mohamadreza; Mirza, Behrouz; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2014-05-15

    In this article, we discuss the propagation of scalar fields in conformally transformed spacetimes with either minimal or conformal coupling. The conformally coupled equation of motion is transformed into a one-dimensional Schrödinger-like equation with an invariant potential under conformal transformation. In a second stage, we argue that calculations based on conformal coupling yield the same Hawking temperature as those based on minimal coupling. Finally, it is conjectured that the quasi normal modes of black holes are invariant under conformal transformation.

  15. Fracture of a biopolymer gel as a viscoplastic disentanglement process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Baumberger; Christiane Caroli; David Martina

    2006-07-05

    We present an extensive experimental study of mode-I, steady, slow crack dynamics in gelatin gels. Taking advantage of the sensitivity of the elastic stiffness to gel composition and history we confirm and extend the model for fracture of physical hydrogels which we proposed in a previous paper (Nature Materials, doi:10.1038/nmat1666 (2006)), which attributes decohesion to the viscoplastic pull-out of the network-constituting chains. So, we propose that, in contrast with chemically cross-linked ones, reversible gels fracture without chain scission.

  16. Sol-gel processing with inorganic metal salt precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2004-10-19

    Methods for sol-gel processing that generally involve mixing together an inorganic metal salt, water, and a water miscible alcohol or other organic solvent, at room temperature with a macromolecular dispersant material, such as hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) added. The resulting homogenous solution is incubated at a desired temperature and time to result in a desired product. The methods enable production of high quality sols and gels at lower temperatures than standard methods. The methods enable production of nanosize sols from inorganic metal salts. The methods offer sol-gel processing from inorganic metal salts.

  17. On Hydrophobicity and Conformational Specificity in Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandelin, Erik

    On Hydrophobicity and Conformational Specificity in Proteins Erik Sandelin1 2 Stockholm of monomeric globular single domain proteins. We find that the total fraction of hydrophobic residues is roughly constant and has no discernible dependence on protein size. This results in a decrease

  18. Lobachevsky geometry of (super)conformal mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tigran Hakobyan; Armen Nersessian

    2008-03-15

    We give a simple geometric explanation for the similarity transformation mapping one-dimensional conformal mechanics to free-particle system. Namely, we show that this transformation corresponds to the inversion of the Klein model of Lobachevsky space (non-compact complex projective plane). We also extend this picture to the N=2k superconformal mechanics described in terms of Lobachevsky superspace.

  19. Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yalin

    Brain Surface Conformal Parameterization with Algebraic Functions Yalin Wang1,2 , Xianfeng Gu3 a brain surface to a multi-hole disk. The re- sulting parameterizations do not have any singularities of anatomical surfaces in MRI scans of the brain, in- cluding the hippocampi and the cerebral cortices

  20. Mechanical Equations on Bi-Para Conformal Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeki Kasap; Mehmet Tekkoyun

    2012-09-22

    This study is an extented analogue to conformal geometry of the paper given by [14]. Also, the geometric and physical results related to bi-para-conformal-dynamical systems are also presented.

  1. Nanodiamond gels in nonpolar media: Colloidal and rheological properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Nanodiamond gels in nonpolar media: Colloidal and rheological properties Nancy A. Burns, Michael A revision received 21 July 2014; published 27 August 2014) Synopsis Nanodiamonds (ND), i.e., sp3 -hybridized

  2. Large deformation and electrochemistry of polyelectrolyte gels , Xuanhe Zhao b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Large deformation and electrochemistry of polyelectrolyte gels Wei Hong a , Xuanhe Zhao b , Zhigang. This paper develops a field theory to couple large deformation and electrochemistry. A specific material

  3. Collagen scaffolds and injectable biopolymer gels for cardiac tissue engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Karen Kailin

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds have begun to shown promise for cell delivery for cardiac tissue engineering. Although various polymers and material forms have been explored, there is a need for: injectable gels ...

  4. Wall Adhesion and Constitutive Modelling of Strong Colloidal Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel R. Lester; Richard Buscall; Anthony D. Stickland; Peter J. Scales

    2014-06-24

    Wall adhesion effects during batch sedimentation of strongly flocculated colloidal gels are commonly assumed to be negligible. In this study in-situ measurements of colloidal gel rheology and solids volume fraction distribution suggest the contrary, where significant wall adhesion effects are observed in a 110mm diameter settling column. We develop and validate a mathematical model for the equilibrium stress state in the presence of wall adhesion under both viscoplastic and viscoelastic constitutive models. These formulations highlight fundamental issues regarding the constitutive modeling of colloidal gels, specifically the relative utility and validity of viscoplastic and viscoelastic rheological models under arbitrary tensorial loadings. The developed model is validated against experimental data, which points toward a novel method to estimate the shear and compressive yield strength of strongly flocculated colloidal gels from a series of equilibrium solids volume fraction profiles over various column widths.

  5. The role of quench rate in colloidal gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Patrick Royall; Alex Malins

    2012-03-03

    Interactions between colloidal particles have hitherto usually been fixed by the suspension composition. Recent experimental developments now enable the control of interactions \\emph{in-situ}. Here we use Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate the effect of controlling interactions on gelation, by "quenching" the system from an equilibrium fluid to a gel. We find that, contrary to the normal case of an instantaneous quench, where the local structure of the gel is highly disordered, controlled quenching results in a gel with a higher degree of local order. Under sufficiently slow quenching, local crystallisation is found, which is strongly enhanced when a monodisperse system is used. The higher the degree of local order, the smaller the mean squared displacement, indicating an enhancement of gel stability.

  6. Swelling and shrinking kinetics of a lamellar gel phase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egelhaaf, Stefan U; Baker, M.E.; Shaw, N.; Fairhurst, David John

    2008-05-01

    We investigate the swelling and shrinking of L-beta lamellar gel phases composed of surfactant and fatty alcohol after contact with aqueous poly(ethyleneglycol) solutions. The height change Delta h(t) is diffusionlike with ...

  7. Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large Sharp Magnetoelectric Effect Home Author: B. Liu, T. Sun, J. He, V. P. Dravid Year: 2010 Abstract: Nanostructures of...

  8. APEC Smart Grid Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2012-03-01

    This brief paper describes the activities of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Smart Grid Initiative (ASGI) which is being led by the U.S. and developed by the APEC Energy Working Group. In the paper, I describe the origin of the initiative and briefly mention the four major elements of the initiative along with existing APEC projects which support it.

  9. GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Taran

    #12;THE GLOBAL TAXONOMY INITIATIVE: Using Systematic Inventories to Meet Country and Regional Needs (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has endorsed a GlobalTaxonomy Initiative (GTI workshop, The Global Taxonomy Initiative: Shortening the Distance between Discovery and Delivery, made

  10. Electric-magnetic duality implies (global) conformal invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung-Pil Moon; Sang-Jin Lee; Ji-Hye Lee; Jae-Hyuk Oh

    2014-05-30

    We have examined quantum theories of electric magnetic duality invariant vector fields enjoying classical conformal invariance in 4-dimensional flat spacetime. We extend Dirac's argument about "the conditions for a quantum field theory to be relativistic" to "those for a quantum theory to be conformal". We realize that electric magnetic duality invariant vector theories together with classical conformal invariance defined in 4-$d$ flat spacetime are still conformally invariant theories when they are quantized in a way that electric magnetic duality is manifest.

  11. Does Superstring Theory Have a Conformally Invariant Limit?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John H. Schwarz

    2000-08-01

    This talk describes a proposal, due to Hull, for a conformally invariant limit of superstring theory in six dimensions.

  12. Sol-gel chemistry by ring-opening polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.

    2000-02-07

    Sol-gel processing of materials is plagued by shrinkage during polymerization of the alkoxide monomers and processing (aging and drying) of the resulting gels. The authors have developed a new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials based on the solventless ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of monomers bearing the 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-disilaoxacyclopentyl group, which permits them to drastically reduce shrinkage in sol-gel processed materials. Because the monomers are polymerized through a chain growth mechanism catalyzed by base rather than the step growth mechanism normally used in sol-gel systems, hydrolysis and condensation products are entirely eliminated. Furthermore, since water is not required for hydrolysis, an alcohol solvent is not necessary. Monomers with two disilaoxacyclopentyl groups, separated by a rigid phenylene group or a more flexible alkylene group, were prepared through disilylation of the corresponding diacetylenes, followed by ring closure and hydrogenation. Anionic polymerization of these materials, either neat or with 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-2,5-disila-1-oxacyclopentane as a copolymer, affords thermally stable transparent gels with no visible shrinkage. These materials provide an easy route to the introduction of sol-gel type materials in encapsulation of microelectronics, which they have successfully demonstrated.

  13. Conformal welding and the sewing equations Eric Schippers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schippers, Eric

    Conformal welding and the sewing equations Eric Schippers Department of Mathematics University of Manitoba Winnipeg Rutgers 2014 Eric Schippers (Manitoba) Conformal welding Rutgers 1 / 41 #12;Introduction Schippers (Manitoba) Conformal welding Rutgers 2 / 41 #12;Introduction Our work in general We began

  14. Structural and Functional Investigations of Conformationally Interconverting RNA Pseudoknots 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stammler, Suzanne

    2010-10-12

    conformation and a pseudoknotted conformation in the presence of KCl and MgCl2. In the absence of added salt however, the 3' UTR adopts exclusively the double stem conformation. Analysis of the pseudoknotted stem reveals only a marginally stable folded state...

  15. Hierarchical Conformational Scanning Using Potential Smoothing. Application to Cycloheptadecane.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Jay

    . Rohit V. Pappu §, Reece K. Hart and Jay W. Ponder * Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics for conformational search. Conformational scanning is defined as a two step protocol. 1) Mapping: A set of major surfaces constitutes the second half of the conformational scanning protocol. For cycloheptadecane, a set

  16. Conformal weldings and Dispersionless Toda hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee-Peng Teo

    2008-08-05

    Given a $C^1$ homeomorphism of the unit circle $\\gamma$, let $f$ and $g$ be respectively the normalized conformal maps from the unit disc and its exterior so that $\\gamma= g^{-1}\\circ f$ on the unit circle. In this article, we show that by suitably defined time variables, the evolutions of the pairs $(g, f)$ and $(g^{-1}, f^{-1})$ can be described by an infinite set of nonlinear partial differential equations known as dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Relations to the integrable structure of conformal maps first studied by Wiegmann and Zabrodin \\cite{WZ} are discussed. An extension of the hierarchy which contains both our solution and the solution of \\cite{WZ} is defined.

  17. Conformal weldings and Dispersionless Toda hierarchy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Lee-Peng

    2008-01-01

    Given a $C^1$ homeomorphism of the unit circle $\\gamma$, let $f$ and $g$ be respectively the normalized conformal maps from the unit disc and its exterior so that $\\gamma= g^{-1}\\circ f$ on the unit circle. In this article, we show that by suitably defined time variables, the evolutions of the pairs $(g, f)$ and $(g^{-1}, f^{-1})$ can be described by an infinite set of nonlinear partial differential equations known as dispersionless Toda hierarchy. Relations to the integrable structure of conformal maps first studied by Wiegmann and Zabrodin \\cite{WZ} are discussed. An extension of the hierarchy which contains both our solution and the solution of \\cite{WZ} is defined.

  18. Transport in non-conformal holographic fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shailesh Kulkarni; Bum-Hoon Lee; Jae-Hyuk Oh; Chanyong Park; Raju Roychowdhury

    2013-03-06

    We have considered non-conformal fluid dynamics whose gravity dual is a certain Einstein dilaton system with Liouville type dilaton potential, characterized by an intrinsic parameter $\\eta$. We have discussed the Hawking-Page transition in this framework using hard-wall model and it turns out that the critical temperature of the Hawking-Page transition encapsulates a non-trivial dependence on $\\eta$. We also obtained transport coefficients such as AC conductivity, shear viscosity and diffusion constant in the hydrodynamic limit, which show non-trivial $\\eta$ dependent deviations from those in conformal fluids, although the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density is found to saturate the universal bound. Some of the retarded correlators are also computed in the high frequency limit for case study.

  19. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  20. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilka Brunner; Cornelius Schmidt-Colinet

    2015-08-18

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  1. Trace anomaly of the conformal gauge field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sladkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    The proposed by Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen new method of calculations of trace anomalies is applied in the conformal gauge field case. The result is then reproduced by the heat equation method. An error in previous calculation is corrected. It is pointed out that the introducing gauge symmetries into a given system by a field-enlarging transformation can result in unexpected quantum effects even for trivial configurations.

  2. Reflection and transmission of conformal perturbation defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    We consider reflection and transmission of interfaces which implement renormalisation group flows between conformal fixed points in two dimensions. Such an RG interface is constructed from the identity defect in the ultraviolet CFT by perturbing the theory on one side of the defect line. We compute reflection and transmission coefficients in perturbation theory to third order in the coupling constant and check our calculations against exact constructions of RG interfaces between coset models.

  3. Progress in Initiator Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrousis, C A; Christensen, J S

    2009-05-04

    There is great interest in applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation techniques to the designs of electrical high explosive (HE) initiators, for the purpose of better understanding a design's sensitivities, optimizing its performance, and/or predicting its useful lifetime. Two MHD-capable LLNL codes, CALE and ALE3D, are being used to simulate the process of ohmic heating, vaporization, and plasma formation in the bridge of an initiator, be it an exploding bridgewire (EBW), exploding bridgefoil (EBF) or slapper type initiator. The initiation of the HE is simulated using Tarver Ignition & Growth reactive flow models. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D models have been constructed and studied. The models provide some intuitive explanation of the initiation process and are useful for evaluating the potential impact of identified aging mechanisms (such as the growth of intermetallic compounds or powder sintering). The end product of this work is a simulation capability for evaluating margin in proposed, modified or aged initiation system designs.

  4. Conformal Transformations in Metric-Affine Gravity and Ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Canan N; Demir, Durmus A

    2012-01-01

    Conformal transformations play a widespread role in gravity theories in regard to their cosmological and other implications. In the pure metric theory of gravity, conformal transformations change the frame to a new one wherein one obtains a conformal-invariant scalar-tensor theory such that the scalar field, deriving from the conformal factor, is a ghost. In this work, conformal transformations and ghosts will be analyzed in the framework of the metric-affine theory of gravity. Within this framework, metric and connection are independent variables, and hence, transform independently under conformal transformations. It will be shown that, if affine connection is invariant under conformal transformations then the scalar field under concern is a non-ghost, non-dynamical field. It is an auxiliary field at the classical level, and might develop a kinetic term at the quantum level. Alternatively, if connection transforms additively with a structure similar to yet more general than that of the Levi-Civita connection...

  5. "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    98 "In-Gel" Trypsin Digestion Protocol for Proteins in SDS-PAGE Gel Slices ABRF Internal Protein Sequence Research Committee (11/97) Samples to be digested in the gel are run in as few lanes as possible and alkylated prior to electrophoresis. Note that an alternate buffer system is also provided for LysC digestion

  6. About the Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-06-01

    This factsheet gives an overview of the Solar America Initiative (SAI), including goals, research and development strategy, market transformation strategy, and benefits to nation.

  7. Strategic Growth Initiative (Michigan)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A joint venture between Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) and the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC), the Strategic Growth Initiative Grant Program was...

  8. Innovation Ecosystem Development Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ideas that address today's most urgent energy challenges. For More Information For more information about the Innovation Ecosystem Initiative, please visit eere.energy.gov...

  9. Salt Waste Processing Initiatives

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Patricia Suggs Salt Processing Team Lead Assistant Manager for Waste Disposition Project Office of Environmental Management Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Initiatives 2...

  10. Method for preparing hydrous iron oxide gels and spherules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.; Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.

    2003-07-29

    The present invention is directed to methods for preparing hydrous iron oxide spherules, hydrous iron oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form composite sorbents and catalysts, iron monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendable particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, iron oxide spherules having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite of hydrous iron oxide fiber materials, iron oxide fiber materials, hydrous iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, iron oxide fiber materials having suspendable particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, dielectric spherules of barium, strontium, and lead ferrites and mixtures thereof, and composite catalytic spherules of barium or strontium ferrite embedded with oxides of Mg, Zn, Pb, Ce and mixtures thereof. These variations of hydrous iron oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters, dielectrics, and ceramics.

  11. Sol-gel polymerization of tetraalkoxygermanium and organotrialkoxygermanium monomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baugher, B.M.; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Properties of Organic Materials Dept.

    1996-12-31

    While the sol-gel polymerizations of tetraalkoxy- and organotrialkoxysilanes have been extensively studied, there have been few reports of similar investigations with the analogous tetraalkoxygermanium and organotrialkoxygermanium compounds. Germanium alkoxides have received less attention due, in part to their higher cost, but also their greater reactivity towards hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Germanium oxide materials are potentially interesting because the Ge-O-Ge linkage is labile (compared with the siloxane bond in silica gels and polysilsequioxanes) opening up the possibility of further chemical modification of the polymeric architecture. This may permit hydrolytic reorganization of germanium oxide networks under relatively mild conditions. In this paper, the authors present the results of investigations of the sol-gel polymerizations of tetraethoxygermanium, tetraisopropoxygermanium, and methyltriethoxy-germanium to afford network materials as both xerogels and aerogels.

  12. Congruence Property In Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chongying Dong; Xingjun Lin; Siu-Hung Ng

    2015-07-21

    The congruence subgroup property is established for the modular representations associated to any modular tensor category. This result is used to prove that the kernel of the representation of the modular group on the conformal blocks of any rational, C_2-cofinite vertex operator algebra is a congruence subgroup. In particular, the q-character of each irreducible module is a modular function on the same congruence subgroup. The Galois symmetry of the modular representations is obtained and the order of the anomaly for those modular categories satisfying some integrality conditions is determined.

  13. Penser Conformed Contract (EM0003383) - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O StreamsParticipantsParties agreePattyPaulPayConformed

  14. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawelec, K. M. E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.; Wardale, R. J. E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  15. All-solid-state proton battery using gel polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Kuldeep, E-mail: mishkuldeep@gmail.com [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, ABES Engineering College, Ghaziabad-201009, India and Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India); Pundir, S. S.; Rai, D. K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida-201307 (India)

    2014-04-24

    A proton conducting gel polymer electrolyte system; PMMA+NH{sub 4}SCN+EC/PC, has been prepared. The highest ionic conductivity obtained from the system is 2.5 × 10?4 S cm{sup ?1}. The optimized composition of the gel electrolyte has been used to fabricate a proton battery with Zn/ZnSO{sub 4}?7H{sub 2}O anode and MnO{sub 2} cathode. The open circuit voltage of the battery is 1.4 V and the highest energy density is 5.7 W h kg?1 for low current drain.

  16. Structure Transition in PSS/Lysozyme Complexes: A Chain-Conformation-Driven Process, as Directly Seen by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jérémie Gummel; Fabrice Cousin; François Boué

    2009-03-30

    Measurements of chain conformation in proteins/polyelectrolytes complexes (lysozyme and PSSNa) show that the crossover observed between an open structure -a chain network crosslinked by the proteins, and a globular one - dense globules of ~ 10 nm aggregated in a fractal way, results from a conformation modification prior to the transition. Before showing this, we have widened the parameters range for the observation of the transition. We had shown before that the two structures can be formed depending on chain length (for a given [PSS]/[lysozyme] ratio): gel for large chains, globules for short chains. We show here that the crossover between these two regimes can also be reached as a function of chains concentration or salinity of the buffer. Since all these crossover parameters act on chains overlapping concentration c*, we reinforce the idea of a transition from the dilute to the semi-dilute regime, but c* is shifted compared to pure PSS solutions. In order to understand this, we have measured by SANS the conformation of a single chain of PSS in presence of proteins within the complexes. This is achieved by a specific labeling trick where we take advantage of the fact that lysozyme and hydrogenated PSS chains have the same neutron scattering length density. In the gel structure, the PSS chains keep a wormlike structure as in pure solutions, but their persistence length is strongly reduced, from 50 {\\AA} without proteins to 20 {\\AA} in average with lysozyme. With this value of 20 {\\AA}, we calculate new overlapping thresholds (concentration, mass, ionic strength) in agreement with observed ones. In a second stage, after the globular structure is formed, the PSS chains get a third conformation, no longer wormlike, but more collapsed, within the globules.

  17. Yangian Superalgebras in Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Creutzig

    2010-12-07

    Quantum Yangian symmetry in several sigma models with supergroup or supercoset as target is established. Starting with a two-dimensional conformal field theory that has current symmetry of a Lie superalgebra with vanishing Killing form we construct non-local charges and compute their properties. Yangian axioms are satisfied, except that the Serre relations only hold for a subsector of the space of fields. Yangian symmetry implies that correlation functions of fields in this sector satisfy Ward identities. We then show that this symmetry is preserved by certain perturbations of the conformal field theory. The main example are sigma models of the supergroups PSL(N|N), OSP(2N+2|2N) and D(2,1;\\alpha) away from the WZW point. Further there are the OSP(2N+2|2N) Gross-Neveu models and current-current perturbations of ghost systems, both for the disc as world-sheet. The latter we show to be equivalent to CP^{N-1|N} sigma models, while the former are conjecturally dual to supersphere sigma models.

  18. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  19. Energy Transition Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the Energy Transition Initiative (ETI), the U.S. Department of Energy and its partners work with government entities and other stakeholders to establish a long-term energy vision and successfully implement energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions.

  20. Averaged null energy condition violation in a conformally flat spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-01-15

    We show that the averaged null energy condition can be violated by a conformally coupled scalar field in a conformally flat spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. The violation is dependent on the quantum state and can be made as large as desired. It does not arise from the presence of anomalies, although anomalous violations are also possible. Since all geodesics in conformally flat spacetimes are achronal, the achronal averaged null energy condition is likewise violated.

  1. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A. (Lexington, MA); Li, Jiali (Fayetteville, AR); Stein, Derek (Delft, NL); Gershow, Marc H. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-12-07

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  2. Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.; Li, Jiali; Stein, Derek; Gershow, Marc H.

    2013-03-12

    The invention features methods for evaluating the conformation of a polymer, for example, for determining the conformational distribution of a plurality of polymers and to detect binding or denaturation events. The methods employ a nanopore which the polymer, e.g., a nucleic acid, traverses. As the polymer traverses the nanopore, measurements of transport properties of the nanopore yield data on the conformation of the polymer.

  3. Initiatives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | Department ofInfrastructure andInitiatives Initiatives

  4. Molecular motors robustly drive active gels to a critically connected state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Alvarado; Michael Sheinman; Abhinav Sharma; Fred C. MacKintosh; Gijsje H. Koenderink

    2013-02-12

    Living systems often exhibit internal driving: active, molecular processes drive nonequilibrium phenomena such as metabolism or migration. Active gels constitute a fascinating class of internally driven matter, where molecular motors exert localized stresses inside polymer networks. There is evidence that network crosslinking is required to allow motors to induce macroscopic contraction. Yet a quantitative understanding of how network connectivity enables contraction is lacking. Here we show experimentally that myosin motors contract crosslinked actin polymer networks to clusters with a scale-free size distribution. This critical behavior occurs over an unexpectedly broad range of crosslink concentrations. To understand this robustness, we develop a quantitative model of contractile networks that takes into account network restructuring: motors reduce connectivity by forcing crosslinks to unbind. Paradoxically, to coordinate global contractions, motor activity should be low. Otherwise, motors drive initially well-connected networks to a critical state where ruptures form across the entire network.

  5. Static spherically symmetric solutions for conformal gravity in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julio Oliva; David Tempo; Ricardo Troncoso

    2009-05-10

    Static spherically symmetric solutions for conformal gravity in three dimensions are found. Black holes and wormholes are included within this class. Asymptotically the black holes are spacetimes of arbitrary constant curvature, and they are conformally related to the matching of different solutions of constant curvature by means of an improper conformal transformation. The wormholes can be constructed from suitable identifications of a static universe of negative spatial curvature, and it is shown that they correspond to the conformal matching of two black hole solutions with the same mass.

  6. Clean Air Act General Conformity Requirements and the National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    related references. Clean Air Act General Conformity Requirements and the National Environmental Policy Act Process More Documents & Publications EIS-0470: Cape Wind Energy...

  7. Structures of P-glycoprotein reveal its conformational flexibility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of P-glycoprotein reveal its conformational flexibility and an epitope on the nucleotide-binding domain Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structures of...

  8. Conformal field theories at nonzero temperature: Operator product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on December 1, 2015 Title: Conformal field theories at nonzero temperature: Operator product expansions,...

  9. MAJOR CONFORMED CONTRACTS LINKS Site/Project Contract Link Idaho

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    MAJOR CONFORMED CONTRACTS LINKS SiteProject Contract Link Idaho Idaho Cleanup Project http:www.id.doe.govdoeidICPContractICPContract.htm Advance Mixed Waste Treatment http:...

  10. A Summary: Quantum Singularities in Static and Conformally Static Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deborah A. Konkowski; Thomas M. Helliwell

    2013-02-27

    This is a summary of how the definition of quantum singularity is extended from static space-times to conformally static space-times. Examples are given.

  11. Universal entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal quantum...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    two-dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e., systems with scale-invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite...

  12. Development of a removable conformal coating through the synthetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Development of a removable conformal coating through the synthetic incorporation of Diels-Adler thermally reversible adducts into an epoxy resin. Citation Details...

  13. Micro-PIXE characterization of interactions between a sol-gel derived bioactive glass and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - 1 - Micro-PIXE characterization of interactions between a sol-gel derived bioactive glass the different steps of this bioactivity process via a complete micro-PIXE characterization of a sol- gel derived

  14. Demonstration of DeconGel (TM) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Building 2026

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cellular Bioengineering Inc. (CBI) has developed decontamination gels (DeconGel™ 1101, 1120 and 1121) that when dried allow efficient removal of contamination from surfaces in a peelable film that...

  15. Sol-gel matrices for direct colorimetric detection of analytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA); Sasaki, Darryl (Albuquerque, NM); Yamanaka, Stacey (Dallas, TX)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes using color changes that occur in immobilized biopolymeric material in response to selective binding of analytes to their surface. In particular, the present invention provides methods and compositions related to the encapsulation of biopolymeric material into metal oxide glass using the sol-gel method.

  16. MECHANICAL PROPERTY CHARACTERIZATION OF SOL-GEL DERIVED NANOMATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    mechanical behavior of polysilicate aerogels, prepared using the sol-gel process. Two series of materials were prepared, derivatized with silylating agents, processed into coating solutions, and characterized properties of aerogel thin films were characterized. vi #12;Table of Contents Abstract

  17. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jr., Wesley D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bond, Walter D. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel.

  18. Static and dynamic heterogeneities in irreversible gels and colloidal gelation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Coniglio; T. Abete; A. de Candia; E. Del Gado; A. Fierro

    2006-12-20

    We compare the slow dynamics of irreversible gels, colloidal gels, glasses and spin glasses by analyzing the behavior of the so called non-linear dynamical susceptibility, a quantity usually introduced to quantitatively characterize the dynamical heterogeneities. In glasses this quantity typically grows with the time, reaches a maximum and then decreases at large time, due to the transient nature of dynamical heterogeneities and to the absence of a diverging static correlation length. We have recently shown that in irreversible gels the dynamical susceptibility is instead an increasing function of the time, as in the case of spin glasses, and tends asymptotically to the mean cluster size. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we here show that in colloidal gelation where clusters are not permanent, at very low temperature and volume fractions, i.e. when the lifetime of the bonds is much larger than the structural relaxation time, the non-linear susceptibility has a behavior similar to the one of the irreversible gel, followed, at higher volume fractions, by a crossover towards the behavior of glass forming liquids.

  19. Crystal Growth of Extended Solids by Nonaqueous Gel Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    governing the formation of 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D M-BTC porous frame- works. Apparently, the resulting framework dissolution/reprecipitation process,11 because it reacts with water and it is insoluble in common organic incorporated in gel: Holmes, H. N. Colloide Chemistry; Alexander, J., Ed.; Chemical Catalog Co.: New York, 1926

  20. Process for fabricating doped zinc oxide microsphere gel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bond, W.D.; Lauf, R.J.

    1991-11-05

    Disclosed are a new composition and method of making same for a doped zinc oxide microsphere and articles made therefrom for use in an electrical surge arrestor which has increased solid content, uniform grain size and is in the form of a gel. 4 figures.

  1. Multiple Contact Adsorption of Target Molecules by Heteropolymer Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, Jeffrey

    Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305­8565, Japan; e-mail: k of Physics and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. Introduction Polymer gels belong to the privileged class of the most actively studied polymer systems. The main

  2. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR Folding gels and shells: Designing reconfigurable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR Folding gels and shells: Designing reconfigurable 3D shapes and `mechanical and reconfigurable 3D shapes and properties. In particular, we have studied the use of photo-crosslinkable polymer films to prepare polymer sheets and multilayers containing stimuli-responsive hydrogel elements

  3. Timescales in creep and yielding of attractive gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Grenard; Thibaut Divoux; Nicolas Taberlet; Sébastien Manneville

    2013-11-27

    The stress-induced yielding scenario of colloidal gels is investigated under rough boundary conditions by means of rheometry coupled to local velocity measurements. Under an applied shear stress, the fluidization of gels made of attractive carbon black particles suspended in a mineral oil is shown to involve a previously unreported shear rate response $\\dot \\gamma (t)$ characterized by two well-defined and separated timescales $\\tau_c$ and $\\tau_f$. First $\\dot \\gamma(t)$ decreases as a weak power law strongly reminiscent of the primary creep observed in numerous crystalline and amorphous solids, coined the "Andrade creep." We show that the bulk deformation remains homogeneous at the micron scale, which demonstrates that if plastic events take place or if any shear transformation zone exists, such phenomena occur at a smaller scale. As a key result of this paper, the duration $\\tau_c$ of this creep regime decreases as a power law of the viscous stress, defined as the difference between the applied stress and the yield stress with an exponent ranging between 2 and 3 depending on the gel concentration. The end of this first regime is marked by a jump of the shear rate by several orders of magnitude, while the gel slowly slides as a solid block experiencing strong wall slip at both walls, despite rough boundary conditions. Finally, a second sudden increase of the shear rate is concomitant to the full fluidization of the material which ends up being homogeneously sheared. The corresponding fluidization time $\\tau_f$ robustly follows an exponential decay with the applied shear stress as already reported for smooth boundary conditions. Finally, we highlight a few features that are common to attractive colloidal gels and to solid materials by discussing our results in the framework of theoretical approaches of solid rupture (kinetic, fiber bundle, and transient network models).

  4. Mayenite Synthesized Using the Citrate Sol-Gel Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ude, Sabina N [ORNL] [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL] [ORNL; Meisner, Roberta A [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL] [ORNL; Jones, Gregory L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A citrate sol-gel method has been used to synthesize mayenite (Ca12Al14O33). X-ray powder diffraction data show that the samples synthesized using the citrate sol-gel method contained CaAl2O4 and CaCO3 along with mayenite when fired ex-situ in air at 800 C but were single phase when fired at 900 C and above. Using high temperature x-ray diffraction, data collected in-situ in air at temperatures of 600 C and below showed only amorphous content; however, data collected at higher temperatures indicated the first phase to crystallize is CaCO3. High temperature x-ray diffraction data collected in 4% H2/96% N2 does not show the presence of CaCO3, and Ca12Al14O33 starts to form around 850 C. In comparison, x-ray powder diffraction data collected ex-situ on samples synthesized using traditional solid-state synthesis shows that single phase was not reached until samples were fired at 1350 C. DTA/TGA data collected either in a nitrogen environment or air on samples synthesized using the citrate gel method suggest the complete decomposition of metastable phases and the formation of mayenite at 900 C, although the phase evolution is very different depending on the environment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements showed a slightly higher surface area of 7.4 0.1 m2/g in the citrate gel synthesized samples compared to solid-state synthesized sample with a surface area of 1.61 0.02 m2/g. SEM images show a larger particle size for samples synthesized using the solid-state method compared to those synthesized using the citrate gel method.

  5. Sol-Gel Synthesis of KVII[CrIII(CN)6],2H2O: A Crystalline Molecule-Based Magnet with a Magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    of VII(OTf)2 9 with [NEt4]3- [CrIII (CN)6]10 under anaerobic conditions affords a dark blue gel after(ethyl)ammonium, NEt4 + .6-8 These counterions were initially chosen because they are too large to be incorporated to afford VII[CrIII(CN)6]0.66,3.5H2O,0.1[NEt4][OTf] (1).11 Addition of alkali metal cations to the reaction

  6. Stimuli-Responsive Smart Gels Realized via Modular Protein Design Tijana Z. Grove,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regan, Lynne

    Stimuli-Responsive Smart Gels Realized via Modular Protein Design Tijana Z. Grove, Chinedum O 26, 2010; E-mail: lynne.regan@yale.edu Abstract: Smart gels have a variety of applications, including that permits the creation of protein-based smart gels with encoded morphology, functionality

  7. Conformal chemically resistant coatings for microflow devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A.; Zdeblick, Mark

    2003-05-13

    A process for coating the inside surfaces of silicon microflow devices, such as electrophoresis microchannels, with a low-stress, conformal (uniform) silicon nitride film which has the ability to uniformly coat deeply-recessed cavities with, for example, aspect ratios of up to 40:1 or higher. The silicon nitride coating allows extended exposure to caustic solutions. The coating enables a microflow device fabricated in silicon to be resistant to all classes of chemicals: acids, bases, and solvents. The process involves low-pressure (vacuum) chemical vapor deposition. The ultra-low-stress silicon nitride deposition process allows 1-2 .mu.m thick films without cracks, and so enables extended chemical protection of a silicon microflow device against caustics for up to 1 year. Tests have demonstrated the resistance of the films to caustic solutions at both ambient and elevated temperatures to 65.degree. C.

  8. Conformal coating of highly structured surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S.; Perkins, John; Berry, Joseph; Gennett, Thomas

    2012-12-11

    Method of applying a conformal coating to a highly structured substrate and devices made by the disclosed methods are disclosed. An example method includes the deposition of a substantially contiguous layer of a material upon a highly structured surface within a deposition process chamber. The highly structured surface may be associated with a substrate or another layer deposited on a substrate. The method includes depositing a material having an amorphous structure on the highly structured surface at a deposition pressure of equal to or less than about 3 mTorr. The method may also include removing a portion of the amorphous material deposited on selected surfaces and depositing additional amorphous material on the highly structured surface.

  9. Conformally Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Matt

    2015-01-01

    In a universe where, according to the standard cosmological models, some 97% of the total mass-energy is still "missing in action" it behooves us to spend at least a little effort critically assessing and exploring radical alternatives. Among possible, (dare we say plausible), nonstandard but superficially viable models, those spacetimes conformal to the standard Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker class of cosmological models play a very special role --- these models have the unique and important property of permitting large non-perturbative geometric deviations from Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology without unacceptably distorting the cosmic microwave background. Performing a "cosmographic" analysis, (that is, temporarily setting aside the Einstein equations, since the question of whether or not the Einstein equations are valid on galactic and cosmological scales is essentially the same question as whether or not dark matter/dark energy actually exist), and using both supernova data and informat...

  10. RCRA facility stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The RCRA Facility Stabilization Initiative was developed as a means of implementing the Corrective Action Program`s management goals recommended by the RIS for stabilizing actual or imminent releases from solid waste management units that threaten human health and the environment. The overall goal of stabilization is to, as situations warrant, control or abate threats to human health and/or the environment from releases at RCRA facilities, and/or to prevent or minimize the further spread of contamination while long-term remedies are pursued. The Stabilization initiative is a management philosophy and should not be confused with stabilization technologies.

  11. MPhil initiatives summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-07-13

    stream_source_info CMI MPhil Initiatives.doc.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3755 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name CMI MPhil Initiatives.doc.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 CMI Summary of MPhil... 2003) Sustainable development for large infrastructure projects (50% input from CU, 50% from MIT) Planning for sustainable development (MIT course tailored for CU) Sustainable energy (MIT course tailored for CU) Design for developing countries (MIT...

  12. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  13. Initiatives | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR0987P UncertaintyInitiatives Initiatives Through

  14. Direct visualization of flow-induced conformational transitions of single actin filaments in entangled solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inka Kirchenbuechler; Donald Guu; Nicholas A. Kurniawan; Gijsje H. Koenderink; M. Paul Lettinga

    2015-01-09

    While semi-flexible polymers and fibers are an important class of material due to their rich mechanical properties, it remains unclear how these properties relate to the microscopic conformation of the polymers. Actin filaments constitute an ideal model polymer system due to their micron-sized length and relatively high stiffness that allow imaging at the single filament level. Here we study the effect of entanglements on the conformational dynamics of actin filaments in shear flow. We directly measure the full three-dimensional conformation of single actin filaments, using confocal microscopy in combination with a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell. We show that initially entangled filaments form disentangled orientationally ordered hairpins, confined in the flow-vorticity plane. In addition, shear flow causes stretching and shear alignment of the hairpin tails, while the filament length distribution remains unchanged. These observations explain the strain-softening and shear-thinning behavior of entangled F-actin solutions, which aids the understanding of the flow behavior of complex fluids containing semi-flexible polymers.

  15. Testing for a Conformance Relation Based on Acceptance*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Bochmann, Gregor

    Testing for a Conformance Relation Based on Acceptance* MingYu Yao and Gregorv. Bochmann D6 been gaining wide popularity in recent years, little work has been done on how to test object- oriented will also play important roles during the testing phase. In this paper, we propose a conformance testing

  16. CONFORMAL WELDING AND KOEBE'S THEOREM CHRISTOPHER J. BISHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, Christopher

    CONFORMAL WELDING AND KOEBE'S THEOREM CHRISTOPHER J. BISHOP Abstract. It is well known that not every orientation preserving homeomorphism of the circle to itself is a conformal welding, but in this paper we prove several results which state that every homeomorphism is \\almost" a welding in a precise

  17. de Sitter gravity/Euclidean conformal gravity correspondence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Atreya

    2015-01-01

    The holographic dual of a gravitational theory around the de Sitter background is argued to be a Euclidean conformal gravity theory in one fewer dimensions. The measure for the holographic theory naturally includes a sum over topologies as well as conformal structures.

  18. Conformal Transformations in Metric-Affine Gravity and Ghosts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canan N. Karahan; Oktay Dogangun; Durmus A. Demir

    2012-05-20

    Conformal transformations play a widespread role in gravity theories in regard to their cosmological and other implications. In the pure metric theory of gravity, conformal transformations change the frame to a new one wherein one obtains a conformal-invariant scalar-tensor theory such that the scalar field, deriving from the conformal factor, is a ghost. In this work, conformal transformations and ghosts will be analyzed in the framework of the metric-affine theory of gravity. Within this framework, metric and connection are independent variables, and hence, transform independently under conformal transformations. It will be shown that, if affine connection is invariant under conformal transformations then the scalar field under concern is a non-ghost, non-dynamical field. It is an auxiliary field at the classical level, and might develop a kinetic term at the quantum level. Alternatively, if connection transforms additively with a structure similar to yet more general than that of the Levi-Civita connection, the resulting action describes the gravitational dynamics correctly, and more importantly, the scalar field becomes a dynamical non-ghost field. The equations of motion, for generic geometrical and matter-sector variables, do not reduce connection to the Levi-Civita connection, and hence, independence of connection from metric is maintained. Therefore, metric-affine gravity provides an arena in which ghosts arising from conformal factor are avoided thanks to the independence of connection from the metric.

  19. Utilizing Structured Representations and CSPs in Conformant Probabilistic Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bacchus, Fahiem

    Utilizing Structured Representations and CSPs in Conformant Probabilistic Planning Nathanael Hyafil and Fahiem Bacchus1 Abstract. A CSP based algorithm for the conformant probabilistic planning problem (CPP. In this work we revisit this algorithm and develop a version that utilizes a structured representation

  20. Capturing Molecular Energy Landscapes with Probabilistic Conformational Roadmaps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    1 Capturing Molecular Energy Landscapes with Probabilistic Conformational Roadmaps Mehmet Serkan1 and Biochemistry2 Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA Abstract: Probabilistic roadmaps roadmap (PCR) tries to capture the connectivity of the low-energy subset of a conformational space

  1. The Conformal Universe I: Physical and Mathematical Basis of Conformal General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renato Nobili

    2014-12-22

    This is the first of three papers on Conformal General Relativity (CGR), which aims to generalize Einstein's General Relativity (GR) by requiring action-integral invariance under local scale transformations in addition to general coordinate transformations. The theory is constructed in the semiclassical approximation as a preliminary approach to a quantum theoretical implementation. The idea of a conformal extension of GR was advanced by Weyl in 1919 and fully developed by Cartan in the early 1920s. For several decades it had little impact on physics, as CGR implies that all fields have zero mass. Today this does not appear to be an unsurmountable difficulty since we know that mass parameters may result from the spontaneous breakdown of a symmetry. This paper is devoted to introducing the formalism necessary to implement this idea. The implementation of local conformal symmetry is carried out and a number of interesting consequences are reported, in particular: 1) CGR is equivalent to a conformal--invariant field theory equipped with a ghost scalar field of non--zero vacuum expectation value and invested with geometric meaning, here called the dilation field (ghosts are not so fatal to S-matrix unitarity if energy density is bounded from below); 2) the interaction of this field with a physical scalar field results in the production of a Higgs field of dynamically evolving mass which is capable of promoting a huge energy transfer from geometry to matter; 3) CGR is only possible in 4D--spacetime and satisfies the Mach-Einstein principle in the form clarified by G\\"ursey in 1963.

  2. Sustainability Initiative Executive Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Executive Summary October 2010 #12;2 We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

  3. Initiative for Explosives Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electromagnetic radiation, or to detect with currently fielded technologies. Approaches to improving detectionInitiative for Explosives Detection Highly Concealed Bulk Explosives Detection This focus area emphasizes the detection of explosives or IEDs hidden in vehicles, buildings or various types of containers

  4. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  5. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  6. BRAZIL RESEARCH INITIATIVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    BRAZIL RESEARCH INITIATIVES Michigan State University (MSU) identifies Brazil as a global priority and challenges become increasingly part of the U.S.-Brazil agenda, MSU desires partnerships aimed at producing in the U.S. and one in Brazil, to share research strategies and explore joint projects in several research

  7. Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PEM Fuel Cells Carnegie Mellon University Rapid Ab Initio Screening of Ternary Alloys for Hydrogen Production Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Sol-Gel Based Polybenzimidazole...

  8. The spin glass-like dynamics of gelatin gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan Parker; Valery Normand

    2003-06-03

    We show that there are several striking parallels between the dynamics of gelatin gels and spin glasses. In general, glassy systems retain a memory of their past history. A key characteristic differentiating spin glasses from most other glassy systems is that on cooling they appear to "forget" what happened just below the glass transition temperature, but the memory is recovered on heating. We show that gelatin gels also behave in this way. Both systems show critical scaling of the kinetics with temperature and undergo physical aging, that is they never reach equilibrium, but continue to harden indefinitely at a rate which is linear in log(time). The parallels between the dynamics of these two completely different kinds of condensed matter strongly suggest that they share an underlying theory.

  9. Kinetics of bond formation in crosslinked gelatin gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Abete; E. Del Gado; D. Hellio Serughetti; L. de Arcangelis; M. Djabourov; A. Coniglio

    2006-11-07

    In chemical crosslinking of gelatin solutions, two different time scales affect the kinetics of the gel formation in the experiments. We complement the experimental study with Monte Carlo numerical simulations of a lattice model. This approach shows that the two characteristic time scales are related to the formation of single bonds crosslinker-chain and of bridges between chains. In particular their ratio turns out to control the kinetics of the gel formation. We discuss the effect of the concentration of chains. Finally our results suggest that, by varying the probability of forming bridges as an independent parameter, one can finely tune the kinetics of the gelation via the ratio of the two characteristic times.

  10. Amino resin modified polymer gels for permeability control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1989-03-07

    An aqueous cross-linked gel formed by a polysaccharide polymer, an aminoplast resin, and transitional metal ions is described, comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross-linkable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of polysaccharide bipolymers and cellulose derivatives having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the polymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in a formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  11. Substituent effects on the sol-gel chemistry of organotrialkoxysilanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOY, DOUGLAS A.; BAUGHER, BRIGITTA M.; BAUGHER, COLLEEN R.; SCHNEIDER, DUANE A.; RAHIMIAN, KAMYAR

    2000-05-09

    Silsesquioxanes have been the subject of intensive study in the past and are becoming important again as a vehicle for introducing organic functionalities into hybrid organic-inorganic materials through sol-gel processing. Depending on the application, the target hybrid material may be required to be a highly cross-linked, insoluble gel or a soluble polymer that can be cast as a thin film or coating. The former has applications such as catalyst supports and separations media; the latter is an economically important method for surface modification or compatiblization for applying adhesives or introducing fillers. Polysilsesquioxanes are readily prepared through the hydrolysis and condensation of organotrialkoxysilanes, though organotriaminosilane and organotrihalosilane monomers can also be used. This paper explores the kinetics of the preparation route.

  12. Investigation of hydrolysis and condensation in organically modified sol-gel systems: {sup 29}Si NMR and the INEPT sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, T.M.; Assink, R.A.; Loy, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The spectral editing properties of the {sup 29}Si NMR INEPT heteronuclear transfer experiment have been utilized for the identification and characterization of hydrolysis and initial condensation products in methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) sol-gel materials. {sup 29}Si NMR assignments in MTMS are complicated by a small spectral dispersion ({approximately} 0.5 ppm) and two different {sup 29}Si-{sup 1}H J couplings. By using analytical expressions for the INEPT signal response with multiple heteronuclear J couplings, unambiguous spectral assignments can be made. For this organomethoxysilane the rate of hydrolysis was found to be very rapid and significantly faster than either the water or alcohol producing condensation reactions. The hydrolysis species of both the MTMS monomer and its initial T{sup 1} condensation products follow statistical distributions that can be directly related to the extent of the hydrolysis reactions. The role of the statistical distribution of hydrolysis products on the production and synthetic control of organically modified sol-gels is discussed.

  13. Klutts 4/2004 Coomassie Staining of Protein Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doering, Tamara

    Rad catalog number 161-0786. Bio-Safe Coomassie: 1. Wash your gel for 10 minutes in water to remove SDS destain in water for an extended period (overnight, or even over a couple days). It might not help muchO and 50µL of 37% formaldehyde B. ~200mL of 50% Ethanol (in water) C. 100mL of a solution containing

  14. Synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticle by sol-gel technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, H. S.; Ahmad, A.; Hamzah, H. [School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticle is synthesized using sol-gel technique. Various mole ratio of ammonia solution and nitric acid relative to zirconium propoxide is added in the reaction to study the effect on the crystallinity and particle size on zirconium oxide particle. Zirconium oxide synthesized with nitric acid have the smallest particle size under FESEM image and show the increasing formation of crystalline tetragonal phase under XRD diffractogram.

  15. Stable, concentrated solutions of polyaniline using amines as gel inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Tesuque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high-molecular weight polyaniline using amines as gel inhibitors. Certain amine compounds (gel inhibitors) are used to form highly concentrated, stable solutions of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline in numerous organic solvents from which coatings, films and fibers are readily prepared without problems associated with rapid gelation which occurs when concentrated solutions are attempted without the use of the gel inhibitors of the present invention. Tertiary amines are used to solubilize low-molecular weight fractions (M.sub.w <120,000, M.sub.n <30,000) of the pernigraniline, emeraldine, and leucoemeraldine oxidation states of polyaniline as concentrated (>20 wt. %) polyaniline solutions, while primary and secondary amines are used to produce solutions having 15-40 wt % of high-molecular weight polyaniline [M.sub.w.gtoreq.120,000, M.sub.n.gtoreq.30,000]. Concentrated solutions of polyaniline co-polymers or ring and/or nitrogen-substituted polyanilines may also be prepared.

  16. IMPROVED APPROACHES TO DESIGN OF POLYMER GEL TREATMENTS IN MATURE OIL FIELDS: FIELD DEMONSTRATION IN DICKMAN FIELD, NESS COUNTY, KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Fowler

    2004-11-30

    This report describes the results of the one-year project entitled ''Improved Approaches to Design of Polymer Gel Treatments in Mature Oil Fields: Field Demonstration in Dickman Field, Ness County, Kansas''. The project was a 12-month collaboration of Grand Mesa Operating Company (a small independent), TIORCO Inc. (a company focused on improved recovery technology) and the University of Kansas. The study undertook tasks to determine an optimum polymer gel treatment design in Mississippian reservoirs, demonstrate application, and evaluate the success of the program. The project investigated geologic and engineering parameters and cost-effective technologies required for design and implementation of effective polymer gel treatment programs in the Mississippian reservoir in the Midcontinent. The majority of Mississippian production in Kansas occurs at or near the top of the Mississippian section just below the regional sub-Pennsylvanian unconformity and karst surface. Dickman Field with the extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors is typical of Mississippian reservoirs. Producibility problems in these reservoirs include inadequate reservoir characterization, drilling and completion design problems, and most significantly extremely high water cuts and low recovery factors that place continued operations at or near their economic limits. Geologic, geophysical and engineering data were integrated to provide a technical foundation for candidate selection and treatment design. Data includes core, engineering data, and 3D seismic data. Based on technical and economic considerations a well was selected for gel-polymer treatment (Grand Mesa Operating Company Tilley No.2). The treatment was not successful due to the small amount of polymer that could be injected. Data from the initial well and other candidates in the demonstration area was analyzed using geologic, geophysical and engineering data. Based on the results of the treatment and the integrated reservoir characterization it was determined that a second polymer-gel treatment could not be justified. The Mississippian reservoir at Dickman Field is much more complex than originally anticipated with numerous reservoir compartments and potential attic oil beneath the irregular Mississippian karst. It appears that remaining oil in place could be best recovered using improved oil recovery techniques such as target infill drilling and horizontal wells.

  17. Microstructure and nonlinear signatures of yielding in a heterogeneous colloidal gel under large amplitude oscillatory shear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Juntae; Helgeson, Matthew E.; Merger, Dimitri; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2014-09-01

    We investigate yielding in a colloidal gel that forms a heterogeneous structure, consisting of a two-phase bicontinuous network of colloid-rich domains of fractal clusters and colloid-poor domains. Combining large amplitude oscillatory shear measurements with simultaneous small and ultra-small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS/USANS), we characterize both the nonlinear mechanical processes and strain amplitude-dependent microstructure underlying yielding. We observe a broad, three-stage yielding process that evolves over an order of magnitude in strain amplitude between the onset of nonlinearity and flow. Analyzing the intracycle response as a sequence of physical processes reveals a transition from elastic straining to elastoplastic thinning (which dominates in region I) and eventually yielding (which evolves through region II) and flow (which saturates in region III), and allows quantification of instantaneous nonlinear parameters associated with yielding. These measures exhibit significant strain rate amplitude dependence above a characteristic frequency, which we argue is governed by poroelastic effects. Correlating these results with time-averaged rheo-USANS measurements reveals that the material passes through a cascade of structural breakdown from large to progressively smaller length scales. In region I, compression of the fractal domains leads to the formation of large voids. In regions II and III, cluster-cluster correlations become increasingly homogeneous, suggesting breakage and eventually depercolation of intercluster bonds at the yield point. All significant structural changes occur on the micron-scale, suggesting that large-scale rearrangements of hundreds or thousands of particles, rather than the homogeneous rearrangement of particle-particle bonds, dominate the initial yielding of heterogeneous colloidal gels.

  18. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 233 (2004) 145153 Solgel transition study and pyrolysis of alumina-based gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    2004-01-01

    and pyrolysis of alumina-based gels prepared from alumatrane precursor Bussarin Ksapabutra, Erdogan Gularib

  19. Aero-Sol-Gel (ASG) Reactor For Nano-Powder Synthesis G. Beaucage, J. Hyeon-Lee, D. J. Kohls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Aero-Sol-Gel (ASG) Reactor For Nano-Powder Synthesis G. Beaucage, J. Hyeon-Lee, D. J. Kohls-structured oxides where sol- gel reactions are carried out in aerosol droplets. This aero-sol-gel reactor (ASG-scale structure and high specific surface areas (100 to 700 m2 /g) [1, 2]. This aero-sol- gel reactor (ASG

  20. Molding of Three-Dimensional Microstructures of Gels Min D. Tang, Andrew P. Golden, and Joe Tien*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, Joe

    Molding of Three-Dimensional Microstructures of Gels Min D. Tang, Andrew P. Golden, and Joe Tien for microfabrication of gels: the use of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps to mold, release, and stack gels into 3D structures, and the use of surface modification to promote the release or adhesion of molded gels

  1. Jordan cells in logarithmic limits of conformal field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorgen Rasmussen

    2006-11-25

    It is discussed how a limiting procedure of conformal field theories may result in logarithmic conformal field theories with Jordan cells of arbitrary rank. This extends our work on rank-two Jordan cells. We also consider the limits of certain three-point functions and find that they are compatible with known results. The general construction is illustrated by logarithmic limits of (unitary) minimal models in conformal field theory. Characters of quasi-rational representations are found to emerge as the limits of the associated irreducible Virasoro characters.

  2. Non-relativistic conformal symmetries in fluid mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. -M. Zhang; P. A. Horvathy

    2009-10-24

    The symmetries of a free incompressible fluid span the Galilei group, augmented with independent dilations of space and time. When the fluid is compressible, the symmetry is enlarged to the expanded Schroedinger group, which also involves, in addition, Schroedinger expansions. While incompressible fluid dynamics can be derived as an appropriate non-relativistic limit of a conformally-invariant relativistic theory, the recently discussed Conformal Galilei group, obtained by contraction from the relativistic conformal group, is not a symmetry. This is explained by the subtleties of the non-relativistic limit.

  3. The Statistical Model with Interpartial Scalar Conformally Invariant Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat'ev, Yurii

    2015-01-01

    A closed mathematical model of the statistical self-gravitating system of scalar charged particles for conformal invariant scalar interactions is constructed on the basis of relativistic kinetics and gravitation theory. Asymptotic properties of the model are investigated in the ultrarelativistic limit. It is shown, that scalar charge density automatically generates scalar field effective mass and the value of this mass is found. In the paper it is proved the asymptotic conformal invariance of constitutive equations in case of homogenous isotropic Universe. Also it is proved the asymptotic conformal invariance of field equations at the early stages of cosmological evolution.

  4. Through bulkhead initiator studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D.R.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes recent work done to demonstrate feasibility of a fail-safe Through Bulkhead Initiator with minimum dimensions and suitable for use in cyclical thermal environments. Much of the ground work for a fail-safe TBI was previously done by A.C. Schwartz. This study is an expansion of Schwartz`s work to evaluate devices with bulkheads of 304 stainless steel and Inconel 718; explosive donors of PETN, BNCP, and a 0.005 inch thick steel flying plate donor traveling at 2.6 mm/{micro}s; and explosive acceptors of PETN and BNCP. Bulkhead thickness were evaluated in the range of 0.040 to 0.180 inch. The explosive acceptors initiated a small HMX pellet to drive a 0.005 inch thick steel flying plate, and VISAR histories of the HMX-driven flying plates were the measure of acceptable performance. A companion set of samples used a PMMA acceptor to measure the particle velocities at the bulkhead/PMMA interface with VISAR. These data were used to compute the input pressure to the acceptor explosives in an attempt to measure initiation threshold. Unfortunately, the range of bulkhead thicknesses tested did not give any failures, thus the threshold was not determined. It was found that either explosive or the flying plate would perform as a TBI in the bulkhead thickness range tested. The optimum TBI is about 0.060 inches thick, and steel bulkheads seem to be more structurally sound than those made of Inconel. That is, cross section views of the Inconel bulkheads showed it to be more prone to stress cracking than was the 304 stainless steel. Both PETN and BNCP showed good performance when tested at {minus}65 F following thermal cycling of {minus}65 F to +165 F. Analysis of the TBI function times showed that BNCP acceptor explosives were undergoing the classical deflagration to detonation process. The PETN acceptors were undergoing prompt detonation.

  5. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  6. UNLV Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hechanova, Anthony E.; Johnson, Allen; O'Toole, Brendan; Trabia, Mohamed; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-25

    Evaluation of the Crack growth rate (CGR) of Alloy 617 and Alloy 276 under constant K at ambient temperature has been completed. Creep deformation of Alloy 230 at different temperature range and load level has been completed and heat to heat variation has been noticed. Creep deformation study of Alloy 276 has been completed under an applied initial stress level of 10% of yield stress at 950ºC. The grain size evaluation of the tested creep specimens of Alloy 276 has been completed.

  7. Feedback stabilization initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Much progress has been made in attaining high confinement regimes in magnetic confinement devices. These operating modes tend to be transient, however, due to the onset of MHD instabilities, and their stabilization is critical for improved performance at steady state. This report describes the Feedback Stabilization Initiative (FSI), a broad-based, multi-institutional effort to develop and implement methods for raising the achievable plasma betas through active MHD feedback stabilization. A key element in this proposed effort is the Feedback Stabilization Experiment (FSX), a medium-sized, national facility that would be specifically dedicated to demonstrating beta improvement in reactor relevant plasmas by using a variety of MHD feedback stabilization schemes.

  8. 2006 Initial Allocation Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentataboutScalablePhysicist:Possible6 Awards 2006 Initial

  9. Asset Revitalization Initiative ARI

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u tCorporationIt's Potential from Tidal StreamsInitiative (

  10. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  11. Increasing Stability Reduces Conformational Heterogeneity in a Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Increasing Stability Reduces Conformational Heterogeneity in a Protein Folding Intermediate, the results show that protein folding intermediates are ensembles of different structural forms direct experi- mental evidence in support of a basic tenet of energy landscape theory for protein folding

  12. FXR agonist activity of conformationally constrained analogs of GW 4064

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akwabi-Ameyaw, Adwoa; Bass, Jonathan Y.; Caldwell, Richard D.; Caravella, Justin A.; Chen, Lihong; Creech, Katrina L.; Deaton, David N.; Madauss, Kevin P.; Marr, Harry B.; McFadyen, Robert B.; Miller, Aaron B.; Navas, III, Frank; Parks, Derek J.; Spearing, Paul K.; Todd, Dan; Williams, Shawn P.; Wisely, G. Bruce

    2010-09-27

    Two series of conformationally constrained analogs of the FXR agonist GW 4064 1 were prepared. Replacement of the metabolically labile stilbene with either benzothiophene or naphthalene rings led to the identification of potent full agonists 2a and 2g.

  13. N=2 String as a Topological Conformal Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Gomis; H. Suzuki

    1991-11-28

    We prove that critical and subcritical N=2 string theory gives a realization of an N=2 superfield extension of the topological conformal algebra. The essential observation is the vanishing of the background charge.

  14. Check of AGT Relation for Conformal Blocks on Sphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Alba; And. Morozov

    2010-06-15

    The AGT conjecture identifying conformal blocks with the Nekrasov functions is investigated for the spherical conformal blocks with more than 4 external legs. The diagram technique which arises in conformal block calculation involves propagators and vertices. We evaluated vertices with two Virasoro algebra descendants and explicitly checked the AGT relation up to the third order of the expansion for the 5-point and 6-point conformal blocks on sphere confirming all the predictions of arXiv:0906.3219 relevant in this situation. We propose that U(1)-factor can be extracted from the matrix elements of the free field Vertex operators. We studied the n-point case, and found out that our results confirm the AGT conjecture up to the third order expansions.

  15. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  16. Precision flyer initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  17. Precision flyer initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Alan M. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  18. SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, K.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

  19. Structural Insight into pH-Induced Conformational Changes within the Native Human Transthyretin Tetramer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palaninathan, Satheesh K.; Mohamedmohaideen, Nilofar N.; Snee, William C.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Sacchettini, James C. (TAM); (Scripps)

    2008-09-18

    Acidification of the transthyretin (TTR) tetramer facilitates dissociation and conformational changes in the protein, allowing alternatively folded monomers to self-assemble into insoluble amyloid fibers by a downhill polymerization mechanism in vitro. To investigate the influence of acidification on the quaternary and tertiary structures of TTR, crystal structures of wild-type human TTR at pH 4.0 and pH 3.5 have been determined to 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The acidic pH crystals are isomorphous to most of the previously reported TTR structures, containing two subunits in the asymmetric unit (the so-called A and B subunits) but forming a tetramer through crystallographic symmetry. The pH 4.0 crystal structure reveals that the native fold of the tetramer remains mostly undisturbed. In particular, subunit A of the TTR pH 4.0 structure is very similar to the wild-type TTR pH 7.4 structure with an r.m.s.d. of 0.38 {angstrom}. In contrast, subunit B of the TTR pH 4.0 structure exhibits several significant changes. The EF-helix (residues 75-81) and the adjacent EF-loop (residues 82-90) show an r.m.s.d. greater than 2.0 {angstrom}. The acidic residues within this region (Glu72, Asp74, Glu89, and Glu92) undergo significant conformational changes that instigate movement of the EF helix-loop region and make residues Lys70, Lys76, His88, and His90 orient their side chains toward these acidic residues. In particular, Glu89 undergoes a maximum deviation of 5.6 {angstrom}, occupying Phe87's initial position in the wild-type TTR pH 7.4 structure, and points its side chain into a hydrophobic pocket of the neighboring subunit. In the pH 3.5 structure, the EF helix-loop region is completely disordered. These results demonstrate that acidic conditions increase the susceptibility of the EF helix-loop region of the TTR B subunit to undergo conformational changes and unfold, likely destabilizing the tetramer and identifying at least the initial conformational changes likely occurring within the tetramer that leads to the amyloidogenic monomer.

  20. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, J.

    1998-12-08

    This research provides a structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads. 7 figs.

  1. Structurally stable gel bead containing entrapped enzyme and method for manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A structurally stable gel bead containing an entrapped enzyme and a method for its manufacture. The enzyme is covalently cross-linked to gelatin in the presence of glutaraldehyde prior to the formation of the gel bead, to prevent leakage of the enzyme. Propylene glycol alginate is then added to the mixture. Once the gel beads are formed, they are then soaked in glutaraldehyde, which imparts structural stability to the gel beads. This method can be used with many types of enzymes, such as proteases, carbohydrases, proteases, ligases, isomerases, oxidoreductases, and specialty enzymes. These and other enzymes can be immobilized in the gel beads and utilized in a number of enzymatic processes. Exogenously added ions are not required to maintain the structural stability of these gel beads.

  2. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  3. The adiabatic adsorption-desorption characteristics of silica gel beds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, James Marshall

    1979-01-01

    -desorpt1on characteristics of silica gel beds are i nvest1gated . The mathematical equations that descry 1 be desiccant bed behav1or are formulated and solved numer1cally us1ng f1nite difference methods. The equat1ons are derived such that both... of the finite d1fference program. The functional relationships are sufficiently accurate for most design purposes, and are r ead1 ly adaptable for use 1 n parametric studies of desiccant air condi t1 on1ng systems . DEDICATION Dedicated to My Parents...

  4. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) |productionPatent: FreeformArticle)Gamma sourceReport) |andGel polymer

  5. Solventless sol-gel chemistry through ring-opening polymerization of bridged disilaoxacyclopentanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.

    2000-04-04

    Disilaoxacyclopentanes have proven to be excellent precursors to sol-gel type materials. These materials have shown promise as precursors for encapsulation and microelectronics applications. The polymers are highly crosslinked and are structurally similar to traditional sol-gels, but unlike typical sol-gels they are prepared without the use of solvents and water, they have low VOC's and show little shrinkage during processing.

  6. Summary of tests made to check conformity of prototype PAM's, readers and chargers with specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moy, B; Stevenson, G R

    1975-01-01

    Summary of tests made to check conformity of prototype PAM's, readers and chargers with specifications

  7. Structure, Mechanism and Applications of Sol-Gel Clad Fiber-Optic Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fellows Olteanu, Marta Sarah

    2010-01-01

    network. On the other hand, an aerogel forms when wet gel isdensity silica monoliths (aerogels) by hypercritical pointdrying, a low density aerogel is produced. On the other

  8. Cytocompatible gel formation of chitosan-glycerol phosphate solutions supplemented with hydroxyl ethyl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Michael

    Cytocompatible gel formation of chitosan-glycerol phosphate solutions supplemented with hydroxyl and sequence are vari- able. The primary amine on glucosamine imparts a polycationic character and permits

  9. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact associated with biomass usage, an understanding of forest management trends including harvesting and fuel processing methods, and the carbon profile of utilizing forest based woody biomass for the emerging biomass markets. Each of the tasks and subtasks have provided an increased level of understanding to support new directives, policies and adaptation of existing regulations within Massachusetts. The project has provided the essential information to allow state policymakers and regulators to address emerging markets, while ensuring forest sustainability and understanding the complex science on CO2 accounting and impacts as a result of biomass harvesting for power generation. The public at large and electricity ratepayers in Massachusetts will all benefit from the information garnered through this project. This is a result of the state’s interest to provide financial incentives to only biomass projects that demonstrate an acceptable carbon profile, an efficient use of the constrained supply of fuel, and the harvest of biomass to ensure forest sustainability. The goals of the Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative as proposed in 2006 were identified as: increase the diversity of the Massachusetts energy mix through biomass; promote economic development in the rural economy through forest industry job creation; help fulfill the state’s energy and climate commitments under the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard and Climate Protection Plan; assist the development of a biomass fuel supply infrastructure to support energy project demands; provide education and outreach to the public on the benefits and impacts of bioenergy; improve the theory and practice of sustainable forestry in the Commonwealth. Completed project activities summarized below will demonstrate the effectiveness of the project in meeting the above goals. In addition, as discussed above, Massachusetts DOER needed to make some modifications to its work plan and objectives during the term of this project due to changing public policy demands brought forth in the course of the public discours

  10. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, John McCloskey, Jay Douglas, Trevor Young, Mark Snyder, Stuart Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy'Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4 will determine how fuel cells Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?taken as systems behave over periods of time that should show how their reformers and other subsystems deteriorate with time.

  11. Digital Library Initiative Rice University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Digital Library Initiative Rice University Project Management General guidelines for digital projects Contact: dli (at) rice (dot) edu October, 2007 #12;Digital Library Initiative, Rice University................................................................................................8 #12;Guidelines for managing digital projects Page 2 STATEMENT OF PURPOSE We recognized

  12. Facilitated diffusion framework for transcription factor search with conformational changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jérôme Cartailler; Jürgen Reingruber

    2015-07-09

    Cellular responses often require the fast activation or repression of specific genes, which depends on Transcription Factors (TFs) that have to quickly find the promoters of these genes within a large genome. Transcription Factors (TFs) search for their DNA promoter target by alternating between bulk diffusion and sliding along the DNA, a mechanism known as facilitated diffusion. We study a facilitated diffusion framework with switching between three search modes: a bulk mode and two sliding modes triggered by conformational changes between two protein conformations. In one conformation (search mode) the TF interacts unspecifically with the DNA backbone resulting in fast sliding. In the other conformation (recognition mode) it interacts specifically and strongly with DNA base pairs leading to slow displacement. From the bulk, a TF associates with the DNA at a random position that is correlated with the previous dissociation point, which implicitly is a function of the DNA structure. The target affinity depends on the conformation. We derive exact expressions for the mean first passage time (MFPT) to bind to the promoter and the conditional probability to bind before detaching when arriving at the promoter site. We systematically explore the parameter space and compare various search scenarios. We compare our results with experimental data for the dimeric Lac repressor search in E.Coli bacteria. We find that a coiled DNA conformation is absolutely necessary for a fast MFPT. With frequent spontaneous conformational changes, a fast search time is achieved even when a TF becomes immobilized in the recognition state due to the specific bindings. We find a MFPT compatible with experimental data in presence of a specific TF-DNA interaction energy that has a Gaussian distribution with a large variance.

  13. Oklahoma GSHP Initiative Jim Bullington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10/1/2012 1 Oklahoma GSHP Initiative Jim Bullington Trade & Industrial Education Oklahoma the Oklahoma CareerTech GSHP Initiative Model · Provide my contact information for you to share with your and Technical Education · Encourage you to contact them to get an initiative rolling Who is Oklahoma Career

  14. Evaluation of Addition of Alkaline Solutions on Overall Quality and Functionality of Normal and Pale, Soft, and Exudative (PSE) Pork Gels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garza, Sonia Yvette

    2011-02-22

    . As treatment levels increased, gels had higher pH, and lower L*, a*, and b* values. SP gels had lower pH, WHC, cook yields, and higher L*, a*, b*, and TPA values compared to PB, SB, PC, and SC gels. PC and SC gels had higher cook yields than normal control gels...

  15. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.

    1998-01-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column. 1 fig.

  16. Apparatus and method for the production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the large-scale and continuous production of gel beads containing a biocatalyst. The apparatus is a columnar system based on the chemical cross-linking of hydrocolloidal gels that contain and immobilize a biocatalyst, the biocatalyst being a microorganism or an enzyme. Hydrocolloidal gels, such as alginate, carrageenan, and a mixture of bone gelatin and modified alginate, provide immobilization matrices that can be used to entrap and retain the biocatalyst while allowing effective contact with substrates and release of products. Such immobilized biocatalysts are generally formulated into small spheres or beads that have high concentrations of the biocatalyst within the gel matrix. The columnar system includes a gel dispersion nozzle submerged in a heated non-interacting liquid, typically an organic liquid, that is immiscible with water to allow efficient formation of spherical gel droplets, the non-interacting liquid having a specific gravity that is less than water so that the gel droplets will fall through the liquid by the force of gravity. The heated non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with a chilled upflowing non-interacting liquid that will provide sufficient residence time for the gel droplets as they fall through the liquid so that they will be cooled below the gelling temperature and form solid spheres. The upflowing non-interacting liquid is in direct contact with an upflowing temperature-controlled aqueous solution containing the necessary chemicals for cross-linking or fixing of the gel beads to add the necessary stability. The flow rates of the two liquid streams can be varied to control the proper residence time in each liquid section to accommodate the production of gel beads of differing settling velocities. A valve is provided for continuous removal of the stabilized gel beads from the bottom of the column.

  17. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

  18. Structure of the protein core of translation initiation factor 2 in apo, GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonetti, Angelita; Fabbretti, Attilio; Hazemann, Isabelle; Jenner, Lasse; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structures of the eubacterial translation initiation factor 2 in apo form and with bound GDP and GTP reveal conformational changes upon nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, notably of the catalytically important histidine in the switch II region. Translation initiation factor 2 (IF2) is involved in the early steps of bacterial protein synthesis. It promotes the stabilization of the initiator tRNA on the 30S initiation complex (IC) and triggers GTP hydrolysis upon ribosomal subunit joining. While the structure of an archaeal homologue (a/eIF5B) is known, there are significant sequence and functional differences in eubacterial IF2, while the trimeric eukaryotic IF2 is completely unrelated. Here, the crystal structure of the apo IF2 protein core from Thermus thermophilus has been determined by MAD phasing and the structures of GTP and GDP complexes were also obtained. The IF2–GTP complex was trapped by soaking with GTP in the cryoprotectant. The structures revealed conformational changes of the protein upon nucleotide binding, in particular in the P-loop region, which extend to the functionally relevant switch II region. The latter carries a catalytically important and conserved histidine residue which is observed in different conformations in the GTP and GDP complexes. Overall, this work provides the first crystal structure of a eubacterial IF2 and suggests that activation of GTP hydrolysis may occur by a conformational repositioning of the histidine residue.

  19. Transient stress evolution and crystallization in laser-irradiated amorphous titania sol-gel films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exarhos, G.J.; Hess, N.J. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Wood, S. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-10-01

    Amorphous TiO{sub 2} sol-gel films are irreversibly transformed to a crystalline anatase phase when heated to temperatures in excess of 575 K or subjected to intense pulsed or CW laser irradiation. The laser-induced transformation is initiated as a result of impurity absorption and subsequent heating, and results in densification and relative changes in compressive stress of the film. Isothermally annealed films exhibit a decrease in compressive stress as crystallization proceeds while an increase in compressive stress followed by a decrease in stress is observed when crystallization is laser-induced. Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the crystallization ingrowth kinetics and is used in this work as a real time probe of both film temperature and localized stress which can be evaluated from shifts in lattice phonon frequencies measured in real time during laser irradiation. The laser not only induces the phase transformation but excites inelastic Raman scattering from which film stress and temperature can be estimated. A second approach for the determination of these parameters requires incorporation of a thin ruby film between the titania and silica substrate. Here, the wavelength shift of the laser-induced ruby fluorescence can be used to quantify interfacial stress; the fluorescence lifetime measurements are used to determine temperature. The advantages and limitations of these techniques for evaluating transient stress and temperature evolution in thin titania films subjected to CW laser irradiation will be discussed.

  20. Project report to STB/UO, Northern New Mexico Community College two- year college initiative: Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the experiences gained in a project involving faculty direct undergraduate research focused on biotechnology and its applications. The biology program at Northern New Mexico Community College has been involved in screening for mutations in human DNA and has developed the ability to perform many standard and advanced molecular biology techniques. Most of these are based around the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and include the use of single strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in the screening for mutant DNA molecules, and the capability to sequence PCR generated fragments of DNA using non-isotopic imaging. At Northern, these activities have a two-fold objective: (1) to bring current molecular biology techniques to the teaching laboratory, and (2) to support the training of minority undergraduates in research areas that stimulate them to pursue advanced degrees in the sciences.

  1. A hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Bernard; Benjamin Doyon

    2015-07-27

    We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the $T\\bar T$ irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing further this approach, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law $t^{-1/2}$, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to $t^{1/3}$.

  2. A hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We develop a hydrodynamic approach to non-equilibrium conformal field theory. We study non-equilibrium steady states in the context of one-dimensional conformal field theory perturbed by the $T\\bar T$ irrelevant operator. By direct quantum computation, we show, to first order in the coupling, that a relativistic hydrodynamic emerges, which is a simple modification of one-dimensional conformal fluids. We show that it describes the steady state and its approach, and we provide the main characteristics of the steady state, which lies between two shock waves. The velocities of these shocks are modified by the perturbation and equal the sound velocities of the asymptotic baths. Pushing further this approach, we are led to conjecture that the approach to the steady state is generically controlled by the power law $t^{-1/2}$, and that the widths of the shocks increase with time according to $t^{1/3}$.

  3. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriele U. Varieschi; Kellie L. Ault

    2015-10-31

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  4. Wormhole geometries in fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varieschi, Gabriele U

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the classic wormhole geometries based on conformal Weyl gravity, rather than standard general relativity. The main characteristics of the resulting traversable wormholes remain the same as in the seminal study by Morris and Thorne, namely, that effective super-luminal motion is a viable consequence of the metric. Improving on previous work on the subject, we show that for particular choices of the shape and redshift functions, the wormhole metric in the context of conformal gravity does not violate the main energy conditions, as was the case of the original solutions. In particular, the resulting geometry does not require the use of exotic matter at or near the wormhole throat. Therefore, if fourth-order conformal Weyl gravity is a correct extension of general relativity, traversable wormholes might become a realistic solution for interstellar travel.

  5. Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinsey, Stephen

    Proton Diffusion and T1 Relaxation in Polyacrylamide Gels: A Unified Approach Using Volume, Tallahassee, Florida Received January 13, 1998 The structure of polyacrylamide gels was studied using proton of the crosslinker concentration were accounted for by introducing the proton par- tition coefficient, Keq , between

  6. AIL Group, GRE, University of Dundee 2014 In-gel digestion of proteins separated by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamond, Angus I.

    AIL Group, GRE, University of Dundee 2014 In-gel digestion of proteins separated by SDS a SILAC IP (NOTE: To improve elution of proteins from beads and to save time during the digestion, we of cysteine-containing peptides from in-gel digests by opening the structure of proteins (disrupting

  7. Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Thermally Stable Gel Polymer Electrolytes Min-Kyu Song,a Young-Taek Kim,a Yong Tae Kim,b Byung Won/polyvinylidene fluoride PEGDA/PVdF blend gel polymer electrolytes, low molecular weight (M 742) liquid PEGDA oligomer was mixed with PVdF-HFP dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate/LiPF6 liquid electrolytes

  8. Measurement of chain tilt angle in fully hydrated bilayers of gel phase lecithins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagle, John F.

    Measurement of chain tilt angle in fully hydrated bilayers of gel phase lecithins S. Tristram angle Otilt of the hydrocarbon chains has been determined for the fully hydrated gel phase of a series hydrocarbon chains, requiring each bilayer to scatter coherently rather than each monolayer. For DPPC, Otilt

  9. Effect of mechanical factors on the function of engineered human blood microvessels in microfluidic collagen gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, Joe

    Effect of mechanical factors on the function of engineered human blood microvessels in microfluidic the barrier function and stability of engineered human microvessels in microfluidic type I collagen gels in microfluidic collagen gels. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Early studies

  10. Efficiency of Solute Release from Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Gels: Electrochemical Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciszkowska, Malgorzata "Maggie"

    Efficiency of Solute Release from Thermoresponsive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Gels and efficiency of release of probe species from thermoresponsive gels due to their volume phase transition that found for the uncharged ferrocene derivative. The larger release efficiency for the charged probes

  11. GEL-FREE ELECTROPHORESIS OF h-AND T2-DNA IN STRUCTURED PDMS MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielefeld, Universität

    which is usually performed in gels or entangled polymer solutions. The need of large amounts of analyte-linked gels or high viscosity polymer solutions in capillaries is not trivial. Furthermore, DNA fragment described in [11. Briefly, a flood exposure unit was used to expose a SU-8 coated S&wafer through a chromium

  12. Helicoidal precipitation patterns in silica and agarose gels Shibi Thomas a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rácz, Zoltán

    Helicoidal precipitation patterns in silica and agarose gels Shibi Thomas a , George Varghese b patterns grown in agarose and silica gels were studied using reaction­diffusion­precipitation processes a complex interplay among the unstable precipitation modes, the motion of the reaction front, and the noise

  13. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  14. Conformation changes and protein folding induced by \\phi^4 interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Januar, M; Handoko, L T; 10.1142/9789814335614_0047

    2011-01-01

    A model to describe the mechanism of conformational dynamics in protein based on matter interactions using lagrangian approach and imposing certain symmetry breaking is proposed. Both conformation changes of proteins and the injected non-linear sources are represented by the bosonic lagrangian with an additional \\phi^4 interaction for the sources. In the model the spring tension of protein representing the internal hydrogen bonds is realized as the interactions between individual amino acids and nonlinear sources. The folding pathway is determined by the strength of nonlinear sources that propagate through the protein backbone. It is also shown that the model reproduces the results in some previous works.

  15. Conformational transitions of a semiflexible polymer in nematic solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akihiko Matsuyama

    2002-12-05

    Conformations of a single semiflexible polymer chain dissolved in a low molecular weight liquid crystalline solvents (nematogens) are examined by using a mean field theory. We takes into account a stiffness and partial orientational ordering of the polymer. As a result of an anisotropic coupling between the polymer and nematogen, we predict a discontinuous (or continuous) phase transition from a condensed-rodlike conformation to a swollen-one of the polymer chain, depending on the stiffness of the polymer. We also discuss the effects of the nematic interaction between polymer segments.

  16. Quantum singularities in static and conformally static space-times

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Konkowski; T. M. Helliwell

    2011-12-22

    The definition of quantum singularity is extended from static space-times to conformally static space-times. After the usual definitions of classical and quantum singularities are reviewed, examples of quantum singularities in static space-times are given. These include asymptotically power-law space-times, space-times with diverging higher-order differential invariants, and a space-time with a 2-sphere singularity. The theory behind quantum singularities in conformally static space-times is followed by an example, a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time with cosmic string. The paper concludes by discussing areas of future research.

  17. Conformally covariant boundary correlation functions with a quantum group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalle Kytölä; Eveliina Peltola

    2014-10-23

    Particular boundary correlation functions of conformal field theory are needed to answer some questions related to random conformally invariant curves known as Schramm-Loewner evolutions (SLE). In this article, we introduce a correspondence and establish its fundamental properties, which are used in companion articles for explicitly solving two such problems. The correspondence associates Coulomb gas type integrals to vectors in a tensor product representation of a quantum group, a q-deformation of the Lie algebra sl2. We show that desired properties of the functions are guaranteed by natural representation theoretical properties of the vectors.

  18. Optical fiber sensor having a sol-gel fiber core and a method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Jindal, Rajeev; Winstead, Christopher; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-06-06

    A simple, economic wet chemical procedure is described for making sol-gel fibers. The sol-gel fibers made from this process are transparent to ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. Light can be guided in these fibers by using an organic polymer as a fiber cladding. Alternatively, air can be used as a low refractive index medium. The sol-gel fibers have a micro pore structure which allows molecules to diffuse into the fiber core from the surrounding environment. Chemical and biochemical reagents can be doped into the fiber core. The sol-gel fiber can be used as a transducer for constructing an optical fiber sensor. The optical fiber sensor having an active sol-gel fiber core is more sensitive than conventional evanescent wave absorption based optical fiber sensors.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of vinyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane sol-gel materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamanaka, S.A.; Carpenter, J.P.; McClain, M.D.; Loy, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Vinyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were formed through the use of sol-gel polymerization methods. Acid- and base-catalyzed samples were prepared from both the pure cis-(l) and pure trans-(2) isomers of 1, 2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethylene. Gelation times of the two isomers were compared. The trans monomer 2 formed gels within a week while the cis monomer I failed to gel-even after several months. Gelation of 1 could be promoted by the addition of a coordinating metal such as palladium. The resulting cis- and trans- vinyl-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were then processed either by vacuum drying to afford xerogels or by extracting with supercritical carbon dioxide to afford aerogels. These vinylbridged polysilsesquioxanes were characterized by SEM, nitrogen sorption porosimetry, solid State {sub 29}Si and {sub 13}C NMR and x-ray powder diffraction.

  20. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

  1. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1988-01-05

    A process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a water flood oil recovery operation wherein the process comprises injecting into the formation a gellable composition is described comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  2. Executive Summary of Initiative Launching a Re-envisioning Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    these public services 1 Message from the University Librarian about the SEL Chemistry Closure, http://blogs.library1 Executive Summary of Initiative Launching a Re-envisioning Initiative The UC Berkeley Library has embarked upon a process to re-envision library services that will result in a new service model

  3. Innovative Manufacturing Initiative Recognition Day

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Innovative Manufacturing Initiative (IMI) Recognition Day (held in Washington, DC on June 20, 2012) showcased IMI projects selected by the Energy Department to help American manufacturers...

  4. Workplace Charging Program and Initiatives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program and Initiatives Evan Kolkos New York Power Authority Clean Energy Technology 2008 All Rights Reserved NYPA: Who We Are * Largest state public power organization in the...

  5. Facilities Initiatives | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    emissions. CURRENT ENERGY REDUCTION INITIATIVES AT DOE HEADQUARTERS Germantown 370 KW Solar Array Forrestal Variable Air Volume HVAC Upgrade Forrestal Central Chiller Plant...

  6. Report: EM Energy Park Initiative

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    To further aid the Assistant Secretary in her efforts to implement the Energy Park Initiative, the EPI Subcommittee offers the following recommendations: Recommendation...

  7. Optimisation of X-ray micro-tomography for the low-dose analysis of highly-dosed gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    introduced the idea of a "polymer gel dosimeter" [1]. In this system, the ionising radiation sets in motion

  8. Conformally Kähler surfaces and orthogonal holomorphic bisectional curvature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mustafa Kalafat; Caner Koca

    2015-04-06

    We show that a compact complex surface which admits a conformally K\\"ahler metric g of positive orthogonal holomorphic bisectional curvature is biholomorphic to the complex projective plane. In addition, if g is a Hermitian metric which is Einstein, then the biholomorphism can be chosen to be an isometry via which g becomes a multiple of the Fubini-Study metric.

  9. Gravity Dual for Cyclic Renormalization Group Flow without Conformal Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu Nakayama

    2011-07-21

    We construct a gravity dual for scale invariant but non-conformal field theories with a cyclic renormalization group flow. A slight modification of our construction gives a gravity dual of discretely scale invariant field theories. The underlying gravitational theory breaks the null energy condition.

  10. Soft lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of nonconforming and conforming contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    Soft lubrication: The elastohydrodynamics of nonconforming and conforming contacts J. M. Skotheim 13 May 2005; published online 2 September 2005 We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft reduced friction, further reductions were possible upon the introduction of a viscous lubricating fluid

  11. Using Protein-Likeness to Validate Conformational Alternatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    in both crystal and NMR structures and showing its suitability for expanding conformational search space- tions. Sixth, using similar tools plus collation of multiple comparable structures from the public database, I determined that low-energy states identified by the popular structure modeling suite Rosetta

  12. Conformal imbeddings of domains Hyvaa paivaa! Maitani Fumio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugawa, Toshiyuki

    inside of , U exterior of unit disk, U unit disk, 1(z) = n=-1 anz-n : U G1, conformal, 2(z) = n=0 bnzn| = |G1|. Hence |a-1|2 = n=1 n(|an|2 + |bn|2 ). Simillary denote 1(z) = n=-1 Anz-n = f 1, 2(z) = n=0

  13. Conformal Structures Admitted by a Class of FRW Cosmologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Threlfall; Susan M. Scott

    2012-12-16

    In this paper we demonstrate that there are large classes of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmologies that admit isotropic conformal structures of Quiescent Cosmology. FRW models have long been known to admit singularities such as Big Bangs and Big Crunches [1, 2] but recently it has been shown that there are other cosmological structures that these solutions contain. These structures are Big Rips, Sudden Singularities and Extremality Events [1, 2]. Within the Quiescent Cosmology framework [3] there also exist structures consistent with a cosmological singularity known as the Isotropic Past Singularity (IPS) [4, 5]. There also exists a cosmological final state known as a Future Isotropic Universe (FIU) [4], which strictly speaking, doesn't fit with the fundamental ideals of Quiescent Cosmology. In this paper, we compare the cosmological events of a large class of FRW solutions to the conformal structures of Quiescent Cosmology [4]. In the first section of this paper we present the relevant background information and our motivation. In the second section of this paper we construct conformal relationships for relevant FRW models. The third section contains a thorough discussion of a class of FRW solutions that cannot represent any of the previously constructed isotropic conformal structures from Quiescent Cosmology. The final section contains our remarks and future outlook for further study of this field.

  14. Water-Peptide Dynamics during Conformational Transitions Dmitry Nerukh*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nerukh, Dmitry

    Water-Peptide Dynamics during Conformational Transitions Dmitry Nerukh*, and Sergey Karabasov are investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulation with explicit water molecules. The distribution of the surrounding water at different moments before the transitions and the dynamical correlations of water

  15. SYMMETRIC NON-CONFORMING MIXED FINITE ELEMENTS FOR LINEAR ELASTICITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzmán, Johnny

    . However, stress elements are difficult to design due to two requirements. First, due to conservation finite elements satisfying both these requirements have been designed in [1, 8, 4, 3]. But the mainSYMMETRIC NON-CONFORMING MIXED FINITE ELEMENTS FOR LINEAR ELASTICITY J. GOPALAKRISHNAN AND J. GUZM

  16. CONFORMAL BLOCKS, FUSION RULES AND THE VERLINDE FORMULA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauville, Arnaud

    CONFORMAL BLOCKS, FUSION RULES AND THE VERLINDE FORMULA Arnaud Beauville Abstract. A Rational the dimension of these vector spaces. For some particular RCFTs associated to a compact Lie group G (the WZW of the spaces are encoded in a finite-dimensional Z-algebra, the fusion ring of the theory; everything can

  17. Is the Standard Model saved asymptotically by conformal symmetry?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gorsky; A. Mironov; A. Morozov; T. N. Tomaras

    2014-10-02

    It is pointed out that the top-quark and Higgs masses and the Higgs VEV satisfy with great accuracy the relations 4m_H^2=2m_T^2=v^2, which are very special and reminiscent of analogous ones at Argyres - Douglas points with enhanced conformal symmetry. Furthermore, the RG evolution of the corresponding Higgs self-interaction and Yukawa couplings \\lambda(0)=1/8 and y(0)=1 leads to the free-field stable point \\lambda(M_Pl)= \\dot \\lambda(M_Pl)=0 in the pure scalar sector at the Planck scale, also suggesting enhanced conformal symmetry. Thus, it is conceivable that the Standard Model is the low-energy limit of a distinct special theory with (super?) conformal symmetry at the Planck scale. In the context of such a "scenario" one may further speculate that the Higgs particle is the Goldstone boson of (partly) spontaneously broken conformal symmetry. This would simultaneously resolve the hierarchy and Landau pole problems in the scalar sector and would provide a nearly flat potential with two almost degenerate minima at the electroweak and Planck scales.

  18. Slit Map : Conformal Parameterization for Multiply Connected Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Xiaotian "Tim"

    matching with boundaries, but also makes quad-remeshing or mesh-spline conversion conversion convenient matching, registration and tracking, re-meshing, mesh-spline conversion and so on. Most existing. According to Reimann's mapping theorem, any simply connected surface can be conformally mapped to the unit

  19. Statistics of Knots, Geometry of Conformations, and Evolution of Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Statistics of Knots, Geometry of Conformations, and Evolution of Proteins Rhonald C. Lua, Alexander of America Like shoelaces, the backbones of proteins may get entangled and form knots. However, only a few knots in native proteins have been identified so far. To more quantitatively assess the rarity of knots

  20. Formal property verification in a conformance testing framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainekos, Georgios E.

    Formal property verification in a conformance testing framework Houssam Abbas School of Electrical to develop a sequence of system models of different fidelity and complexity, each appropriate for a particular design or verification task. In such a sequence, one model is often derived from the other

  1. Finding the needle in the haystack: Algorithms for conformational optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andricioaei, I.; Straub, J.E.

    1996-09-01

    Algorithms are given for comformational optimization of proteins. The protein folding problems is regarded as a problem of global energy mimimization. Since proteins have hundreds of atoms, finding the lowest-energy conformation in a many-dimensional configuration space becomes a computationally demanding problem.{copyright} {ital American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Aero-Optical Environment Around a Conformal-Window Turret

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordeyev, Stanislav

    Aero-Optical Environment Around a Conformal-Window Turret Stanislav Gordeyev University of Notre¶ University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 DOI: 10.2514/1.26380 This paper presents the aero degrading effects on the systems that make use of the beam; these effects are referred to as aero

  3. Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy under conformal transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angus Prain; Vincenzo Vitagliano; Valerio Faraoni; Marianne Lapierre-Léonard

    2015-01-13

    We derive a formula describing the transformation of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy under a conformal rescaling of the spacetime metric. A known formula for the transformation of the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez mass is recovered as a special case.

  4. Automatic Landmark Tracking and the Optimization of Brain Conformal Mapping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Paul

    Automatic Landmark Tracking and the Optimization of Brain Conformal Mapping 1Lok Ming Lui , 1 manually, especially when large dataset must be analyzed. We present algorithms to automatically detect. Methods: We propose an automatic landmark curve tracing method based on the principal directions

  5. Cellular Automata Simulation of the Spatial Conformations of Polyelectrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Echeverria; W. Olivares-Rivas; K. Tucci

    2006-12-04

    We carried out a Cellular Automata simulation of a model polyelectrolyte solution at infinite dilution, in order to reproduce qualitatively its conformational properties. Our results predict the so called \\emph{pearl necklace} structures, which compare favorably with the more elaborated and costly Molecular Dynamics simulations.

  6. Quasi-Conformally Flat Mapping the Human Cerebellum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurdal, Monica K.

    Quasi-Conformally Flat Mapping the Human Cerebellum Monica K. Hurdal 1 , Philip L. Bowers 1 , Ken Stephenson 2 , De Witt L. Sumners 1 , Kelly Rehm 3;4 , Kirt Schaper 3 , and David A. Rottenberg 3;4 1 Dept

  7. Model-based Conformance Testing for Android Yiming Jing1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    Model-based Conformance Testing for Android Yiming Jing1 , Gail-Joon Ahn1 , and Hongxin Hu2 1- formance testing framework for mobile platforms, focused on Android platform. Our framework systematically studies on Android Inter-Component Communication module. 1 Introduction According to a recent report from

  8. Aero-Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nanostructured Silica Jingyu Hyeon-Lee, Gregory Beaucage,*, and Sotiris E. Pratsinis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaucage, Gregory

    Aero-Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nanostructured Silica Powders Jingyu Hyeon-Lee, Gregory Beaucage-temperature aero- sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and tetramethoxy- silane, an aero-sol- gel technique for production of powders with extremely high specific surface areas at room

  9. Gel'fand-Graev's Reconstruction Formula in the 3D Real Space --A Framework towards a General Interior Tomography Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ge

    Gel'fand-Graev's Reconstruction Formula in the 3D Real Space -- A Framework towards a General-ye@uiowa.edu, hengyong-yu@ieee.org, ge-wang@ieee.org In [1-4], I. M. Gel'fand and M. I. Graev proposed inversion formulas for x-ray transforms in different spaces. In particular, Gel'fand-Graev's inversion formula [1

  10. Parallel ContinuationBased Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Parallel Continuation­Based Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding­ pecially protein folding. Global minimization problems are difficult to solve when the objective functions­ cluding energy functions for molecular conformation and protein folding. Mathematical theory

  11. Parallel ContinuationBased Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    Parallel Continuation­Based Global Optimization for Molecular Conformation and Protein Folding protein folding. Global minimization problems are difficult to solve when the objective functions have energy functions for molecular conformation and protein folding. Mathematical theory for the method

  12. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Seismic Initiative | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Initiative Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Seismic Initiative Presentation from the May 2015 Seismic Lessons-Learned Panel Meeting. INL Seismic Initiative More Documents &...

  13. 222-S LAS&T Contract No. DE-AC27-10RV15051 Conformed thru Initial Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril 30,University Turbine1.0 -

  14. Radiofrequency Initiation and Radiofrequency Sustainment of Laser Initiated Seeded High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scharer, John E.

    radiofrequency initiation of high pressure(l-70 Ton) inductive plasma discharges in argon, nitrogen, air, decontaminating environmental waste and gaseous pollution. The ap- plication of these plasma sources require

  15. Direct formation of aerogels by sol-gel polymerizations of alkoxysilanes in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Yamanaka, A.; Carpenter, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Sol-gel polymerization of alkoxysilanes in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD) was used to directly prepare aerogels. Polymerizations of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BESP) were performed by dissolving the monomers and formic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCD). Monolithic gels were obtained in under 12 hours. The silica and polysilsesquioxane gels were readily dried to afford aerogels by slowly venting the SCCD. The aerogels were high surface area mesoporous materials that were characterized by solid state NMR, SEM, TEM, and gas sorption porosimetry.

  16. Non-Shrinking Sol-Gel Type Polymers by Ring Opening Polymerizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Rahimian, K.

    1999-04-05

    We have designed a new class of cyclic siloxane compounds that behave as sol-gel systems when ring open polymerized using a hydroxide base. These monomers polymerize through chain growth polymerization. unlike conventional alkoxysilane sol-gel precursors, to form sol-gel polymers. They do not require solvent or water for polymerization, show no visible shrinkage or cracking during polymerization and are thermally stable. We have successfully utilized these materials in encapsulation of microelectronics. Current efforts are focused toward expanding this family of ROP monomers and optimization of their mechanical properties.

  17. Solventless sol-gel chemistry through ring-opening polymerization of bridged disilaoxacyclopentanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR; LOY,DOUGLAS A.

    2000-05-01

    Ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of disilaoxacyclopentanes has proven to be an excellent approach to sol-gel type hybrid organic-inorganic materials. These materials have shown promise as precursors for encapsulation and microelectronics applications. The polymers are highly crosslinked and are structurally similar to traditional sol-gels, but unlike typical sol-gels they are prepared by an organic base or Bronsted acid (formic or triflic acid), without the use of solvents and water, they have low VOC's and show little shrinkage during processing.

  18. A functional-analytic proof of the conformal welding Eric Schippers1 Wolfgang Staubach 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schippers, Eric

    A functional-analytic proof of the conformal welding theorem Eric Schippers1 Wolfgang Staubach 2 1 Universitet Uppsala, Sweden CMS Winter Meeting 2012 Eric Schippers (Manitoba) Conformal welding theorem CMS Winter Meeting 2012 1 / 21 #12;Statement of the theorem Conformal welding theorem Definition

  19. Estimates of the Loss of Main-Chain Conformational Entropy of Different Residues on Protein Folding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Debnath

    Estimates of the Loss of Main-Chain Conformational Entropy of Different Residues on Protein Folding of the main-chain (torsion angles, and ) conformational entropy by taking its side-chain into account. The analysis shows that the main-chain component of the total conformational entropy loss for a residue

  20. Hybrid Probabilistic Roadmap and Monte Carlo Methods for Biomolecule Conformational Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Li

    1 Hybrid Probabilistic Roadmap and Monte Carlo Methods for Biomolecule Conformational Changes Li Han 1 Keywords: Conformation space, conformational changes, Monte Carlo, probabilistic roadmaps. 1. In this work, we have developed a hybrid Probabilistic Roadmap and Monte Carlo planner for biomolecule

  1. Classes of Stable Initial Data for Massless and Massive Scalars in Anti-de Sitter Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deppe, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Since horizon formation in global anti-de Sitter spacetime is dual to thermalization of a conformal field theory on a compact space, whether generic initial data is stable or unstable against gravitational collapse is of great interest. We argue that all the known stable initial data for massless scalars are dominated by single scalar eigenmodes, specifically providing strong numerical evidence consistent with the interpretation that initial data with equal energies in two modes collapse on time scales of order the inverse square of the amplitude. We further scan the parameter space for massive scalar field initial data and present evidence for a novel class of stable or quasi-stable solutions for massive scalars with energy spread through several eigenmodes.

  2. Three approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu2S, organic luminescent films, and PbSe nanocrystal superlattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Ian Anthony

    2013-01-01

    approaches to economical photovoltaics: conformal Cu 2 S,routes to more efficient photovoltaics using conformal Cu 2on grid-parity. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and

  3. Georgia Power- Advanced Solar Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: According to Georgia Power's website, the Advanced Solar Initiative's final program guidelines are due to be published on June 25th and the bidding period for is expected to open on July 10,...

  4. CX-010520: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Silica Polymer Initiator Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6, B3.11 Date: 06/17/2013 Location(s): Oklahoma Offices(s): Golden Field Office

  5. Initial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATION PLAN FOR0987P Uncertainty inInhibiting

  6. Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature Geothermal Electrical Power Generation Systems Using Oilfield Fluids Research Initiative Will Demonstrate Low Temperature...

  7. Southface Energy Institute: Advanced Commercial Buildings Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Southface Energy Institute: Advanced Commercial Buildings Initiative - 2015 Peer Review Southface Energy Institute: Advanced Commercial Buildings Initiative - 2015 Peer Review...

  8. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  9. Ammonia Sensors Based on Doped-Sol-Gel-Tipped Optical Fibers for Catalyst System Diagnostics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This work focuses on the development and application of optical fibers sensors tip-coated with sol gels that sequester a transducing material whose optical response is sensitive to NH3.

  10. Transparent ultralow-density silica aerogels prepared by a two-step sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1991-09-01

    Conventional silica sol-gel chemistry is limited for the production of transparent ultralow-density aerogels because (1) gelation is either slow or unachievable, and (2) even when gelation is achieved, the large pore sizes result in loss of transparency for aerogels <.020 g/cc. We have developed a two-step sol-gel process that circumvents the limitations of the conventional process and allows the formation of ultralow-density gels in a matter of hours. we have found that the gel time is dependent on the catalyst concentration. After supercritical extraction, the aerogels are transparent, uncracked tiles with densities as low as .003 g/cc. 6 figs., 11 refs.

  11. The physics and chemistry of semiconductor nanocrystals in sol-gel derived optical microcavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Yinthai

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) into sol-gel derived matrices presents both novel applications as well as a robust platform in which to investigate the nonlinear optical properties of NCs. This thesis ...

  12. Molecular receptors in metal oxide sol-gel materials prepared via molecular imprinting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Darryl Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Daitch, Charles E. (Charlottesville, VA); Shea, Kenneth J. (Irvine, CA); Rush, Daniel J. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for molecularly imprinting the surface of a sol-gel material, by forming a solution comprised of a sol-gel material, a solvent, an imprinting molecule, and a functionalizing siloxane monomer of the form Si(OR).sub.3-n X.sub.n, wherein n is an integer between zero and three and X is a functional group capable of reacting with the imprinting molecule, evaporating the solvent, and removing the imprinting molecule to form the molecularly imprinted metal oxide sol-gel material. The use of metal oxide sol-gels allows the material porosity, pore size, density, surface area, hardness, electrostatic charge, polarity, optical density, and surface hydrophobicity to be tailored and be employed as sensors and in catalytic and separations operations.

  13. Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Ben

    2011-08-08

    . Despite proven economic benefit, the hydraulic fracture fluid damages the producing formation and the propped fracture. To analyze the gel damage effect quantitatively, the filter cake thickness is used as a parameter that has not been measured before...

  14. Effects of varying ethanol and water concentrations as a gold nanoparticle gel solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaefer, Thomas Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Striped gold nanoparticles are unique in several of their characteristics and applications. Recent experiments have determined a new medium with which contain the nanoparticles is that of a chemical gel. The nanoparticles ...

  15. On the null trajectories in conformal Weyl gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, J.R.; Olivares, Marco E-mail: marco.olivaresrubilar@gmail.com

    2013-06-01

    In this work we find analytical solutions to the null geodesics around a black hole in the conformal Weyl gravity. Exact expressions for the horizons are found, and they depend on the cosmological constant and the coupling constants of the conformal Weyl gravity. Then, we study the radial motion from the point of view of the proper and coordinate frames, and compare it with that found in spacetimes of general relativity. The angular motion is also examined qualitatively by means of an effective potential; quantitatively, the equation of motion is solved in terms of wp-Weierstrass elliptic function. Thus, we find the deflection angle for photons without using any approximation, which is a novel result for this kind of gravity.

  16. Consistency of equations of motion in conformal frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2014-11-05

    Four dimensional scalar-tensor theory is considered within two conformal frames, the Jordan frame (JF) and the Einstein frame (EF). The actions for the theory are equivalent and equations of motion can be obtained from each action. It is found that the JF equations of motion, expressed in terms of EF variables, translate directly into and agree with the EF equations of motion obtained from the EF action, provided that certain simple consistency conditions are satisfied, which is always the case. The implication is that a solution set obtained in one conformal frame can be reliably translated into a solution set for the other frame, and therefore the two frames are, at least, mathematically equivalent.

  17. Conformational Temperature Characterizing the Folding of a Protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoko Nakagawa

    2013-02-12

    The time sequences of the molecular dynamics simulation for the folding process of a protein is analyzed with the inherent structure landscape which focuses on configurational dynamics of the system. Time dependent energy and entropy for inherent structures are introduced and from these quantities a conformational temperature is defined. The conformational temperature follows the time evolution of a slow relaxation process and reaches the bath temperature when the system is equilibrated. We show that the nonequilibrium system is described by two temperatures, one for fast vibration and the other for slow configurational relaxation, while the equilibrium system is by one temperature. The proposed formalism is applicable widely for the systems with many metastable states.

  18. Virasoro Conformal Blocks and Thermality from Classical Background Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan; Matthew T. Walters

    2015-10-15

    We show that in 2d CFTs at large central charge, the coupling of the stress tensor to heavy operators can be re-absorbed by placing the CFT in a non-trivial background metric. This leads to a more precise computation of the Virasoro conformal blocks between heavy and light operators, which are shown to be equivalent to global conformal blocks evaluated in the new background. We also generalize to the case where the operators carry U(1) charges. The refined Virasoro blocks can be used as the seed for a new Virasoro block recursion relation expanded in the heavy-light limit. We comment on the implications of our results for the universality of black hole thermality in $AdS_3$, or equivalently, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for $CFT_2$ at large central charge.

  19. Lepton Number Violation within the Conformal Inverse Seesaw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humbert, Pascal; Patra, Sudhanwa; Smirnov, Juri

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel framework within the conformal inverse seesaw scheme allowing large lepton number violation while the neutrino mass formula is still governed by the low-scale inverse seesaw mechanism. This model includes new contributions to rare low-energy lepton number violating processes like neutrinoless double beta decay. We find that the lifetime for this rare process due to heavy sterile neutrinos can saturate current experimental limits. The characteristic collider signature of the present conformal inverse seesaw scheme includes, same-sign dilepton plus two jets and same-sign dilepton plus four jets. Finally, we comment on the testability of the model at the Large Hadron Collider since there are new scalars, new fermions and an extra neutral gauge boson with masses around few 100 GeV to few TeV.

  20. Fusion of conformal interfaces and bulk induced boundary RG flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatoly Konechny

    2015-09-25

    We consider the basic radius changing conformal interface for a free compact boson. After investigating different theoretical aspects of this object we focus on the fusion of this interface with conformal boundary conditions. At fractions of the self-dual radius there exist exceptional D-branes. It was argued in [1] that changing the radius in the bulk induces a boundary RG flow. Following [2] we conjecture that fusing the basic radius changing interface (that changes the radius from a fraction of the self-dual radius) with the exceptional boundary conditions gives the boundary condition which is the end point of the RG flow considered in [1]. By studying the fusion singularities we recover RG logarithms and see, in particular instances, how they get resummed into power singularities. We discuss what quantities need to be calculated to gain full non-perturbative control over the fusion.

  1. Consistency condition for inflation from (broken) conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden (Netherlands); Shiu, Gary, E-mail: kschalm@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: shiu@physics.wisc.edu, E-mail: vdaalst@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum, i.e. the three-point correlation function of primordial density fluctuations, in slow-roll inflation. It follows from the defining property of slow-roll inflation that primordial correlation functions inherit most of their structure from weakly broken de Sitter symmetries. Using holographic techniques borrowed from the AdS/CFT correspondence, the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum can be mapped to a set of stress-tensor Ward identities in a weakly broken 2+1-dimensional Euclidean CFT. We construct the consistency condition from these Ward identities using conformal perturbation theory. This requires a second order Ward identity and the use of the evolution equation. Our result also illustrates a subtle difference between conformal perturbation theory and the slow-roll expansion.

  2. Fusion of conformal interfaces and bulk induced boundary RG flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konechny, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We consider the basic radius changing conformal interface for a free compact boson. After investigating different theoretical aspects of this object we focus on the fusion of this interface with conformal boundary conditions. At fractions of the self-dual radius there exist exceptional D-branes. It was argued in [1] that changing the radius in the bulk induces a boundary RG flow. Following [2] we conjecture that fusing the basic radius changing interface (that changes the radius from a fraction of the self-dual radius) with the exceptional boundary conditions gives the boundary condition which is the end point of the RG flow considered in [1]. By studying the fusion singularities we recover RG logarithms and see, in particular instances, how they get resummed into power singularities. We discuss what quantities need to be calculated to gain full non-perturbative control over the fusion.

  3. Stress Tensors from Trace Anomalies in Conformal Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher P. Herzog; Kuo-Wei Huang

    2013-04-08

    Using trace anomalies, we determine the vacuum stress tensors of arbitrary even dimensional conformal field theories in Weyl flat backgrounds. We demonstrate a simple relation between the Casimir energy on the real line times a sphere and the type A anomaly coefficient. This relation generalizes earlier results in two and four dimensions. These field theory results for the Casimir are shown to be consistent with holographic predictions in two, four, and six dimensions.

  4. Low-cost conformable storage to maximize vehicle range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) are currently the leading fuel contenders for converting vehicles from gasoline and diesel to alternative fuels. Two factors that inhibit conversion are additional vehicle costs and reduced range compared to gasoline. In overcoming these barriers, a key element of the alternative fuel system becomes the storage tank for these pressurized fuels. Using cylindrical pressure vessels is the conventional approach, but they do not package well in the available vehicle volume. Thiokol Corporation has developed and is now producing a conformable (non-cylindrical) aluminum storage system for LPG vans. This system increases fuel storage in a given rectangular envelope. The goal of this project was to develop the technology for a lower cost conformable tank made of injection-molded plastic. Much of the cost of the aluminum conformable tank is in the fabrication because several weld seams are required. The injection-molding process has the potential to greatly reduce the fabrication costs. The requirements of a pressurized fuel tank on a vehicle necessitate the proper combination of material properties. Material selection and tank design must be optimized for maximum internal volume and minimum material use to be competitive with other technologies. The material and the design must also facilitate the injection-molding process. Prototype tanks must be fabricated to reveal molding problems, prove solutions, and measure results. In production, efficient fabrication will be key to making these tanks cost competitive. The work accomplished during this project has demonstrated that conformable LPG tanks can be molded with thermoplastics. However, to achieve a competitive tank, improvements are needed in the effective material strength. If these improvements can be made, molded plastics should produce a lower cost tank that can store more LPG on a vehicle than conventional cylinders.

  5. ISO 50001 Conformant Energy Management Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls21, 2012INSPECTIONISO 50001 Conformant Energy

  6. Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gakhar, Kush

    2012-02-14

    PRODUCTION FROM UNCONVENTIONAL GAS WELLS USING A NOVEL ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN POLYMER GEL SYSTEM A Thesis by KUSH GAKHAR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2011 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering Minimizing Water Production from Unconventional Gas Wells Using a Novel Environmentally Benign Polymer Gel System...

  7. Method for separating contaminants from solution employing an organic-stabilized metal-hydroxy gel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, Donald H. (212 High Meadows, Richland, WA 99352)

    1996-01-01

    Metals and organics are extracted from solution by co-precipitating them with a gel comprising aluminum hydroxide and a complexing agent such as EDTA. After the gel is processed to remove the metals and organics, it can be recycled for further use by dissolving it in a high-pH solution, leaving no secondary waste stream. A number of alternative complexing agents perform better than EDTA.

  8. Micelle-Induced Curvature in a Water-Insoluble HIV-1 Env Peptide Revealed by NMR Dipolar Coupling Measurement in Stretched Polyacrylamide Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chou, James

    Measurement in Stretched Polyacrylamide Gel James J. Chou, Joshua D. Kaufman, Stephen J. Stahl, Paul T

  9. Conformal Antenna Array for Millimeter-Wave Communications: Performance Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semkin, V; Kyro, M; Kolmonen, V-M; Luxey, C; Ferrero, F; Devillers, F; Raisanen, A V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the radius of a cylindrical supporting structure on radiation properties of a conformal millimeter-wave antenna array. Bent antenna array structures on cylindrical surfaces may have important applications in future mobile devices. Small radii may be needed if the antenna is printed on the edges of mobile devices and in items which human beings are wearing, such as wrist watches, bracelets and rings. The antenna under study consists of four linear series-fed arrays of four patch elements and is operating at 58.8 GHz with linear polarization. The antenna array is fabricated on polytetrafluoroethylene substrate with thickness of 0.127 mm due to its good plasticity properties and low losses. Results for both planar and conformal antenna arrays show rather good agreement between simulation and measurements. The results show that conformal antenna structures allow achieving large angular coverage and may allow beam-steering implementations if switches are used to select betw...

  10. Computation of the conformal algebra of 1+3 decomposable spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Tsamparlis; Dimitris Nikolopoulos; Pantelis S. Apostolopoulos

    1998-10-30

    The conformal algebra of a 1+3 decomposable spacetime can be computed from the conformal Killing vectors (CKV) of the 3-space. It is shown that the general form of such a 3-CKV is the sum of a gradient CKV and a Killing or homothetic 3-vector. It is proved that spaces of constant curvature always admit such conformal Killing vectors. As an example, the complete conformal algebra of a G\\"odel-type spacetime is computed. Finally it is shown that this method can be extended to compute the conformal algebra of more general non-decomposable spacetimes.

  11. SILICA GEL BEHAVIOR UNDER DIFFERENT EGS CHEMICAL AND THERMAL CONDITIONS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J D; Ezzedine, S M; Bourcier, W; Roberts, S

    2012-01-19

    Fractures and fracture networks are the principal pathways for migration of water and contaminants in groundwater systems, fluids in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), oil and gas in petroleum reservoirs, carbon dioxide leakage from geological carbon sequestration, and radioactive and toxic industrial wastes from underground storage repositories. When dealing with EGS fracture networks, there are several major issues to consider, e.g., the minimization of hydraulic short circuits and losses of injected geothermal fluid to the surrounding formation, which in turn maximize heat extraction and economic production. Gel deployments to direct and control fluid flow have been extensively and successfully used in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery. However, to the best of our knowledge, gels have not been applied to EGS to enhance heat extraction. In-situ gelling systems can either be organic or inorganic. Organic polymer gels are generally not thermostable to the typical temperatures of EGS systems. Inorganic gels, such as colloidal silica gels, however, may be ideal blocking agents for EGS systems if suitable gelation times can be achieved. In the current study, we explore colloidal silica gelation times and rheology as a function of SiO{sub 2} concentration, pH, salt concentration, and temperature, with preliminary results in the two-phase field above 100 C. Results at 25 C show that it may be possible to choose formulations that will gel in a reasonable and predictable amount of time at the temperatures of EGS systems.

  12. Conformality or confinement: (IR)relevance of topological excitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    What distinguishes two asymptotically-free non-abelian gauge theories on R{sup 4}, one of which is just below the conformal window boundary and confines, while the other is slightly above the boundary and flows to an infrared conformal field theory? In this work, we aim to answer this question for non-supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with fermions in arbitrary chiral or vectorlike representations. We use the presence or absence of mass gap for gauge fluctuations as an identifier of the infrared behavior. With the present-day understanding of such gauge theories, the mass gap for gauge fluctuations cannot be computed on R{sup 4}. However, recent progress allows its non-perturbative computation on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} by using either the twisted partition function or deformation theory, for a range of sizes of S{sup 1} depending on the theory. For small number of fermions, N{sub f}, we show that the mass gap increases with increasing radius, due to the non-dilution of monopoles and bions - the topological excitations relevant for confinement on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1}. For sufficiently large N{sub f}, we show that the mass gap decreases with increasing radius. In a class of theories, we claim that the decompactification limit can be taken while remaining within the region of validity of semiclassical techniques, giving the first examples of semiclassically solvable Yang-Mills theories at any size S{sup 1}. For general non-supersymmetric vectorlike or chiral theories, we conjecture that the change in the behavior of the mass gap on R{sup 3} x S{sup 1} as a function of the radius occurs near the lower boundary of the conformal window and give non-perturbative estimates of its value. For vectorlike theories, we compare our estimates of the conformal window with existing lattice results, truncations of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, NSVZ beta function-inspired estimates, and degree of freedom counting criteria. For multi-generation chiral gauge theories, to the best of our knowledge, our estimates of the conformal window are the only known ones.

  13. Characterization of Hafnia Powder Prepared from an Oxychloride Sol Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGilvery, Catriona M. [Imperial College, London; De Gendt, S [Imperial College, London; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; MacKenzie, M [Imperial College, London; Craven, A J [Imperial College, London; McComb, D W [Imperial College, London

    2011-01-01

    Hafnium containing compounds are of great importance to the semiconductor industry as a replacement for Si(O,N) with a high- gate dielectric. Whilst Hf is already being incorporated into working devices1, much is still to be understood about it. Here we investigate the crystallisation processes and chemistry of bulk HfO2 powders which will aid in interpretation of reactions and crystallisation events occurring in thin films used as gate dielectrics. Amorphous HfO2 powder was prepared via a sol-gel route using hafnium oxychloride (HfOCl2 xH2O) as a precursor. The powders were subjected to various heat treatments and analysed using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis techniques. It was found that a large change in the crystallisation pathway occurred when the sample was heated in an inert environment compared with in air. Instead of the expected monoclinic phase (m-HfO2), tetragonal HfO2 (t-HfO2) also formed under these conditions and was observed up to temperatures of ~760 C. The t-HfO2 particles, which are less than 30nm in size, eventually transform into m-HfO2 on further heating. Possible mechanisms for the crystallisation of t-HfO2 are discussed. It is proposed that within this temperature range t-HfO2 is stabilised due to the presence of oxygen vacancies in the inert environment, forming by the reduction of HfIV to HfIII. As the crystal grows in size as the temperature increases there are too few oxygen vacancies left in the structure to continue stabilising the t-HfO2 phase and so transformation to m-HfO2 occurs.

  14. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nuclear Securityhr INITIATED BY: INITIATED BY:

  15. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nuclear Securityhr INITIATED BY: INITIATED

  16. Brain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain VolumetricBrain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain Volumetric Harmonic Map withHarmonic Map with VariationalVariational MethodsMethods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain VolumetricBrain Surface Conformal Mapping and Brain Volumetric Harmonic Map withHarmonic Map with VariationalVariational MethodsMethods YalinYalin WangWang11 to the cortical surface matching problem. We further extended the algorithm to find a 3D volumetric harmonic map

  17. Initial data for binary neutron stars with adjustable eccentricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niclas Moldenhauer; Charalampos M. Markakis; Nathan K. Johnson-McDaniel; Wolfgang Tichy; Bernd Bruegmann

    2014-10-30

    Binary neutron stars in circular orbits can be modeled as helically symmetric, i.e., stationary in a rotating frame. This symmetry gives rise to a first integral of the Euler equation, often employed for constructing equilibrium solutions via iteration. For eccentric orbits, however, the lack of helical symmetry has prevented the use of this method, and the numerical relativity community has often resorted to constructing initial data by superimposing boosted spherical stars without solving the Euler equation. The spuriously excited neutron star oscillations seen in evolutions of such data arise because such configurations lack the appropriate tidal deformations and are stationary in a linearly comoving---rather than rotating---frame. We consider eccentric configurations at apoapsis that are instantaneously stationary in a rotating frame. We extend the notion of helical symmetry to eccentric orbits, by approximating the elliptical orbit of each companion as instantaneously circular, using the ellipse's inscribed circle. The two inscribed helical symmetry vectors give rise to approximate instantaneous first integrals of the Euler equation throughout each companion. We use these integrals as the basis of a self-consistent iteration of the Einstein constraints to construct conformal thin-sandwich initial data for eccentric binaries. We find that the spurious stellar oscillations are reduced by at least an order of magnitude, compared with those found in evolutions of superposed initial data. The tidally induced oscillations, however, are physical and qualitatively similar to earlier evolutions. Finally, we show how to incorporate radial velocity due to radiation reaction in our inscribed helical symmetry vectors, which would allow one to obtain truly non-eccentric initial data when our eccentricity parameter $e$ is set to zero.

  18. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  19. Managing Critical Management Improvement Initiatives

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-10-01

    Provides requirements and responsibilities for planning, executing and assessing critical management improvement initiatives within DOE. DOE N 251.59, dated 9/27/2004, extends this Notice until 10/01/2005. Archived 11-8-10. Does not cancel other directives.

  20. Innovation Program Student Initiated Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Innovation Program Student Initiated Project Proposal Guidelines Eligibility The team must include of the problem the innovation is meant to solve A clear description of the work to be done for the project Milestones for the project, as well as a projected 'end product' Background with enough detail

  1. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capella, Arthur

    2015-03-04

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners. The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved grants and loans to assist up to $15,000 projects per commercial structure with a mixture of a grant and financing at 0% for up to three – (3) years. The maximum award can be a $5,000 grant and a $10,000 loan. For projects less than $15,000, the award will have a ratio of 1/3 grant and 2/3 loan.

  2. Initiation disruptor systems and methods of initiation disruption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baum, Dennis W

    2014-09-23

    A system that may be used as an initiation disruption system (IDS) according to one embodiment includes an explosive charge; a plurality of particles in a layer at least partially surrounding the explosive charge; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles. A method for disabling an object according to one embodiment includes placing the system as recited above near an object; and causing the explosive charge to initiate, thereby applying mechanical loading to the object such that the object becomes disabled. Additional systems and methods are also presented. A device according to another embodiment includes a plurality of particles bound by a binder thereby defining a sidewall having an interior for receiving an explosive; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles and binder. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  3. PH Sensitive Polymers for Improving Reservoir Sweep and Conformance Control in Chemical Flooring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul Sharma; Steven Bryant; Chun Huh

    2008-03-31

    There is an increasing opportunity to recover bypassed oil from depleted, mature oilfields in the US. The recovery factor in many reservoirs is low due to inefficient displacement of the oil by injected fluids (typically water). The use of chemical flooding methods to increase recovery efficiencies is severely constrained by the inability of the injected chemicals to contact the bypassed oil. Low sweep efficiencies are the primary cause of low oil recoveries observed in the field in chemical flooding operations even when lab studies indicate high oil recovery efficiency. Any technology that increases the ability of chemical flooding agents to better contact the remaining oil and reduce the amount of water produced in conjunction with the produced oil will have a significant impact on the cost of producing oil domestically in the US. This translates directly into additional economically recoverable reserves, which extends the economic lives of marginal and mature wells. The objective of this research project was to develop a low-cost, pH-triggered polymer for use in IOR processes to improve reservoir sweep efficiency and reservoir conformance in chemical flooding. Rheological measurements made on the polymer solution, clearly show that it has a low viscosity at low pH and exhibits a sudden increase in viscosity (by 2 orders of magnitude or more) at a pH of 3.5 to 4. This implies that the polymer would preferentially flow into zones containing water since the effective permeability to water is highest in these zones. As the pH of the zone increases due to the buffering capacity of the reservoir rock, the polymer solution undergoes a liquid to gel transition causing a sharp increase in the viscosity of the polymer solution in these zones. This allows operationally robust, in-depth conformance treatment of such water bearing zones and better mobility control. The rheological properties of HPAM solutions were measured. These include: steady-shear viscosity and viscoelastic behavior as functions of pH; shear rate; polymer concentration; salinity, including divalent ion effects; polymer molecular weight; and degree of hydrolysis. A comprehensive rheological model was developed for HPAM solution rheology in terms of: shear rate; pH; polymer concentration; and salinity, so that the spatial and temporal changes in viscosity during the polymer flow in the reservoir can be accurately modeled. A series of acid coreflood experiments were conducted to understand the geochemical reactions relevant for both the near-wellbore injection profile control and for conformance control applications. These experiments showed that the use hydrochloric acid as a pre-flush is not viable because of the high reaction rate with the rock. The use of citric acid as a pre-flush was found to be quite effective. This weak acid has a slow rate of reaction with the rock and can buffer the pH to below 3.5 for extended periods of time. With the citric acid pre-flush the polymer could be efficiently propagated through the core in a low pH environment i.e. at a low viscosity. The transport of various HPAM solutions was studied in sandstones, in terms of permeability reduction, mobility reduction, adsorption and inaccessible pore volume with different process variables: injection pH, polymer concentration, polymer molecular weight, salinity, degree of hydrolysis, and flow rate. Measurements of polymer effluent profiles and tracer tests show that the polymer retention increases at the lower pH. A new simulation capability to model the deep-penetrating mobility control or conformance control using pH-sensitive polymer was developed. The core flood acid injection experiments were history matched to estimate geochemical reaction rates. Preliminary scale-up simulations employing linear and radial geometry floods in 2-layer reservoir models were conducted. It is clearly shown that the injection rate of pH-sensitive polymer solutions can be significantly increased by injecting it at a pH below 3.5 (at a fixed bottom-hole pressure). This improvement in injectivity by a fa

  4. Post measurement bipartite entanglement entropy in conformal field theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. A. Rajabpour

    2015-08-06

    We derive exact formulas for bipartite von Neumann entanglement entropy after partial projective local measurement in $1+1$ dimensional conformal field theories with periodic and open boundary conditions. After defining the set up we will check numerically the validity of our results in the case of Klein-Gordon field theory (coupled harmonic oscillators) and spin-$1/2$ XX chain in a magnetic field. The agreement between analytical results and the numerical calculations is very good. We also find a lower bound for localizable entanglement in coupled harmonic oscillators.

  5. Laser induced popcornlike conformational transition of nanodiamond as a nanoknife

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.-C.; Chen, P.-H.; Chu, H.-L.; Lee, T.-C.; Chou, C.-C.; Chao, J.-I; Su, C.-Y.; Chen, J.S.; Tsai, J.-S.; Tsai, C.-M.; Ho, Y.-P.; Sun, K.W.; Cheng, C.-L.; Chen, F.-R.

    2008-07-21

    Nanodiamond (ND) is surrounded by layers of graphite on its surface. This unique structure feature creates unusual fluorescence spectra, which can be used as an indicator to monitor its surface modification. Meanwhile, the impurity, nitroso (C-N=O) inside the ND can be photolyzed by two-photon absorption, releasing NO to facilitate the formation of a sp{sup 3} diamond structure in the core of ND and transforming it into a sp{sup 2} graphite structure. Such a conformational transition enlarges the size of ND from 8 to 90 nm, resulting in a popcornlike structure. This transition reaction may be useful as nanoknives in biomedical application.

  6. Dangerous Liouville Wave -- exactly marginal but non-conformal deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiu Man Ho; Yu Nakayama

    2008-07-26

    We give a non-trivially interacting field theory example of scale invariant but non-conformal field theory. The model is based on the exactly solvable Liouville field theory coupled with free scalars deformed by an exactly marginal operator. We show non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor by using the quantum Schwinger-Dyson equation for the Liouville field theory, which is a sophistication of the quantum higher equations of motion for the Liouville field theory introduced by Alyosha Zamolodchikov. Possibly dangerous implications for the super-critical string theory will be discussed.

  7. Thermodynamics of rotating black holes in conformal gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamvar, Negin; Soroushfar, Saheb

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider a metric of a rotating black hole in conformal gravity. We calculate the thermodynamical quantities for this rotating black hole including Hawking temperature and entropy in four dimensional space-time, as we obtain the effective value of Komar angular momentum. The result is valid on the event horizon of the black hole, and at any radial distance out of it. Also we verify that the first law of thermodynamics will be held for this type of black hole.

  8. A non-conforming 3D spherical harmonic transport solver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Criekingen, S.

    2006-07-01

    A new 3D transport solver for the time-independent Boltzmann transport equation has been developed. This solver is based on the second-order even-parity form of the transport equation. The angular discretization is performed through the expansion of the angular neutron flux in spherical harmonics (PN method). The novelty of this solver is the use of non-conforming finite elements for the spatial discretization. Such elements lead to a discontinuous flux approximation. This interface continuity requirement relaxation property is shared with mixed-dual formulations such as the ones based on Raviart-Thomas finite elements. Encouraging numerical results are presented. (authors)

  9. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics.

  10. Method for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules and other gel forms thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.L.

    1998-10-13

    The present invention are methods for preparing hydrous titanium oxide spherules, hydrous titanium oxide gels such as gel slabs, films, capillary and electrophoresis gels, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules, hydrous titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent, titanium monohydrogen phosphate spherules having suspendible particles of at least one different sorbent homogeneously embedded within to form a composite sorbent having a desired crystallinity, titanium oxide spherules in the form of anatase, brookite or rutile, titanium oxide spherules having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials, titanium oxide fiber materials, hydrous titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite, titanium oxide fiber materials having suspendible particles homogeneously embedded within to form a composite and spherules of barium titanate. These variations of hydrous titanium oxide spherules and gel forms prepared by the gel-sphere, internal gelation process offer more useful forms of inorganic ion exchangers, catalysts, getters and ceramics. 6 figs.

  11. Toward Nanostructured Thermoelectrics. Synthesis and Characterization of Lead Telluride Gels and Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Brock, Stephanie L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

    2011-05-12

    The synthesis and characterization of lead telluride (PbTe) gels and aerogels with nanostructured features of potential benefit for enhanced thermoelectrics is reported. In this approach, discrete thiolate-capped PbTe nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution-based approach followed by oxidation-induced nanoparticle assembly with tetranitromethane or hydrogen peroxide to form wet gels. Drying of the wet gels by supercritical CO? extraction yielded aerogels, whereas xerogels were produced by ambient pressure bench top drying. The gels consist of an interconnected network of colloidal nanoparticles and pores with surface areas up to 74 m² g-1. The thermal stability of the nanostructures relative to nanoparticles was probed with the help of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aerogels were observed to sublime at a higher temperature and over a larger range (425–500 °C) relative to the precursor nanoparticles. TGA-DSC suggests that organic capping groups can be removed in the region 250–450 °C, and melting of PbTe nanoparticles occurs near the temperature for bulk materials (ca. 920 °C). The good thermal stability combined with the presence of nanoscale interfaces suggests PbTe gels may show promise in thermoelectric devices.

  12. Encapsulation of gold nanoclusters in silica materials via an inverse micelle/sol-gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.; Loy, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yamanaka, S.A. [Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX (United States)] [Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Nanometer-sized gold particles were encapsulated in the micropores of xerogels and aerogels. The synthesis involves the sequential reduction of a gold salt followed by sol-gel processing in an inverse micelle solution. The inverse micelle solution solubilizes the metal salt and provides a microreactor for the nucleation, growth, and stabilization of the nanometer-sized clusters. Hydrolysis and condensation of an added siloxane precursor produces a wet gel embedding the particles. Characterization of the particle size and composition and the particle growth process was completed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectrometry. Characterization of the gel surface areas was completed with N{sub 2} porosimetry. Material properties determined as a function of the gel precursor (TEOS vs a prehydrolyzed form of TEOS), the water to gel precursor reaction stoichiometry, and surfactant concentration are discussed in terms of the unique solution chemistry occurring in the microheterogeneous inverse micelle solutions. 73 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Encapsulation of metal nanocluster catalysts in silica materials via an inverse micelle/sol-gel synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, A.; Kawola, J.S.; Yamanaka, S.A.; Loy, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Nanometer sized metal particles were encapsulated in the micropores of xerogels and aerogels. The synthesis involves the sequential reduction of a metal salt followed by sol-gel processing in an inverse micelle solution. The inverse micelle solution solubilizes the metal salt and provides a micro-reactor for the nucleation, growth, and stabilization of the nanometer sized clusters. Hydrolysis and condensation of an added siloxane precursor produces a wet gel embedding the particles. Characterization of the particle size and composition and the particle growth process was completed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectrometry. Characterization of the gel surface areas was completed with N{sub 2} porosimetry. Material properties determined as a function of the gel precursor (TEOS vs. a pre-hydrolyzed form of TEOS), the water to gel precursor reaction stoichiometry, and surfactant concentration are discussed in terms of the unique solution chemistry occurring in the micro-heterogeneous inverse micelle solutions. Finally, catalyst development and catalyst activity of the materials are discussed. 1-hexene hydrogenation was chosen as a model reaction.

  14. Gel nanostructure in alkali-activated binders based on slag and fly ash, and effects of accelerated carbonation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.; Walkley, Brant; San Nicolas, Rackel; Gehman, John D.; Brice, David G.; Kilcullen, Adam R.; Zeobond Pty Ltd, P.O. Box 23450, Docklands, Victoria 8012 ; Duxson, Peter; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van

    2013-11-15

    Binders formed through alkali-activation of slags and fly ashes, including ‘fly ash geopolymers’, provide appealing properties as binders for low-emissions concrete production. However, the changes in pH and pore solution chemistry induced during accelerated carbonation testing provide unrealistically low predictions of in-service carbonation resistance. The aluminosilicate gel remaining in an alkali-activated slag system after accelerated carbonation is highly polymerised, consistent with a decalcification mechanism, while fly ash-based binders mainly carbonate through precipitation of alkali salts (bicarbonates at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, or carbonates under natural exposure) from the pore solution, with little change in the binder gel identifiable by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In activated fly ash/slag blends, two distinct gels (C–A–S–H and N–A–S–H) are formed; under accelerated carbonation, the N–A–S–H gel behaves comparably to fly ash-based systems, while the C–A–S–H gel is decalcified similarly to alkali-activated slag. This provides new scope for durability optimisation, and for developing appropriate testing methodologies. -- Highlights: •C-A-S-H gel in alkali-activated slag decalcifies during accelerated carbonation. •Alkali-activated fly ash gel changes much less under CO{sub 2} exposure. •Blended slag-fly ash binder contains two coexisting gel types. •These two gels respond differently to carbonation. •Understanding of carbonation mechanisms is essential in developing test methods.

  15. Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan Richmond Electric Vehicle Initiative Electric Vehicle Readiness Plan The REVi plan addresses the electric...

  16. Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money...

  17. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Southeast Regional Summit July 9, 2015 8:30AM to 6:00PM EDT Renaissance...

  18. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  19. Innovative Corridors Initiative: Business Model Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaheen, Susan; Lingham, Viginia; Finson, Rachel S.

    2007-01-01

    Wenger, Joyce. Business Models for Vehicle InfrastructureCorridors Initiative: Business Model Analysis Rachel S.Corridors Initiative: Business Model Analysis Task Order

  20. Guam Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, I.; Conrad, M.; Haase, S.; Hotchkiss, E.; McNutt, P.

    2011-04-01

    Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's (DOI) Office of Insular Affairs (OIA), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the island of Guam by conducting an island initial technical assessment that would lay out energy consumption and production data and establish a baseline. This assessment will be used to conduct future analysis and studies by NREL that will estimate energy efficiency and renewable energy potential for the island of Guam.

  1. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals INITIATED BY:

  2. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals INITIATED

  3. R{sup 2}-inflation with conformal SM Higgs field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry; Tokareva, Anna E-mail: tokareva@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2013-12-01

    We introduce conformal coupling of the Standard Model Higgs field to gravity and discuss the subsequent modification of R{sup 2}-inflation. The main observation is a lower temperature of reheating which happens mostly through scalaron decays into gluons due to the conformal (trace) anomaly. This modifies all predictions of the original R{sup 2}-inflation. To the next-to-leading order in slow roll parameters we calculate amplitudes and indices of scalar and tensor perturbations produced at inflation. The results are compared to the next-to-leading order predictions of R{sup 2}-inflation with minimally coupled Higgs field and of Higgs-inflation. We discuss additional features in gravity wave signal that may help to distinguish the proposed variant of R{sup 2}-inflation. Remarkably, the features are expected in the region available for study at future experiments like BBO and DECIGO. Finally, we check that (meta)stability of electroweak vacuum in the cosmological model is consistent with recent results of searches for the Higgs boson at LHC.

  4. Background independent exact renormalization group for conformally reduced gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juergen A. Dietz; Tim R. Morris

    2015-04-27

    Within the conformally reduced gravity model, where the metric is parametrised by a function $f(\\phi)$ of the conformal factor $\\phi$, we keep dependence on both the background and fluctuation fields, to local potential approximation and $\\mathcal{O}(\\partial^2)$ respectively, making no other approximation. Explicit appearances of the background metric are then dictated by realising a remnant diffeomorphism invariance. The standard non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) scale $k$ is inherently background dependent, which we show in general forbids the existence of RG fixed points with respect to $k$. By utilising transformations that follow from combining the flow equations with the modified split Ward identity, we uncover a unique background independent notion of RG scale, $\\hat k$. The corresponding RG flow equations are then not only explicitly background independent along the entire RG flow but also explicitly independent of the form of $f$. In general $f(\\phi)$ is forced to be scale dependent and needs to be renormalised, but if this is avoided then $k$-fixed points are allowed and furthermore they coincide with $\\hat k$-fixed points.

  5. AdS Field Theory from Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

    2012-08-01

    We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a Conformal Field Theory to have a description in terms of a perturbative Effective Field Theory in AdS. The first two conditions are well-known: the existence of a perturbative `1/N' expansion and an approximate Fock space of states generated by a finite number of low-dimension operators. We add a third condition, that the Mellin amplitudes of the CFT correlators must be well-approximated by functions that are bounded by a polynomial at infinity in Mellin space, or in other words, that the Mellin amplitudes have an effective theory-type expansion. We explain the relationship between our conditions and unitarity, and provide an analogy with scattering amplitudes that becomes exact in the flat space limit of AdS. The analysis also yields a simple connection between conformal blocks and AdS diagrams, providing a new calculational tool very much in the spirit of the S-Matrix program. We also begin to explore the potential pathologies associated with higher spin fields in AdS by generalizing Weinberg's soft theorems to AdS/CFT. The AdS analog of Weinberg's argument constrains the interactions of conserved currents in CFTs, but there are potential loopholes that are unavailable to theories of massless higher spin particles in flat spacetime.

  6. Positive Energy Conditions in 4D Conformal Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farnsworth, Kara; Prilepina, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    We argue that all consistent 4D quantum field theories obey a spacetime-averaged weak energy inequality $\\langle T^{00} \\rangle \\ge -C/L^4$, where $L$ is the size of the smearing region, and $C$ is a positive constant that depends on the theory. If this condition is violated, the theory has states that are indistinguishable from states of negative total energy by any local measurement, and we expect instabilities or other inconsistencies. We apply this condition to 4D conformal field theories, and find that it places constraints on the OPE coefficients of the theory. The constraints we find are weaker than the "conformal collider" constraints of Hofman and Maldacena. We speculate that there may be theories that violate the Hofman-Maldacena bounds, but satisfy our bounds. In 3D CFTs, the only constraint we find is equivalent to the positivity of 2-point function of the energy-momentum tensor, which follows from unitarity. Our calculations are performed using momentum-space Wightman functions, which are remarka...

  7. Quanta of Local Conformational Change: Conformons in alpha-helical proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Atanasov; Yasser Omar

    2010-01-08

    We propose the conformon as a quantum of conformational change for energy transfer in alpha-helical proteins. The underlying mechanism of interaction between the quantum of excitation and the conformational degrees of freedom is nonlinear and leads to solitary wave packets of conformational energy. The phenomenon is specific to alpha-helices and not to beta-sheets in proteins due to the three strands of hydrogen bonds constituting the alpha-helical backbone.

  8. Scaling between Structural Relaxation and Particle Caging in a Model Colloidal Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristiano De Michele; Emanuela Del Gado; Dino Leporini

    2010-09-08

    In polymers melts and supercooled liquids, the glassy dynamics is characterized by the rattling of monomers or particles in the cage formed by their neighbors. Recently, a direct correlation in such systems, described by a universal scaling form, has been established between the rattling amplitude and the structural relaxation time. In this paper we analyze the glassy dynamics emerging from the formation of a persistent network in a model colloidal gel at very low density. The structural relaxation time of the gel network is compared with the mean squared displacement at short times, corresponding to the localization length associated to the presence of energetic bonds. Interestingly, we find that the same type of scaling as for the dense glassy systems holds. Our findings well elucidate the strong coupling between the cooperative rearrangements of the gel network and the single particle localization in the structure. Our results further indicate that the scaling captures indeed fundamental physical elements of glassy dynamics.

  9. Sol-gel synthesis of hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Hexylene- and phenylene-bridged polysiloxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Baugher, B.M.; Myers, S.A.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    New highly cross-linked polysiloxanes were prepared by sol-gel polymerization of 1,6-bis(diethoxymethylsilyl)hexane (1) and 1,4-bis(diethoxymethylsilyl)benzene (2). Hydrolysis and condensation of 1 and 2 under acidic and basic conditions with 4 equiv of water led to the rapid formation of hexylene- and phenylene-bridged polysiloxane gels. The dry gels (xerogels) were intractable, insoluble materials that were noticeably hydrophobic, exhibiting no swelling in organic solvents or water. Most of the xerogels were high surface area, mesoporous materials. Hexylene-bridged polysiloxanes prepared under acidic conditions were always nonporous regardless of whether they were processed to afford xerogels or supercritically dried as aerogels. Hexylene-bridged polysiloxanes prepared under basic conditions and all of the phenylene-bridged polysiloxanes were mesoporous with surface areas as high as 1025 m{sup 2}/g. 35 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Conformance Tool High Level Design Document: IEC 61850 Cyber Security Acceleration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, Thomas W.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the high level design document for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IEC 62351-3, 4 and 6 standards conformance test software toolkit.

  11. Polymerization of trialkoxysilanes. Effect of the organic substituent on the formation of gels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Baugher, B.M.; Schneider, D.A.

    1998-09-01

    Hydrolysis and condensation of trialkoxysilanes, R-Si(OR{prime}){sub 3}, generally leads to the formation of silsesquioxane oligomers and polymers. These polymers are composed of a monomer repeat unit, [R-SiO{sub 1.5}]{sub n}, with a single silicon atom attached to other repeat units in the polymer through one to three siloxane bonds. The remaining substituent is an organic group attached to the silicon through a silicon-carbon single bond. Silsesquioxanes have been the subject of intensive study in the past and are becoming important again as a vehicle for introducing organic functionalities into hybrid organic-inorganic materials through sol-gel processing. Despite all of this interest, there has not been a systematic study of the ability of trialkoxysilanes to form gels through the sol-gel process. In fact, it has been noted that silsesquioxanes are generally isolated as soluble resins rather than the highly crosslinked network polymers (gels) one would expect from a tri-functional monomer. In this study, the authors have examined the sol-gel chemistry of a variety of trialkoxysilanes with different organic substituents (R = H, Me, Et, n-Pr, i-Pr, n-Bu, i-Bu, t-Bu, n-octadecyl, n-dodecyl, cyclohexyl, vinyl, phenyl, benzyl, phenethyl), with methoxide or ethoxide substituents on silicon, at varying monomer concentrations ranging up to neat monomer, and with different catalysts (HCl, NaOH, formic acid, fluoride). Gels were prepared from tetramethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane at identical concentrations for purposes of comparison.

  12. Analysis of C-S-H gel and cement paste by small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Andrew J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)]. E-mail: andrew.allen@nist.gov; Thomas, Jeffrey J. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)]. E-mail: jthomas@northwestern.edu

    2007-03-15

    The role of small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) in the characterization of cement is briefly reviewed. The unique information obtainable from SANS analysis of C-S-H gel in hydrating cement is compared with that obtainable by other neutron methods. Implications for the nature of C-S-H gel, as detected by SANS, are considered in relation to current models. Finally, the application of the SANS method to cement paste is demonstrated by analyzing the effects of calcium chloride acceleration and sucrose retardation on the resulting hydrated microstructure.

  13. IEF and NEPHGE 2-D PAGE Basic tube gel recipe, 5 ml volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    40 IEF and NEPHGE 2-D PAGE Basic tube gel recipe, 5 ml volume: Urea 2.75 g (ultrapure only) ddH2O 1 overnight with 5% Chem-Solv prior to pouring gels. Lysis buffer recipe, 1 ml volume: Urea 0.55 g (ultrapure) ( - ) (+) Final, 20 mM NaOH and 10 mM H3PO4. Agarose sealer recipe, 10 ml volume: 5X upper (6.8) 2 ml ddH2O 6 ml ß

  14. Influence of aging time on porosity, morphology&structure of hexylene-bridged polysilsesouioxane gels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D. A. (Douglas A.); DeFriend, K. A. (Kimberly A.); Small, J. H. (James H.)

    2004-01-01

    Hexylene-bridged polysilsesquioxanes are hybrid organic-inorganic materials prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of 1,6-bis(trimethoxysilyl)hexane monomer 1. Previous studies showed that high surface area xerogels could be prepared from 2 with base catalyzed polymerizations while non-porous xerogels could be prepared with acidic catalysts. However, these xerogels were obtained from gels that had been aged for two weeks. The object of this study was to ascertain the influences of aging time (3, 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days) on the properties of the resulting xerogels.

  15. Sol-gel silica films embedding NIR- emitting Yb-quinolinolate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Piana, Giacomo; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato-Cagliari (Italy); Artizzu, Flavia [Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Cagliari and Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato-Cagliari (Italy); Mercuri, Maria Laura; Serpe, Angela; Deplano, Paola [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio per Sestu, I-09042, Monserrato-Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    Sol-gel silica thin films embedding an ytterbium quinolinolato complex (YbClQ{sub 4}) have been obtained using different alkoxides. Homogeneous, crack- and defect-free thin films of optical quality have been successfully deposited on glass substrate by dip-coating. The silica thin films have been characterized by time-resolved photoluminescence. The luminescence properties of the YbClQ{sub 4} are preserved in silica films prepared through an optimized sol-gel approach. The excited state lifetime of the lanthanide is comparable to those observed in bulk and longer than the corresponding ones in solution.

  16. California Solar InitiativeCalifornia Solar Initiative Julie FitchJulie Fitch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transition Year: 2006 Funding for new Solar Initiative beginsFunding for new Solar Initiative begins;12/12/0512/12/05 77 Solar Initiative FundingSolar Initiative Funding 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 $millions 2006California Solar InitiativeCalifornia Solar Initiative Julie FitchJulie Fitch Director, Division

  17. Initial Decision and Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, David W.

    2012-02-29

    Decision and Risk Analysis capabilities will be developed for industry consideration and possible adoption within Year 1. These tools will provide a methodology for merging qualitative ranking of technology maturity and acknowledged risk contributors with quantitative metrics that drive investment decision processes. Methods and tools will be initially introduced as applications to the A650.1 case study, but modular spreadsheets and analysis routines will be offered to industry collaborators as soon as possible to stimulate user feedback and co-development opportunities.

  18. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals INITIATED Washington, D.C. Approved:

  19. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposals INITIATED Washington, D.C. Approved:

  20. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nuclear Securityhr INITIATED BY:

  1. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nuclear Securityhr INITIATED BY:

  2. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReporteeo | National Nuclear Securityhr INITIATED BY:hq.na.gov

  3. AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY:

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s sconveyance of9,Septemeber 19, 2014INITIATED BY:

  4. Workplace Charging Program and Initiatives

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'SEnergyofThe HartfordUnumXcelofProgram and Initiatives

  5. Research Initiatives | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultiday Production of SOA in UrbanArcticResearch Initiatives

  6. Self-assembled gels of liquid crystals: hydrogen-bonded aggregates formed in various liquid crystalline textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    Self-assembled gels of liquid crystals: hydrogen-bonded aggregates formed in various liquid as an Advance Article on the web 30th March 2001 An azobenzene-containing gelator can gel the nematic liquid crystal BL006 through self-assembly of hydrogen- bonded aggregates. Due to the high nematic

  7. 4516 Macromolecules 1994,27, 4516-4520 Studies of the Swelling and Drying Kinetics of Thin Gelatin Gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    4516 Macromolecules 1994,27, 4516-4520 Studies of the Swelling and Drying Kinetics of Thin Gelatin Received April 26, 1994. ABSTRACT Both the swelling and drying kinetics of thin gelatin gel films were discussed in termsof the difference in the size of gelatin gel. The experimentaldata obtainedin

  8. The role of cyclic AMP in normalizing the function of engineered human blood microvessels in microfluidic collagen gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, Joe

    in microfluidic collagen gels Keith H.K. Wong, James G. Truslow, Joe Tien* Department of Biomedical Engineering tissue engineering Collagen gels Permeability Microfluidic channels Cyclic AMP a b s t r a c t Nearly all developed methods to synthesize extracellular matrix-based scaffolds that contain open microfluidic networks

  9. Use of X-Ray Computed Microtomography to Understand Why Gels Reduce Permeability to Water More Than That to Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    That to Oil R. S. Seright * , New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center J. Liang, Idaho National was used to investigate why gels reduce permeability to water more than that to oil in strongly water 80 to 90 times more than that to oil. In Berea, the gel caused disproportionate permeability

  10. Na-A (LTA) zeolite synthesis directly from alumatrane and silatrane by sol-gel microwave techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    selectivity properties.1 Na-A zeolite has also been employed in gas separation membranes, to enhance membrane was produced on aAl2O3 support by dipping the support into the gel and then crystallizing the gel higher gas permeability with equal selectivity in permeation. A second technique of making Na-A zeolite

  11. X-Ray Computed Microtomography Studies of Fluid Partitioning in Drainage and Imbibition Before and After Gel Placement: Disproportionate Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    or extrusion mechanisms for creating oil pathways. Our XMT studies provide interesting insights into imbibition(III)-acetate-HPAM gels reduced permeability to water much more than to oil. Our results suggest that permeability to water was reduced to low values because water must flow through gel itself, whereas oil pressing

  12. Inverse Monte Carlo simulation of biomolecular conformation and coarse-grained molecular modeling of chondroitin sulfate conformation, titration, and osmotic pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathe, Mark, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this thesis is concerned with the solution structure determination problem. Whereas many biomacromolecules, such as proteins, can be adequately characterized by a single conformation in solution, numerous ...

  13. Boundary and Interface CFTs from the Conformal Bootstrap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gliozzi; P. Liendo; M. Meineri; A. Rago

    2015-05-12

    We explore some consequences of the crossing symmetry for defect conformal field theories, focusing on codimension one defects like flat boundaries or interfaces. We study surface transitions of the 3d Ising and other O(N) models through numerical solutions to the crossing equations with the method of determinants. In the extraordinary transition, where the low-lying spectrum of the surface operators is known, we use the bootstrap equations to obtain information on the bulk spectrum of the theory. In the ordinary transition the knowledge of the low-lying bulk spectrum allows to calculate the scale dimension of the relevant surface operator, which compares well with known results of two-loop calculations in 3d. Estimates of various OPE coefficients are also obtained. We also analyze in 4-epsilon dimensions the renormalization group interface between the O(N) model and the free theory and check numerically the results in 3d.

  14. Relativistic conformal symmetry of neural field propagation in the brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan M. Romero; Carlos Trenado; Berenice Aguilar; Miriam Tirradentro

    2013-08-25

    In this paper, we address a neural field equation that characterizes spatio-temporal propagation of a neural population pulse. Due that the human brain is a complex system whose constituents interaction give rise to fundamental states of consciousness and behavior, it is crucial to gain insight into its functioning even at relativistic scales. To this end, we study the action of the relativistic conformal group on the accounted neural field propagation equation. In particular, we obtain an exact solution for the field propagation equation when the space-time is 3 or 4 dimensional. Furthermore, in the 4 dimensional case and the large distance limit, it is shown that the neural population pulse becomes a Yukawa potential.

  15. Conformational mechanism for the stability of microtubule-kinetochore attachments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zsolt Bertalan; Caterina A. M. La Porta; Helder Maiato; Stefano Zapperi

    2014-07-21

    Regulating the stability of microtubule(MT)-kinetochore attachments is fundamental to avoiding mitotic errors and ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. While biochemical factors involved in this process have been identified, its mechanics still needs to be better understood. Here we introduce and simulate a mechanical model of MT-kinetochore interactions in which the stability of the attachment is ruled by the geometrical conformations of curling MT-protofilaments entangled in kinetochore fibrils. The model allows us to reproduce with good accuracy in vitro experimental measurements of the detachment times of yeast kinetochores from MTs under external pulling forces. Numerical simulations suggest that geometrical features of MT-protofilaments may play an important role in the switch between stable and unstable attachments.

  16. Chiral and real N=2 supersymmetric ?-conformal Galilei algebras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aizawa, N. [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Nakamozu Campus, Sakai, Osaka 599-8351 (Japan)] [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Nakamozu Campus, Sakai, Osaka 599-8351 (Japan); Kuznetsova, Z. [UFABC, Rua Santa Adélia 166, Bangu, cep 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)] [UFABC, Rua Santa Adélia 166, Bangu, cep 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Toppan, F. [CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, cep 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [CBPF, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, cep 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Inequivalent N=2 supersymmetrizations of the ?-conformal Galilei algebra in d-spatial dimensions are constructed from the chiral (2, 2) and the real (1, 2, 1) basic supermultiplets of the N=2 supersymmetry. For non-negative integer and half-integer ?, both superalgebras admit a consistent truncation with a (different) finite number of generators. The real N=2 case coincides with the superalgebra introduced by Masterov, while the chiral N=2 case is a new superalgebra. We present D-module representations of both superalgebras. Then we investigate the new superalgebra derived from the chiral supermultiplet. It is shown that it admits two types of central extensions, one is found for any d and half-integer ?, and the other only for d= 2 and integer ?. For each central extension, the centrally extended ?-superconformal Galilei algebra is realized in terms of its super-Heisenberg subalgebra generators.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Xiong, Guang; Han, Catherine Y.; Wang, H. Hau; Birrell, James P.; Welp, Ulrich; Hryn, John N.; Pellin, Michael J.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Poco, John F.; et al

    2006-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition ( ALD ) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide ( AAO ) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ? 40 nm and pore length L ? 70 microns. The AAO membranes were coated by ALD to fabricatemore »catalytic membranes that demonstrate remarkable selectivity in the oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclohexane. Additional AAO membranes coated with ALD Pd films show promise as hydrogen sensors. Silica aerogels have the lowest density and highest surface area of any solid material. Consequently, these materials serve as an excellent substrate to fabricate novel catalytic materials and gas sensors by ALD . « less

  18. A volumetric Penrose inequality for conformally flat manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernando Schwartz

    2011-04-11

    We consider asymptotically flat Riemannian manifolds with nonnegative scalar curvature that are conformal to $\\R^{n}\\setminus \\Omega, n\\ge 3$, and so that their boundary is a minimal hypersurface. (Here, $\\Omega\\subset \\R^{n}$ is open bounded with smooth mean-convex boundary.) We prove that the ADM mass of any such manifold is bounded below by $(V/\\beta_{n})^{(n-2)/n}$, where $V$ is the Euclidean volume of $\\Omega$ and $\\beta_{n}$ is the volume of the Euclidean unit $n$-ball. This gives a partial proof to a conjecture of Bray and Iga \\cite{brayiga}. Surprisingly, we do not require the boundary to be outermost.

  19. The Conformal Universe III: Basic Mechanisms of Matter Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renato Nobili

    2014-12-22

    This is the last of three papers on Conformal General Relativity (CGR), which describes inflation as a process primed by the spontaneous breakdown of a conformal-symmetric instable vacuum and the big bang as a sudden transfer of energy from geometry to matter. This process is driven by the interaction of a ghost scalar field $\\sigma$, called the {\\em dilation field}, with a scalar field $\\varphi$ behaving as a Higgs field of varying mass. Inflation ends when the interaction potential vanishes and $\\sigma,\\varphi$ amplitudes converge to their expectation values in a stable vacuum. Explicit solutions of $\\sigma, \\varphi$ dynamics in the semiclassical approximation are exemplified by numerical simulations. In order that the theory may survive quantization, the perfect vanishing of the total zero-point energy density of all involved fields must be postulated, which is equivalent to extending the correspondence principle of Bohr to quantum field theory. Since inflation actually is an adiabatic thermodynamic process, the temperature $T_B\\simeq 142$\\,GeV and the effective degeneracy $g_{*s}(T_B)\\simeq 0.887$ of Higgs-boson entropy at big bang are easily found. The application of entropy-conservation property then results in striking predictions. In particular, given the Higg-boson mass $\\mu_H\\simeq 126.5$ GeV and self-coupling constant $\\lambda\\simeq 0.132$, and the temperature $T_{BK}= 2.35\\times 10^{-13}$ and effective entropy degeneracy $g_{*s}(T_{BK})\\simeq 3.91$ of the current cosmic-background radiation, the cosmological constant $\\rho_{\\hbox{vac}}\\simeq 6.91\\times 10^{-47}$GeV$^4$ and expansion factor across inflation $F\\simeq 1.32\\times 10^{27}$ are predicted.

  20. Trapping Conformational Intermediate States in the Reaction Center Protein from Photosynthetic Bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunner, Marilyn

    , electron tunneling reaction in RCs. Conformational flexibility is important for the function of proteins (1 photosynthetic reaction center protein (RCs)1 has a number of physiological electron tunneling reactionsTrapping Conformational Intermediate States in the Reaction Center Protein from Photosynthetic

  1. Comparison of Transition State Theory rate constants for internal conformational motion with those obtained from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathorn, Bryan C.

    approximations. We assume that intro­ duction of a conformational defect is done at an energy cost of V 0 calculation. I. INTRODUCTION The simulation of large molecular structures such as polymers and proteins. [2,3] 1 #12; In several recent calculations we have observed large amounts of conformational disor

  2. Conformance Test Architecture and Test Suite for ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conformance Test Architecture and Test Suite for ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2007 Fernando L. Podio Dylan Yaga Christofer J. McGinnis NISTIR 7791 #12;NISTIR 7791 Conformance Test Architecture and Test Suite for ANSI develops tests, test methods, reference data, proof of concept implementations, and technical analysis

  3. Distributed Process Discovery and Conformance Wil M.P. van der Aalst1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Aalst, Wil

    are process discovery (i.e., learning a process model from example behavior recorded in an event logDistributed Process Discovery and Conformance Checking Wil M.P. van der Aalst1,2 1 Eindhoven) and conformance checking (i.e., comparing modeled behavior with observed behavior). Process mining is motivated

  4. Gas-Phase Conformation-Specific Photofragmentation of Proline-Containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clemmer, David E.

    Gas-Phase Conformation-Specific Photofragmentation of Proline-Containing Peptide Ions Tae-Young Kim and an amide hydrogen. The latter is facilitated by a proline-stabilized gas-phase peptide conformation. (J Am analysis of peptides and proteins in the gas phase provides insight into their intrinsic intramolecular

  5. Main-Chain Conformational Tendencies of Amino Acids Robert J. Anderson,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weng, Zhiping

    Main-Chain Conformational Tendencies of Amino Acids Robert J. Anderson,1,2 Zhiping Weng,2 Robert K, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A Ramachandran plot is a visual representation of the main-chain conformational dataset. To obtain our results, we then mea- sured the pair-wise distances of main-chain confor- mational

  6. Braiding and fusion properties of the Neveu-Schwarz super-conformal blocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damian Chorazkiewicz; Leszek Hadasz

    2008-11-07

    We construct, generalizing appropriately the method applied by J. Teschner in the case of the Virasoro conformal blocks, the braiding and fusion matrices of the Neveu-Schwarz super-conformal blocks. Their properties allow for an explicit verification of the bootstrap equation in the NS sector of the N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory.

  7. Switching the Conformation of a DNA Molecule with a Chemical Oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    September 5, 2005 ABSTRACT pH oscillations generated by a nonequilibrium chemical reaction are usedSwitching the Conformation of a DNA Molecule with a Chemical Oscillator Tim Liedl and Friedrich C to switch a pH-sensitive DNA structure between two distinct conformations. The utilization of a chemical

  8. Hawking radiation for a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Valtancoli

    2015-02-05

    The decomposition in normal modes of a scalar field conformally coupled to an AdS black hole leads to a Heun equation with simple coefficients thanks to conformal invariance. By applying the Damour-Ruffini method we can relate the critical exponent of the radial part at the horizon surface to the Hawking radiation of scalar particles.

  9. Conformational Selection Is a Dominant Mechanism of Ligand Austin D. Vogt and Enrico Di Cera*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Cera, Enrico

    Conformational Selection Is a Dominant Mechanism of Ligand Binding Austin D. Vogt and Enrico Di the binding step, two limiting mechanisms known as conformational selection and induced fit, respectively. Sorting out the contribution of these mechanisms to any binding interaction remains a challenging task

  10. THE LYAPUNOV AND DIMENSION SPECTRA OF EQUILIBRIUM MEASURES FOR CONFORMAL EXPANDING MAPS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE LYAPUNOV AND DIMENSION SPECTRA OF EQUILIBRIUM MEASURES FOR CONFORMAL EXPANDING MAPS. HOWARD the dimension spectrum for equilibrium measures and the Lyapunov spectrum for conformal repellers. We explicitly compute the Lyapunov spectrum and show that it is a delta function. We observe that while the Lyapunov

  11. H-NMR Stereospecific Assignments by Conformational Data-base Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clore, G. Marius

    H-NMR Stereospecific Assignments by Conformational Data-base Searches 1 MICHAEL NILGES,$ G. MARIUS different data bases are used. The first is a crystallographic data base derived from 34 well-refined crystal structures; the second is a systematic data base derived from conformations of a short peptide

  12. Analysis of Conforming and Nonconforming Quadrilateral Finite Element Methods for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Dongwoo

    Analysis of Conforming and Nonconforming Quadrilateral Finite Element Methods for the Helmholtz in this analysis are the standard Q1 conforming finite element, the DSSY nonconforming element [5] and the P1-Santos-Sheen-Bennethum in [4]; also in the same paper a first rigorous finite element error analysis was carried out

  13. Asymptotic symmetries at null infinity and local conformal properties of spin coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2013-01-24

    We show that the symmetry algebra of asymptotically flat four dimensional spacetimes at null infinity in the sense of Newman and Unti is isomorphic to the direct sum of the abelian algebra of infinitesimal conformal rescalings with bms4. We then work out the local conformal properties of the relevant Newman-Penrose coefficients, as well as the surface charges and their algebra.

  14. Reaction paths and free energy profiles for conformational transitions: An internal coordinate approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lazaridis, Themis

    Reaction paths and free energy profiles for conformational transitions: An internal coordinate for the determination of transition states and reaction paths for conformational transitions. The method makes use of adiabatic energy surfaces in the space of "essential" degrees of freedom of the molecule. The reduced

  15. Vibrational and Theoretical Investigations of Molecular Conformations and Intramolecular pi-Type Hydrogen Bonding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocola, Esther

    2012-02-14

    computations of 3-cyclopenten-1-ol predict that its lowest energy conformer has a weak pi-type intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The three other conformers lie 301 to 411 cm^-1 higher in energy. The infrared and Raman spectra of this molecule confirm...

  16. ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2011 Requirements and Conformance Test Assertions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2011 Requirements and Conformance Test Assertions Christofer J. McGinnis Dylan Yaga Fernando L. Podio NISTIR 7806 #12;NISTIR 7806 ANSI/NIST-ITL 1-2011 Requirements and Conformance Test, by The Department of Homeland Security/US-VISIT Program. Abstract The current version of the ANSI/NIST-ITL standard

  17. CONFORMATION #OFPOLYPEPTIDES AND PROTE1NS"t By G. N. RAMACHANDRAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, N.

    . Total Potential Energy of a Conformation . . . . . . C. Nonbonded Interaction-Attractive and Repulsive. Calculation of Energies Associated with Conformations 284 285 285 289 291 294 295 304 307 308 308 310 312 322. Electrostatic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . E. Hydrogen Bond Energy . . . . . . . . . . F. Strain Energy of Bond

  18. Casting 12 BioRad Mini SDS PAGE Gels 1. Assemble multicasting chamber. Make sure ALL plates and spacers are flush with bottom. Clean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aris, John P.

    120 Casting 12 BioRad Mini SDS PAGE Gels 1. Assemble multicasting chamber. Make sure ALL plates, disassemble casting chamber. Carefully separate gels. Rinse with ddH2O. Remove excess polyacrylamide. Place

  19. Large amplitude oscillatory shear flow of gluten dough: A model power-law gel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Trevor S. K.

    In a previous paper [T. S. K. Ng and G. H. McKinley, J. Rheol.52(2), 417–449 (2008)], we demonstrated that gluten gels can best be understood as a polymericnetwork with a power-law frequency response that reflects the ...

  20. Effect of an Oscillating Magnetic Field on the Release Properties of Magnetic Collagen Gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinu, Leonard

    -15 The oscillating magnetic field was generated by a plate demagnetizer or by moving a permanent magnet backEffect of an Oscillating Magnetic Field on the Release Properties of Magnetic Collagen Gels Vania M The paper describes the effect of an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) on the morphology and release

  1. In-gel digestion of immunoprecipitated proteins separated by SDS-PAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura

    In-gel digestion of immunoprecipitated proteins separated by SDS-PAGE (Lamond Lab / April 2008) ! Perform all the pipetting steps in a laminar flow hood. We routinely do our digestions in our TC room samples from beads NOTE: To improve elution of proteins from beads and to save time during the digestion

  2. SYPRO Orange and Red protein gel stains provide the following advantages over

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    are designed for fast, simple, sensitive staining of proteins in electrophoretic gels. The staining properties " Small plastic box lids or sealable plastic bags Handling Packaging: Screw cap plastic vials contained) is stable for 3 months when stored in sterile detergent free glass or plastic bottles at 2-8°C in the dark

  3. Formation of creases on the surfaces of elastomers and gels Xuanhe Zhao,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Wei

    strains. The difference between the two modes of instability may be understood as follows. SubjectFormation of creases on the surfaces of elastomers and gels Wei Hong,1 Xuanhe Zhao,2 and Zhigang is expressed by a scaling relation. Critical conditions for creasing are determined for elastomers subject

  4. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-30

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP)more »chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.« less

  5. Pro-Q Sapphire 365 Oligohistidine Gel StainMP 21876 Revised: 08.ebruary2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    acid Deionized, high quality water (dH2 O) Pro-Q Sapphire 365 Staining The Pro-Q Sapphire 365 stain run on standard-sized gels with larger well sizes may exhibit lower sen- sitivity, as the protein will be spread out in the well. .or weakly expressed proteins requiring higher sensitivity, we recommend one

  6. Pro-Q Sapphire 488 Oligohistidine Gel StainMP 21877 Revised: 08.ebruary2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    grade Glacial acetic acid Deionized, high quality water (dH2 O) Pro-Q Sapphire 488 Staining The Pro run on standard-sized gels with larger well sizes may exhibit lower sen- sitivity, as the protein will be spread out in the well. .or weakly expressed proteins requiring higher sensitivity, we recommend one

  7. Relaxation dynamics in a transient network fluid with competing gel and glass phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinaki Chaudhuri; Pablo I. Hurtado; Ludovic Berthier; Walter Kob

    2015-02-01

    We use computer simulations to study the relaxation dynamics of a model for oil-in-water microemulsion droplets linked with telechelic polymers. This system exhibits both gel and glass phases and we show that the competition between these two arrest mechanisms can result in a complex, three-step decay of the time correlation functions, controlled by two different localization lengthscales. For certain combinations of the parameters, this competition gives rise to an anomalous logarithmic decay of the correlation functions and a subdiffusive particle motion, which can be understood as a simple crossover effect between the two relaxation processes. We establish a simple criterion for this logarithmic decay to be observed. We also find a further logarithmically slow relaxation related to the relaxation of floppy clusters of particles in a crowded environment, in agreement with recent findings in other models for dense chemical gels. Finally, we characterize how the competition of gel and glass arrest mechanisms affects the dynamical heterogeneities and show that for certain combination of parameters these heterogeneities can be unusually large. By measuring the four-point dynamical susceptibility, we probe the cooperativity of the motion and find that with increasing coupling this cooperativity shows a maximum before it decreases again, indicating the change in the nature of the relaxation dynamics. Our results suggest that compressing gels to large densities produces novel arrested phases that have a new and complex dynamics.

  8. Nanoindentation and adhesion of sol-gel-derived hard coatings on polyester

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Nanoindentation and adhesion of sol-gel-derived hard coatings on polyester C.M. Chan, G.Z. Cao,a) H coatings on modified polyester substrates. The silica network was modified by incorporating an organic, and mechanical properties of the coatings. Various low-temperature densification techniques were studied

  9. Multiple yielding processes in a colloidal gel under large amplitude oscillatory stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Gibaud; Christophe Perge; Stefan B. Lindstrom; Nicolas Taberlet; Sebastien Manneville

    2015-08-24

    Fatigue refers to the changes in material properties caused by repeatedly applied loads. It has been widely studied for, e.g., construction materials, but much less has been done on soft materials. Here, we characterize the fatigue dynamics of a colloidal gel. Fatigue is induced by large amplitude oscillatory stress (LAOStress), and the local displacements of the gel are measured through high-frequency ultrasonic imaging. We show that fatigue eventually leads to rupture and fluidization. We evidence four successive steps associated with these dynamics: (i) the gel first remains solid, (ii) it then slides against the walls, (iii) the bulk of the sample becomes heterogeneous and displays solid-fluid coexistence, and (iv) it is finally fully fluidized. It is possible to homogeneously scale the duration of each step with respect to the stress oscillation amplitude $\\sigma_0$. The data are compatible with both exponential and power-law scalings with $\\sigma_0$, which hints at two possible interpretations in terms of delayed yielding in terms activated processes or of the Basquin law. Surprisingly, we find that the model parameters behave nonmonotonically as we change the oscillation frequency and/or the gel concentration.

  10. SolGel Electrophoretic Deposition for the Growth of Oxide Nanorods**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    ±gel processing is a wet chemical route for the synthesis and processing of inorganic and organic±inorganic hybrid materials. It is particularly useful in making complex metal oxides and temperature sensitive organic±inorganic and Guozhong Cao* 1. Introduction Metal oxides, particularly complex metal oxides, are impor- tant materials

  11. Stress effects in sol-gel derived ferroelectric thin films L. Lian and N. R. Sottosa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    Stress effects in sol-gel derived ferroelectric thin films L. Lian and N. R. Sottosa) Department 26 August 2003; accepted 19 October 2003 Residual stress development during processing of sol investigates the effects of stress on field-induced polarization switching in ferroelectric Pb Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3

  12. Shake-gels: shear-induced gelation of laponite/PEO mixtures J. Zebrowski a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    applications, in- cluding biological fluids, drilling muds, cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals. In addition of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA c Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Complex Fluids to vigorous shaking, which transforms them from a low viscosity fluid into a `shake-gel', a solid

  13. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-30

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  14. Dialkylenecarbonate-Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. Hybrid Organic Sol-Gels with a Thermally Labile Bridging Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loy, D.A.; Beach, J.V.; Baugher, B.M.; Assink, R.A.; Shea, K.J.; Tran, J.; Small, J.H.

    1999-04-21

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for altering the properties of bridged polysilsesquioxane xerogels using post-processing modification of the polymeric network. The bridging organic group contains latent functionalities that can be liberated thermally, photochemically, or by chemical means after the gel has been processed to a xerogel. These modifications can produce changes in density, volubility, porosity, and or chemical properties of the material. Since every monomer possesses two latent functional groups, the technique allows for the introduction of high levels of functionality in hybrid organic-inorganic materials. Dialkylenecarbonate-bridged polysilsesquioxane gels were prepared by the sol-gel polymerization of bis(triethoxysilylpropyl)carbonate (1) and bis(triethoxysilylisobutyl)-carbonate (2). Thermal treatment of the resulting non-porous xerogels and aerogels at 300-350 C resulted in quantitative decarboxylation of the dialkylenecarbonate bridging groups to give new hydroxyalkyl and olefinic substituted polysilsesquioxane monolithic xerogels and aerogels that can not be directly prepared through direct sol-gel polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes.

  15. Structure, dynamics, and rheology of colloid-polymer mixtures: From liquids to gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew

    Düsseldorf, Germany 2 IESL-FORTH and Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of CreteStructure, dynamics, and rheology of colloid-polymer mixtures: From liquids to gels M. Laurati,1,a the structural, dynamical, and viscoelastic properties of colloid-polymer mixtures at intermediate colloid volume

  16. Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-02-01

    Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in vacuum; however ignition by resistively-heated tungsten wire was possible. Thin films of thermite were fabricated using a dispersed mixture of aluminum and iron oxide particles, but ignition and propagation of these films was difficult. The only ignition and propagation observed was in a preheated sample.

  17. Direct laser initiation of PETN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Early, J. W. (James W.); Kennedy, J. E. (James E.)

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1970s Yang and Menichelli demonstrated that direct laser illumination of low-density secondary explosive prr:ssings through a transparent window could produce detonation. 'The energy requirement for threshold initiation of detonation was reduced when a thin metal coating of metal covered the side of the window against which the low-density explosive was pressed. We have obtained experimental results that are in general agreement with the results of Renllund, Stanton and Trott (1 989) and recent: work by Nagayama, hou and Nakahara (2001). We report exploration of the effects of laser beam diameter, PEiTN density and specific surface area, and thickness of a titanium coating on the window.

  18. QER- Comment of Environmental Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dear Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis, I lead a series of annual environmental policy forums that target the leaders within the Minnesota environmental and energy policy community (http://www.environmental-initiative.org/projects/policy-forum-series), and our next forum (on Sept. 24th) will be focused on the risks and rewards associated with fuel transport to/through Minnesota, as well as what policy decisions and trade-offs we are facing as a state. I am looking for a speaker to open the four-hour forum who can provide broader context on the issue of fuel transport infrastructure, as well as speak to federal vs. state jurisdiction and both the big-picture/long-term and the immediate on-the-ground trade-offs.

  19. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    2013-09-27

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.

  20. Integrability Conditions for Killing-Yano Tensors and Conformal Killing-Yano Tensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlos Batista

    2015-01-14

    The integrability conditions for the existence of a conformal Killing-Yano tensor of arbitrary order are worked out in all dimensions and expressed in terms of the Weyl tensor. As a consequence, the integrability conditions for the existence of a Killing-Yano tensor are also obtained. By means of such conditions, it is shown that in certain Einstein spaces one can use a conformal Killing-Yano tensor of order p to generate a Killing-Yano tensor of order (p-1). Finally, it is proved that in maximally symmetric spaces the covariant derivative of a Killing-Yano tensor is a closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor and that every conformal Killing-Yano tensor is uniquely decomposed as the sum of a Killing-Yano tensor and a closed conformal Killing-Yano tensor.

  1. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); King, R.B. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Garber, A.R. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1989-12-31

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub l2}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sub 17}0 NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}]{sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an ``intercalation`` cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 10}] {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0{sub 2} ceramic fuel.

  2. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Thompson, M.C.; Buchanan, B.R. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); King, R.B. (Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry); Garber, A.R. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO{sub 2}), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C{sub 6}H{sub l2}N{sub 4}) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. {sub 17}0 NMR of uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup ++}) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, ((UO{sub 2}){sub 3}({mu}{sub 3}-O)({mu}{sub 2}-OH){sub 3}){sup +}, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH{sup +} is occluded as an intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}((UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 10}) {center dot} 8H{sub 2}0. This compound is the precursor to sintered U0{sub 2} ceramic fuel.

  3. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  4. NMR studies of the conformation of a triazine dendrimer and the synthesis of a platinated triazine dendrimer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno, Karlos Xavier

    2009-05-15

    A general picture of dendrimer conformation has appeared through studies of various dendrimer systems. Though the studies define some conformational abilities of a dendrimer, the studies are only able to examine one portion ...

  5. The Materials Genome Initiative September 25, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    The Materials Genome Initiative September 25, 2013 Dr. Cyrus Wadia Assistant Director, Clean Energy're launching what we call the Materials Genome Initiative. The invention of silicon circuits and lithium ion

  6. SUBCHAPTER All INITIAL STATEMENT OF REASONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Boilers and Water Heaters, January 20, 2012 NR SOLAR AND WATER HEATING Memo to Boiler CASE Initiative "Solar Ready Homes and Solar Oriented Development", September 2011 RES SOLAR & WATER Initiative "Nonresidential Solarready Buildings", September 2011 NR SOLAR & WATER HEATING CASE

  7. DelftResearchInitiatives Medical technology for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    technology is creating a wave of innovation in healthcare, improving quality and efficiency while keepingDelftResearchInitiatives Medical technology for the future of healthcare Delft Health Initiative,affordablegreenenergy,acleanandsafelivingenvironment andcommutingandtransportationwithnotailbacks.Health,energy,environment, infrastructuresandmobilityaretoday

  8. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Recovery Act Interconnection Transmission Planning Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning...

  9. Deep Vadose Zone Applied Field Research Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deep Vadose Zone­ Applied Field Research Initiative Fiscal Year 2012 Annual Report #12;Prepared Tasks 25 References 25 Appendix: FY2012 Products for the Deep Vadose Zone­ Applied Field Research Initiative Contents #12;Message from the Deep Vadose Zone- Applied Field Research Initiative Project Manager

  10. Materials Genome Initiative for Global Competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    Materials Genome Initiative for Global Competitiveness June 2011 #12;2 Materials Genome Initiative information visit www.ostp.gov. #12;3Materials Genome Initiative for Global Competitiveness EXECUTIVE OFFICE, the development of advanced materials will fuel many of the emerging industries that will address challenges

  11. Retention of Conformational Entropy upon Calmodulin Binding to Target Peptides is Driven by Transient Salt Bridges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Dayle MA; Straatsma, TP; Squier, Thomas C.

    2012-10-03

    Calmodulin (CaM) is a highly flexible calcium-binding protein that mediates signal transduction through an ability to differentially bind to highly variable binding sequences in target proteins. To identify how binding affects CaM motions, and its relationship to conformational entropy and target peptide sequence, we have employed fully atomistic, explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of unbound CaM and CaM bound to five different target peptides. The calculated CaM conformational binding entropies correlate with experimentally derived conformational entropies with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.95. Selected side-chain interactions with target peptides restrain interhelical loop motions, acting to tune the conformational entropy of the bound complex via widely distributed CaM motions. In the complex with the most conformational entropy retention (CaM in complex with the neuronal nitric oxide synthase binding sequence), Lys-148 at the C-terminus of CaM forms transient salt bridges alternating between Glu side chains in the N-domain, the central linker, and the binding target. Additional analyses of CaM structures, fluctuations, and CaM-target interactions illuminate the interplay between electrostatic, side chain, and backbone properties in the ability of CaM to recognize and discriminate against targets by tuning its conformational entropy, and suggest a need to consider conformational dynamics in optimizing binding affinities.

  12. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Materials through Retro Diels-Alder Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHALTOUT,RAAFAT M.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCCLAIN,MARK D.; PRABAKAR,SHESHASAYANA; GREAVES,JOHN; SHEA,KENNETH J.

    1999-12-08

    Hydrolysis and condensation of organically bridged bis-triethoxysilanes, (EtO){sub 3}Si-R-Si(OEt){sub 3}, results in the formation of three dimensional organic/inorganic hybrid networks (Equation 1). Properties of these materials, including porosity, are dependent on the nature of the bridging group, R. Flexible groups (akylene-spacers longer than five carbons in length) polymerize under acidic conditions to give non-porous materials. Rigid groups (such as arylene-, alkynylene-, or alkenylene) form non-porous, microporous, and macroporous gels. In many cases the pore size distributions are quite narrow. One of the motivations for preparing hybrid organic-inorganic materials is to extend the range of properties available with sol-gel systems by incorporating organic groups into the inorganic network. For example, organically modified silica gels arc either prepared by co-polymerizing an organoalkoxysilane with a silica precursor or surface silylating the inorganic gel. This can serve to increase hydrophobicity or to introduce some reactive organic functionality. However, the type and orientation of these organic functionalities is difficult to control. Furthermore, many organoalkoxysilanes can act to inhibitor even prevent gelation, limiting the final density of organic functionalities. We have devised a new route for preparing highly functionalized pores in hybrid materials using bridging groups that are thermally converted into the desired functionalities after the gel has been obtained. In this paper, we present the preparation and characterization of bridged polysilsesquioxanes with Diels-Alder adducts as the bridging groups from the sol-gel polymerization of monomers 2 and 4. The bridging groups are constructed such that the retro Diela-Alder reaction releases the dienes and leaves the dienophiles as integral parts of the network polymers. In the rigid architecture of a xerogel, this loss of organic functionality should liberate sufficient space to modify the overall porosity. Furthermore, the new porosity will be functionalized with the dienophilic olefin bridging group. We also demonstrate that by changing the type of Diels-Alder adduct used as the bridging group, we can change the temperature at which the retro-Diels-Alder reaction will occur.

  13. Microfluidic device having an immobilized pH gradient and PAGE gels for protein separation and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2012-12-11

    Disclosed is a novel microfluidic device enabling on-chip implementation of a two-dimensional separation methodology. Previously disclosed microscale immobilized pH gradients (IPG) are combined with perpendicular polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) microchannels to achieve orthogonal separations of biological samples. Device modifications enable inclusion of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the second dimension. The device can be fabricated to use either continuous IPG gels, or the microscale isoelectric fractionation membranes we have also previously disclosed, for the first dimension. The invention represents the first all-gel two-dimensional separation microdevice, with significantly higher resolution power over existing devices.

  14. Conformal Behavior at Four Loops and Scheme (In)Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas A. Ryttov

    2014-10-01

    We search for infrared zeros of the beta function and evaluate the anomalous dimension of the mass at the associated fixed point for asymptotically free vector-like fermionic gauge theories with gauge group SU(N). The fixed points of the beta function are studied at the two, three and four loop level in two different explicit schemes. These are the modified regularization invariant, RI', scheme and the minimal momentum subtraction, mMOM, scheme. The search is performed in Landau gauge where the beta function of the gauge parameter vanishes. We then compare our findings to earlier identical investigations performed in the modified minimal subtraction, $\\bar{\\text{MS}}$, scheme. It is found that the value of the anomalous dimension of the mass is smaller at three and four loops than at two loops. This seems to be a generic pattern that is observed in all three different schemes. We then estimate the value of the anomalous dimension to be $\\gamma \\sim 0.225-0.375$ for twelve fundamental flavors and three colors, $\\gamma \\sim 0.500 - 0.593$ for two adjoint flavors and two colors and finally $\\gamma \\sim 1.12-1.70$ for two two-indexed flavors and three colors with the lower and upper bound set by the minimum and maximum value respectively over all three schemes and at three and four loops. Our analysis suggests that the former two theories lie in the conformal window while the latter belongs to the chirally broken phase.

  15. Conformal Blocks Beyond the Semi-Classical Limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Liam Fitzpatrick; Jared Kaplan

    2015-12-15

    Black hole microstates and their approximate thermodynamic properties can be studied using heavy-light correlation functions in AdS/CFT. Universal features of these correlators can be extracted from the Virasoro conformal blocks in CFT2, which encapsulate quantum gravitational effects in AdS3. At infinite central charge c, the Virasoro vacuum block provides an avatar of the black hole information paradox in the form of periodic Euclidean-time singularities that must be resolved at finite c. We compute Virasoro blocks in the heavy-light, large c limit, extending our previous results by determining perturbative 1/c corrections. We obtain explicit closed-form expressions for both the `semi-classical' $h_L^2 / c^2$ and `quantum' $h_L / c^2$ corrections to the vacuum block, and we provide integral formulas for general Virasoro blocks. We comment on the interpretation of our results for thermodynamics, discussing how monodromies in Euclidean time can arise from AdS calculations using `geodesic Witten diagrams'. We expect that only non-perturbative corrections in 1/c can resolve the singularities associated with the information paradox.

  16. Conformal symmetries of gravity from asymptotic methods: further developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre-Henry Lambert

    2014-09-16

    In this thesis, the symmetry structure of gravitational theories at null infinity is studied further, in the case of pure gravity in four dimensions and also in the case of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory in $d$ dimensions with and without a cosmological constant. The first part of this thesis is devoted to the presentation of asymptotic methods (symmetries, solution space and surface charges) applied to gravity in the case of the BMS gauge in three and four spacetime dimensions. The second part of this thesis contains the original contributions. Firstly, it is shown that the enhancement from Lorentz to Virasoro algebra also occurs for asymptotically flat spacetimes defined in the sense of Newman-Unti. As a first application, the transformation laws of the Newman-Penrose coefficients characterizing solution space of the Newman-Unti approach are worked out, focusing on the inhomogeneous terms that contain the information about central extensions of the theory. These transformations laws make the conformal structure particularly transparent, and constitute the main original result of the thesis. Secondly, asymptotic symmetries of the Einstein-Yang-Mills system with or without cosmological constant are explicitly worked out in a unified manner in $d$ dimensions. In agreement with a recent conjecture, a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra is found not only in three dimensions but also in the four dimensional asymptotically flat case. These two parts of the thesis are supplemented by appendices.

  17. Shock Initiation of Damaged Explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Tarver, C M

    2009-10-22

    Explosive and propellant charges are subjected to various mechanical and thermal insults that can increase their sensitivity over the course of their lifetimes. To quantify this effect, shock initiation experiments were performed on mechanically and thermally damaged LX-04 (85% HMX, 15% Viton by weight) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB, 5% Kel-F by weight) to obtain in-situ manganin pressure gauge data and run distances to detonation at various shock pressures. We report the behavior of the HMX-based explosive LX-04 that was damaged mechanically by applying a compressive load of 600 psi for 20,000 cycles, thus creating many small narrow cracks, or by cutting wedge shaped parts that were then loosely reassembled, thus creating a few large cracks. The thermally damaged LX-04 charges were heated to 190 C for long enough for the beta to delta solid - solid phase transition to occur, and then cooled to ambient temperature. Mechanically damaged LX-04 exhibited only slightly increased shock sensitivity, while thermally damaged LX-04 was much more shock sensitive. Similarly, the insensitive explosive PBX 9502 was mechanically damaged using the same two techniques. Since PBX 9502 does not undergo a solid - solid phase transition but does undergo irreversible or 'rachet' growth when thermally cycled, thermal damage to PBX 9502 was induced by this procedure. As for LX-04, the thermally damaged PBX 9502 demonstrated a greater shock sensitivity than mechanically damaged PBX 9502. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model calculated the increased sensitivities by igniting more damaged LX-04 and PBX 9502 near the shock front based on the measured densities (porosities) of the damaged charges.

  18. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  19. The computation of the Conformal Killing Vectors of an 1+(n-1) decomposable metric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantelis S. Apostolopoulos; Michael Tsamparlis

    2002-11-29

    A generalisation of a known theorem concerning the computation of the conformal algebra in 1+(n-1) decomposable spaces is presented. It is shown that the general form of Conformal Vector Fields (CVF) is the sum of a gradient CVF and a Killing or Homothetic (n-1)-vector. A simple criterion is established which enables one to check if a 1+(n-1) decomposable spacetime admits proper CVF. As an example, the complete conformal algebra of a G\\"odel-type spacetime is computed.

  20. Chaotic behavior of ion exchange phenomena in polymer gel electrolytes through irradiated polymeric membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangeeta Rawat; Barnamala Saha; Awadhesh Prasad; Amita Chandra

    2012-04-18

    A desktop experiment has been done to show the nonlinearity in the I-V characteristics of an ion conducting electrochemical micro-system. Its chaotic dynamics is being reported for the first time which has been captured by an electronic circuit. Polyvinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte comprising of a combination of plasticizers (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) and salts have been prepared to study the exchange of ions through porous poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The nonlinearity of this system is due to the ion exchange of the polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) through a porous membrane. The different regimes of spiking and non-spiking chaotic motions are being presented. The possible applications are highlighted.