National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for inherent moisture consists

  1. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  2. Inherent structure of a molten salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Violette, Randall A.; Budzien, Joanne L.; Stillinger, Frank H.

    2000-05-08

    We calculated the inherent structure of a model melt of zinc (II) bromide over a wide range of densities. Stable, metastable, and unstable branches were obtained for the zero temperature pressure-volume isotherm of the inherent structure. The pressure-volume isotherm, the void distribution, and the structure factor were used to identify the spinodal, independent of any model equation of state. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Fiber optic moisture sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, R.R.

    1984-08-03

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  4. Long-term functional plasticity in plant hydraulic architecture in response to supplemental moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Long-term functional plasticity in plant hydraulic architecture in response to supplemental of nearby individuals growing where soil moisture had been supplemented for 14 years. Traditional parameters receiving supplemental moisture consistently showed significant responses in all considered traits related

  5. Multilayer moisture barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  6. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission: Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Peggy

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. Its mission design consists of L-band ...

  7. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  8. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  9. Soil Density/Moisture Gauge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 -...

  10. Energy efficient control for mechanical systems based on inherent dynamical structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina

    Energy efficient control for mechanical systems based on inherent dynamical structures Kathrin for energy efficient solutions. This method is based on a motion planning library consisting of three types solutions and in general a good initial guess is required to ensure global energy efficiency and fast

  11. Designing for Absolute Moisture Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunnelly, R. M.; Fex, J. P.

    2002-01-01

    public assembly building, chances are the origin of the IAQ problems stem from excessive moisture in the space. Excessive moisture in the space can either come from water damage (leaking pipes or poor integrity of the building envelope), or it comes from...

  12. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  13. THE INHERENT QUEUING DELAY OF PARALLEL PACKET SWITCHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attiya, Hagit

    THE INHERENT QUEUING DELAY OF PARALLEL PACKET SWITCHES (Extended Abstract) Hagit Attiya and David {hagit,hdavid}@cs.technion.ac.il Abstract The parallel packet switch (PPS) is extensively used as the core of con- temporary commercial switches. This paper investigates the inherent queuing delay

  14. The Inherent Queuing Delay of Parallel Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hay, David

    The Inherent Queuing Delay of Parallel Packet Switches Hagit Attiya and David Hay Abstract--The parallel packet switch (PPS) extends the inverse multiplexing architecture and is widely used as the core of contemporary commercial switches. This paper investigates the inherent queuing delay introduced by the PPS

  15. Inherent shutdown capabilities in accelerator-driven systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inherent shutdown capabilities in accelerator-driven systems M. Erikssona, *, J.E. Cahalanb a Royal Abstract The applicability for inherent shutdown mechanisms in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) has been. In this paper, we explore the use of passive safety mechanisms to accelerator- driven systems (ADS). While

  16. Moisture and temperature effects in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Gwo-Ping

    1987-01-01

    ) Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Th1s thesis concerns env1ronmental effects in graphite/epoxy composites, with emphas1s on environmentally induced damage. The thesis consists of two major parts. The first part presents an experimental 1... weight gain (in %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate during exposure to 346'K, 95% R. H. environment. Data (i) and predictions of Flck's law (solid line) Moisture content (ln %) of a 12-ply unidirectional AS4/3502 graphite...

  17. Moisture absorption in hybrid composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dan Laro

    1983-01-01

    Moisture Analysis for Steady State Boundary Conditions", Journal of Com osite Materials, Vol. 15, March 1981, pp. 142-152. 7. Weitsman, Y. , Priorate Communication, Texas A&M University, January 1983. 8. Wirth, Patricia E. and Rodin, Ervin Y. , "A... of Department) December 1983 111. ABSTRACT Moisture Absorption in Hybrid Composites (December 1983) Dan Laro Clark, B. S. Aerospace Engineering Texas A&M University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman Dr. W. J. Horn This thesis presents...

  18. The Inherent Inefficiency of Simultaneously Feasible Financial Transmission Rights Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such convergence. Index Terms-- financial transmission right, electricity auction, simultaneous feasibilityThe Inherent Inefficiency of Simultaneously Feasible Financial Transmission Rights Auctions Shi as financial transmission rights (FTRs), resulting from centralized auctions conducted by Independent System

  19. The Inherent Inefficiency of Simultaneously Feasible Financial Transmission Rights Auctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    transmission right, electricity auction, simultaneous feasibility, transmission pricing. I. INTRODUCTION POINTThe Inherent Inefficiency of Simultaneously Feasible Financial Transmission Rights Auctions Shi as financial transmission rights (FTRs), resulting from centralized auctions conducted by Independent System

  20. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  1. Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1990-07-01

    Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Inherent structure of a molten salt Randall A. La Violettea)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    ; accepted 14 February 2000 We calculated the inherent structure of a model melt of zinc II bromide over the ions that corresponds to zinc II bromide (ZnBr2). The ZnCl2 melt has been much more thor- oughly

  3. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves...

  5. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois; Mantha, Pallavi

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  6. Moisture Control | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of Energy FacilitiesCleantechthe openControlling moisture can make your

  7. Elemental Analyses of Hanford Surface Neutron Moisture Measurement Calibration Standard Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, W.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    Elemental analyses have been performed on twenty samples taken from the moisture standards prepared to use in performing experimental calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement system. These standards consisted of mixtures of sand, hydrated alumina, and boron carbide. Elemental analyses were performed primarily to discover the quantities of any strong thermal neutron absorbers that may have been present in the mixture in unknown trace quantities.

  8. Aalborg Universitet Moisture risks arising from retrofitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    on an evaluation by the building owner or user. However, the risk is not quantified. To make the decision moreAalborg Universitet Moisture risks arising from retrofitting Møller, Eva B.; Aagaard, Niels for published version (APA): Møller, E. B., & Aagaard, N-J. (2013). Moisture risks arising from retrofitting

  9. Development of a hierarchical fuzzy model for the evaluation of inherent safety 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentile, Michela

    2004-11-15

    Inherent safety has been recognized as a design approach useful to remove or reduce hazards at the source instead of controlling them with add-on protective barriers. However, inherent safety is based on qualitative principles that cannot easily...

  10. Deep seawater inherent optical properties in the Southern Ionian Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Riccobene; A. Capone; the NEMO collaboration

    2006-03-25

    The NEMO (NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory) Collaboration has been carrying out since 1998 an evaluation programme of deep sea sites suitable for the construction of the future Mediterranean km3 Cerenkov neutrino telescope. We investigated the seawater optical and oceanographic properties of several deep sea marine areas close to the Italian Coast. Inherent optical properties (light absorption and attenuation coefficients) have been measured as a function of depth using an experimental apparatus equipped with standard oceanographic probes and the commercial transmissometer AC9 manufactured by WETLabs. This paper reports on the visible light absorption and attenuation coefficients measured in deep seawater of a marine region located in the Southern Ionian Sea, 60-100 km SE of Capo Passero (Sicily). Data show that blue light absorption coefficient is about 0.015 1/m (corresponding to an absorption length of 67 m) close to the one of optically pure water and it doe not show seasonal variation.

  11. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

  12. Moisture Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    capillary break and vapor diffusion retarder, consisting of a layer of 6- to 10-mil polyethylene over at least 4 inches of gravel. If you your new or existing home has a...

  13. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  14. Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences Using Inherent Safety Principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Wigeland; J. E. Cahalan

    2009-12-01

    Sodium-cooled fast reactors are designed to have a high level of safety. Events of high probability of occurrence are typically handled without consequence through reliable engineering systems and good design practices. For accidents of lower probability, the initiating events are characterized by larger and more numerous challenges to the reactor system, such as failure of one or more major engineered systems and can also include a failure to scram the reactor in response. As the initiating conditions become more severe, they have the potential for creating serious consequences of potential safety significance, including fuel melting, fuel pin disruption and recriticality. If the progression of such accidents is not mitigated by design features of the reactor, energetic events and dispersal of radioactive materials may result. For severe accidents, there are several approaches that can be used to mitigate the consequences of such severe accident initiators, which typically include fuel pin failures and core disruption. One approach is to increase the reliability of the reactor protection system so that the probability of an ATWS event is reduced to less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year, where larger accident consequences are allowed, meeting the U.S. NRC goal of relegating such accident consequences as core disruption to these extremely low probabilities. The main difficulty with this approach is to convincingly test and guarantee such increased reliability. Another approach is to increase the redundancy of the reactor scram system, which can also reduce the probability of an ATWS event to a frequency of less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year or lower. The issues with this approach are more related to reactor core design, with the need for a greater number of control rod positions in the reactor core and the associated increase in complexity of the reactor protection system. A third approach is to use the inherent reactivity feedback that occurs in a fast reactor to automatically respond to the change in reactor conditions and to result in a benign response to these events. This approach has the advantage of being relatively simple to implement, and does not face the issue of reliability since only fundamental physical phenomena are used in a passive manner, not active engineered systems. However, the challenge is to present a convincing case that such passive means can be implemented and used. The purpose of this paper is to describe this third approach in detail, the technical basis and experimental validation for the approach, and the resulting reactor performance that can be achieved for ATWS events.

  15. Soil Moisture Constants and Physical Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Kauai, and Oahu. These soils represent 10 great soil groups commonly found in the State of HawaiiSoil Moisture Constants and Physical Properties of Selected Soils in Hawaii Teruo Yamamoto U S is a geologist with the Pacific Southwest Sta- tion's watershed management research project in Honolulu, Hawaii

  16. Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Moisture Penetration Through Optical Fiber Coatings J. L. Armstrong, M. J. Matthewson and C. R Fiber Coatings Janet L. Armstrong, 1 M. John Matthewson, 1 Charles R. Kurkjian 2 1 Rutgers University for measuring the diffusion coefficients of water vapor through optical fiber polymer coatings has been

  17. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  18. Field observations of soil moisture variability across scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Famiglietti, James S; Ryu, Dongryeol; Berg, Aaron A; Rodell, Matthew; Jackson, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    extent scales and wet- ness conditions. The more than 36,000deviation, CV, and skew- ness versus mean moisture contentstandard deviation and skew- ness versus mean soil moisture,

  19. Climate Change Effects on California Precipitation and Soil Moisture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berg, Neil

    2015-01-01

    soil moisture, water year-average 2 meter air temperature (soil moisture, water year-average 2 meter air temperature (air temperature (“T2 dry ssn ”, unit ? C) changes for all 10 water

  20. Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Narendra N.

    2007-04-25

    Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed ...

  1. Influence of Solar-ProbeInherent Atmosphereon In-Situ Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Influence of Solar-ProbeInherent Atmosphereon In-Situ Observations A. Hassanein Argonne National document. #12;Influence of Solar-Probe Inherent Atmosphere on In-Situ Observations A. Hassanein*, A. I **Troitskinstitutefor innoviztionand Fusion Research, 142092, Troitsk, Russia Abstract The solar corona is the source

  2. INHERENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION (CaTS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    INHERENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION (CaTS) Fernando Gilbes Rico 00681 ABSTRACT The temporal variability of the inherent water optical properties at the Caribbean wavelengths, but in all cases, the values were less than one. The correlation between bio-optical properties

  3. Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro

    2012-06-06

    As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Management of High-Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-12-01

    Moisture management of high-R walls is important to ensure optimal performance. This case study, developed by Building America team Building Science Corporation, focuses on how eight high-R walls handle the three main sources of moisture—construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leaks.

  5. Surface moisture measurement system operation and maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-11

    The purpose of this manual is to provide detailed operating instructions for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS).In addition, operating instructions for the Liquid Observation Well Moisture Measurement System (LOWMMS) are included. These systems were developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  6. Influence of inherent structure shear stress of supercooled liquids on their shear moduli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingo Fuereder; Patrick Ilg

    2015-04-13

    Configurations of supercooled liquids residing in their local potential minimum (i.e. in their inherent structure, IS) were found to support a non-zero shear stress. This IS stress was attributed to the constraint to the energy minimization imposed by boundary conditions, which keep size and shape of the simulation cell fixed. In this paper we further investigate the influence of these boundary conditions on the IS stress. We investigate its importance for the computation of the low frequency shear modulus of a glass obtaining a consistent picture for the low- and high frequency shear moduli over the full temperature range. Hence, we find that the IS stress corresponds to a non-thermal contribution to the fluctuation term in the Born-Green expression. This leads to an unphysical divergence of the moduli in the low temperature limit if no proper correction for this term is applied. Furthermore, we clarify the IS stress dependence on the system size and put its origin on a more formal basis.

  7. Using moisture transport properties of rice seed components for identifying fissure resistance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Audrey Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Fissure resistance was related to the moisture transport properties of Cypress, Lemont, LaGrue, and Teqing rice varieties. The moisture transport properties, moisture diffusivity and resistance, were calculated using a three-dimensional moisture...

  8. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R. Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-29

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide–plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are V{sub OC} of 666?mV, J{sub SC} of 29.5?mA-cm{sup ?2}, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  9. Process for treating moisture laden coal fines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

  10. Large inherent optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaoxin

    The recent demonstration of Ge-on-Si diode lasers renews the interest in the unique carrier dynamics of Ge involving both direct (?) and indirect (L) valleys. Here, we report a large inherent direct gap optical gain ...

  11. A solution to the inherent list on Nimitz class aircraft carriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfson, Dianna

    2004-01-01

    Nimitz class aircraft carriers possess an inherent list to starboard that their list control systems (LCS) are typically unable to correct while under Combat Load Conditions. As a result, it has become necessary to use ...

  12. Synoptic scale sensitivity of TIROS-N moisture channels in the tropics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackwell, Keith Gordon

    1987-01-01

    -Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. James P. McGuirk Dr. Aylmer H. Thompson Water vapor radiance data obtained from a satellite-borne radiometer were evaluated for synoptic information content and accuracy over the tropical eastern Pac'fic Ocean. An upper moist... cluster of elevated BTs was observed over the subtropical Pacific adjacent to the western flank of a series of moisture bursts. Collocated rawinsonde soundings and satellite BTs consistently showed excellent agreement within this region, indicating...

  13. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

  14. Investigation of transient, two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow in soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, L.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite difference numerical model has been developed to study coupled heat and moisture flow in the soil surrounding an earth-sheltered construction. The model is based on a mechanistic approach formulated by Milly and developed from the work of Philip and deVries. Using soil temperatures and matric potentials as the dependent variables, the model is capable of simulating unsaturated/saturated flow conditions in heterogeneous soil domains. The model is a fully implicit, integrated finite difference approach based on the Patankar Spalding method. The numerical modeling of the governing heat and moisture equations was validated against a number of analytical and quasi-analytical solutions. An axisymmetric, two-dimensional experiment was then defined to which the numerical model could be compared. The experimental apparatus was composed of a cylinder filled with a dredged Mississippi River sand. A series of one and two dimensional heat and moisture flow experiments were run, using boundary conditions consistent with those that occur in the soil surrounding a building. Soil properties used in the model were either calculated from theoretical models or measured experimentally. Agreement between the model and experiments were good, with an error of 10-15% obtained for the two-dimensional coupled heat and moisture flow experiment.

  15. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  16. Characterizing moisture exchange between the Hawaiian convective boundary layer and free troposphere using stable isotopes in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of moisture, energy, trace gases, and pollutants between the ocean surface and free troposphere. Yet bulk and entrainment processes near the Big Island of Hawaii. Profile data from the island's east side are consistent analysis, so long as the thermodynamic properties of the air mass at CBL top are known. Deviations from

  17. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report explains the moisture-related concerns for high R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. In this project, hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones. The modeling program assessed the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage; the report presents results of the study.

  18. How do elevated [CO2], warming, and reduced precipitation interact to affect soil moisture and LAI in an old field ecosystem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dermody, Orla [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Weltzin, Jake [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Engel, Elizabeth C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allen, Phillip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture content and leaf area index (LAI) are properties that will be particularly important in mediating whole system responses to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2], warming and altered precipitation. Warming and drying will likely reduce soil moisture, and this effect may be exacerbated when these factors are combined. However, elevated [CO2] may increase soil moisture contents and when combined with warming and drying may partially compensate for their effects. The response of LAI to elevated [CO2] and warming will be closely tied to soil moisture status and may mitigate or exacerbate the effects of global change on soil moisture. Using open-top chambers (4-m diameter), the interactive effects of elevated [CO2], warming, and differential irrigation on soil moisture availability were examined in the OCCAM (Old-Field Community Climate and Atmospheric Manipulation) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in eastern Tennessee. Warming consistently reduced soil moisture contents and this effect was exacerbated by reduced irrigation. However, elevated [CO2] partially compensated for the effects of warming and drying on soil moisture. Changes in LAI were closely linked to soil moisture status. LAI was determined using an AccuPAR ceptometer and both the leaf area duration (LAD) and canopy size were increased by irrigation and elevated [CO2]. The climate of the southeastern United States is predicted to be warmer and drier in the future. This research suggests that although elevated [CO2] will partially ameliorate the effects of warming and drying, losses of soil moisture will increase from old field ecosystems in the future.

  19. Linear Consistency Testing Yonatan Aumann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudan, Madhu

    of Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld [?] to check the linear-consistency of three functions f1, f2, f3 mapping and check if f1(x) + f2(y) = f3(x + y). We analyze this test for two cases: (1) G and H are arbitrary the consistency of multiple functions. Given a triple of functions f1, f2, f3 : G H, we say that they are "linear

  20. The moisture budget in relation to convection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Robert Wilson

    1976-01-01

    : x10-6g cm-2s-1) 30 (, 'j I" '~, ". :, ', :, ':: P, ' r 0 (a) 0600 GMT, 24 April 1975 . . . ~t' . '. a--'-, . ' ' P) D (b) 0600 GiXT, 25 April 1975 Analyses of the net vertacal boundary flux of moisture in the layer from 500-350 mb... 120 4 060 , J 16O I 2 1" , 090 ~ J 120 32+ r I 24~ 190 12 10 (b) 700 mb Fig. 3. Synoptic charts for 0600 GMT on 24 April 1975. 16 86. 16 04 08 I 12 I I f 08 I 08 I L 08 12 16 (a) Surface 20 - 8 A 4X 4 0 ) O2O ~~(~ -2 J--4...

  1. Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  2. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  3. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  4. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  5. Consistent Mesh Parameterizations Princeton University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    that their parameterizations are consistent if they all use the same base domain, such as a low polygon-count head model¨oder Bell Labs + + + + + + + = Figure 1: When given a set of head models an obvious shape to compute of the tech- niques carry over to higher genus. Consider for example a set of head scans; we say

  6. Inherent structure of a molten salt Randall A. La Violette a) and Joanne L. Budzien b)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillinger, Frank

    of the interactions between the ions that corresponds to zinc #II# bromide (ZnBr 2 ) . The ZnCl 2 melt has been much 1999; accepted 14 February 2000# We calculated the inherent structure of a model melt of zinc #II# bromide over a wide range of densities. Stable, metastable, and unstable branches were obtained

  7. Multitap Microwave Photonic Filter With Negative Coefficients Based on the Inherent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jianping

    Multitap Microwave Photonic Filter With Negative Coefficients Based on the Inherent Birefringence, IEEE DOI: 10.1109/JPHOT.2013.2265981 1943-0655/$31.00 Ó2013 IEEE #12;Multitap Microwave Photonic Filter 2 Microwave Photonics Research Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

  8. 380 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 Inherently Robust Micromachined Gyroscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    . In most of the reported microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscopes, a two degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF380 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, APRIL 2006 Inherently Robust insensitive to pressure, temperature, and dc bias variations. [1501] Index Terms--Inertial sensor, MEMS

  9. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  10. A simplified analysis of uncertainty propagation in inherently controlled ATWS events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wade, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The quasi static approach can be used to provide useful insight concerning the propagation of uncertainties in the inherent response to ATWS events. At issue is how uncertainties in the reactivity coefficients and in the thermal-hydraulics and materials properties propagate to yield uncertainties in the asymptotic temperatures attained upon inherent shutdown. The basic notion to be quantified is that many of the same physical phenomena contribute to both the reactivity increase of power reduction and the reactivity decrease of core temperature rise. Since these reactivities cancel by definition, a good deal of uncertainty cancellation must also occur of necessity. For example, if the Doppler coefficient is overpredicted, too large a positive reactivity insertion is predicted upon power reduction and collapse of the ..delta..T across the fuel pin. However, too large a negative reactivity is also predicted upon the compensating increase in the isothermal core average temperature - which includes the fuel Doppler effect.

  11. The effect of moisture on a glass/epoxy composite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatawanich, Candy Suda

    1996-01-01

    Research was done to determine the effect of moisture on the transverse tensile strength and the interfacial shear strength of a glass/epoxy composite. Specimens with two different fiber sizings, one epoxy compatible and one vinyl-ester compatible...

  12. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  13. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  14. Moisture Diffusion in Asphalt Binders and Fine Aggregate Mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasconcelos, Kamilla L.

    2011-08-08

    cost in highway maintenance and vehicle operations. One key mechanism of how moisture reaches the asphalt-aggregate interface is by its permeation or diffusion through the asphalt binder or mastic. Different techniques are available for diffusion...

  15. Transient Analysis for Thermal and Moisture Behavior of Building Elements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, X.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01

    hybrid numerical method of Laplace transformation and the finite difference is first applied to solve its transient hygrothermal problem, in which the temperature and moisture coupling at the inner and outer surfaces is taken into account in the boundary...

  16. Building Integrated Heat and Moisture Exchange | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 of 2 Building-integrated heat and moisture exchanger, the AirFlow(tm) Panel, installed for evaluation at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. Image: Architectural Applications 2 of 2...

  17. The spatial and temporal organization of soil moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Gregor Klaus

    1995-01-01

    . The spatial correlation remains unchanged with the scale and follows a power law decay typical of scaling processes. Soil moisture also shows clear scaling properties on its spatial clustering patterns. A well-defined organization of statistical character...

  18. Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Trenton W.

    2013-03-06

    and-atmosphere interactions are an important component of climate, especially in semi-arid regions such as the Southern Great Plains. Interactions between soil moisture and vegetation modulate land-atmosphere coupling and thus represent a crucial...

  19. Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crow, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy...

  20. Evaluation of Moisture Susceptibility of Warm Mix Asphalt 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Cucalon, Maria Lorena

    2013-05-03

    Economic, environmental and engineering benefits promote the rapid implementation of WMA technologies. However, concerns remain based on changes in the production process that may lead to moisture susceptibility in the ...

  1. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  2. Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Brij D.

    2004-09-30

    (Member) (Head of Department) August 2003 Major Subject: Civil Engineering iii ABSTRACT Evaluation of Moisture Damage within Asphalt Concrete Mixes. (August 2003) Brij D. Shah, B.E., Gujarat University Chair...

  3. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    2014-01-10

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  4. Soil temperature, soil moisture and thaw depth, Barrow, Alaska, Ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sloan, V.L.; J.A. Liebig; M.S. Hahn; J.B. Curtis; J.D. Brooks; A. Rogers; C.M. Iversen; R.J. Norby

    This dataset consists of field measurements of soil properties made during 2012 and 2013 in areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) weekly measurements of thaw depth, soil moisture, presence and depth of standing water, and soil temperature made during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (June - September) and ii) half-hourly measurements of soil temperature logged continuously during the period June 2012 to September 2013.

  5. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this acceptance test plan (ATP) is to verify that the mechanical, electrical and software features of the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) probe are operating as designed,and that the unit is ready for field service. The accepted EMI and Surface Moisture Measurement Systems (SMMS) will be used primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement of organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

  6. Investigation of moisture content variations in highway subgrades and bases 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, Edward Donald

    1957-01-01

    MOVEMENT OF MOISTURE BY CAPILLARITY Frost Action Temperature Gradient Hydraulic Gradient Textural Gradient Summa + ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ MOVElfZNT OF MOISTURE IN THE VAPOR PHASE GRAVITATIONAL FLO)V EVAPORATION TRANSPIRATION CONTROLLING... by caoillarity are these: (l) frost action, (2) temperature gradient, ()) hydraulic gradient, and (4) textural gradient. Frost Action Of these causes, frost action is the best known and understood, as it is a common problem in the northern United States...

  7. Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent storage in energy end-uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent storage in energy end-uses Willett develop methods for assessing offshore wind resources, using a model of the vertical structure offshore wind power matched to inherent storage in energy end- uses, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02817, doi

  8. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    St. Clair, S.B.; Sudderth, E.; Fischer, M.L.; Torn, M.S.; Stuart, S.; Salve, R.; Eggett, D.; Ackerly, D.

    2009-03-15

    Variability in the magnitude and timing of precipitation is predicted to change under future climate scenarios. The primary objective of this study was to understand how variation in precipitation patterns consisting of soil moisture pulses mixed with intermittent dry down events influence ecosystem gas fluxes. We characterized the effects of precipitation amount and timing, N availability, and plant community composition on whole ecosystem and leaf gas exchange in a California annual grassland mesocosm study system that allowed precise control of soil moisture conditions. Ecosystem CO2 and fluxes increased significantly with greater precipitation and were positively correlated with soil moisture. A repeated 10 day dry down period following 11 days of variable precipitation inputs strongly depressed net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) across a range of season precipitation totals, and plant community types. Ecosystem respiration (Re), evapotranspiration (ET) and leaf level photosynthesis (Amax) showed greatest sensitivity to dry down periods in low precipitation plots. Nitrogen additions significantly increased NEE, Re and Amax, particularly as water availability was increased. These results demonstrate that N availability and intermittent periods of soil moisture deficit (across a wide range of cumulative season precipitation totals) strongly modulate ecosystem gas exchange.

  9. Qualitative reasoning about consistency in geographic information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duckham, Matt

    Qualitative reasoning about consistency in geographic information Matt Duckham a,, Jenny Lingham b reasoning system for describing consistency between different geographic data sets. Consistency is closely related to issues of uncertainty and interoperability in geographic information, and the paper assesses

  10. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  11. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  12. System design description for surface moisture measurement system (SMMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1996-09-23

    The SMMS has been developed to measure moisture in the top few centimeters of tank waste. The SMMS development was initiated by the preliminary findings of SAR-033, and does not necessarily fulfill any established DQO. After the SAR-033 is released, if no significant changes are made, moisture measurements in the organic waste tanks will rapidly become a DQO. The SMMS was designed to be installed in any 4 inch or larger riser, and to allow maximum adjustability for riser lengths, and is used to deploy a sensor package on the waste surface within a 6 foot radius about the azimuth. The first sensor package will be a neutron probe.

  13. POLICY FLASH 2015-31- Acquisition Letter No. AL 2015-06, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is the final Acquisition Letter (AL) No. AL 2015-06, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions, dated July 01, 2015. This AL provides guidance to DOE and NNSA HCAs and COs for implementing OFPP Policy Letter 11-01, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions. The guidance included in this AL is intended to serve as interim guidance for DOE until such time as the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is amended to implement the Policy Letter in full detail.

  14. Specific heat of apple at different moisture contents and temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viacheslav Mykhailyk; Nikolai Lebovka

    2013-05-11

    This work discusses results of experimental investigations of the specific heat, $C$, of apple in a wide interval of moisture contents ($W=0-0.9$) and temperatures ($T = 283-363$ K). The obtained data reveal the important role of the bound water in determination of $C(W,T)$ behaviour. The additive model for description of $C(W)$ dependence in the moisture range of $0.1apple was considered as a mixture of water and hydrated apple material (water plasticised apple) with specific heat $C_h$. The difference between $C_h$ and specific heat of dry apple, $\\Delta Cb=C_h-C_d$, was proposed as a measure of the excess contribution of bound water to the specific heat. The estimated amounts of bound water $W_b$ were comparable with the monolayer moisture content in apple. The analytical equation was proposed for approximation of $C(W,T)$ dependencies in the studied intervals of moisture content and temperature.

  15. The Influence of Soil Moisture Upon the Geothermal Climate Signal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    The Influence of Soil Moisture Upon the Geothermal Climate Signal A.W. England*, Xiaohua Lin climate warming over the past few hundred years are being obtained from profiles of borehole temperature fractions of the geothermal climate signal. One of the long-term objectives of this investigation is to use

  16. Stress and Moisture Effects on Thin Film Buckling Delamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    ­2 GPa compres- sive residual stresses were sputter deposited on top of thin (below 100 nm) copperStress and Moisture Effects on Thin Film Buckling Delamination P. Waters & A.A. Volinsky Received, commonly called telephone cords, shown in Fig. 2 for the 1 2m W film on top of a 20 nm diamond-like carbon

  17. ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    ESTIMATION OF GROUND WATER RECHARGE USING SOIL MOISTURE BALANCE APPROACH C. P. Kumar* ABSTRACT The amount of water that may be extracted from an aquifer without causing depletion is primarily dependent upon the ground water recharge. Thus, a quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal distribution

  18. A Simulation of Moisture Diffusion Process in Furniture-Grade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    made for solid wood along the three principal directions Partial vapor pressure ­ the most proper for the moisture diffusion process through MDF using partial vapor pressure as the driving force, and (c/cm/mmHg/Hr) P = partial vapor pressure (mmHg) X = dimension coordinate (cm) Diffusion Cell RH1, P1 RH2, P2 Salt

  19. SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS IN UPPER PART OF HINDON RIVER CATCHMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 SOIL MOISTURE CHARACTERISTICS IN UPPER PART OF HINDON RIVER CATCHMENT C. P. Kumar* Vijay Kumar** Vivekanand Singh*** ABSTRACT Knowledge of the physics of soil water movement is crucial to the solution for estimating the soil hydraulic properties are required for prediction of soil water flow. This paper presents

  20. Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Influences of soil moisture and vegetation on convective precipitation forecasts over the United and vegetation on 30 h convective precipitation forecasts using the Weather Research and Forecasting model over, the complete removal of vegetation produced substantially less precipitation, while conversion to forest led

  1. Modifications to WRFs dynamical core to improve the treatment of moisture for large-eddy simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Heng; Endo, Satoshi; Wong, May; Skamarock, William C.; Klemp, Joseph B.; Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew; Wang, Hailong; Liu, Yangang; et al

    2015-10-29

    Yamaguchi and Feingold (2012) note that the cloud fields in their large-eddy simulations (LESs) of marine stratocumulus using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model exhibit a strong sensitivity to time stepping choices. In this study, we reproduce and analyze this sensitivity issue using two stratocumulus cases, one marine and one continental. Results show that (1) the sensitivity is associated with spurious motions near the moisture jump between the boundary layer and the free atmosphere, and (2) these spurious motions appear to arise from neglecting small variations in water vapor mixing ratio (qv) in the pressure gradient calculation in themore »acoustic sub-stepping portion of the integration procedure. We show that this issue is remedied in the WRF dynamical core by replacing the prognostic equation for the potential temperature ? with one for the moist potential temperature ?m=?(1+1.61qv), which allows consistent treatment of moisture in the calculation of pressure during the acoustic sub-steps. With this modification, the spurious motions and the sensitivity to the time stepping settings (i.e., the dynamic time step length and number of acoustic sub-steps) are eliminated in both of the example stratocumulus cases. In conclusion, this modification improves the applicability of WRF for LES applications, and possibly other models using similar dynamical core formulations, and also permits the use of longer time steps than in the original code.« less

  2. A Continuum Coupled Moisture-mechanical Constitutive Model for Asphalt Concrete 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shakiba, Maryam

    2013-12-09

    The presence and flow of moisture degrade engineering properties of asphalt concrete as part of thermodynamic, chemical, physical, and mechanical processes. This detrimental effect is referred to as moisture damage. The aim of this dissertation...

  3. Moisture degradation in FRP bonded concrete systems : an interface fracture approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Au, Ching, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) characterization, and kink criterion implementation, form a synergistic analysis of the mechanistic debonding behavior affected by moisture. Results have shown that moisture affected debonding is a highly complex ...

  4. Modeling and application of soil moisture at varying spatial scales with parameter scaling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Narendra Narayan

    2009-05-15

    The dissertation focuses on characterization of subpixel variability within a satellite-based remotely sensed coarse-scale soil moisture footprint. The underlying heterogeneity of coarse-scale soil moisture footprint is masked by the area...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID TEST TO DETERMINE MOISTURE SENSTIVITY OF HMA (SUPERPAVE) MIXTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiwakoti, Harihar

    2007-12-14

    Exiting test methods to determine moisture sensitivity in hot mix asphalt are time consuming and inconsistent. This research focused on wheel tracking devices to develop a rapid test method to evaluate moisture sensitivity. The Asphalt Pavement...

  6. A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro Spinel, Silvia

    2011-02-22

    The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture ...

  7. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle ...

  8. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA IN SELECTED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY FOR DIFFERENT AREAS IN INDIA systems require knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K). This study involved field and laboratory determination of soil

  9. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission and Opportunities for Applications Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Molly E.

    Water in the soil—both its amount (soil moisture) and its state (freeze/thaw)—plays a key role in water and energy cycles, in weather and climate, and in the carbon cycle. Additionally, soil moisture touches upon human ...

  10. MoistureMap: A soil moisture monitoring, prediction and reporting system for sustainable land and water management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    algorithms or rainfall forecasts provide. It is widely recognised that passive microwave is the most promising remote sensing method for soil moisture measurement [Njoku et al., 2002]. While passive microwave must be combined by data assimilation [Walker and Houser, 2005], with point measurements used

  11. SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE -II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, C.P.

    1 SOIL MOISTURE RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS AT RD 838 OF I. G. N. P. STAGE - II C. P. Kumar* Sanjay knowledge of the relationships between soil moisture content (), soil water pressure (h) and unsaturated presents the soil moisture retention characteristics at RD 838 of Indira Gandhi Nahar Priyojana, Stage - II

  12. Moisture and Structural Analysis for High Performance Hybrid Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, A.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-09-01

    Based on past experience in the Building America program, BSC has found that combinations of materials and approaches—in other words, systems—usually provide optimum performance. Integration is necessary, as described in this research project. The hybrid walls analyzed utilize a combination of exterior insulation, diagonal metal strapping, and spray polyurethane foam and leave room for cavity-fill insulation. These systems can provide effective thermal, air, moisture, and water barrier systems in one assembly and provide structure.

  13. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-04-04

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms` underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940`s. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

  14. POLICY FLASH 2015-31- Acquisition Letter No. AL 2015-07, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Attached is revised Acquisition Letter (AL) No. AL 2015-07, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions, dated July 07, 2015. This AL provides guidance to DOE and NNSA HCAs and COs for implementing OFPP Policy Letter 11-01, Performance of Inherently Governmental and Critical Functions. We are re-issuing this AL to correct the AL number, and to remove item #24 from Appendix A of OFPP Policy Letter 11-01. The guidance included in this AL is intended to serve as interim guidance for DOE until such time as the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is amended to implement the Policy Letter in full detail.

  15. Nondestructive NMR technique for moisture determination in radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumeier, S.; Gerald, R.E. II; Growney, E.; Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.

    1998-12-04

    This progress report focuses on experimental and computational studies used to evaluate nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting, quantifying, and monitoring hydrogen and other magnetically active nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in Spent nuclear fuels and packaging materials. The detection of moisture by using a toroid cavity NMR imager has been demonstrated in SiO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} systems. The total moisture was quantified by means of {sup 1}H NMR detection of H{sub 2}O with a sensitivity of 100 ppm. In addition, an MRI technique that was used to determine the moisture distribution also enabled investigators to discriminate between bulk and stationary water sorbed on the particles. This imaging feature is unavailable in any other nondestructive assay (NDA) technique. Following the initial success of this program, the NMR detector volume was scaled up from the original design by a factor of 2000. The capacity of this detector exceeds the size specified by DOE-STD-3013-96.

  16. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    2015-01-14

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  17. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  18. 2 Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent 3 storage in energy end-uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    2 Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent 3 storage in energy end-uses 4] We develop methods for assessing offshore wind 9 resources, using a model of the vertical structure. Dhanju, R. W. 26 Garvine, and M. Z. Jacobson (2007), Large CO2 reductions via 27 offshore wind power

  19. 2 Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent 3 storage in energy end-uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    2 Large CO2 reductions via offshore wind power matched to inherent 3 storage in energy end-uses 4 by matching the winds of the 14 Middle-Atlantic Bight (MAB) to energy demand in the 15 adjacent states] We develop methods for assessing offshore wind 9 resources, using a model of the vertical structure

  20. 4336 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 62, NO. 9, NOVEMBER 2013 Single-Stage Resonant Battery Charger With Inherent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Battery Charger With Inherent Power Factor Correction for Electric Vehicles Siqi Li, Junjun Deng charger for electric vehicle (EV) and plug-in hybrid EV (PHEV) applications. The topology had never been seen in any literature or patents but is employed in the NLG5 charger made by Brusa Elektronik AG. We

  1. 1262 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2003 A Constant-Power Battery Charger With Inherent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    Charger With Inherent Soft Switching and Power Factor Correction N. K. Poon, Member, IEEE, Bryan M. H prototype was built to demonstrate the merits of this circuit. Index Terms--Battery charger, power factor correction, switching converters, zero-voltage-switching. I. INTRODUCTION BATTERY chargers are designed

  2. Many squid rely on jet propulsion for locomotion, which is inherently less efficient than the undulatory/oscillatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horth, Lisa

    Many squid rely on jet propulsion for locomotion, which is inherently less efficient than the undulatory/oscillatory locomotion employed by many fishes (Vogel, 1994). Jet propulsion is thought through an orifice, thus expelling relatively small volumes of water backwards with each jet pulse

  3. Evidence for the inherent unsteadiness of a river plume: Satellite observations of the Niagara River discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horner-Devine, Alex

    consists of a semicircular bulge region immediately offshore of the mouth and a narrow current that propagates east along the shoreline. During the low-wind period from 27 to 29 May 1999, the width and Murthy 1992; Hickey et al. 1998) and in large ocean inflows (Lanoix 1974). Traditionally, models have

  4. Consistent nonlinear dynamics: identifying model inadequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick E. McSharry; Leonard A. Smith

    2004-03-09

    Empirical modelling often aims for the simplest model consistent with the data. A new technique is presented which quantifies the consistency of the model dynamics as a function of location in state space. As is well-known, traditional statistics of nonlinear models like root-mean-square (RMS) forecast error can prove misleading. Testing consistency is shown to overcome some of the deficiencies of RMS error, both within the perfect model scenario and when applied to data from several physical systems using previously published models. In particular, testing for consistent nonlinear dynamics provides insight towards (i) identifying when a delay reconstruction fails to be an embedding, (ii) allowing state dependent model selection and (iii) optimising local neighbourhood size. It also provides a more relevant (state dependent) threshold for identifying false nearest neighbours.

  5. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector ? 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  6. On the Consistency of Multiclass Classification Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tewari, Ambuj

    On the Consistency of Multiclass Classification Methods Ambuj Tewari1 and Peter L. Bartlett2 1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 #12;144 A. Tewari and P.L. Bartlett guarantee that if the -risk of f

  7. Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of rigid-flexible multilayer printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lula, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Moisture absorption and bakeout characteristics of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD) rigid-flexible printed wiring boards were determined. It was found that test specimens had absorbed 0.95 weight percent moisture when equilibrated to a 50 percent RH, 25{degree}C environment. Heating those equilibrated specimens in a 120{degree}C static air oven removed 92 percent of this absorbed moisture in 24 h. Heating the samples in a 80{degree}C static air oven removed only 64 percent of the absorbed moisture at the end of 24 h. A 120{degree}C vacuum bake removed moisture at essentially the same rate with parylene slowed the absorption rate by approximately 50 percent but did not appreciably affect the equilibrium moisture content or the drying rate.

  8. Moisture monitoring of ferrocyanide tanks: An evaluation of methods and tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meacham, J.E.; Babad, H.; Toffer, H.

    1993-04-01

    This report reviews the strengths and limitations of moisture monitoring technologies that could be used for determining moisture concentration in Hanford Site single-shell ferrocyanide waste tanks. Two technologies (neutron diffusion and near-infrared spectroscopy) are being pursued as part of the ferrocyanide program. A third technology, Raman spectroscopy, is in development as a speciation tool at the Westinghouse Hanford Company 222-S Laboratory. The potential application of Raman spectroscopy to moisture monitoring is discussed.

  9. Self-consistent field theory based molecular dynamics with linear system-size scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richters, Dorothee; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2014-04-07

    We present an improved field-theoretic approach to the grand-canonical potential suitable for linear scaling molecular dynamics simulations using forces from self-consistent electronic structure calculations. It is based on an exact decomposition of the grand canonical potential for independent fermions and does neither rely on the ability to localize the orbitals nor that the Hamilton operator is well-conditioned. Hence, this scheme enables highly accurate all-electron linear scaling calculations even for metallic systems. The inherent energy drift of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, arising from an incomplete convergence of the self-consistent field cycle, is circumvented by means of a properly modified Langevin equation. The predictive power of the present approach is illustrated using the example of liquid methane under extreme conditions.

  10. Temperature and moisture dependence of dielectric constant for silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.H., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    The dielectric constants of silica aerogels are among the lowest measured for any solid material. The silica aerogels also exhibit low thermal expansion and are thermally stable to temperatures exceeding 500{degrees}C. However, due to the open porosity and large surface areas for aerogels, their dielectric constants are strongly affected by moisture and temperature. This paper presents data for the dielectric constants of silica aerogels as a function of moisture content at 25{degrees}C, and as a function of temperature, for temperatures in the range from 25{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. Dielectric constant data are also given for silica aerogels that are heat treated in dry nitrogen at 500{degrees}C, then cooled to 25{degrees}C for measurements in dry air. All measurements are made on bulk aerogel spheres at 22GHz microwave frequency, using a cavity perturbation method. The results of the dependence found here for bulk materials can be inferred to apply also to thin films of silica aerogels having similar nano-structures and densities.

  11. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL THERMAL & MOISTURE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS ROOF DRAINS & ROOFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL THERMAL & MOISTURE. ii. General #12;UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL

  12. Effectiveness of vertical moisture barriers in highway pavements on expansive soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayatilaka, Ranasinghege

    1993-01-01

    barriers will have little effect. Sites in wet and semi-arid climates, with medium cracked clay soils show the greatest benefit from using vertical moisture barriers....

  13. Quantifying the consistency of scientific databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Šubelj, Lovro; Boshkoska, Biljana Mileva; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnaji?, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In the recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies.

  14. Style Consistent Classification of Isogenous Patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, George

    a basis for more accurate classification of a group (field) of digitized characters from the same sourceStyle Consistent Classification of Isogenous Patterns Prateek Sarkar, Member, IEEE Computer Society they share the same, albeit unknown, style. Style constrained classifiers achieve higher classification

  15. Consistency of Posterior Distributions for Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Consistency of Posterior Distributions for Neural Networks Herbert Lee \\Lambda May 21, 1998 Abstract In this paper we show that the posterior distribution for feedforward neural networks is asymp neural networks for nonparametric regression in a Bayesian framework. Keywords: Bayesian statistics

  16. Web Services Need Consistency Giacomo Piccinelli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finkelstein, Anthony

    Web Services Need Consistency Giacomo Piccinelli Hewlett-Packard Laboratories Stoke Gifford Park.finkelstein|c.nentwich}@cs.ucl.ac.uk Abstract Web Services provide a powerful access channel to business capabilities. Inside the company can be streamlined and business opportunities extended. A major issue with the current Web Service

  17. A Generalization of Generalized Arc Consistency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackworth, Alan K.

    - binary classic constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Based on the Semiring CSP and Valued CSP such as fuzzy CSP, probabilistic CSP, max CSP, and weighted CSP. This extension is based on an idempotent satisfaction problem (CSP), local consistency can be char- acterized as deriving new constraints based on local

  18. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  19. Foundations of consistent couple stress theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali R. Hadjesfandiari; Gary F. Dargush

    2015-07-29

    In this paper, we examine the recently developed skew-symmetric couple stress theory and demonstrate its inner consistency, natural simplicity and fundamental connection to classical mechanics. This hopefully will help the scientific community to overcome any ambiguity and skepticism about this theory, especially the validity of the skew-symmetric character of the couple-stress tensor. We demonstrate that in a consistent continuum mechanics, the response of infinitesimal elements of matter at each point decomposes naturally into a rigid body portion, plus the relative translation and rotation of these elements at adjacent points of the continuum. This relative translation and rotation captures the deformation in terms of stretches and curvatures, respectively. As a result, the continuous displacement field and its corresponding rotation field are the primary variables, which remarkably is in complete alignment with rigid body mechanics, thus providing a unifying basis. For further clarification, we also examine the deviatoric symmetric couple stress theory that, in turn, provides more insight on the fundamental aspects of consistent continuum mechanics.

  20. Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    Communication Role of moisture in the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials Jingyao Cao, D of liquid water contributes little, if any, to the Seebeck effect in cement-based materials. Moisture loss Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Fiber reinforcement; Cement paste; Electrical properties

  1. Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine The individual soil moisture stations in the Ukraine are shown in Figure 1. The data are averaged into the 25

  2. Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet) Alan Robock­October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958­2002. We-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet), Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

  3. Dendroclimatic Response along a Moisture Gradient in the Southern Rocky Mountains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Shelby Lynn

    2015-06-01

    the moisture gradient. Using tree-ring analysis, I found growth to be slower and more sensitive to climate at the low moisture distributional limit than elsewhere within the spatial distribution. Trees at this site were more impacted by the 1950s drought...

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America researchers who visited 24 manufactured home factories between 1996 and 2003 to investigate moisture problems while improving energy efficiency and identified insufficient air sealing and poor HVAC installation as the biggest culprits. One manufacturer reported zero moisture-related issues in 35,000 homes built after implementing Building America recommendations.

  5. In-situ Soil Moisture Sensing: Measurement Scheduling and Estimation using Compressive Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    In-situ Soil Moisture Sensing: Measurement Scheduling and Estimation using Compressive Sensing mingyan@eecs.umich.edu ABSTRACT We consider the problem of monitoring soil moisture evolu- tion using desirable to rely on fewer measurements and estimate with higher accu- racy the original signal (soil

  6. Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuligowski, Bob

    Monitoring Soil Moisture and Drought Using a Thermal TwoSource Energy Balance Model Christopher. In general, dry soil or stressed vegetation heats up more rapidly than wet soil or unstressed vegetation, using one dual polarized channel (either Cband or Xband) for the retrieval of soil moisture

  7. Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends Alan Robock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends Alan Robock1 and Haibin Li1 Received 15 July solar dimming and upward CO2 trends, we conducted experiments with a sophisticated land surface model. Li (2006), Solar dimming and CO2 effects on soil moisture trends, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20708

  8. Proof of principle report for in-tank moisture monitoring using an active neutron probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, W.T.

    1993-12-01

    This document establishes the proof of principle for use of a neutron probe to measure moisture concentrations in ferrocyanide waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Computer modeling and experiments with a modified neutron probe have shown that neutron-based measurements will provide accurate moisture determinations in Hanford Site ferrocyanide waste tanks. Moisture measurement using neutron moderation and diffusion is an established and extensively documented technology for the well logging industry. Sophisticated neutron transport modeling and calibrations with known moisture concentrations have provided the necessary developmental analyses and validations. Proof of principle was accomplished using the existing in-tank neutron surveillance tool and its support equipment. A minor, inexpensive hardware modification permitted extending the use of the existing probe to moisture measurements. A limited moisture calibration was performed using the modified in-tank neutron probe, and the results were used to adjust model parameters. Scan data from three ferrocyanide tanks have been obtained using the modified in-tank neutron probe, and interpretation of these scans is in progress. Modeling analyses and experimental test results have provided information that will be used to develop a prototype neutron device for improved in-tank moisture monitoring at the Hanford Site. Now a prototype device must be assembled, tested, and fully calibrated in known moisture ferrocyanide waste simulants.

  9. Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: Effect of moisture,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stress-wave velocity of wood-based panels: Effect of moisture, product type, and material direction Guangping Han Qinglin Wu Xiping Wang Abstract The effect of moisture on longitudinal stress-wave veloc- ity, particleboard, and southern pine lumber was evaluated. It was shown that the stress-wave velocity decreased

  10. NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bussell, J.H., WHC

    1996-06-12

    The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

  11. Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Importance of moisture transport, snow cover and soil freezing to ground temperature predictions moisture transport, snow accumulation and melting, and soil freezing and thawing are investigated transport, snow cover, and soil freezing. 1. Introduction Prediction of ground temperature is an important

  12. Application of stochastic parameter optimization to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagener, Thorsten

    parameter set and underlying posterior distribution within a single optimization run. In particular, weApplication of stochastic parameter optimization to the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model Moisture Accounting model (SAC-SMA) model using historical data from the Leaf River in Mississippi

  13. Self-consistent resonance in a plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evangelos Chaliasos

    2005-10-14

    As an application of the solution of the equations of electromagnetic self-consistency in a plasma, found in a previous paper, the study of controlled thermo-nuclear fusion is undertaken. This study utilizes the resonance which can be developed in the plasma, as indicated by the above solution, and is based to an analysis of the underlying forced oscillation under friction. As a consequence, we find that, in this way, controlled thermonuclear fusion seems now to be feasible in principle. The treatment is rather elementary, and it may serve as a guide for more detailed calculations.

  14. IMPACTS OF SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY ON CONVECTIVE PRECIPITATION IN THE CENTRAL PLAINS THROUGH LAND-ATMOSPHERE FEEDBACKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.

    2008-08-20

    radiation was not impacted by mean soil moisture. Spatial scaling properties of modeled fields were examined to determine whether these fields exhibit scale invariance. There is large temporal variability in the scaling coefficients of soil moisture, Bowen...

  15. Dynamic Analysis of Moisture Transport Through Walls and Associated Cooling Loads in the Hot/Humid Climate of Florianopolis, Brazil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendes, N.; Winkelmann, F. C.; Lamberts, R.; Philippi, P. C.; Da Cunha, Neto, J. A. B.

    1996-01-01

    . The simulation results were compared to those obtained by pure conduction heat transfer without moisture effects. Also analyzed were the influence on cooling loads of high moisture content due to rain soaking of materials. and the influence of solar radiation...

  16. The consistency test on the cosmic evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Yan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Chen, Xuelei

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new and robust method to test the consistency of the cosmic evolution given by a cosmological model. It is realized by comparing the combined quantity r_d^CMB/D_V^SN, which is derived from the comoving sound horizon r_d from cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements and the effective distance D_V derived from low-redshift Type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) data, with direct and independent r_d/D_V obtained by baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at median redshifts. We apply this test method for the LCDM and wCDM models, and investigate the consistency of the derived value of r_d/D_V from Planck 2015 and the SN Ia data sets of Union2.1 and JLA (z<1.5), and the r_d/D_V directly given by BAO data from six-degree-field galaxy survey (6dFGS), Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 Main Galaxy Survey (SDSS-DR7 MGS), DR11 of SDSS-III, WiggleZ and Ly-alpha forecast surveys from Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Data (BOSS) DR-11 over 0.1

  17. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Trott

    2015-01-17

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables to consistently constrain the Standard Model EFT is only expected to grow with future LHC data, as more complex processes are studied.

  18. Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content was used to assess the role of root water uptake on the spatial variability of moisture content the spa- tial variability in moisture content due to root water uptake from variability in soil hydraulic

  19. Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.

  20. Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadi Godazgar; Mahdi Godazgar; Olaf Krueger; Hermann Nicolai

    2015-07-28

    We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.

  1. On the consistent use of Constructed Observables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the $\\rm S$ parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between $h \\rightarrow V \\bar{f} \\, f$ decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables...

  2. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01

    74 ii Soil Moisture Sensors: Decagon ECH2O Capacitance133 A.10 Soil types corresponding to each75 Soil Moisture and Temperature Probe

  3. Predicting long-term moisture contents of earthen covers at uranium mill tailings sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, G.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-09-01

    The three methods for long-term moisture prediction covered in this report are: estimates from water retention (permanent wilting point) data, correlation with climate and soil type, and detailed model simulation. The test results have shown: soils vary greatly in residual moisture. Expected long-term moisture saturation ratios (based on generalized soil characteristics) range from 0.2 to 0.8 for soils ranging in texture from sand to clay, respectively. These values hold for noncompacted field soils. Measured radon diffusion coefficients for soils at 15-bar water contents ranged from 5.0E-2 cm/sup 2//s to 5.0E-3 cm/sup 2//s for sands and clays, respectively, at typical field densities. In contrast, fine-textured pit-run earthen materials, subjected to optimum compaction (>85% Proctor density) and dried to the 15-bar water content, ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 moisture saturation. Compacted pit-run soils at these moisture contents exhibited radon diffusion coefficients as low as 3.0E-4 cm/sup 2//s. The residual moisture saturation for cover soils is not known since no engineered barrier has been in place for more than a few years. A comparison of methods for predicting moisture saturation indicates that model simulations are useful for predicting effects of climatic changes on residual soil moisture, but that long-term moisture also can be predicted with some degree of confidence using generalized soil properties or empirical correlations based both on soils and climatic information. The optimal soil cover design will likely include more than one layer of soil. A two-layer system using a thick (1-m minimum) plant root zone of uncompacted soil placed over a moistened, tightly compacted fine-textured soil is recommended. This design concept has been tested successfully at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings piles.

  4. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  5. Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1993-02-24

    There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

  6. Basis Token Consistency A Practical Mechanism for Strong Web Cache Consistency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    call \\Basis Token Consistency" or BTC; when im- plemented at the server, this mechanism allows any between the BTC algorithm and the use of the Time-To-Live (TTL) heuristic. #3; This research was supported

  7. Measurements of Backsheet Moisture Permeation and Encapsulant-Substrate Adhesion: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Barber, G.; Kennedy, C.; McMahon, T.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Measurements of backsheet moisture permeation and encapsulant-substrate adhesion. At the March 2001 NCPV workshop on ''Moisture Ingress and High-Voltage Isolation'', industry participants identified several properties associated with PV module durability that are critical for commercial success. These include interface conductivity, adhesion of encapsulants to substrate materials as a function of in-service exposure conditions, and moisture permeation through backsheet materials as a function of temperature. Electrical data is discussed in a companion paper; adhesion and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) measurements are presented herein.

  8. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (pmore »with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  9. Surface ecophysiological behavior across vegetation and moisture gradients in tropical South America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest and2002. Energy balance closure at FLUXNET sites. Agric. Forestenergy, moisture and carbon ?uxes, at a single point in the Tapajos River National Forest (

  10. Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

  11. Moisture proof columnar Cesium Iodide (CsI) layers for gas avalanche microdetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, I.J.; Cho, H.S.; Hong, W.S.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kadyk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Moisture Proof Columnar Cesium Iodide (CsI) Layers for GasHalogen lamp ) Abstract Cesium iodide columnar layers havingargon-ethane mixtures. The cesium iodide columns are damaged

  12. The effects of aggregate gradation on moisture diffusivity in a cementious based material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szecsy, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Gravel), and the presence of fly ash (10% by cement weight or none). Also developed, is an experimental laboratory procedure which measures the moisture diffusivity of a cementious material. The method and procedure for measuring diffusivity developed...

  13. The Effect of Moisture Absorption on the Physical Properties of Polyurethane Shape Memory Polymer Foams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Ya-Jen

    2012-07-16

    The effect of moisture absorption on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and stress/strain behavior of network polyurethane shape memory polymer (SMP) foams has been investigated. With our ultimate goal of engineering polyurethane SMP foams...

  14. Rapid Determination of Moisture and Fat in Meats By Microwave And Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claflin, Amy Elizabeth

    2013-08-30

    methods that require less time, labor, skill, and cost. Microwave drying and nuclear magnetic resonance technologies for the determination of moisture and fat in meat products, respectively, have been incorporated into the CEM Smart Trac 5 System...

  15. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  16. Deriving soil moisture with the combined L-band radar and radiometer measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jiancheng

    In this study, we develop a combined active/passive technique to estimate surface soil moisture with the focus on the short vegetated surfaces. We first simulated a database for both active and passive signals under SMAP's ...

  17. Mathematical modeling of evaporative cooling of moisture bearing epoxy composite plates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payette, Gregory Steven

    2006-08-16

    Research is performed to assess the potential of surface moisture evaporative cooling from composite plates as a means of reducing the external temperature of military aircraft. To assess the feasibility of evaporative ...

  18. Relationship Between Soil Moisture Storage and Deep Percolation and Subsurface Return Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nieber, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A simulation study was performed to analyze the relationship between the volume of moisture stored in a soil profile and the rate of percolation and subsurface return flow. The simulation study was derived on the basis of the Richards equation...

  19. Modeling the impact of atmospheric moisture transport on global ice volume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nisancioglu, Kerim Hestnes, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Following Milankovitch's original hypothesis most model studies of changes in global ice volume on orbital time scales have focused on the impact of ablation on ice sheet mass balance. In most cases, poleward moisture flux ...

  20. Investigation of moisture effects on interfacial properties of an epoxy matrix composite by dynamic mechanical analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jo-Yu

    1994-01-01

    The interfacial properties of polymer matrix composites are critical to the retention of the mechanical properties of the composites in a wet environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of moisture on the interfacial...

  1. Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

    1985-01-01

    Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every ...

  2. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  3. Experimental Study of Multi-type Macromolecule Porosity Moisture-Conditioned Material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, X.; Fan, Y.; Di, Y.

    2006-01-01

    , Passive technology, Solar energy 1. INTRODUCTION Large numbers of Chinese existing housing. Urban construction area of china rapid increase from 1996 to date, end of 2003, total area amounted to 1.4091 billion square meters. At the same time... and evaporative cooling effect of the porosity moisture conditioned material is remarkable, and could effectively reduce the cooling load of buildings. Keywords? Passive evaporative, Porosity moisture conditioned material, Energy efficiency in buildings...

  4. FINAL REPORT FOR MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.

    2013-09-17

    Compaction of lower layers in the fiberboard assembly has been observed in 9975 packages that contain elevated moisture. Lab testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the lower fiberboard assembly, and the behavior of the fiberboard during transport. In laboratory tests of cane fiberboard, higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction, greater rate of compaction, and continued compaction over a longer period of time. In addition, laboratory tests have shown that the application of a dynamic load results in higher fiberboard compaction compared to a static load. The test conditions and sample geometric/loading configurations were chosen to simulate the regulatory requirements for 9975 package input dynamic loading. Dynamic testing was conducted to acquire immediate and cumulative changes in geometric data for various moisture levels. Two sample sets have undergone a complete dynamic test regimen, one set for 27 weeks, and the second set for 47 weeks. The dynamic input, data acquisition, test effects on sample dynamic parameters, and results from this test program are summarized and compared to regulatory specifications for dynamic loading. Compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers due to the accumulation of moisture is one possible cause of an increase in the axial gap at the top of the package. The net compaction of the bottom layers will directly add to the axial gap. The moisture which caused this compaction migrated from the middle region of the fiberboard assembly (which is typically the hottest). This will cause the middle region to shrink axially, which will also contribute directly to the axial gap. Measurement of the axial gap provides a screening tool for identifying significant change in the fiberboard condition. The data in this report provide a basis to evaluate the impact of moisture and fiberboard compaction on 9975 package performance during storage at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  5. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  6. A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A consistent second order projection scheme for simulating transient viscous flow with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A consistent...

  7. Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear data evaluations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards consistent nuclear models and comprehensive nuclear...

  8. Effect of residential air-to-air heat and moisture exchangers on indoor humidity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barringer, C.G.; McGugan, C.A. )

    1989-01-01

    A project was undertaken to develop guidelines for the selection of residential heat and moisture recovery ventilation systems (HRVs) in order to maintain an acceptable indoor humidity for various climatic conditions. These guidelines were developed from reviews on ventilation requirements, HRV performance specifications, and from computer modeling. Space conditions within three house/occupancy models for several types of HRV were simulated for three climatic conditions (Lake Charles, LA; Seattle, WA; and Winnipeg, MB) in order to determine the impact of the HRVs on indoor relative humidity and space-conditioning loads. Results show that when reduction of cooling cost is the main consideration, exchangers with moisture recovery are preferable to sensible HRVs. For reduction of heating costs, moisture recovery should be done for ventilation rates greater than about 15 L/s and average winter temperatures less than about (minus) 10{degrees}C if internal moisture generation rates are low. For houses with higher ventilation rates and colder average winter temperatures, exchangers with moisture recovery should be used.

  9. Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    St. Clair, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon andamount and timing, N availability, and plant communityparticularly as water availability was increased. These

  10. Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

    1988-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE AXIAL GAP VS FIBERBOARD MOISTURE CONTENT IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-09-30

    The fiberboard assembly within a 9975 shipping package contains a modest amount of moisture, which can migrate to the cooler regions of the package when an internal heat load is present. Typically, this leads to increased moisture levels in the bottom fiberboard layers, along with elevated chloride levels which can leach from the fiberboard. Concerns have been raised that this condition could lead to corrosion of the stainless steel drum. It has been postulated that checking the axial gap at the top of the package against the current 1 inch maximum criterion provides a sufficient indication regarding the integrity of the fiberboard and drum. This report estimates the increase in axial gap that might be expected for a given moisture increase in the bottom fiberboard layers, and the likelihood that the increase will create a nonconforming condition that will lead to identification of the moisture increase. Using data relating the fiberboard moisture content with the degree of compaction under load, the present analysis indicates that the axial gap will increase by 0.282 inch as the bottom fiberboard layers approach the saturation point. This increase will cause approximately 58% of packages with otherwise nominal package component dimensions to fail the axial gap criterion, based on a survey of axial gap values recorded in K-Area surveillance activities. As the moisture content increases above saturation, the predicted increase in axial gap jumps to 0.405 inch, which would result in 92% or more of all packages failing the axial gap criterion. The data and analysis described in this report are specific to cane fiberboard. While it is expected that softwood fiberboard will behave similarly, such behavior has not yet been demonstrated.

  12. Moisture in Molasses as a Factor in the Heating of Feeds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halick, John V.; Richardson, L. R.

    1952-01-01

    . To determine the factor in molasses responsible for the heat- ing, 75 samples were collected from the storage tanks of feed manufacturers over the State during the summer 1952, and analyzed for total sugars after inversion, moisture, Brix and ash. Moist.... Total reducing sugars after inversion and ash were cal- culated to a 22 percent moisture basis. The values for sugars ranged from 35 to 54 percent, and those for ash from 6 to 16 percent. These differences in sugars and ash could be due to natural...

  13. Nitrate Distribution in Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Intensive Plantation Management on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantations treatments were much higher than the old field.

  14. Generalized contexts and consistent histories in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-05-15

    We analyze a restriction of the theory of consistent histories by imposing that a valid description of a physical system must include quantum histories which satisfy the consistency conditions for all states. We prove that these conditions are equivalent to imposing the compatibility conditions of our formalism of generalized contexts. Moreover, we show that the theory of consistent histories with the consistency conditions for all states and the formalism of generalized context are equally useful representing expressions which involve properties at different times.

  15. Correction of Lightning Effects on Water Content Reflectometer Soil Moisture Data John S. McCartney* and Jorge G. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    Correction of Lightning Effects on Water Content Reflectometer Soil Moisture Data John S. Mc content measured using WCR (water content reflectometer) probes are susceptible to lightning. Several lightning strikes at the site caused unrealistic shifts in the inferred moisture content (from 0

  16. Evaluation of SMOS Retrievals of Soil Moisture over the Central United States with Currently Available In-situ Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Evaluation of SMOS Retrievals of Soil Moisture over the Central United States with Currently in November 2009. Using SMOS soil moisture retrievals for 2010 processed using algorithm3 V4.00, we evaluated apart. Observations10 from different sensors within a SMOS footprint differ from each other by a larger

  17. Characterization of fracture patterns and hygric properties for moisture flow modelling in cracked concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of building materials is far from complete. The pore structure of the material itself may change over time assessment, not only of building and building components, but of any built structure in general structures, as well as on the health and comfort of their occupants. Any analysis of moisture transfer

  18. Stable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils effect of antecedent soil moisture content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    contents during the experiment, which caused the soil to be wettable instead of water repellent. The waterStable or unstable wetting fronts in water repellent soils ± effect of antecedent soil moisture content Coen J. Ritsemaa,* , John L. Nieberb , Louis W. Dekkera , T.S. Steenhuisc a DLO Winand Staring

  19. The Effects of Roof Membrane Color on Moisture Accumulation in Low-slope Commercial Roof Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly reflective roof membrane systems is being promoted and in some cases required in energy codes and green building codes and standards. Highly reflective membranes, which typically are light in color, have demonstrated reduced overall energy consumption in cooling dominated climate. These membranes also are theorized to reduce the heat island effect. Concern has been expressed about using highly reflective roof membrane systems in cool to cold climate zones because they potentially increase moisture accumulation in roof systems. Roof membranes are vapor retarders. The theory is that highly reflective membranes reflect the heat that could enter the roof assembly, potentially providing a condensing surface on the cold side of the roof assembly during winter months. The other concern is that roof systems using highly reflective membranes will not get hot enough during the summer months to dry out moisture that may have condensed or otherwise entered the roof assembly. This study focuses on mechanically attached, highly reflective, single-ply roof systems installed on low-slope (less than 2:12) structures in cool to cold climate zones. Three sources of data are considered when determining the moisture accumulation potential of these systems. 1.Test roof cuts taken during the winter months 2.Modeling data from a building envelope model specifically designed to evaluate moisture accumulation 3.Data from previous studies to determine the effects of roof membrane color on the drying rate of low-slope roof assemblies

  20. UNCORRECTEDPROOF 2 Requirements of a global near-surface soil moisture satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    : accuracy, repeat time, and spatial resolution 4 Jeffrey P. Walker a,b,*, Paul R. Houser a 5 a Hydrological) remote sensing studies, using 53both thermal infrared and microwave (passive and ac- 54tive) electromagnetic radiation. Of these, passive 55microwave soil moisture measurement has been the 56most promising

  1. Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine ­ barley and maize) and 71 (for winter wheat) Ukraine stations. The total seeded areas are from 2002

  2. Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Alan Robock of Maryland, College Park 4 Ukrainian Research Institute for Environment and Resources, Kiev, Ukraine 5 Agrometeorology Department, Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Centre, Kiev, Ukraine Submitted to Geophysical Research

  3. Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Sensitivity of satellite microwave and infrared observations to soil moisture at a global scale observations include passive microwave emissivities, active microwave scatterometer data, and infrared. For example, we show that the passive microwave polarization differences at 19 GHz and above are essentially

  4. 20th century seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asian montane forests from tree cellulose 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stott, Lowell

    20th century seasonal moisture balance in Southeast Asian montane forests from tree cellulose 18 O composition (18 O) of sub- annual tree cellulose samples of Pinus kesiya growing at 1,500 m elevation on Doi Chiang Dao in northern Thailand. The cellulose 18 O values exhibit a distinctive annual cycle

  5. Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared June 2010, in final form 13 December 2010) ABSTRACT An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE the emissivities are fixed in the retrieval process. The results also confirm that the simultaneous retrieval

  6. EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON BENDING AND BREAKING RESISTANCE (IF COMMERCIAL ORIENTED STRANDBOARDS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) ABSTRACT This is ZI short addendum to an earlier paper (Wu and Suchsland 1997) on bending resistance (E.1EFFECT OF MOISTURE ON BENDING AND BREAKING RESISTANCE (IF COMMERCIAL ORIENTED STRANDBOARDS1 Qinglin the quality and performance of OSB. In an F ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Wu and Suchsland However, the paper did

  7. Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chappellaz, Jérôme

    Abrupt change of Antarctic moisture origin at the end of Termination II V. Masson-Delmottea,1 , B of events involved in Termination II, the transition between the penultimate glacial and interglacial periods. This termination is marked by a north­south seesaw behavior, with first a slow methane concen

  8. A Satellite Study of Tropical Moist Convection and Environmental Variability: A Moisture and Thermal Budget Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masunaga, Hirohiko

    of a variety of satellite sensors including radars, an infrared and microwave sounder unit, and a microwave including air temperature, water vapor, cumulus cloud cover, and surface wind are composited with respect of moisture and dry static energy and their vertical flux at cloud base from satellite observations alone

  9. Phase relationship equation for moisture induced shrink and swell of soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Stacey Bruemmer

    1997-01-01

    and the shrinkage limit. These limits are the soil moisture contents that correspond with extreme volumetric conditions. Evaluation of laboratory swell test results show that the swell limit probably does exist, and a procedure for measuring the swell limit of a...

  10. Soil moisture variability of root zone profiles within SMEX02 remote sensing footprints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the par- titioning of incoming solar radiation and long wave radia- tion into outgoing long wave radiation.e., various active and passive microwave sensors), which provide mean sur- face soil moisture (0­5 cm) values at large spatial scales, are only recently available [24,25,39]. Microwave sensors have many advantages

  11. Modeling studies of gas movement and moisture migration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Modeling studies on moisture redistribution processes that are mediated by gas phase flow and diffusion have been carried out. The problem addressed is the effect of a lowered humidity of the soil gas at the land surface on moisture removal from Yucca Mountain, the potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. At the land surface, humid formation gas contacts much drier atmospheric air. Near this contact, the humidity of the soil gas may be considerably lower than at greater depth, where the authors expect equilibrium with the liquid phase and close to 100% humidity. The lower relative humidity of the soil gas may be modeled by imposing, at the land surface, an additional negative capillary suction corresponding to vapor pressure lowering according to Kelvin`s Equation, thus providing a driving force for the upward movement of moisture in both the vapor and liquid phases. Sensitivity studies show that moisture removal from Yucca Mountain arising from the lowered-relative-humidity boundary condition is controlled by vapor diffusion. There is much experimental evidence in the soil literature that diffusion of vapor is enhanced due to pore-level phase change effects by a few orders of magnitude. Modeling results presented here will account for this enhancement in vapor diffusion.

  12. Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils By C, Evanston, IL. Abstract In this paper vibratory crack response is compared to that produced by volumetric over a period of weeks to several months. On the other hand, crack response produced by volumetric

  13. CRADA with the Belhaven group and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNL-081): Automated soil moisture measuring systems. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop an improved, full- scale, inexpensive, soil moisture sensor, using innovative porous ceramic materials as the moisture wicking component and (2) demonstrate the performance of the sensor in the laboratory and in field to determine its reliability and accuracy. The opportunity for this project arose as a result of an inquiry from Belhaven to whom the soil moisture sensor developed at PNNL by John Cary was licensed. The existing Cary sensor needed research and development effort in order to create the type of soil moisture sensor envisioned by the Belhaven for use in an integrated soil moisture systems in the field. PNNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this Collaborative project.

  14. Ferrocyanide safety program: Moisture migration test in ferrocyanide simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crippen, M.D.

    1994-08-01

    During the initial phases of the Ferrocyanide Safety Program, it was presumed that actual sludge in tanks would behave as if it were a two-phase system in which a brine phase would seep through the insoluble solid phase of ferrocyanide and other precipitated salts. After flowsheet materials were produced and extensively tested, it became apparent that the ferrocyanide precipitates held extensive quantities of water (50% by weight or more) that were far above what would be expected from hydrated salts. Because little or no draining of this fluid occurred over a period of months, it was concluded that the precipitates and their solution would act as a homogeneous single phase in much the same way as natural clays. Suggestions were made that the testing of clays could add to existing knowledge of sludge hydraulic and rheologic properties, at a much-reduced cost in chemicals and time over that required for flowsheet materials. Tests were conducted in a 400-L volume of ferrocyanide sludge simulant to determine thermal characteristics around heated zones. At low heat loads, surface vapor losses were much lower than return rates, resulting in no net change in water content. Under boiling conditions, no bulk dryout occurred. These results were consistent with the results from earlier small-scale experiments.

  15. Hillslope-scale soil moisture estimation with a physically-based ecohydrology model and L-band microwave remote sensing observations from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Soil moisture is a critical hydrosphere state variable that links the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. Knowledge of soil moisture at scales of individual hillslopes (10's to 100's of meters) is critical to advancing ...

  16. A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE AT TWO NASA CLPX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE ________________________________________ Department Head #12;iii ABSTRACT A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE

  17. California Department of Fish and Wildlife Consistency Determination...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Department of Fish and Wildlife Consistency Determination Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Department of...

  18. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  19. Does rationality consist in responding correctly to reasons? John Broome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    Does rationality consist in responding correctly to reasons? John Broome Journal of Moral form. What does it mean to say that rationality consists in responding correctly to reasons? Partly does not call for a response from you. Your punishment is the responsibility of the authorities

  20. Efficient Consistency Proofs for Generalized Queries on a Committed Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Efficient Consistency Proofs for Generalized Queries on a Committed Database Rafail Ostrovsky UCLA@csail.mit.edu July 20, 2004 Abstract A consistent query protocol (CQP) allows a database owner to publish a very short string c which commits her and everybody else to a particular database D, so that any copy

  1. Efficient Consistency Proofs for Generalized Queries on a Committed Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Efficient Consistency Proofs for Generalized Queries on a Committed Database #3; Rafail Ostrovsky asmith@csail.mit.edu July 20, 2004 Abstract A consistent query protocol (CQP) allows a database owner to publish a very short string c which commits her and everybody else to a particular database D, so that any

  2. The role of moisture transport between ground and atmosphere in global change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rind, D.; Rosenzweig, C.; Stieglitz, M.

    1997-12-31

    Projections of the effect of climate change on future water availability are examined by reviewing the formulations used to calculate moisture transport between the ground and the atmosphere. General circulation models and climate change impact models have substantially different formulations for evapotranspiration, so their projections of future water availability often disagree, even though they use the same temperature and precipitation forecasts. General circulation models forecast little change in tropical and subtropical water availability, while impact models show severe water and agricultural shortages. A comparison of observations and modeling techniques shows that the parameterizations in general circulation models likely lead to an underestimate of the impacts of global warming on soil moisture and vegetation. Such errors would crucially affect the temperature and precipitation forecasts used in impact models. Some impact model evaporation formulations are probably more appropriate than those in general circulation models, but important questions remain. More observations are needed, especially in the vicinity of forests, to determine appropriate parameterizations.

  3. Heat and moisture transfer through building envelope components subjected to outdoor weather conditions including rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayamaha, S.E.G. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Singapore experiences a warm and humid climate with abundant rainfall during the entire year. Such conditions are typical of tropical climates where many of today`s metropolitan cities are situated. Rain has been found to affect the thermal performance of building components in two ways, namely, by cooling the surface during rain and thereafter by drying of the absorbed moisture after rain. However, existing software used for predicting the thermal performance of building components do not consider such effects and are therefore inadequate for accurate estimation of the thermal performance of building components in tropical climates. To overcome these limitations, this study was carried out to investigate the simultaneous heat and moisture flow through porous building materials exposed to outdoor conditions such as solar radiation and rain.

  4. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  5. Tropical synoptic scale moisture fields observed from the Nimbus-7 SMMR 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Jeffrey David

    1989-01-01

    eastern Pacific Ocean weather systems are ea. sy to observe on visual and infrared satellite images. However, it is difficult to quantify their moisture fields due to the great scarcity of conventional data. . In addition, it is difficult to examine... rainfall over the eastern part of the tropical Pacific Ocean because there are few island stations or ship reports available. Satellite passive microwave instruments have been used to determine precip- itable water, liquid water and precipitation over...

  6. ANALYSES OF DEFORMATION IN VISCOELASTIC SANDWICH COMPOSITES SUBJECT TO MOISTURE DIFFUSION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Nikhil P.

    2010-01-16

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Anastasia Muliana Committee Members, Harry Hogan Eyad Masad Head of Department, Dennis L. O?Neal August 2008 Major...% with the increase in moisture concentration. Snead and Palazotto [6] performed an analytical investigation to evaluate the stability characteristics of cylindrical, composite graphite/epoxy (AS/3501-5) laminated panels subjected to axial loads under moist...

  7. Evaluation of moisture sensors for NGV fueling station applications. Topical report, November 1994-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, P.F.; Maniquis, V.T.; Hunecke, D.E.; Blazek, C.F.

    1996-08-01

    Moisture content in natural gas has become an important issue for compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling stations. The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of four hygrometer technologies and identify the most cost effective designs suitable for CNG fueling station applications. The four technologies evaluated were: aluminum oxide, ceramic dewpoint, electrolytic, and silicon chip sensors. The hygrometer performance was evaluated with respect to accuracy, response time, repeatability, operating conditions, maintenance requirements, and cost.

  8. Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

    2009-04-01

    High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) for ultimate stress and cutting energy values, but knife grid spacing were significantly different. Linear knife grid cutting energy requirements for both moisture conditions of corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

  9. Influence of Airflow on Laboratory Storage of High Moisture Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn M. Wendt; Ian J. Bonner; Amber N. Hoover; Rachel M. Emerson; William A. Smith

    2014-04-01

    Storing high moisture biomass for bioenergy use is a reality in many areas of the country where wet harvest conditions and environmental factors prevent dry storage from being feasible. Aerobic storage of high moisture biomass leads to microbial degradation and self-heating, but oxygen limitation can aid in material preservation. To understand the influence of oxygen presence on high moisture biomass (50 %, wet basis), three airflow rates were tested on corn stover stored in laboratory reactors. Temperature, carbon dioxide production, dry matter loss, chemical composition, fungal abundance, pH, and organic acids were used to monitor the effects of airflow on storage conditions. The results of this work indicate that oxygen availability impacts both the duration of self-heating and the severity of dry matter loss. High airflow systems experienced the greatest initial rates of loss but a shortened microbially active period that limited total dry matter loss (19 %). Intermediate airflow had improved preservation in short-term storage compared to high airflow systems but accumulated the greatest dry matter loss over time (up to 27 %) as a result of an extended microbially active period. Low airflow systems displayed the best performance with the lowest rates of loss and total loss (10 %) in storage at 50 days. Total structural sugar levels of the stored material were preserved, although glucan enrichment and xylan loss were documented in the high and intermediate flow conditions. By understanding the role of oxygen availability on biomass storage performance, the requirements for high moisture storage solutions may begin to be experimentally defined.

  10. Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Pallin, Simon B; Jackson, Roderick K

    2013-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

  11. Effect of external stress on moisture diffusion in an epoxy resin and its composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henson, Michael Chamberlain

    1986-01-01

    ) Michael Chamberlain Henson, B. S. , Texas A&N University Chairman of Advisory Comnittee: Dr. Y. Weitsman The effects of stress on moisture diffusion in a graphite epoxy composrte material have been studied experimentally by examining the correspondrng... diffusion at all stress levels while the graphite epoxy generated results indicative of Non-Fickean, . concentration dependent diffusion at different levels of stress. The external stress affected both materials in a similar manner, causing...

  12. Effect of an external stress on moisture diffusion in composite materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porth, Edward John

    1983-01-01

    . . 49 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Cure Cycle for Hexcel F155 Graphite/Epoxy. . Cure Cycle for Narmco M329-7 Adhesive. Final Configuration of the Graphite/Epoxy and Stainless Steel Tensile Coupons. Load Frame Used to Stress Tensile Coupons During...-ply laminates absorbed more moisture than unidirectional laminates. However, it was also noted that cross-ply laminates are less compact than unidirectional laminates. Gillat and Broutman [5] subjected bidirectional graphite/epoxy laminates to external loads...

  13. Energy Balance Partitioning and Net Radiation Controls on Soil Moisture – Precipitation Feedbacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Aubrey R.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.

    2009-01-14

    stream_size 63174 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Brunsell_2009_Energy-balance-partitioning.pdf.txt stream_source_info Brunsell_2009_Energy-balance-partitioning.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text... turbulence, with coarser resolutions unable to capture turbulent motions, which are necessary for convective processes. The ability of the model to capture boundary layer turbulence will alter the dynamics of soil moisture–precipitation feedback...

  14. Development of Optical Technologies for Monitoring Moisture and Particulate in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Partin

    2006-08-01

    The results of an investigation directed at evaluating the feasibility of using optical measurements for the real-time monitoring moisture and particulate in geothermal steam is described. The measurements exploit new technologies that have been developed for the telecommunications industry and includes new solid state laser devices, large-bandwidth, high-sensitivity detectors and low loss optical fiber compo-nents. In particular, the design, fabrication, and in-plant testing of an optical steam monitor for the detection of moisture is presented. The measurement principle is based upon the selective absorption of infrared energy in response to the presence of moisture. Typically, two wavelengths are used in the measurements: a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by water and a reference wavelength that is minimally influenced by water and steam which serves as a reference to correct for particulate or droplet scattering. The two wavelengths are chosen to be as close as possible in order to more effectively correct for scattering effects. The basic instrumentation platform developed for the in-situ monitoring of steam moisture can be modified and used to perform other measurements of interest to plant operators. An upgrade that will allow the instrument to be used for the sensitive detection of particulate in process streams has been investigated. The new monitor design involves the use of laser diodes that are much less sensitive to water and water vapor and more sensitive to scattering phenomena, as well as new processing techniques to recover these signals. The design reduces the averaging time and sampling volume, while increasing the laser probe power, enhancing particulate detection sensitivity. The design concept and initial laboratory experiments with this system are also reported.

  15. Effect of moisture on air stripping of non volatile organic contaminants from soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Roberto

    1991-01-01

    of the unsaturated soil zone by organic chemicals has been receiving considerable attention recently since it is the major source of ground water pollution. The main objective of this work was to study the viability of air stripping non volatile organic... in the solid phase. Phenol, an EPA priority pollutant which has been identified in ground water supplies, was the model contaminant. Studies involved stripping the contaminant from a column of Norwood/Westwood soil under several moisture conditions. Removal...

  16. An analysis of moisture accumulation in the roof cavities of manufactured housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, D.

    1995-09-01

    A detailed computer analysis is conducted to investigate whether moisture problems occur in the roof cavity of manufactured homes constructed in compliance with the current Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Standards for manufactured housing. The current HUD Standards require a ceiling vapor retarder, but do not require outdoor ventilation of the roof cavity. In cold climates, the analysis revealed that moisture accumulates at lower roof surface and poses a risk of material degradation. The analysis found the following combination of passive measures to be effective in preventing detrimental winter moisture accumulation at lower surface of the roof: (1) providing a ceiling vapor retarder; (2) sealing penetrations and openings in the ceiling construction, and (3) providing natural ventilation openings in the roof cavity. In addition, the performance of a roof cavity exposed to a hot and humid climate is investigated. The analysis revealed that outdoor ventilation of the roof cavity causes the monthly mean relative humidity at the upper surface of the vapor retarder to exceed 80%. This condition is conducive to mold and mildew growth.

  17. Effects of Compressive Force, Particle Size and Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Biomass Grinds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope Jr.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2006-03-01

    Chemical composition, moisture content, bulk and particle densities, and geometric mean particle size were determined to characterize grinds from wheat and barley straws, corn stover and switchgrass. The biomass grinds were compressed for five levels of compressive forces (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 4400 N) and three levels of particle sizes (3.2, 1.6 and 0.8 mm) at two levels of moisture contents (12% and 15% (wb) to establish the compression and relaxation data. Corn stover grind produced the highest compact density at low pressure during compression. Compressive force, particle size and moisture content of grinds significantly affected the compact density of barley straw, corn stover and switchgrass grinds. However, different particle sizes of wheat straw grind did not produce any significant difference on compact density. Barley straw grind had the highest asymptotic modulus among all other biomass grinds indicating that compact from barley straw grind were more rigid than those of other compacts. Asymptotic modulus increased with an increase in maximum compressive pressure. The trend of increase in asymptotic modulus (EA) with the maximum compressive pressure ( 0) was fitted to a second order polynomial equation. Keywords: Biomass grinds, chemical composition, compact density and asymptotic modulus

  18. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  19. Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joshi, Champa

    2013-05-06

    Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, ...

  20. Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Alejandro N.

    Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

  1. Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

    2011-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

  2. A wireless soil moisture smart sensor web using physics-based optimal control: Concept and initial demonstrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moghaddam, Mahta

    This paper introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective of the technology, supported by the ...

  3. Examining the Relationship between Antecedent Soil Moisture and Summer Precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Lei

    2010-01-14

    This dissertation focuses on examining the relationship between antecedent soil moisture and summer precipitation in the U.S. Great Plains (GP). The influence of Nino sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on summer precipitation ...

  4. Time consistency and risk averse dynamic decision models ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-05-02

    sistent models as we provide practitioners with an intuitive economic inter- pretation for the ... ning and financial engineering problems. Based on ... consistency is shown to be one basic requirement to get suitable optimal de- cisions, in ...

  5. Moisture and temperature effects on curvature of anti-symmetric cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lott, Randall Stephen

    1980-01-01

    MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CURVATURE OF ANTI-SYMMETRIC CROSS-PLY GRAPHITE/EPOXY LAMINATES A Thesis by RANDALL STEPHEN LOTT Approved as to style and content...

  6. Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markiv, B.; Tokarchuk, M.; National University “Lviv Polytechnic,” 12 Bandera St., 79013 Lviv

    2014-02-15

    A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

  7. Experimental investigation of natural gas moisture content and NGV regulator performance. Topical report, October 1993-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowley, P.F.; Hunecke, D.E.; Maniquis, V.T.; Blazek, C.F.

    1996-05-01

    High moisture levels in natural gas can result in operational problems on-board natural gas vehicle (NGVs) or at fueling stations. Since some NGV stations have experienced higher than recommended moisture levels, NGV equipment must be able to tolerate a reasonable level of moisture. At the pressure regulator on-board the vehicle, gas is expanded from the storage pressure (up to 3600 psig) to the pressure of the fuel delivery system (typically 100 psig). This gas expansion produces significant temperature decreases ranging 100 deg F to 150 deg F. At these low temperatures, water in the gas may drop out and form water droplets, frost or hydrates, which can obstruct on-board components. Experimental testing was conducted at IGT to evaluate the performance of four commercially available NGV regulators (MECO, ITT Conoflow, MESA, and GFI) at extreme temperatures and gas moisture levels. Specific objectives of this project were to identify moisture levels which interfere with operation of these components and to identify component features or designs which are most resistant to high moisture levels.

  8. Consistent Kaluza-Klein Truncations via Exceptional Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohm, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    We present the generalized Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz for the full supersymmetric exceptional field theory in terms of group valued twist matrices subject to consistency equations. With this ansatz the field equations precisely reduce to those of lower-dimensional gauged supergravity parametrized by an embedding tensor. We explicitly construct a family of twist matrices as solutions of the consistency equations. They induce gauged supergravities with gauge groups SO(p,q) and CSO(p,q,r). Geometrically, they describe compactifications on internal spaces given by spheres and (warped) hyperboloides $H^{p,q}$, thus extending the applicability of generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions beyond homogeneous spaces. Together with the dictionary that relates exceptional field theory to D=11 and IIB supergravity, respectively, the construction defines an entire new family of consistent truncations of the original theories. These include not only compactifications on spheres of different dimensions (such as AdS$_5\\time...

  9. Consistency test of neutrinoless double beta decay with one isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Duerr; Manfred Lindner; Kai Zuber

    2011-11-17

    We discuss a consistency test which makes it possible to discriminate unknown nuclear background lines from neutrinoless double beta decay with only one isotope. By considering both the transition to the ground state and to the first excited $0^+$ state, a sufficiently large detector can reveal if neutrinoless double beta decay or some other nuclear physics process is at work. Such a detector could therefore simultaneously provide a consistency test for a certain range of Majorana masses and be sensitive to lower values of the effective Majorana mass.

  10. Consistency test of neutrinoless double beta decay with one isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duerr, Michael; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Zuber, Kai [Technical University Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-11-01

    We discuss a consistency test which makes it possible to discriminate unknown nuclear background lines from neutrinoless double beta decay with only one isotope. By considering both the transition to the ground state and to the first excited 0{sup +} state, a sufficiently large detector can reveal if neutrinoless double beta decay or some other nuclear physics process is at work. Such a detector could therefore simultaneously provide a consistency test for a certain range of Majorana masses and be sensitive to lower values of the effective Majorana mass .

  11. Remark on the Consistent Gauge Anomaly in Supersymmetric Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohshima, Y; Suzuki, H; Yasuta, H; Ohshima, Yoshihisa; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yasuta, Hirofumi

    1999-01-01

    We present a direct field theoretical calculation of the consistent gauge anomaly in the superfield formalism, on the basis of a definition of the effective action through the covariant gauge current. The scheme is conceptually and technically simple and the gauge covariance in intermediate steps reduces calculational labors considerably. The resultant superfield anomaly, being proportional to the anomaly $d^{abc}=\\tr T^a\\{T^b,T^c\\}$, is minimal even without supplementing any counterterms. Our anomaly coincides with the anomaly obtained by Marinkovi\\'c as the solution of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition.

  12. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  13. Show No Weakness: Sequentially Consistent Specifications of TSO Libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotsman, Alexey

    Show No Weakness: Sequentially Consistent Specifications of TSO Libraries Alexey Gotsman1.g., for those that are data-race free (DRF). However, performance-critical libraries often violate, it is important for these libraries to protect their otherwise well-behaved clients from the weaker memory model

  14. Manipulator Control at Kinematic Singularities: A Dynamically Consistent Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    mechanism [6]. These two models are the bases for implementing the control strategy for kinematicManipulator Control at Kinematic Singularities: A Dynamically Consistent Strategy Kyong-Sok Chang Abstract This paper presents a general strategy for manipu- lator control at kinematic singularities. When

  15. A static universe is consistent with type Ia supernovae observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    2015-04-18

    This paper considers the hypothesis that the universe is static and demonstrates that type Ia supernova observations which appear to provide strong support for time dilation (and thus for an expanding universe) are equally consistent with a static universe. It is shown that a property of the standard calibration method means that regardless of what redshift dependence the measured light curve widths may have the calibrated widths always have little or no redshift dependence. An important consideration is the Phillips relation, a correlation between the peak-luminosity and the width of type Ia supernovae. Using the Phillips relation the analysis of a recent compilation of type Ia supernova observations is re-examined and it is shown that these observations are fully consistent with a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift relation and spectroscopic ages are fully consistent with a static universe. As a separate but related issue it is shown that in the static model the density distribution of type Ia supernovae as a function of redshift agrees with the observations. All the evidence shows that the hypothesis is consistent with a static universe.

  16. On the consistency of Prony's method and related algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    On the consistency of Prony's method and related algorithms M.H. Kahn M.S.Mackisack M.R.Osborne§ G and of related algorithms based on maximum likelihood is discussed as the number of observations n are obtained for the frequency estimation problem. However, the algorithms considered are all scaling dependent

  17. Lightweight Logging for Lazy Release Consistent Distributed Shared Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neves, Nuno

    Lightweight Logging for Lazy Release Consistent Distributed Shared Memory Manuel Costa, Paulo Guedes, Manuel Sequeira, Nuno Neves, Miguel Castro IST - INESC R. Alves Redol 9, 1000 Lisboa PORTUGAL algorithm for a DSM system based on lazy release Manuel Costa, Nuno Neves and Miguel Castro were supported

  18. Error detection through consistency checking Peng Gong* Lan Mu#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Error detection through consistency checking Peng Gong* Lan Mu# *Center for Assessment & Monitoring Hall, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3110 gong@nature.berkeley.edu mulan, accessibility, and timeliness as recorded in the lineage data (Chen and Gong, 1998). Spatial error refers

  19. Neutron skin of 208 Pb in consistency with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron skin of 208 Pb in consistency with neutron star observations K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro as varying the neutron radius of 208Pb. The neutron skin thickness Sn is determined in the comparison with the astronomical observations of massive neutron stars (NSs), the standard scenario of NS cooling

  20. A nuclear Frechet space consisting of C -functions and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogt, Dietmar

    A nuclear Fr´echet space consisting of C -functions and failing the bounded approximation property Dietmar Vogt Abstract An easy and transparent example is given of a nuclear Fre´echet space failing of Grothendieck whether every nuclear Fr´echet space has the bounded approximation property was open for quite

  1. Cavitation controlled acoustic probe for fabric spot cleaning and moisture monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw (Naperville, IL); Chien, Hual-Te (Naperville, IL); Raptis, Apostolos C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for monitoring a fabric. An acoustic probe generates acoustic waves relative to the fabric. An acoustic sensor, such as an accelerometer is coupled to the acoustic probe for generating a signal representative of cavitation activity in the fabric. The generated cavitation activity representative signal is processed to indicate moisture content of the fabric. A feature of the invention is a feedback control signal is generated responsive to the generated cavitation activity representative signal. The feedback control signal can be used to control the energy level of the generated acoustic waves and to control the application of a cleaning solution to the fabric.

  2. International H2O Project (IHOP) 2002: Datasets Related to Atmospheric Moisture and Rainfall Prediction

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Schanot, Allen [IHOP 2002 PI; Friesen, Dick [IHOP 2002 PI

    IHOP 2002 was a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains of the United States from 13 May to 25 June 2002. The chief aim of IHOP_2002 was improved characterization of the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of water vapor and its application to improving the understanding and prediction of convection. The region was an optimal location due to existing experimental and operational facilities, strong variability in moisture, and active convection [copied from http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/ihop/]. The project's master list of data identifies 146 publicly accessible datasets.

  3. Consistent Data Assimilation of Isotopes: 242Pu and 105Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; M. Salvatores

    2012-09-01

    In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments are analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 242Pu and 105Pd. In particular irradiation experiments (PROFIL-1 and -2, TRAPU-1, -2 and -3) provide information about capture cross sections, and a critical configuration, COSMO, where fission spectral indexes were measured, provides information about fission cross section. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results are used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that not so large modifications on some key identified nuclear parameters allow to obtain reasonable C/E. However, for some parameters such variations are outside the range of 1 s of their initial standard deviation. This can indicate a possible conflict between differential measurements (used to calculate the initial standard deviations) and the integral measurements used in the statistical data adjustment. Moreover, an inconsistency between the C/E of two sets of irradiation experiments (PROFIL and TRAPU) is observed for 242Pu. This is the end of this project funded by the Nuclear Physics Program of the DOE Office of Science. We can indicate that a proof of principle has been demonstrated for a few isotopes for this innovative methodology. However, we are still far from having explored all the possibilities and made this methodology to be considered proved and robust. In particular many issues are worth further investigation: • Non-linear effects • Flexibility of nuclear parameters in describing cross sections • Multi-isotope consistent assimilation • Consistency between differential and integral experiments

  4. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (? = 1 (GW approximation), ?? from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ?E). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT.more »It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.« less

  5. Branch dependence in the "consistent histories" approach to quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Müller

    2006-11-12

    In the consistent histories formalism one specifies a family of histories as an exhaustive set of pairwise exclusive descriptions of the dynamics of a quantum system. We define branching families of histories, which strike a middle ground between the two available mathematically precise definitions of families of histories, viz., product families and Isham's history projector operator formalism. The former are too narrow for applications, and the latter's generality comes at a certain cost, barring an intuitive reading of the ``histories''. Branching families retain the intuitiveness of product families, they allow for the interpretation of a history's weight as a probability, and they allow one to distinguish two kinds of coarse-graining, leading to reconsidering the motivation for the consistency condition.

  6. Non-trivial checks of novel consistency relations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin; Wang, Junpu E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-06-01

    Single-field perturbations satisfy an infinite number of consistency relations constraining the squeezed limit of correlation functions at each order in the soft momentum. These can be understood as Ward identities for an infinite set of residual global symmetries, or equivalently as Slavnov-Taylor identities for spatial diffeomorphisms. In this paper, we perform a number of novel, non-trivial checks of the identities in the context of single field inflationary models with arbitrary sound speed. We focus for concreteness on identities involving 3-point functions with a soft external mode, and consider all possible scalar and tensor combinations for the hard-momentum modes. In all these cases, we check the consistency relations up to and including cubic order in the soft momentum. For this purpose, we compute for the first time the 3-point functions involving 2 scalars and 1 tensor, as well as 2 tensors and 1 scalar, for arbitrary sound speed.

  7. Response of the regional water cycle to an increase of atmosphere moisture related to global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frei, C.; Widmann, M.; Luethi, D.

    1997-11-01

    This study examines the sensitivity of the mid-latitude regional hydrological cycle to an imposed warming. Mesoscale limited-area climate simulations over Europe are performed. The modelling study is complemented with a detailed analysis of the observed precipitation and circulation trends in the same region. It is demonstrated that an increase of the moisture content leads to an enhancement of the model`s water cycle during the synoptically active seasons. The simulations suggest that this mechanism may contribute towards an increase in mean precipitation and more frequency occurrence of heavy precipitation events. Observational analysis results illustrate that the relationship between precipitation and atmospheric moisture seen in the climate simulations constitutes a possible physical mechanism relevant for the interpretation of the observed trends. A key feature of the model results is the pronounced increase in the frequency of strong precipitation events associated with the intensification of the water cycle. This large sensitivity highlights the vulnerability of the precipitation climate with respect to global climate change. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. A consistent formalism for the Thomas-Ehrman Level Displacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. J. He; A. St. J. Murphy

    2007-04-26

    Usage of the Thomas-Ehrman Level Displacement formalism has been examined. Mistakes and inconsistencies are found in several papers, being repeated in subsequent works. Here, we present a complete formalism with a consistent set of definitions. Full algorithms are made available, both as a {\\tt FORTRAN} source file and as a user-friendly Visual Basic executable tool, available for download on the World Wide Web.

  9. Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies: Part II, New Construction- August 13, 2014- Moisture Monitoring Results in an R-40 Wall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, Moisture Monitoring Results in an R-40 Wall, was presented at the Building America webinar, High Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part II, on August 13, 2014.

  10. Consistent Kaluza-Klein Truncations via Exceptional Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olaf Hohm; Henning Samtleben

    2015-01-29

    We present the generalized Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz for the full supersymmetric exceptional field theory in terms of group valued twist matrices subject to consistency equations. With this ansatz the field equations precisely reduce to those of lower-dimensional gauged supergravity parametrized by an embedding tensor. We explicitly construct a family of twist matrices as solutions of the consistency equations. They induce gauged supergravities with gauge groups SO(p,q) and CSO(p,q,r). Geometrically, they describe compactifications on internal spaces given by spheres and (warped) hyperboloides $H^{p,q}$, thus extending the applicability of generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions beyond homogeneous spaces. Together with the dictionary that relates exceptional field theory to D=11 and IIB supergravity, respectively, the construction defines an entire new family of consistent truncations of the original theories. These include not only compactifications on spheres of different dimensions (such as AdS$_5\\times S^5$), but also various hyperboloid compactifications giving rise to a higher-dimensional embedding of supergravities with non-compact and non-semisimple gauge groups.

  11. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  12. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  13. Consistent Evolution with Different Time-Slicings in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Cosgrove

    1996-02-20

    Rovelli's `` quantum mechanics without time'' motivates an intrinsically time-slicing independent picture of reduced phase space quantum gravity, which may be described as ``quantization after evolution''. Sufficient criteria for carrying out quantization after evolution are developed in terms of a general concept of the classical limit of quantum mechanics. If these criteria are satisfied then it is possible to have consistent unitary evolution of operators, with respect to an infinite parameter family of time-slicings (and probably all time-slicings), with the correct classical limit. The criteria are particularly amenable to study in (2+1)-dimensional gravity, where the reduced phase space is finite dimensional.

  14. A consistent quantum model for continuous photodetection processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. de Oliveira; S. S. Mizrahi; V. V. Dodonov

    2003-07-11

    We are modifying some aspects of the continuous photodetection theory, proposed by Srinivas and Davies [Optica Acta 28, 981 (1981)], which describes the non-unitary evolution of a quantum field state subjected to a continuous photocount measurement. In order to remedy inconsistencies that appear in their approach, we redefine the `annihilation' and `creation' operators that enter in the photocount superoperators. We show that this new approach not only still satisfies all the requirements for a consistent photocount theory according to Srinivas and Davies precepts, but also avoids some weird result appearing when previous definitions are used.

  15. A Consistent Firm Objective When Markets are Incomplete: Profit Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabarwal, Tarun

    2004-08-11

    Markets are Incomplete: Profit Maximization Abstract In economies with private firm ownership, when markets are incomplete, and firm sharehold- ers change over time, there is no broad agreement on what ought to be a firm’s objective. It is shown that ex...-post, profit maximization is consistent with shareholder preferences in such economies; that is, along the equilibrium path, in every period and state of the world, every coalition of a firm’s shareholders in that period and state approves a profit...

  16. Inherent Individual Differences in Utility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luce, R. Duncan

    2011-01-01

    Press. Luce, R. D. (2000). Utility of Gains and Losses.Interpersonal comparisons of utility for 2 of 3 types ofInterpersonal comparisons of utility: why and how they are

  17. Consistent generation of magnetic fields in axion inflation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomohiro Fujita; Ryo Namba; Yuichiro Tada; Naoyuki Takeda; Hiroyuki Tashiro

    2015-04-15

    There has been a growing evidence for the existence of magnetic fields in the extra-galactic regions, while the attempt to associate their origin with the inflationary epoch alone has been found extremely challenging. We therefore take into account the consistent post-inflationary evolution of the magnetic fields that are originated from vacuum fluctuations during inflation. In the model of our interest, the electromagnetic (EM) field is coupled to a pseudo-scalar inflaton $\\phi$ through the characteristic term $\\phi F\\tilde F$, breaking the conformal invariance. This interaction dynamically breaks the parity and enables a continuous production of only one of the polarization states of the EM field through tachyonic instability. The produced magnetic fields are thus helical. We find that the dominant contribution to the observed magnetic fields in this model comes from the modes that leave the horizon near the end of inflation, further enhanced by the tachyonic instability right after the end of inflation. The EM field is subsequently amplified by parametric resonance during the period of inflaton oscillation. Once the thermal plasma is formed (reheating), the produced helical magnetic fields undergo a turbulent process called inverse cascade, which shifts their peak correlation scales from smaller to larger scales. We consistently take all these effects into account within the regime where the perturbation of $\\phi$ is negligible and obtain $B_{\\rm eff} \\sim 10^{-19}$G, indicating the necessity of additional mechanisms to accommodate the observations.

  18. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity consistency relation with galaxy surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daisuke Yamauchi; Keitaro Takahashi

    2015-10-06

    With a radio continuum galaxy survey by Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a photometric galaxy survey by Euclid and their combination, we forecast future constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. We focus on the potential impact of local-type higher-order nonlinear parameters on the parameter estimation and particularly the confirmation of the inflationary consistency inequality. Non-standard inflationary models, such as multi-field models, introduce the scale-dependent stochastic clustering of galaxies on large scales, which is a unique probe of mechanism for generating primordial density fluctuations. Our Fisher matrix analysis indicates that a deep and wide survey provided by SKA is more advantageous to constrain $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$, while Euclid has a strong constraining power for $f_{\\rm NL}$ due to the redshift information, suggesting that the joint analysis between them are quite essential to break the degeneracy between $f_{\\rm NL}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$. The combination of full SKA and Euclid will achieve the precision level needed to confirm the consistency inequality even for $f_{\\rm NL}\\approx 0.9$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}\\approx 8$, though it is still hard for a single survey to confirm it when $f_{\\rm NL}\\lesssim 1.5$.

  19. Self-consistent Green's functions with three-body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arianna Carbone

    2014-07-24

    The present thesis aims at studying the properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter from a Green's functions point of view, including two-body and three-body chiral forces. An extended self-consistent Green's function formalism is defined to consistently incorporate three-body forces in the many-body calculations. The effect of three-nucleon interactions is included via the construction of a dressed two-body density dependent force. This is obtained performing an average of the leading order three-body terms in the chiral effective field theory expansion. The dressed force corresponds to the use of an in-medium propagator in the average which takes into account the correlations characterizing the system at each stage of the many-body calculation. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sumrule to correctly account for the effect of three-body forces. Microscopic as well as macroscopic properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are analyzed in detailed.

  20. Surface Tension of Electrolyte Solutions: A Self-consistent Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudi Podgornik

    2014-04-09

    We study the surface tension of electrolyte solutions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Employing field-theoretical methods and considering short-range interactions of anions with the surface, we expand the Helmholtz free energy to first-order in a loop expansion and calculate the excess surface tension. Our approach is self-consistent and yields an analytical prediction that reunites the Onsager-Samaras pioneering result (which does not agree with experimental data), with the ionic specificity of the Hofmeister series. We obtain analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, and show consequently that the Onsager-Samaras result is consistent with the one-loop correction beyond the mean-field result. Our theory fits well a wide range of concentrations for different salts using one fit parameter, reproducing the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.10.1029

  1. SELF-CONSISTENT SIZE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COLLISIONAL CASCADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Margaret [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schlichting, Hilke E., E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. Here we relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan and Sari can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies for the Kuiper belt, the asteroid belt, and extrasolar debris disks may constrain the mass and number of large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies' internal strengths.

  2. Is scalar-tensor gravity consistent with polytropic stellar models?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaisa Henttunen; Iiro Vilja

    2015-03-01

    We study the scalar field potential $V(\\phi)$ in the scalar-tensor gravity with self-consistent polytropic stellar configurations. Without choosing a particular potential, we numerically derive the potential inside various stellar objects. We restrict the potential to conform to general relativity or to $f(R)$ gravity inside and require the solution to arrive at SdS vacuum at the surface. The studied objects are required to obtain observationally valid masses and radii corresponding to solar type stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find that the resulting scalar-tensor potential $V(\\phi)$ for the numerically derived polytrope that conforms to general relativity, in each object class, is highly dependent on the matter configuration as well as on the vacuum requirement at the boundary. As a result, every stellar configuration arrives at a potential $V(\\phi)$ that is not consistent with the other stellar class potentials. Therefore, a general potential that conforms to all these polytropic stellar classes could not be found.

  3. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B. (Los Lunas, NM); Frye, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Schneider, Thomas W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO.sub.2. In another embodiment, the SiO.sub.2 is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system.

  4. Acoustic wave (AW) based moisture sensor for use with corrosive gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Frye, G.C.; Schneider, T.W.

    1996-11-05

    Moisture corrosive gas stream is measured as a function of the difference in resonant frequencies between two acoustic wave (AW) devices, each with a film which accepts at least one of the components of the gas stream. One AW is located in the gas stream while the other is located outside the gas stream but in the same thermal environment. In one embodiment, the film is a hydrophilic material such as SiO{sub 2}. In another embodiment, the SiO{sub 2} is covered with another film which is impermeable to the corrosive gas, such that the AW device in the gas stream measures only the water vapor. In yet another embodiment, the film comprises polyethylene oxide which is hydrophobic and measures only the partial pressure of the corrosive gas. Other embodiments allow for compensation of drift in the system. 8 figs.

  5. Hygric Redistribution in Insulated Assemblies: Retrofitting Residential Envelopes Without Creating Moisture Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Building America program has recognized that most of the current housing stock is in need of energy related retrofits. One of the best ways of reducing the space conditioning energy consumption is to improve the thermal performance of the enclosure by adding exterior board foam insulation. This report quantifies the amount of water that can become trapped in the drainage cavity of typical wall systems, and measures the effect of water trapped in the drainage cavity on the moisture content of the sheathing. This study also attempts to explain the discrepancy between hygrothermal simulations and field performance of low permeance, low R-value exterior insulation (e.g. 3/4-in. foil faced polyisocyanurate) in cold climates.

  6. Sidewall tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A sidewall tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body adapted for insertion into an opening in earthen soil below grade, the body having lateral sidewalls; b) a laterally oriented porous material provided relative to the body lateral sidewalls, the laterally oriented porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body; c) a pressure a sensor in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; and d) sidewall engaging means for engaging a portion of a sidewall of an earth opening to laterally urge the porous material into hydraulic communication with earthen soil of another portion of the opening sidewall. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  7. Hygric Redistribution in Insulated Assemblies. Retrofitting Residential Envelopes Without Creating Moisture Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Building America program has recognized that most of the current housing stock is in need of energy related retrofits. One of the best ways of reducing the space conditioning energy consumption is to improve the thermal performance of the enclosure by adding exterior board foam insulation. This report quantifies the amount of water that can become trapped in the drainage cavity of typical wall systems, and measures the effect of water trapped in the drainage cavity on the moisture content of the sheathing. This study also attempts to explain the discrepancy between hygrothermal simulations and field performance of low permeance, low R-value exterior insulation (e.g. ¾-in. foil faced polyisocyanurate) in cold climates.

  8. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  9. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest develop...

  10. Consistency of equations of motion in conformal frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    2014-11-05

    Four dimensional scalar-tensor theory is considered within two conformal frames, the Jordan frame (JF) and the Einstein frame (EF). The actions for the theory are equivalent and equations of motion can be obtained from each action. It is found that the JF equations of motion, expressed in terms of EF variables, translate directly into and agree with the EF equations of motion obtained from the EF action, provided that certain simple consistency conditions are satisfied, which is always the case. The implication is that a solution set obtained in one conformal frame can be reliably translated into a solution set for the other frame, and therefore the two frames are, at least, mathematically equivalent.

  11. Unified Field Theory From Enlarged Transformation Group. The Consistent Hamiltonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dave Pandres, Jr.; Edward L. Green

    2004-01-21

    A theory has been presented previously in which the geometrical structure of a real four-dimensional space time manifold is expressed by a real orthonormal tetrad, and the group of diffeomorphisms is replaced by a larger group. The group enlargement was accomplished by including those transformations to anholonomic coordinates under which conservation laws are covariant statements. Field equations have been obtained from a variational principle which is invariant under the larger group. These field equations imply the validity of the Einstein equations of general relativity with a stress-energy tensor that is just what one expects for the electroweak field and associated currents. In this paper, as a first step toward quantization, a consistent Hamiltonian for the theory is obtained. Some concluding remarks are given concerning the need for further development of the theory. These remarks include discussion of a possible method for extending the theory to include the strong interaction.

  12. Consistency among distance measurements: transparency, BAO scale and accelerated expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Avgoustidis; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

    2009-06-11

    We explore consistency among different distance measures, including Supernovae Type Ia data, measurements of the Hubble parameter, and determination of the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale. We present new constraints on the cosmic transparency combining $H(z)$ data together with the latest Supernova Type Ia data compilation. This combination, in the context of a flat $\\Lambda$CDM model, improves current constraints by nearly an order of magnitude. We re-examine the recently reported tension between the Baryon acoustic oscillation scale and Supernovae data in light of possible deviations from transparency, concluding that the source of the discrepancy may most likely be found among systematic effects of the modelling of the low redshift data or a simple $\\sim 2-\\sigma$ statistical fluke, rather than in exotic physics. Finally, we attempt to draw model-independent conclusions about the recent accelerated expansion, determining the acceleration redshift to be $z_{acc}=0.35^{+0.20}_{-0.13}$ (1-$\\sigma$).

  13. Consistency condition for inflation from (broken) conformal symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalm, Koenraad; Aalst, Ted van der [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden (Netherlands); Shiu, Gary, E-mail: kschalm@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: shiu@physics.wisc.edu, E-mail: vdaalst@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum, i.e. the three-point correlation function of primordial density fluctuations, in slow-roll inflation. It follows from the defining property of slow-roll inflation that primordial correlation functions inherit most of their structure from weakly broken de Sitter symmetries. Using holographic techniques borrowed from the AdS/CFT correspondence, the symmetry constraints on the bispectrum can be mapped to a set of stress-tensor Ward identities in a weakly broken 2+1-dimensional Euclidean CFT. We construct the consistency condition from these Ward identities using conformal perturbation theory. This requires a second order Ward identity and the use of the evolution equation. Our result also illustrates a subtle difference between conformal perturbation theory and the slow-roll expansion.

  14. Retrieval of Moisture from Simulated GPS Slant-Path Water Vapor Observations Using 3DVAR with Anisotropic Recursive Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Retrieval of Moisture from Simulated GPS Slant-Path Water Vapor Observations Using 3DVAR with Anisotropic Recursive Filters HAIXIA LIU AND MING XUE Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms, and School) ABSTRACT Anisotropic recursive filters are implemented within a three-dimensional variational data

  15. Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    -combustion is a waste-to-energy technology that can use MSW and coal as co-fuels, offering potential energy recoveryEnvironmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content ABSTRACT: Use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as fuel for electricity generation reduces landfill disposal

  16. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benscoter, Brian W.

    5, Canada. D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several. Additional keywords: bog, boreal, carbon, fire, ground-layer fuels, peat, peatland, Sphagnum, smouldering

  17. Interactive effects of vegetation, soil moisture and bulk density on depth of burning of thick organic soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turetsky, Merritt

    5, Canada. D University of Alberta, Department of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2H1, Canada consumption. We experimentally altered soil moisture profiles of peat monoliths collected from several. Additional keywords: bog, boreal, carbon, fire, ground-layer fuels, peat, peatland, smouldering, Sphagnum

  18. 988 JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 19, NO. 7, JULY 2001 Diffusion of Moisture Through Optical Fiber Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthewson, M. John

    Optical Fiber Coatings Janet L. (Armstrong) Mrotek, Member, OSA, M. John Matthewson, and Charles R. Kurkjian Abstract--The strength of polymer-coated fused silica optical fiber is dependent on the ambient moisture because of stress corro- sion. The diffusion rate of water vapor through the polymer coating can

  19. Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

    2012-11-19

    This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

  20. A dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR-E microwave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    influences the partitioning of surface available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes and henceA dual-pass variational data assimilation framework for estimating soil moisture profiles from AMSR, we have designed a dual-pass assimilation (DP-En4DVar) framework to optimize the model state

  1. ., ~., t.o -., '-'~ Effect of moisture content on the composting of pig-manure sawdust litter disposed from the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    '- ., ~., t.o - ., '-'~ Effect of moisture content on the composting of pig-manure sawdust litter-situ composting, has been developed as one of the recommended methods in Hong Kong to treat pig waste. The system microbial biomass, which is similar to an immature compost. In order to improve the quality of the spent

  2. Moisture-Driven Deterioration and Abrasion of Concrete Sleeper Rail Seats Submitted for publication in the proceedings of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    -entrained, low- permeability concrete. Care should be exercised when using pads that do not seal waterMoisture-Driven Deterioration and Abrasion of Concrete Sleeper Rail Seats Submitted for publication on the results of a 2008 railway industry survey on concrete sleepers, rail seat deterioration (RSD) is the most

  3. An Extension of the TalbotOgden Hydrology Model to an Affine Multi-dimensional Moisture Content Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Craig C.

    ;2 t = - K + z( )( ), (1) where is water content, t is time, K is hydraulic conductivity, is capillary [3] [4] since both K and are highly nonlinear functions of water content or the pressure head term1 An Extension of the Talbot­Ogden Hydrology Model to an Affine Multi-dimensional Moisture Content

  4. Experimental evidence for the interacting effects of forest edge, moisture and soil macrofauna on leaf litter decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    , Oxford OX2 7DE, UK d Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford radiation and wind at forest edges reduces soil moisture, which in turn affects leaf litter decomposition 12% today, and 75% of the patches are now less than 2 ha (Watts, 2006). Such small forests

  5. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof assemblies against moisture. The key variables investigated were the leakage area from the attic to the outside, leakage area from the attic to the interior, leakage area from the interior to the outside, supply duct leakage in the attic, and interior moisture generation. These investigations are described in this report.

  6. A consistent approach to falsifying ?CDM with rare galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Ian; Hotchkiss, Shaun E-mail: shaun.hotchkiss@helsinki.fi

    2013-07-01

    We consider methods with which to answer the question ''is any observed galaxy cluster too unusual for ?CDM?'' After emphasising that many previous attempts to answer this question will overestimate the confidence level at which ?CDM can be ruled out, we outline a consistent approach to these rare clusters, which allows the question to be answered. We define three statistical measures, each of which are sensitive to changes in cluster populations arising from different modifications to the cosmological model. We also use these properties to define the ''equivalent mass at redshift zero'' for a cluster — the mass of an equally unusual cluster today. This quantity is independent of the observational survey in which the cluster was found, which makes it an ideal proxy for ranking the relative unusualness of clusters detected by different surveys. These methods are then used on a comprehensive sample of observed galaxy clusters and we confirm that all are less than 2? deviations from the ?CDM expectation. Whereas we have only applied our method to galaxy clusters, it is applicable to any isolated, collapsed, halo. As motivation for future surveys, we also calculate where in the mass redshift plane the rarest halo is most likely to be found, giving information as to which objects might be the most fruitful in the search for new physics.

  7. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Apolinário; Néstor Armesto; Guilherme Milhano; Carlos A. Salgado

    2015-05-25

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest developments that address such unified description.

  8. Probing primordial non-Gaussianity consistency relation with galaxy surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamauchi, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    With a radio continuum galaxy survey by Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a photometric galaxy survey by Euclid and their combination, we forecast future constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. We focus on the potential impact of local-type higher-order nonlinear parameters on the parameter estimation and particularly the confirmation of the inflationary consistency inequality. Non-standard inflationary models, such as multi-field models, introduce the scale-dependent stochastic clustering of galaxies on large scales, which is a unique probe of mechanism for generating primordial density fluctuations. Our Fisher matrix analysis indicates that a deep and wide survey provided by SKA is more advantageous to constrain $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$, while Euclid has a strong constraining power for $f_{\\rm NL}$ due to the redshift information, suggesting that the joint analysis between them are quite essential to break the degeneracy between $f_{\\rm NL}$ and $\\tau_{\\rm NL}$. The combination of full SKA and Euclid will achieve the...

  9. F-term uplifting via consistent D-terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Lalak; O. J. Eyton-Williams; R. Matyszkiewicz

    2007-02-13

    The issue of fine-tuning necessary to achieve satisfactory degree of hierarchy between moduli masses, the gravitino mass and the scale of the cosmological constant has been revisited in the context of supergravities with consistent D-terms. We have studied (extended) racetrack models where supersymmetry breaking and moduli stabilisation cannot be separated from each other. We show that even in such cases the realistic hierarchy can be achieved on the expense of a single fine-tuning. The presence of two condensates changes the role of the constant term in the superpotential, W_0, and solutions with small vacuum energy and large gravitino mass can be found even for very small values of W_0. Models where D-terms are allowed to vanish at finite vevs of moduli fields - denoted `cancellable' D-terms - and the ones where D-terms may vanish only at infinite vevs of some moduli - denoted `non-cancellable' - differ markedly in their properties. It turns out that the tuning with respect to the Planck scale required in the case of cancellable D-terms is much weaker than in the case of non-cancellable ones. We have shown that, against intuition, a vanishing D-term can trigger F-term uplifting of the vacuum energy due to the stringent constraint it imposes on vacuum expectation values of charged fields. Finally we note that our models only rely on two dimensionful parameters: M_P and W_0.

  10. THE PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TEST HOW AND WHY IT WAS DEVELOPED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Ned Bibler, N

    2008-12-15

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT), American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard C1285, is currently used world wide for testing glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), and hazardous wastes. Development of the PCT was initiated in 1986 because HLW glass waste forms required extensive characterization before actual production began and required continued characterization during production ({ge}25 years). Non-radioactive startup was in 1994 and radioactive startup was in 1996. The PCT underwent extensive development from 1986-1994 and became an ASTM consensus standard in 1994. During the extensive laboratory testing and inter- and intra-laboratory round robins using non-radioactive and radioactive glasses, the PCT was shown to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, to distinguish between glasses of different durability and homogeneity, and to easily be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. In 1997, the scope was broadened to include hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste glasses. In 2002, the scope was broadened to include glass-ceramic waste forms which are currently being recommended for second generation nuclear wastes yet to be generated in the nuclear renaissance. Since the PCT has proven useful for glass-ceramics with up to 75% ceramic component and has been used to evaluate Pu ceramic waste forms, the use of this test for other ceramic/mineral waste forms such as geopolymers, hydroceramics, and fluidized bed steam reformer mineralized product is under investigation.

  11. Towards consistent Electroweak Precision Data constraints in the SMEFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laure Berthier; Michael Trott

    2015-05-06

    We discuss the impact of many previously neglected effects of higher dimensional operators when fitting to Electroweak Precision data (EWPD) in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT). We calculate the general case of $2 \\rightarrow 2$ fermion scattering in the SMEFT to order $\\mathcal{O}(\\bar{v}_T^2/\\Lambda^2)$ valid on and off the $Z$ pole, in the massless fermion limit. We demonstrate that previously neglected corrections scale as $\\Gamma_Z M_Z/\\bar{v}_T^2$ in the partial widths extracted from measured cross sections at LEPI, compared to the leading effect of dimension six operators in anomalous $Z$ couplings. Further, constraints on leading effects of anomalous $Z$ couplings are also modified by neglected perturbative corrections and dimension eight operators. We perform a minimal EWPD fit to illustrate the size of the error these corrections induce, when bounding leading effects. These considerations relax bounds compared to a naive leading order analysis, and show that constraints that rise above the percent level are subject to substantial theoretical uncertanties. We also argue that renormalization group running global constraints expressed through $\\chi^2$ functions to a common scale, and then minimizing and performing a global fit of all data allows more consistent constraints to be obtained in the SMEFT.

  12. First principles molecular dynamics without self-consistent field optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souvatzis, Petros; Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2014-01-28

    We present a first principles molecular dynamics approach that is based on time-reversible extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] in the limit of vanishing self-consistent field optimization. The optimization-free dynamics keeps the computational cost to a minimum and typically provides molecular trajectories that closely follow the exact Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface. Only one single diagonalization and Hamiltonian (or Fockian) construction are required in each integration time step. The proposed dynamics is derived for a general free-energy potential surface valid at finite electronic temperatures within hybrid density functional theory. Even in the event of irregular functional behavior that may cause a dynamical instability, the optimization-free limit represents a natural starting guess for force calculations that may require a more elaborate iterative electronic ground state optimization. Our optimization-free dynamics thus represents a flexible theoretical framework for a broad and general class of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  13. Single-field consistency relations of large scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonovi?, Marko; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: jorge.norena@icc.ub.edu E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2013-12-01

    We derive consistency relations for the late universe (CDM and ?CDM): relations between an n-point function of the density contrast ? and an (n+1)-point function in the limit in which one of the (n+1) momenta becomes much smaller than the others. These are based on the observation that a long mode, in single-field models of inflation, reduces to a diffeomorphism since its freezing during inflation all the way until the late universe, even when the long mode is inside the horizon (but out of the sound horizon). These results are derived in Newtonian gauge, at first and second order in the small momentum q of the long mode and they are valid non-perturbatively in the short-scale ?. In the non-relativistic limit our results match with [1]. These relations are a consequence of diffeomorphism invariance; they are not satisfied in the presence of extra degrees of freedom during inflation or violation of the Equivalence Principle (extra forces) in the late universe.

  14. ERUPTION OF A SOLAR FILAMENT CONSISTING OF TWO THREADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi Yi; Jiang Yunchun; Li Haidong; Hong Junchao; Zheng Ruisheng E-mail: jyc@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-10-10

    The trigger and driving mechanism for the eruption of a filament consisting of two dark threads was studied with unprecedented high cadence and resolution of He II 304 A observations made by the Atmospheric Imagining Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the observations made by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope and the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) telescope on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A). The filament was located at the periphery of the active region NOAA 11228 and erupted on 2011 June 6. At the onset of the eruption, a turbulent filament thread was found to be heated and to elongate in stride over a second one. After it rose slowly, most interestingly, the elongating thread was driven to contact and interact with the second one, and it then erupted with its southern leg being wrapped by a newly formed thread produced by the magnetic reconnection between fields carried by the two threads. Combining the observations from STEREO-A/EUVI and SDO/AIA 304 A images, the three-dimensional shape of the axis of the filament was obtained and it was found that only the southern leg of the eruptive filament underwent rotation. We suggest that the eruption was triggered by the reconnection of the turbulent filament thread and the surrounding magnetic field, and that it was mainly driven by the kink instability of the southern leg of the eruptive filament that possessed a more twisted field introduced by the reconnection-produced thread.

  15. Multi-wavelength constraints on the inflationary consistency relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meerburg, P Daniel; Hadzhiyska, Boryana; Meyers, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We present the first attempt to use a combination of CMB, LIGO, and PPTA data to constrain both the tilt and the running of primordial tensor power spectrum through constraints on the gravitational wave energy density generated in the early universe. Combining measurements at different cosmological scales highlights how complementary data can be used to test the predictions of early universe models including the inflationary consistency relation. Current data prefers a slightly positive tilt ($n_t = 0.13^{+0.54}_{-0.75}$) and a negative running ($n_{t, {\\rm run}} < -0.25$) for the tensor power spectrum spectrum. Interestingly, the addition of direct gravitational wave detector data puts strong bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r < 0.2 $ since the large positive tensor tilt preferred by the Planck temperature power spectrum is no longer allowed. We comment on possible effects of a large positive tilt on the background expansion and show that depending on the assumptions regarding the UV cutoff ($k_{\\...

  16. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} multi-density layer structure as a moisture permeation barrier deposited by radio frequency remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Ham, Giyul; Shin, Seokyoon [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag, E-mail: hjeon@hanyang.ac.kr [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-21

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition have been used for thin film encapsulation of organic light emitting diode. In this study, a multi-density layer structure consisting of two Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers with different densities are deposited with different deposition conditions of O{sub 2} plasma reactant time. This structure improves moisture permeation barrier characteristics, as confirmed by a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) test. The lowest WVTR of the multi-density layer structure was 4.7 × 10{sup ?5} gm{sup ?2} day{sup ?1}, which is one order of magnitude less than WVTR for the reference single-density Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. This improvement is attributed to the location mismatch of paths for atmospheric gases, such as O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, in the film due to different densities in the layers. This mechanism is analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, and angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These results confirmed that the multi-density layer structure exhibits very good characteristics as an encapsulation layer via location mismatch of paths for H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2} between the two layers.

  17. Utilizing the Inherent Electrolysis in a Chip-Based Nanoelectrospray Emitter System to Facilitate Selective Ionization and Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Metallo Alkylporphyrins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2012-01-01

    A commercially available chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system was used to ionize metallo alkylporphyrins for mass spectrometric detection and structure elucidation by mass spectrometry. Different ionic forms of model compounds (nickel (II), vanadyl (II), copper (II) and cobalt (II) octaethylporphyrin) were created by using two different types of conductive pipette tips supplied with the device. These pipette tips provide the conductive contact to solution at which the electrolysis process inherent to electrospray takes places in the device. The original unmodified, bare carbon-impregnated plastic pipette tips, were exploited to intentionally electrochemically oxidize (ionize) the porphyrins to form molecular radical cations for detection. Use of modified pipette tips, with a surface coating devised to inhibit analyte mass transport to the surface, was shown to limit the ionic species observed in the mass spectra of these porphyrins largely, but not exclusively, to the protonated molecule. Under the conditions of these experiments, the effective upper potential limit for oxidation with the uncoated pipette tip was 1.1 V or less and the coated pipette tips effectively prevented the oxidation of analytes with redox potentials greater than about 0.25 V. Product ion spectra of either molecular ionic species could be used to determine the alkyl chain length on the porphyrin macrocycle. The utility of this electrochemical ionization approach for the analysis of naturally occurring samples was demonstrated using nickel geoporphyrin fractions isolated from Gilsonite bitumen. Acquiring neutral loss spectra as a means to improve the specificity of detection in these complex natural samples was also illustrated.

  18. BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J.

    BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting, and environmental sciences. BioOne provides a sustainable online platform for over 170 journals and books published likely neither the mobility as in the adult male larynx. S EXUAL selection is responsible

  19. BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfrender, Michael

    BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting in the biological, ecological, and environmental sciences. BioOne provides a sustainable online platform for over environments and greater human mobility and penetration into wild areas, organisms are being discovered

  20. BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting, and environmental sciences. BioOne provides a sustainable online platform for over 170 journals and books published. Waterbirds 26(1): 88-93, 2003 Flight-feather molt in birds is of interest because it affects mobility, which

  1. BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting authors, nonprofit publishers, academic institutions, research libraries, and research funders in the common goal of maximizing access to critical research.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downie, Stephen R.

    BioOne sees sustainable scholarly publishing as an inherently collaborative enterprise connecting. BioOne provides a sustainable online platform for over 170 journals and books published by nonprofit of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China. 2 Present address: College of Architecture

  2. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mattson, Earl D. (Albuquerque, NM); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: i) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and ii) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus.

  3. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1997-07-08

    A portable tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, (a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; (b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; (c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; (d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; (e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; (f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and (g) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed. 12 figs.

  4. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Mattson, E.D.; Sisson, J.B.

    1998-06-02

    A tensiometer to in-situ determine below-grade soil moisture, potential of earthen soil includes, (a) an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and, comprising; (b) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; (c) a first fluid conduit extending outwardly of the first fluid chamber; (d) a first controllable isolation valve provided within the first fluid conduit, the first controllable isolation valve defining a second fluid chamber in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber through the first fluid conduit and the isolation valve, the first controllable isolation valve being received within the below-grade portion; and (e) a pressure transducer in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure transducer being received within the below-grade portion. An alternate embodiment includes an apparatus adapted for insertion into earthen soil below grade, the apparatus having a below-grade portion, and including: (1) a porous material provided in the below-grade portion, the porous material at least in part defining a below-grade first fluid chamber; and (2) a pressure sensing apparatus in fluid communication with the first fluid chamber, the pressure sensing apparatus being entirely received within the below-grade portion. A method is also disclosed using the above and other apparatus. 6 figs.

  5. Tensiometer and method of determining soil moisture potential in below-grade earthen soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A portable tensiometer to in situ determine below-grade soil moisture potential of earthen soil includes, a) a body having opposing first and second ends and being adapted for complete insertion into earthen soil below grade; b) a porous material provided at the first body end, the porous material at least in part defining a fluid chamber within the body at the first body end, the fluid chamber being fluidically sealed within the body but for the porous material; c) a degassed liquid received within the fluid chamber; d) a pressure transducer mounted in fluid communication with the fluid chamber; e) the body, pressure transducer and degassed liquid having a combined mass; f) a flexible suspension line connected to the body adjacent the second body end, the flexible line being of sufficient strength to gravitationally freely self suspend the combined mass; and c) the combined mass being sufficient to effectively impart hydraulic communication between below-grade earthen soil contacted by the porous material under the weight of the combined mass. Tensiometers configured to engage the sidewalls of an earthen opening are also disclosed. Methods of taking tensiometric measurements are also disclosed.

  6. The effect of moisture regimes on the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste from Metepec (Mexico)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez-Berriel, Ma.C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Calz. La Virgen S/N, Metepec, Edo. Mexico (Mexico); Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico); Marquez-Benavides, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico)], E-mail: lili.marquez@gmail.com; Gonzalez-Perez, D.J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Calz. La Virgen S/N, Metepec, Edo. Mexico (Mexico); Buenrostro-Delgado, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH Av. San Juanito Itzicuaro S/N, Col. San Juanito Itzicuaro, Morelia, Mich (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The State of Mexico, situated in central Mexico, has a population of about 14 million, distributed in approximately 125 counties. Solid waste management represents a serious and ongoing pressure to local authorities. The final disposal site ('El Socavon') does not comply with minimum environmental requirements as no liners or leachate management infrastructure are available. Consequently, leachate composition or the effects of rain water input on municipal solid waste degradation are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to monitor the anaerobic degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW), simulating the water addition due to rainfall, under two different moisture content regimes (70% and 80% humidity). The study was carried out using bioreactors in both laboratory and pilot scales. The variation of organic matter and pH was followed in the solid matrix of the MSW. The leachate produced was used to estimate the field capacity of the MSW and to determine the pH, COD, BOD and heavy metals. Some leachate parameters were found to be within permitted limits, but further research is needed in order to analyze the leachate from lower layers of the disposal site ('El Socavon')

  7. Correlation between ERMI values and other Moisture and Mold Assessments of Homes in the American Healthy Home Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Cox, David J.; DeWalt, Gary

    2009-11-30

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between ERMI values in the HUD American Healthy Home Survey (AHHS) homes and either inspector reports or occupant assessments of mold and moisture. Methods: In the AHHS, moisture and mold were assessed by a pair of inspectors and with an occupant questionnaire. These results were compared to the results of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values for each home. Results: Homes in the highest ERMI quartile were most often in agreement with visual inspection and/or occupant assessment. However, in 52% of the fourth quartile ERMI homes, the inspector and occupant assessment did not indicate water or mold problems. Yet the concentrations of each ERMI panel mold species detected in all fourth quartile homes were statistically indistinguishable. Conclusions: About 50% of water-damaged, moldy homes were not detected by inspection or questioning of the occupant about water and mold.

  8. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

  9. Magnitude and reactivity consequences of moisture ingress into the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor core

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, O.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Inadvertent admission of moisture into the primary system of a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor has been identified in US Department of Energy-sponsored studies as an important safety concern. The work described here develops an analytical methodology to quantify the pressure and reactivity consequences of steam-generator tube rupture and other moisture-ingress-related incidents. Important neutronic and thermohydraulic processes are coupled with reactivity feedback and safety and control system responses. The rate and magnitude of steam buildup are found to be dominated by major system features such as break size compared with safety valve capacity and reliability and less sensitive to factors such as heat transfer coefficients. The results indicate that ingress transients progress at a slower pace than previously predicted by bounding analyses, with milder power overshoots and more time for operator or automatic corrective actions.

  10. Experimental investigation of moisture and temperature conditioning of C600/5208 graphite/epoxy composite material 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grieger, Kenneth Allen

    1979-01-01

    I XPERIMENTAI INVESTIGATION OF MOI TURE AND TE11PERATURF CONDITIONING OF CGOO/5208 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE MATL'RIAL KENNETH AILEN GRIFGFR Su5&ritted to the Graduate College of Texa. s AQh University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIFNCE December 1979 Majo, Subject: Ae&ospace Engineering EXPERINENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MOISTURE AND TENPERATURE CONDITIONING OF C600/5208 GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITE HATERIAL A Thesis by -KENNETH ALLEN GRIEGER Approved...

  11. Soil Moisture Initialization for Climate Prediction: Characterization of Model and Observation Errors Wenge Ni-Meister (1), Jeffrey Walker(3), and Paul R. Houser (2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Jeff

    and Observation Errors Wenge Ni-Meister (1), Jeffrey Walker(3), and Paul R. Houser (2) 1. Department of Geology of the land surface soil moisture states. Passive microwave remote sensing provides quantitative information

  12. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  13. Calibration of a Neutron Hydroprobe for Moisture Measurements in Small-Diameter Steel-Cased Boreholes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2009-08-01

    Computation of soil moisture content from thermalized neutron counts for the T-Farm Interim cover requires a calibration relationship but none exists for 2-in tubes. A number of calibration options are available for the neutron probe, including vendor calibration, field calibration, but none of these methods were deemed appropriate for the configuration of interest. The objective of this work was to develop a calibration relation for converting neutron counts measured in 2-in access tubes to soil water content. The calibration method chosen for this study was a computational approach using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). Model calibration was performed using field measurements in the Hanford calibration models with 6-in access tubes, in air and in the probe shield. The bet-fit model relating known water content to measured neutron counts was an exponential model that was essentially equivalent to that currently being used for 6-in steel cased wells. The MCNP simulations successfully predicted the neutron count rate for the neutron shield and the three calibration models for which data were collected in the field. However, predictions for air were about 65% lower than the measured counts . This discrepancy can be attributed to uncertainties in the configuration used for the air measurements. MCNP-simulated counts for the physical models were essentially equal to the measured counts with values. Accurate prediction of the response in 6-in casings in the three calibration models was motivation to predict the response in 2-in access tubes. Simulations were performed for six of the seven calibration models as well as 4 virtual models with the entire set covering a moisture range of 0 to 40%. Predicted counts for the calibration models with 2-in access tubes were 40 to 50% higher than in the 6-inch tubes. Predicted counts for water were about 60% higher in the 2-in tube than in the 6-in tube. The discrepancy between the 2-in and 6-in tube can be attributed to the smaller air gap between the probe and the 2-in access tube. The best-fit model relating volumetric water content to count ratio (CR) is of the form e^A x CR^B with A=0.3596 ± 0.0216 and B=0.4629 ± 0.0629 and r^2= 0.9998. It is recommended that the calibration function based on the count ratio, rather than raw counts, be used to avoid the effects of electronic noise in the probe that may arise due to the conditions at the time of measurement. These results suggest that the MCNP code can be used to extend calibrations for the neutron probe to different conditions including access tube size as well as composition without the need to construct additional physical models.

  14. High moisture corn stover pelleting in a flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die: physical properties and specific energy consumption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2015-06-15

    The quality and specific energy consumption (SEC) of the biomass pellets produced depend upon pelleting process conditions. The present study includes understanding the effect of feedstock moisture in the range of 28–38% (wet basis [w.b.]) and preheating in the range of 30–110°C at two die speeds of 40 and 60 Hz on the physical properties and SEC. A flat die pellet mill fitted with a 6 mm die was used in the present study. The physical properties of pellets such as moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density, durability, and expansion ratio and SEC of the pelleting process are measured.more »The results indicate that the pellets produced have durability values in the range of 87–98%, and unit bulk and tapped density in the range of 670–1100, 375–575, and 420–620 kg/m³. Increasing the feedstock moisture content from 33% to 38% (w.b) decreased the unit, bulk and tapped density by about 30–40%. Increasing feedstock moisture content increased the expansion ratio and decreased the density values. A higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and higher preheating temperature of 110°C resulted in lower density and a higher expansion ratio, which can be attributed to flash off of moisture as the material extrudes out of the die. The SEC was in the range of 75–275 kWh/ton. Higher feedstock moisture content of 38% (w.b.) and a lower die speed of 40 Hz increased the SEC, whereas lower to medium preheating temperature (30–70°C), medium feedstock moisture content of 33% (w.b.), and a higher die speed of 60 Hz minimized the SEC to « less

  15. Numerical Code for LHCD Simulations with Self-consistent Treatment of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Numerical Code for LHCD Simulations with Self-consistent Treatment of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Geometry

  16. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 2, High-G solid-bowl centrifuge: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehoe, D.

    1992-12-01

    Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

  17. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home.

  18. Early genetic evaluation of loblolly pine based on growth characteristics of seedlings grown under four moisture regimes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waxler, Michael Steven

    1980-01-01

    (AVER), 3) relative growth rate (Nilthorpe and I'hoorbey 29 1974) after moisture stress treatments began (RGR) 4, 4) shoot wei ght at 24 weeks of age (SW), 5) root weight at 24 weeks of age (RW), and 6) shoot-root ratio at 24 weeks of age (S... and individual family within treatment differences: 1) aver- age height at 16 and 24 weeks after sowing, 2) SW, 3) RW, and 4) S/R. A correlation coefficient (r) between average seed weight per family and average volume suoeriority per family in the field...

  19. Emergence of the adult pecan weevil Curculio caryae (Horn) in relation to soil mechanical impedance and moisture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchard, Calvin Earl

    1981-01-01

    and content by: (Chairman of the Committee) 1 '~J' r' "'f'/""' (Member) (Member) / ( ead of Depart e t) May 1981 111 ABSTRACT Emergence of the Adu'It Pecan Weevil Curculio ~car ae (Horn) in Relation to Soil Mechanical Impedance and Moisture. (May... and the factors nec- essary for subsequent release follow, Citations of this and the following pages follow the style and f t fE 1 tt~Et REVIEW OF LITERATURE Taxonomic Position The pecan weevil, Curculio ~car ae (Horn), belongs to the order Coleoptera...

  20. Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted of 3-Dimensionally Intermingled Rod-like Grains Microstructural Contol of the Porous Si3N4 Ceramics Consisted of 3-Dimensionally...

  1. Relationships of radon diffusion coefficient with saturated hydraulic conductivity, fines content and moisture saturation of radon/infiltration barriers for the UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.Y.; Chen, P.K. [Morrison-Knudsen Co., Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    1994-01-24

    The release of {sup 222}Radon to the atmosphere is controlled by the rate of its gas transport through earthen materials. Of the many soil-related parameters, radon diffusion coefficient is the key parameter that characterizes this transport. We compared the radon diffusion coefficients measured at the laboratories for the UMTRA Project with simple empirical correlations developed by others. The empirical correlations predict the radon diffusion coefficient based on the fraction of moisture saturation and porosity. One of the more recent correlations agrees reasonably well with the measurements. In addition, by using a series of correlation curves, we studied the empirical relationships of the. radon diffusion coefficient with the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the fines content, and the moisture saturation in soil. The results reveal that a reliable determination of the long-term moisture and porosity is essential in the design of an adequate radon barrier with respect to the radon diffusion coefficient.

  2. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ?

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Effect of moisture on leaf litter decomposition and its contribution to soil respiration in a temperate forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Luz Maria; Trumbore, Susan E.; Hanson, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    The degree to which increased soil respiration rates following wetting is caused by plant (autotrophic) versus microbial (heterotrophic) processes, is still largely uninvestigated. Incubation studies suggest microbial processes play a role but it remains unclear whether there is a stimulation of the microbial population as a whole or an increase in the importance of specific substrates that become available with wetting of the soil. We took advantage of an ongoing manipulation of leaf litter 14C contents at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to (1) determine the degree to which an increase in soil respiration rates that accompanied wetting of litter and soil, following a short period of drought, could be explained by heterotrophic contributions; and (2) investigate the potential causes of increased heterotrophic respiration in incubated litter and 0-5 cm mineral soil. The contribution of leaf litter decomposition increased from 6 3 mg C m 2 hr 1 during a transient drought, to 63 18 mg C m 2 hr 1 immediately after water addition, corresponding to an increase in the contribution to soil respiration from 5 2% to 37 8%. The increased relative contribution was sufficient to explain all of the observed increase in soil respiration for this one wetting event in the late growing season. Temperature (13 C versus 25 C) and moisture (dry versus field capacity) conditions did not change the relative contributions of different decomposition substrates in incubations, suggesting that more slowly cycling C has at least the same sensitivity to decomposition as faster cycling organic C at the temperature and moisture conditions studied.

  5. Consistent Treatment of Inter-and Intramolecular Polarization in Molecular Mechanics Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Jay

    Consistent Treatment of Inter- and Intramolecular Polarization in Molecular Mechanics Calculations multipoles for an arbitrary static structure or conformation is given. With the help of the intramolecular

  6. A self-consistent phase-field approach to implicit solvation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: A self-consistent phase-field approach to implicit solvation of charged molecules with Poisson-Boltzmann electrostatics This content will become...

  7. An analysis of salt and moisture deposition on the air sampling probes in the exhaust shaft of the waste isolation pilot plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Gregg Shelton

    1996-01-01

    , and that an unaccounted for source of moisture was entering the exhaust shaft air stream. It was believed that this additional source of water was coming from either ground water recharge or from aquifers the exhaust shaft penetrated, and that sealing the exhaust shaft...

  8. Assimilation of Remote-sensing Soil Moisture in Short-term River Forecasting M. Pan1, E. F. Wood1, W. Crow2, J. Schaake3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ming

    Assimilation of Remote-sensing Soil Moisture in Short-term River Forecasting M. Pan1, E. F. Wood1 Hydrology and Remote Sensing Lab, US Department of Agriculture 3 National Weather Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 1. Introduction This study focuses on evaluation of hydrologic remote sensing

  9. Journal of Economic Theory 112 (2003) 353364 Time-consistent policies$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    2003-01-01

    restriction under which the time-consistent open-loop policy is stationary. We use examples to illustrate-loop policy rule, such as a linear income tax, is time consistent. This approach also identifies the (possibly [1,6]). A representative agent chooses a consumption trajectory cðtÞ in order to maximize the present

  10. Statistical Learning : stability is sufficient for generalization and necessary and sufficient for consistency of Empirical Risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, Tomaso

    (ERM) ­ and almost-ERM when the minimizer does not exist ­ need to be consis- tent, so that they may algorithm satisfying it and, (b) necessary and sufficient for generalization and consistency of ERM. Thus for general learning algorithms while subsuming the classical conditions for consistency of ERM. We discuss al

  11. Statistical Learning : CVEEEloo stability is sufficient for generalization and necessary and sufficient for consistency of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Risk Minimization (ERM) ­ and almost-ERM when the minimizer does not exist ­ need to be consistent, so, (b) necessary and sufficient for con- sistency of ERM. Thus CVEEEloo stability is a weak form subsuming the classical conditions for consistency of ERM. We discuss alternative forms of stability

  12. Statistical Learning : LOO stability is sufficient for generalization and necessary and sufficient for consistency of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poggio, Tomaso

    Risk Minimization (ERM) ­ and almost-ERM when the minimizer does not exist ­ need to be consis- tent, (b) necessary and suffi- cient for consistency of ERM. Thus LOO stability is a weak form of stability the classical conditions for consistency of ERM. In particular, we conclude that a certain form of well

  13. PHOTO-CONSISTENCY AND MULTIRESOLUTION METHODS FOR LIGHT FIELD DISPARITY ESTIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajpoot, Nasir

    PHOTO-CONSISTENCY AND MULTIRESOLUTION METHODS FOR LIGHT FIELD DISPARITY ESTIMATION Adam Bowen for light fields: a global method based on the idea of photo-consistency and a local method which employs. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the two methods as compared to other photo

  14. Incorporating self-consistently calculated mineral physics into thermochemical mantle convection simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tackley, Paul J.

    the material properties density, thermal expansivity, specific heat capacity, and seismic velocity is probably due to self-consistent plate tectonics and depth-dependent viscosity. In conclusion, this combined approach of mantle convection and self-consistently calculated mineral physics is a powerful and useful

  15. Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image of Mathematics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4 Elekta Oy, Helsinki, Finland Abstract Ultra-low. (2013) Suppressing Multi-Channel Ultra-Low-Field MRI Measurement Noise Using Data Consistency and Image

  16. Self-tuning Speculation for Maintaining the Consistency of Client-Cached Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Consistency (AACC), in a page server DBMS architecture with page-level consistency. The simulation results. Keywords--self-tuning speculation; parallel comminication; concurrency control; data-shipping DBMS I. INTRODUCTION Client/server DBMS architectures fall into two main categories, query-shipping and data

  17. Aalborg Universitet Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liso, Vincenzo

    ., & Liso, V. (2013). Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell oxide fuel cell system and absorption heat pump Irene Albacete Cachorroa ,Iulia Maria DarabanaAalborg Universitet Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel

  18. A new hybrid architecture consisting of highly mesoporous CNT/carbon nanofibers from starch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Soon Hyung

    A new hybrid architecture consisting of highly mesoporous CNT/carbon nanofibers from starch Yun the capacitance in electrochemical capacitors. This paper reports a new hybrid carbon nanofiber architecture successfully fabricated a new hybrid carbon architecture consisting of CNT reinforced-carbon nanofibers

  19. Consistency of the Geometric Brownian Motion Model of Stock Prices with Asymmetric Information.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Consistency of the Geometric Brownian Motion Model of Stock Prices with Asymmetric Information on the microeconomic foundation of modern option pricing models. We develop a model of market agents' interactions, induced by heterogeneity of information, which is consistent with both modern option pricing models

  20. Relative energetics and structural properties of zirconia using a self-consistent tight-binding model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    Relative energetics and structural properties of zirconia using a self-consistent tight We describe an empirical, self-consistent, orthogonal tight-binding model for zirconia, which allows orders the zero temperature energies of all zirconia polymorphs. The Zr-O matrix elements

  1. Page 1 of 2 80.3 Consistent Treatment of Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    Page 1 of 2 80.3 Consistent Treatment of Costs Policy Name: CONSISTENT TREATMENT OF COSTS October 2008 1. Policy Statement OMB Circular A21, Cost Principles for Educational Institutions, section J, contains a list of items that are deemed unallowable as direct costs on federally sponsored

  2. Consistency, Availability, and Convergence Prince Mahajan, Lorenzo Alvisi, and Mike Dahlin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlin, Michael D.

    Consistency, Availability, and Convergence Prince Mahajan, Lorenzo Alvisi, and Mike Dahlin identify fundamental tradeoffs among properties of consistency, availability, and convergence, and we close the gap between what is known to be impossible (i.e. CAP) and known systems that are highly-available

  3. ANALYSIS OF DUAL CONSISTENCY FOR DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN DISCRETIZATIONS OF SOURCE TERMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    , and diffusion of turbulent eddy viscosity, and state derivative dependent source terms appear in both the k to a dual inconsistent scheme. A straightforward procedure for correcting this dual inconsistency-dimensional test problem confirm that the dual consistent and asymp- totically dual consistent schemes achieve

  4. GPR Surveys across a Prototype Surface Barrier to Determine Temporal and Spatial Variations in Soil Moisture Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, William P.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2008-06-10

    Engineered surface barriers are expected to play a critical role in the closure of waste sites within the DOE complex and currently require monitoring to verify performance. The most comprehensive approach to assess performance is by water balance evaluation, which requires knowledge of the soil water storage. However, water storage measurements are still made mostly by point sensors and as result field-scale estimates are subject to much uncertainty. The objective of this study was to assess the viability of using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to monitor changes in soil moisture distribution, and therefore water storage, at multiple scales. Profiles were collected at four times during the year March, May, September and the following January to track the decrease in storage from the spring to the summer followed by the increase in the winter. A series of 40-m long profiles were collected using 100-Mhz antennas with a sample interval of 0.8 ns and 500 samples per trace in a 400-ns window. A common midpoint (CMP) survey was first used to determine an optimal antenna separation (3.5 m) after which data were collected using a wide-offset reflection geometry. Travel times were used to calculate the electromagnetic velocities which were then used to calculate water content using the Topp’s equation. Changes in the GPR response were easily observed over the course of the study and indicated spatial differences in moisture, which owing to the relatively uniform soil, can be attributed to differences in water removal by evapotranspiration. Water content also showed a strong seasonal strong seasonal dependence that correlate well with seasonal changes in precipitation and plant water uptake. An investigation of the effects of soil water content on the amplitude of the ground wave showed weaker amplitudes in the drier spring and summer months than in the winter suggesting a correlation between amplitude and water content. Results show that GPR can provide accurate non-invasive estimates of spatial and temporal changes in water content and therefore soil water storage.

  5. Building America Webinar: Standardized Retrofit Packages — What Works to Meet Consistent Levels of Performance?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar will focus on specific Building America projects that have examined methods to consistently meet high levels of energy performance in existing homes, with a focus on retrofit packages that can be replicated across many homes.

  6. Near-infrared photodetector consisting of J-aggregating cyanine dye and metal oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osedach, Timothy P.

    We demonstrate a near-infrared photodetector that consists of a thin film of the J-aggregating cyanine dye, U3, and transparent metal-oxide charge transport layers. The high absorption coefficient of the U3 film, combined ...

  7. Electron cyclotron microinstability in the foot of a perpendicular shock: A self-consistent PIC simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muschietti, L; Lembege, B

    2006-01-01

    shock: a self-consistent PIC simulation L. Muschietti a andand run particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of shocks withe?ectively two-dimensional. PIC simulations of perpendicular

  8. Multi-Graph Matching via Affinity Optimization with Graduated Consistency Regularization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Hongyuan

    infusing the consistency. We also propose two mechanisms to elicit the common inliers against outliers is applied to infus- ing multi-source sensor data [8]. Graphic analysis often requires to model objects

  9. Fully self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation using a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fully self-consistent solution of the Dyson equation using a plane-wave basis set This content will become publicly available on March 22, 2016 Prev Next Title: Fully...

  10. The consistency, the composition and the causality of the asynchronous flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serban E. Vlad

    2015-04-21

    Let $\\Phi:\\{0,1\\}^{n}\\longrightarrow\\{0,1\\}^{n}$. The asynchronous flows are (discrete time and real time) functions that result by iterating the coordinates $\\Phi_{i}$ independently on each other. The purpose of the paper is that of showing that the asynchronous flows fulfill the properties of consistency, composition and causality that define the dynamical systems. The origin of the problem consists in modelling the asynchronous circuits from the digital electrical engineering.

  11. Design consistency and driver error as reflected by driver workload and accident rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Mark Douglas

    1992-01-01

    DESIGN CONSISTENCY AND DRIVER ERROR AS REFLECTED BY DRIVER WORKLOAD AND ACCIDENT RATES A Thesis by MARK DOUGLAS WOOLDRIDGE Approved as to style and content by: Daniel B. Fambro (Chair of Committee) Raymond A. Krammes (Member) Olga J.... Pendleton (Member) James T. P. Yao (Head of Department) May 1992 ABSTRACT Design Consistency and Driver Error as Reflected by Driver Workload and Accident Rates (May 1992) Mark Douglas Wooldridge, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory...

  12. Linear Consistency Testing Yonatan Aumann , Johan Hastad , Michael O. Rabin , and Madhu Sudan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudan, Madhu

    and Rubinfeld [8] to check the linear- consistency of three functions f1, f2, f3 mapping a finite Abelian group G to an Abelian group H: Pick x, y G uniformly and independently at random and check if f1(x) + f2 the consistency of multiple func- tions. Given a triple of functions f1, f2, f3 : G H, we say

  13. A micromechanical biosensor with inherently differential readout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savran, Cagri Abdullah, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The ability to detect biomolecules in real-time and without the use of labels has significant benefits for systems biology in terms of cost, time and throughput. Cantilever-based micromechanical sensors detect biomolecular ...

  14. Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was first studied in Ref. [1]. In this paper we reinvestigate the problem, following essentially the same equivalent photon approach, but with changes in specific details including the virtual photon spectrum. In addition, various assumptions are made more explicit. The formulas derived are then applied to the collider parameters designed by Palmer[6].

  15. Inherent polarization entanglement generated from a monolithic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Oersteds Pl. 343, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, 8 Institute spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC)1,2 , where under conservation of energy and momentum, a ``pump the production of entanglement. Despite this natural limitation, bulk-crystal photon sources have created

  16. A Field Study Comparison of the Energy and Moisture Performance Characteristics of Ventilated Versus Sealed Crawl Spaces in the South

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Davis; Cyrus Dastur; William E. Warren; Shawn Fitzpatrick; Christine Maurer; Rob Stevens; Terry Brennan; William Rose

    2005-06-22

    This study compared the performance of closed crawl spaces, which had sealed foundation wall vents, a sealed polyethylene film liner and various insulation and drying strategies, to traditional wall-vented crawl spaces with perimeter wall vents and polyethylene film covering 100% of the ground surface. The study was conducted at 12 owner-occupied, all electric, single-family detached houses with the same floor plan located on one cul-de-sac in the southeastern United States. Using the matched pairs approach, the houses were divided into three study groups of four houses each. Comparative data was recorded for each house to evaluate sub-metered heat pump energy consumption, relative humidity, wood moisture content, duct infiltration, house infiltration, temperature, radon, and bioaerosol levels. Findings indicated that in the humid conditions of the southeastern United States, a properly closed crawl space is a robust construction measure that produces a substantially drier crawl space and significantly reduces occupied space conditioning energy use on an annual basis.

  17. Using electromagnetic sensors (magnetometers and dielectrometers) to detect corrosion beneath and moisture within paint coatings on aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldfine, N.; Greig, N.A.

    1994-12-31

    Current nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques, such as visual inspection, ultrasonic testing, and eddy current testing, do not adequately detect the early stages of hidden corrosion under paint in critical structures such as airframes. This paper proposes a sensor system that uses meandering winding magnetometers (MWMs) and interdigital electrode dielectrometers (IDEDs) to detect hidden corrosion under paint and to measure the depth of moisture within barrier paint coatings. The MWM uses magnetic fields and inductive coupling to measure profiles of the properties of conducting media (such as the reduced conductivity near a metal surface caused by an oxygen diffusion layer resulting from early-stage corrosion). The IDED uses electric fields and capacitive coupling to measure the properties of multiple-layered insulating media, such as paint or the metal oxides formed during corrosion. MWM and IDED sensor designs permit Cartesian coordinate modal continuum modeling, which takes advantage of sensor geometries to provide more precise response predictions than are generally possible with conventional eddy current probes. Data are presented to describe the limitations of current NDI techniques, address the need for a new type of corrosion-detection system and discuss the underlying theory and potential of using MWMs and IDEDs to detect corrosion.

  18. Radio frequency plasma power dependence of the moisture permeation barrier characteristics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hyunsoo [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Display Co. Ltd., Tangjeong, Chungcheongnam-Do 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hagyoung; Lee, Sanghun [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Heeyoung [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Hyeongtag [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of) [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-scale Semiconductor Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-07

    In the present study, we investigated the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethersulfone films (PES) by capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) type Remote Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition (RPALD) at Radio Frequency (RF) plasma powers ranging from 100 W to 400 W in 100 W increments using Trimethylaluminum [TMA, Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] as the Al source and O{sub 2} plasma as the reactant. To study the gas and moisture permeation barrier properties of 100-nm-thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at various plasma powers, the Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) was measured using an electrical Ca degradation test. WVTR decreased as plasma power increased with WVTR values for 400 W and 100 W of 2.6 × 10{sup ?4} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1} and 1.2 × 10{sup ?3} gm{sup ?2}day{sup ?1}, respectively. The trends for life time, Al-O and O-H bond, density, and stoichiometry were similar to that of WVTR with improvement associated with increasing plasma power. Further, among plasma power ranging from 100 W to 400 W, the highest power of 400 W resulted in the best moisture permeation barrier properties. This result was attributed to differences in volume and amount of ion and radical fluxes, to join the ALD process, generated by O{sub 2} plasma as the plasma power changed during ALD process, which was determined using a plasma diagnosis technique called the Floating Harmonic Method (FHM). Plasma diagnosis by FHM revealed an increase in ion flux with increasing plasma power. With respect to the ALD process, our results indicated that higher plasma power generated increased ion and radical flux compared with lower plasma power. Thus, a higher plasma power provides the best gas and moisture permeation barrier properties.

  19. Self-consistent treatment of the self-energy in nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kh. Gad; E. M. Darwish

    2003-10-30

    The influence of hole-hole propagation in addition to the conventional particle-particle propagation, on the energy per nucleon and the momentum distribution is investigated. The results are compared to the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) calculations with a continuous choice and conventional choice for the single-particle spectrum. The Bethe-Goldstone equation has been solved using realistic $NN$ interactions. Also, the structure of nucleon self-energy in nuclear matter is evaluated. All the self-energies are calculated self-consistently. Starting from the BHF approximation without the usual angle-average approximation, the effects of hole-hole contributions and a self-consistent treatment within the framework of the Green function approach are investigated. Using the self-consistent self-energy, the hole and particle self-consistent spectral functions including the particle-particle and hole-hole ladder contributions in nuclear matter are calculated using realistic $NN$ interactions. We found that, the difference in binding energy between both results, i.e. BHF and self-consistent Green function, is not large. This explains why is the BHF ignored the 2h1p contribution.

  20. On testing and extending the inflationary consistency relation for tensor modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latham Boyle; Kendrick M. Smith; Cora Dvorkin; Neil Turok

    2015-08-05

    If observations confirm BICEP2's claim of a tensor-scalar ratio $r\\approx 0.2$ on CMB scales, then the inflationary consistency relation $n_{t}=-r/8$ predicts a small negative value for the tensor spectral index $n_t$. We show that future CMB polarization experiments should be able to confirm this prediction at several sigma. We also show how to properly extend the consistency relation to solar system scales, where the primordial gravitational wave density $\\Omega_{gw}$ could be measured by proposed experiments such as the Big Bang Observer. This would provide a far more stringent test of the consistency relation and access much more detailed information about the early universe.

  1. Statistical dynamics of classical systems: A self-consistent field approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grzetic, Douglas J. Wickham, Robert A.; Shi, An-Chang

    2014-06-28

    We develop a self-consistent field theory for particle dynamics by extremizing the functional integral representation of a microscopic Langevin equation with respect to the collective fields. Although our approach is general, here we formulate it in the context of polymer dynamics to highlight satisfying formal analogies with equilibrium self-consistent field theory. An exact treatment of the dynamics of a single chain in a mean force field emerges naturally via a functional Smoluchowski equation, while the time-dependent monomer density and mean force field are determined self-consistently. As a simple initial demonstration of the theory, leaving an application to polymer dynamics for future work, we examine the dynamics of trapped interacting Brownian particles. For binary particle mixtures, we observe the kinetics of phase separation.

  2. Self-Consistent RPA based on a Many-Body Vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsen Jemai; Peter Schuck

    2010-11-23

    Self-Consistent RPA is extended in a way so that it is compatable with a variational ansatz for the ground state wave function as a fermionic many-body vacuum. Employing the usual equation of motion technique, we arrive at extended RPA equations of the Self Consistent RPA structure. In principle the Pauli principle is, therefore, fully respected. However, the correlation functions entering the RPA matrix can only be obtained from a systematic expansion in powers of some combinations of RPA amplitudes. We demonstrate for a model case that this expansion may converge rapidly.

  3. SM vacuum stability and the Weyl consistency conditions: Counting to three

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krog, Jens

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how a new perturbative ordering may result from the structure of the Weyl anomaly. Respecting the abelian nature of the Weyl anomaly at the lowest order enforces the use of beta functions calculated to a different loop order for different types of couplings. These consistency conditions are found to be satisfied by the renormalization group equations of the standard model, and we perform an analysis of the vacuum stability of the Higgs potential respecting the consistency conditions and compare to the previous results. Hints toward unknown structure in the standard model renormalization group equations are found, although the vacuum stability results are in agreement with previous estimates.

  4. Temperature Fluctuation and an Expected Limit of Hubble Parameter in the Self-Consistent Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. B. Morcos

    2004-12-08

    The temperature gradient of microwave background radiation (CMBR) is calculated in the Self Consistent Model. An expected values for Hubble parameter have been presented in two different cases. In the first case the temperature is treated as a function of time only, while in the other one the temperature depends on relaxation of isotropy condition in the self-consistent model and the assumption that the universe expands adiabatically. The COBE's or WMAP's fluctuations in temperature of CMBR may be used to predict a value for Hubble parameter.

  5. Consistent de Sitter String Vacua from Kahler Stabilization and D-term uplifting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susha L. Parameswaran; Alexander Westphal

    2007-01-23

    In this note, we review our construction of de Sitter vacua in type IIB flux compactifications, in which moduli stabilization and D-term uplifting can be combined consistently with the supergravity constraints. Here, the closed string fluxes fix the dilaton and the complex structure moduli while perturbative quantum corrections to the K\\"ahler potential stabilize the volume Kahler modulus in an AdS_4-vacuum. Then, magnetized D7-branes provide consistent supersymmetric D-term uplifting towards dS_4. Based on hep-th/0602253.

  6. Self-consistent Green's functions calculation of the nucleon mean-free path

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Rios; V. Soma

    2011-12-22

    The extension of Green's functions techniques to the complex energy plane provides access to fully dressed quasi-particle properties from a microscopic perspective. Using self-consistent ladder self-energies, we find both spectra and lifetimes of such quasi-particles in nuclear matter. With a consistent choice of the group velocity, the nucleon mean-free path can be computed. Our results indicate that, for energies above 50 MeV at densities close to saturation, a nucleon has a mean-free path of 4 to 5 femtometers.

  7. Effects of chronic warming and nutrient additions on ecosystem respiration and methane fluxes along a tundra moisture gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadelhoffer, K.; Murray, G.; Giblin, A.; Shaver, G.; Laundre, J.; Johnson, L.; Stanley, A. (Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States)); Schimel, J. (Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States))

    1994-06-01

    We measured ecosystem respiration (ER: or CO[sub 2] flux), methane (CH[sub 4]) fluxes and net ecosystem production (NEP) near Toolik Lake, Alaska to compare effects of temperature, moisture and nutrients on tundra C balances. We measured fluxes using closed chambers in control, warmed and fertilized plots in wet, moist and dry tundra. ER rankings of tundra types differed between years. In 1992 ER was [approximately]70 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and moist tundra and was 50% lower in dry tundra. In 1993 ER was >150 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in moist tundra and [approximately]55 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and dry tundra. CH[sub 4] emissions ranged from 3.5 to 7 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in wet and from 0.6 to 2.8 g C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1] in moist tundra. Dry tundra consumed about 0.1 g CH[sub 4]-C m[sup [minus]2]y[sup [minus]1]. In wet tundra ER increased slightly with warming but dramatically with fertilization. Wet tundra NEP increased with fertilization but not with warming. CH[sub 4] emissions from wet tundra increased with warming but decreased with fertilization. Warming and fertilization increased ER but neither treatment affected NEP in moist tundra. CH[sub 4] emissions from moist tundra responded similarly but less dramatically to treatments than did wet tundra CH[sub 4] fluxes. Warming did not affect ER or NEP in dry tundra, fertilization increased both process. Consumption of CH[sub 4] in dry tundra increased with warming but decreased with fertilization.

  8. Test Plan for Evaluating Hammer and Fixed Cutter Grinders Using Multiple Varieties and Moistures of Biomass Feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not listed

    2007-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is a critical operation in the preparation of feedstock for the front-end of a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass material into a suitable feedstock for optimum conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Without this operation, the natural size, bulk density, and flowability characteristics of harvested biomass would decrease the capacities and efficiencies of feedstock assembly unit operations and biorefinery conversion processes to the degree that programmatic cost targets could not be met. The preprocessing unit operation produces a bulk flowable material that 1) improves handling and conveying efficiencies throughout the feedstock assembly system and biorefinery 2) increases biomass surface areas for improved pretreatment efficiencies, 3) reduces particle sizes for improved feedstock uniformity and density, and 4) fractionates structural components for improved compositional quality. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is tasked with defining the overall efficiency/effectiveness of current commercial hammer and fixed cutter grinding systems and other connecting systems such as harvest and collection, storage, transportation, and handling for a wide variety of feedstock types used in bioethanol or syngas production. This test plan details tasks and activities for two separate full-scale grinding tests: Material Characterization Test and Machine Characterization Test. For the Material Characterization Test, a small amount (~5-7 tons each) of several feedstock varieties will be ground. This test will define the fractionation characteristics of the grinder that affect the bulk density, particle size distribution, and quality of the size reduced biomass resulting from different separation screen sizes. A specific screen size will be selected based on the characteristics of the ground material. The Machine Characterization Test will then use this selected screen to grind several 30-ton batches of different feedstock varieties and moistures. This test will focus on identifying the performance parameters of the grinding system specific to the feed, fractionation, and screen separation components and their affect on machine capacity and efficiency.

  9. Fourier grid Hamiltonian multiconfigurational self-consistent-field: A method to calculate multidimensional hydrogen vibrational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    Fourier grid Hamiltonian multiconfigurational self-consistent-field: A method to calculate Received 10 May 2000; accepted 28 June 2000 The Fourier Grid Hamiltonian Multiconfigurational Self that are products of one-dimensional wavefunctions, with a Fourier grid method that represents the one

  10. Master of Science in Earth, Environmental, and Physical Sciences Planet Earth consists of interacting systems -the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , physics, and environmental science, and supporting fields such as biology and chemistry. The EEPS programMaster of Science in Earth, Environmental, and Physical Sciences Planet Earth consists activities. The Masters program in Earth, Environmental, and Physical Sciences (EEPS) at Wichita State

  11. Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting of nonspherical ice particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar reflectivity for clouds consisting investigates the relationship between ice water content (IWC) and equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) at 94 GHz. Baum, and A. J. Heymsfield (2008), Relationship between ice water content and equivalent radar

  12. A proposal for a UPC memory consistency model, v1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yelick, Katherine; Bonachea, Dan; Wallace, Charles

    2004-05-05

    The memory consistency model in a language defines the order in which the results of write operations maybe observed through read operations. The behavior of a UPC program may depend on the timing of accesses to shared variables, so a program defines a set of possible executions, rather than a single execution. The memory consistency model constrains the set of possible executions for a given program; the user may then rely on properties that are true of all of those executions. The memory consistency model is defined in terms of the read and write operations issued by each thread in naive translation of the code, i.e., without any code transformations by the compiler, with each thread issuing operations as defined by the abstract machine defined in ISO C 5.1.2.3. A UPC compiler or run time system may perform various code transformations to improve performance, so long as they are not visible to the programmer - i.e., provided the set of externally-visible behaviors (the input/output dynamics and volatile behavior defined in ISO C 5.1.2.3) from any execution of the transformed program are identical to those of the original program executing on the abstract machine and adhering to the consistency model defined in this document.

  13. A quick and efficient method for consistent initialization of battery models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    criterion on the other end that can ulti- mately satisfy all the required conditions in a battery unitA quick and efficient method for consistent initialization of battery models Vijayasekaran 2007 Available online 21 April 2007 Abstract Secondary batteries are usually modeled as a system

  14. New Loops! MiTeGen* 50MicroMountsTM consist of a thin microfabricated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meagher, Mary

    New Loops! MiTeGen* 50µMicroMountsTM consist of a thin microfabricated polyimide film attached to a solid non-magnetic stainless steel pin. The film is polyimide, which is used in Kapton® tape and is employed for X- ray transparent windows on X-ray beam lines. The film is curved by wrapping polyimide film

  15. Self-consistency tests of large-scale dynamics parameterizations for single-column modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Edman, Jacob P.; Romps, David M.

    2015-03-18

    Large-scale dynamics parameterizations are tested numerically in cloud-resolving simulations, including a new version of the weak-pressure-gradient approximation (WPG) introduced by Edman and Romps (2014), the weak-temperature-gradient approximation (WTG), and a prior implementation of WPG. We perform a series of self-consistency tests with each large-scale dynamics parameterization, in which we compare the result of a cloud-resolving simulation coupled to WTG or WPG with an otherwise identical simulation with prescribed large-scale convergence. In self-consistency tests based on radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE; i.e., no large-scale convergence), we find that simulations either weakly coupled or strongly coupled to either WPG or WTG are self-consistent, butmore »WPG-coupled simulations exhibit a nonmonotonic behavior as the strength of the coupling to WPG is varied. We also perform self-consistency tests based on observed forcings from two observational campaigns: the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) and the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Summer 1995 IOP. In these tests, we show that the new version of WPG improves upon prior versions of WPG by eliminating a potentially troublesome gravity-wave resonance.« less

  16. Nanodiamond Analysis Methods Compared for Consistency. J. B. Lewis1,2 , D. Isheim4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floss, Christine

    Nanodiamond Analysis Methods Compared for Consistency. J. B. Lewis1,2 , D. Isheim4 , C. Floss1 introduced herein and used to analyze nine new detonation nanodiamond standards (DND) and three meteoritic nanodiamond residue sam- ples from the Allende DM separate (ADM). Experimental: A full description of specimen

  17. 1. THE RADIATION BELTS The outer zone radiation belts consist of energetic elec-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elkington, Scot R.

    1. THE RADIATION BELTS The outer zone radiation belts consist of energetic elec- trons trapped in the geomagnetic field. The dynamics of the belts are dictated by the global and local electric and mag- netic, A Review of ULF Interactions with Radiation Belt Electrons Scot R. Elkington Laboratory for Atmospheric

  18. A Design Study Comparing LWA Station Arrays Consisting of Thin Inverted-V Dipoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellingson, Steven W.

    design, the elements are packed relatively closely together, with uniform spacing. The elements. As will be shown in this memo, this leads to a design consisting of a relatively large number of elements which to arrays built from any other element design. · Only the co-polarized elements from each stand

  19. Improving Mobile Database Access Over Wide-Area Networks Without Degrading Consistency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyanarayanan, Mahadev "Satya"

    degrading consistency. Cedar exploits the disk storage and processing power of a mobile client to compensate to reduce data transmission volume from a data- base server. The reduction is achieved by using content Management]: Systems General Terms Design, Performance Keywords mobile database access, wireless networks

  20. Discrimination of MHC-derived odors by untrained mice is consistent with divergence in peptide-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potts, Wayne

    Discrimination of MHC-derived odors by untrained mice is consistent with divergence in peptide their parental B6 haplotype after randomizing genomic background, despite discrimination of pure- bred B6 and bm1 strain odors. These combined results suggest that (i) there may be an MHC odor discrimination threshold

  1. Linear-scaling implementation of molecular electronic self-consistent field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helgaker, Trygve

    Linear-scaling implementation of molecular electronic self-consistent field theory Pawel Salek fitting of the electron density , LS-TRRH and TRDSM methods constitute the linear-scaling trust-region SCF; accepted 9 January 2007; published online 21 March 2007 A linear-scaling implementation of Hartree

  2. Caelus: Verifying the Consistency of Cloud Services with Battery-Powered Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie, David

    Caelus: Verifying the Consistency of Cloud Services with Battery-Powered Devices Beom Heyn Kim of Toronto Abstract-- Cloud storage services such as Amazon S3, DropBox, Google Drive and Microsoft One stored in the cloud all have shortcomings when used on battery-powered devices ­ they either require

  3. Nuclear Databases: National Resource Nuclear databases consists of carefully organized scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Nuclear Databases: National Resource Nuclear databases consists of carefully organized scientific information that has been gathered over 50 years of low-energy nuclear physics research worldwide. These powerful databases have enormous value and they represent a genuine national resource. Six core nuclear

  4. to 150 GPa, consistent with the modulus values of large SWNT bundles (22). Al-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottet, Audrey

    to 150 GPa, consistent with the modulus values of large SWNT bundles (22). Al- though an individual to provide the optimum conditions for nanotube strand formation. The gas flow carried the strands down), assuming that the sample volume is constant, where D0 and Df are the original diameter and the real

  5. Self-consistent analysis of the hot spot dynamics for inertial confinement fusion capsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    Self-consistent analysis of the hot spot dynamics for inertial confinement fusion capsules J. Sanz Hydrodynamic stability of inertial confinement fusion ICF capsules during the deceleration stage has been re October 2005; published online 11 November 2005 In the context of the French Laser-Mégajoule fusion

  6. Self-consistent anisotropic oscillator with cranked angular and vortex velocities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Rosensteel

    1992-11-05

    The Kelvin circulation is the kinematical Hermitian observable that measures the true character of nuclear rotation. For the anisotropic oscillator, mean field solutions with fixed angular momentum and Kelvin circulation are derived in analytic form. The cranking Lagrange multipliers corresponding to the two constraints are the angular and vortex velocities. Self-consistent solutions are reported with a constraint to constant volume.

  7. Geophysically consistent values of the perovskite to post-perovskite transition Clapeyron slope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geophysically consistent values of the perovskite to post-perovskite transition Clapeyron slope J February 2007; published 15 March 2007. [1] The double-crossing hypothesis posits that post- perovskite in Earth's deep mantle and the temperature of Earth's inner core boundary, we show that a post-perovskite

  8. Marks of Excellence Accounting students at MSU's College of Business consistently have one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    Marks of Excellence · Accounting students at MSU's College of Business consistently have one of the highest CPA pass rates in the nation, according to the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy. · The success of MSU accounting students has attracted recruiters' attention. Each of the top public accounting

  9. The CRAC channel consists of a tetramer formed by Stim-induced dimerization of Orai dimers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Ian

    LETTERS The CRAC channel consists of a tetramer formed by Stim-induced dimerization of Orai dimers terminus of Stim thus induces Orai dimers to dimerize, forming tetramers that constitute the Ca21-treated cells14 , whereas functional measurements of expressed tandem Orai multimers indicate a tetramer

  10. Root-n consistent density estimators of convolutions in weighted L1-norms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang

    Root-n consistent density estimators of convolutions in weighted L1-norms Anton Schick and Wolfgang. Anton Schick was supported by NSF Grant DMS 0405791. 1 #12;2 ANTON SCHICK AND WOLFGANG WEFELMEYER-n rates in L1-spaces. It follows from Schick and Wefelmeyer (2004) that under appropriate conditions on f

  11. Root n consistent density estimators for sums of independent random variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wefelmeyer, Wolfgang

    Root n consistent density estimators for sums of independent random variables Anton Schick > 1 independent and identically distributed random variables can be estimated at the Anton Schick was partially supported by NSF Grant DMS 0072174. 1 #12;2 ANTON SCHICK AND WOLFGANG WEFELMEYER parametric rate n

  12. A more consistent method for extracting and amplifying DNA from bee wings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A more consistent method for extracting and amplifying DNA from bee wings Elaine M. GOULD, Michelle for genotyping certain behavioural traits required for breeding. One method is to use wing clippings. However reaction (PCR) amplification. Here, we describe an improved method for extracting DNA from bee wings using

  13. Mission Definition The temporary housing mission consists of the placement of manufactured housing units at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    1 Mission Definition The temporary housing mission consists of the placement of manufactured housing units at individual home sites, existing mobile home parks or newly designed and constructed properties. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Housing Planning Response Teams (PRT) may also be tasked

  14. Generating Pedestrian Trajectories Consistent with the Fundamental Diagram based on Physiological and Psychological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    1 Generating Pedestrian Trajectories Consistent with the Fundamental Diagram based on Physiological Pedestrian crowds often have been modeled as many-particle system including microscopic multi-agent simulators. One of the key challenges is to unearth governing principles that can model pedestrian movement

  15. A Quasi Lower Bound on the Consistency Strength Sy-David Friedman, Peter Holy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Local Club Condensation, Acceptability, Large Cardinals. The authors wish to thank the Austrian Research Condensation be acceptable: Theorem 2 Local Club Condensation and Acceptability are simultaneously consistent containing very large cardinals. The main technical result needed is the compatibility of Local Club

  16. TYPES OF PAINT DIY CHECKLIST Consists of pigments, additives and binders in an oil or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard

    TYPES OF PAINT DIY CHECKLIST PAINT · Consists of pigments, additives and binders in an oil or water of application and durability. · Cheaper paint generally contains more solvents than more expensive paint-based). · Oil-based (solvent-/polyurethane-based, also known as alkyd paint). · Natural (eg. mineral paint

  17. CSPs and complexity An instance of the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) consists of a set of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    CSPs and complexity An instance of the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) consists of a set to the variables in a way so that all constraints are (simultaneously) satisfied. The general CSP is NP-complete. However, when the CSP is restricted to a fixed constraint language (a set of allowed constraint

  18. (Smart) Look-Ahead Arc Consistency and the Pursuit of CSP Tractability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalmau, Victor

    (Smart) Look-Ahead Arc Consistency and the Pursuit of CSP Tractability Hubie Chen 1 and V#19. The constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) can be formu- lated as the problem of deciding, given a pair (A; B) of relational struc- tures, whether or not there is a homomorphism from A to B. Although the CSP is in general

  19. A Generalization of Generalized Arc Consistency: From Constraint Satisfaction to Constraint-Based Inference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackworth, Alan K.

    -binary classic con- straint satisfaction problems (CSPs). Based on the Semiring CSP and Valued CSP frameworks CSP, probabilistic CSP, max CSP, and weighted CSP. This extension is based on an idempotent satisfaction problem (CSP), local consistency can be characterized as deriving new constraints based on local

  20. Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

  1. Channel cracks in a hermetic coating consisting of organic and inorganic layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Channel cracks in a hermetic coating consisting of organic and inorganic layers Nicolas Cordero 2007 Flexible electronic devices often require hermetic coatings that can withstand applied strains. This letter calculates the critical strains for various configurations of channel cracks in a coating

  2. ConSens: Consistency-Sensitive Opportunistic Data Access in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sunho

    . Typically, the explosive growth in applications running on the smart cell phone (i.e., App2 ) has fueled applications' diverse consistency requirements, called ConSens, where a user can flexibly set its own networks. I. INTRODUCTION Due to recent technological advances in high-speed wireless network, mobility

  3. Abstract--Researchers have hypothesized that animal locomotory patterns seen are consistent with the resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    -645-3875). showed that humans, and by extension all animals, maintain resonance during walking and running [1, 2Abstract-- Researchers have hypothesized that animal locomotory patterns seen are consistent employed virtual prototyping with a capable musculoskeletal simulation model to study the same hypothesis

  4. Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ming

    Hydrological consistency using multi-sensor remote sensing data for water and energy cycle studies-sensor/multi-platform approach to water and energy cycle prediction is demonstrated in an effort to understand the variability to an improved understanding of water and energy cycles within the NAME region and providing a novel framework

  5. Geophysical Prospecting 37,753-770, 1989 SUGGESTIONS FOR A CONSISTENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Geophysical Prospecting 37,753-770, 1989 SUGGESTIONS FOR A CONSISTENT TERMINOLOGY FOR SEISMIC for seismic anisotropy. Geophys- ical Prospecting 37,753-770. Seismic anisotropy is an unfamiliar concept reporting seismic anisotropy more readily comprehensible to the non- specialist. This not a manual

  6. SU-E-J-29: Audiovisual Biofeedback Improves Tumor Motion Consistency for Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, D; Pollock, S; Makhija, K; Keall, P [The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); Greer, P [The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Arm, J; Hunter, P [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Kim, T [The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW (Australia); University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the breathing-guidance system: audiovisual (AV) biofeedback improves tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. This will minimize respiratory-induced tumor motion variations across cancer imaging and radiotherapy procedues. This is the first study to investigate the impact of respiratory guidance on tumor motion. Methods: Tumor motion consistency was investigated with five lung cancer patients (age: 55 to 64), who underwent a training session to get familiarized with AV biofeedback, followed by two MRI sessions across different dates (pre and mid treatment). During the training session in a CT room, two patient specific breathing patterns were obtained before (Breathing-Pattern-1) and after (Breathing-Pattern-2) training with AV biofeedback. In each MRI session, four MRI scans were performed to obtain 2D coronal and sagittal image datasets in free breathing (FB), and with AV biofeedback utilizing Breathing-Pattern-2. Image pixel values of 2D images after the normalization of 2D images per dataset and Gaussian filter per image were used to extract tumor motion using image pixel values. The tumor motion consistency of the superior-inferior (SI) direction was evaluated in terms of an average tumor motion range and period. Results: Audiovisual biofeedback improved tumor motion consistency by 60% (p value = 0.019) from 1.0±0.6 mm (FB) to 0.4±0.4 mm (AV) in SI motion range, and by 86% (p value < 0.001) from 0.7±0.6 s (FB) to 0.1±0.2 s (AV) in period. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves both breathing pattern and tumor motion consistency for lung cancer patients. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential for facilitating reproducible tumor motion towards achieving more accurate medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  7. Roofing Moisture Tolerance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To use the calculator, simply supply the following information and click on the "Check Roof" button at the bottom of the form. Insulation Type and Thickness (in inches):...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distribution ARM Datamoisture ARM

  9. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Homepolarization ARMtotal downwelling irradianceheat

  10. Self-consistent quasiparticle model for 2, 3, and (2+1) flavor QGP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannur, Vishnu M. [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala-673 635 (India)

    2008-10-15

    The quasiparticle model of quark gluon plasma is the statistical mechanics of noninteracting particles with medium dependent mass related to plasma frequency, which is proposed to describe the thermodynamics of the medium itself. At the relativistic limit, the plasma frequency depends on the number density and temperature. The number density is a thermodynamic quantity of the medium which in turn depends on plasma frequency. Hence, one needs to solve this problem self-consistently instead of using perturbative expressions for plasma frequency. Here we carry out such self-consistent calculations using our recently developed new formulations of the quasiparticle model. By adjusting a single parameter for each system, a remarkably good fit to results of lattice simulation of quantum chromodynamics is obtained for 2, 3, and (2+1) flavor quark gluon plasma systems, first, with zero chemical potential. Then, it is extended to systems with finite chemical potential and fits very well to the lattice results without any new parameter.

  11. Consistent Modified Gravity Analysis of Anisotropic Galaxy Clustering Using BOSS DR11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Yong-Seon; Linder, Eric; Koyama, Kazuya; Sabiu, Cristiano G; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Bernardeau, Francis; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Okumura, Teppei

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the clustering of cosmic large scale structure using a consistent modified gravity perturbation theory, accounting for anisotropic effects along and transverse to the line of sight. The growth factor has a particular scale dependence in f(R) gravity and we fit for the shape parameter f_{R0} simultaneously with the distance and the large scale (general relativity) limit of the growth function. Using more than 690,000 galaxies in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopy Survey Data Release 11, we find no evidence for extra scale dependence, with the 95\\% confidence upper limit |f_{R0}| <8 \\times 10^{-4}. Future clustering data, such as from the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, can use this consistent methodology to impose tighter constraints.

  12. Direct versus indirect detection in mSUGRA with self-consistent halo models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joakim Edsjo; Mia Schelke; Piero Ullio

    2004-05-21

    We perform a detailed analysis of the detection prospects of neutralino dark matter in the mSUGRA framework. We focus on models with a thermal relic density, estimated with high accuracy using the DarkSUSY package, in the range favored by current precision cosmological measurements. Direct and indirect detection rates are computed implementing two models for the dark matter halo, tracing opposite regimes for the phase of baryon infall, with fully consistent density profiles and velocity distribution functions. This has allowed, for the first time, a fully consistent comparison between direct and indirect detection prospects. We discuss all relevant regimes in the mSUGRA parameter space, underlining relevant effects, and providing the basis for extending the discussion to alternative frameworks. In general, we find that direct detection and searches for antideuterons in the cosmic rays seems to be the most promising ways to search for neutralinos in these scenarios.

  13. Paths of Consistent and Inconsistent Status Information and the Induction of Relevance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Joseph; Wagner, David G

    2015-08-15

    and Inconsistent Status Information and the Induction of Relevance.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Paths of Consistent and Inconsistent Status Information and the * Induction of Relevance Joseph Berger David G. Wagner Stanford..., James and Hawkins, 1958; Strodtbeck and Mann, 1956; Katz, Goldston and Benjamin, 1958; Katz and Benjamin, 1960.) Through a coordinated program of research and theory (Berger, Cohen and Zelditch, 1966; Berger, Conner and Fisek, 1974), a detailed...

  14. Self-consistent crystalline condensate in chiral Gross-Neveu and Bogoliubov-de Gennes systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gokce Basar; Gerald V. Dunne

    2008-05-28

    We derive a new exact self-consistent crystalline condensate in the 1+1 dimensional chiral Gross-Neveu model. This also yields a new exact crystalline solution for the one dimensional Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and the Eilenberger equation of semiclassical superconductivity. We show that the functional gap equation can be reduced to a solvable nonlinear equation, and discuss implications for the temperature-chemical potential phase diagram.

  15. Third minima in thorium and uranium isotopes in a self-consistent theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. McDonnell; W. Nazarewicz; J. A. Sheikh

    2013-05-23

    Background: Deep third minima have been predicted in some non-self-consistent models to impact fission pathways of thorium and uranium isotopes. These predictions have guided the interpretation of resonances seen experimentally. On the other hand, self-consistent calculations consistently predict very shallow potential-energy surfaces in the third minimum region. Purpose: We investigate the interpretation of third-minimum configurations in terms of dimolecular states. We study the isentropic potential-energy surfaces of selected even-even thorium and uranium isotopes at several excitation energies. In order to understand the driving effects behind the presence of third minima, we study the interplay between pairing and shell effects. Methods: We use the finite-temperature superfluid nuclear density functional theory. We consider a traditional functional, SkM*, and a recent functional, UNEDF1, optimized for fission studies. Results: We predict very shallow or no third minima in the potential-energy surfaces of 232Th and 232U. In Th and U isotopes with N=136 and 138, the third minima are deeper. We show that the reflection-asymmetric configurations around the third minimum can be associated with dimolecular states involving the spherical doubly magic 132Sn and a lighter deformed Zr or Mo fragment. The potential-energy surfaces for 228,232Th and 232U at several excitation energies are presented. Conclusions: We show that the neutron shell effect that governs the existence of the dimolecular states around the third minimum is consistent with the spherical-to-deformed shape transition in the Zr and Mo isotopes around N=58. We demonstrate that the thermal reduction of pairing and enhancement of shell effects at small excitation energies help to develop deeper third minima. At large excitation energies, shell effects are washed out and third minima disappear altogether.

  16. Self-consistent quasiparticle model results for ultrarelativistic electron-positron thermodynamic plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannur, Vishnu M. [Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Kerala-673 635 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Relativistic plasma with two charge species and radiation at thermodynamic equilibrium is a general system of interest in astrophysics and high-energy physics. We develop a self-consistent quasiparticle model for such a system to take account of the collective behavior of plasma, and thermodynamic properties are derived. It is applied to the ultrarelativistic electron-positron plasma and compared with previous results.

  17. New wind input term consistent with experimental, theoretical and numerical considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Zakharov; D. Resio; A. Pushkarev

    2012-12-05

    We offer a new method for determining the wind source term for energy and momentum fluxes transfer from the atmosphere to the wind-driven sea. This new source-term formulation is based on extensive analysis of experimental data collected at different sites around the world. It is shown that this new wind source term to be consistent both with numerical solution of exact equation for resonant four-wave interactions and available experimental data.

  18. BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartmentAuditsDepartmentj.BETOBILIWG: Consistent

  19. Negative running of the spectral index, hemispherical asymmetry and the consistency of Planck with large r

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, John

    2014-11-01

    Planck favours a negative running of the spectral index, with the likelihood being dominated by low multipoles l ?< 50 and no preference for running at higher l. A negative spectral index is also necessary for the 2- Planck upper bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r to be consistent with values significantly larger than 0.1. Planck has also observed a hemispherical asymmetry of the CMB power spectrum, again mostly at low multipoles. Here we consider whether the physics responsible for the hemispherical asymmetry could also account for the negative running of the spectral index and the consistency of Planck with a large value of r. A negative running of the spectral index can be generated if the hemispherical asymmetry is due to a scale- and space-dependent modulation which suppresses the CMB power spectrum at low multipoles. We show that the observed hemispherical asymmetry at low l can be generated while satisfying constraints on the asymmetry at higher l and generating a negative spectral index of the right magnitude to account for the Planck observation and to allow Planck to be consistent with a large value of r.

  20. Examining the consistency relations describing the three-point functions involving tensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreenath, V.; Sriramkumar, L., E-mail: sreenath@physics.iitm.ac.in, E-mail: sriram@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that the non-Gaussianity parameter f{sub NL} characterizing the scalar bi-spectrum can be expressed in terms of the scalar spectral index in the squeezed limit, a property that is referred to as the consistency relation. In contrast to the scalar bi-spectrum, the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors and the tensor bi-spectrum have not received adequate attention, which can be largely attributed to the fact that the tensors had remained undetected at the level of the power spectrum until very recently. The detection of the imprints of the primordial tensor perturbations by BICEP2 and its indication of a rather high tensor-to-scalar ratio, if confirmed, can open up a new window for understanding the tensor perturbations, not only at the level of the power spectrum, but also in the realm of non-Gaussianities. In this work, we consider the consistency relations associated with the three-point cross-correlations involving scalars and tensors as well as the tensor bi-spectrum in inflationary models driven by a single, canonical, scalar field. Characterizing the cross-correlations in terms of the dimensionless non-Gaussianity parameters C{sub NL}{sup R} and C{sub NL}{sup ?} that we had introduced earlier, we express the consistency relations governing the cross-correlations as relations between these non-Gaussianity parameters and the scalar or tensor spectral indices, in a fashion similar to that of the purely scalar case. We also discuss the corresponding relation for the non-Gaussianity parameter h{sub NL} used to describe the tensor bi-spectrum. We analytically establish these consistency relations explicitly in the following two situations: a simple example involving a specific case of power law inflation and a non-trivial scenario in the so-called Starobinsky model that is governed by a linear potential with a sharp change in its slope. We also numerically verify the consistency relations in three types of inflationary models that permit deviations from slow roll and lead to scalar power spectra with features which typically result in an improved fit to the data than the more conventional, nearly scale invariant, spectra. We close with a summary of the results we have obtained.

  1. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 24 JANUARY 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO754 Variable winter moisture in the southwestern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asmerom, Yemane

    shift in the polar jet stream, which modulated the position of the winter storm track over North America displacement of both the intertropical convergence zone and the polar jet stream over the Pacific Ocean. Our data are consistent with modern evidence for a northward shift of the polar jet stream in response

  2. A case study of the mesoscale and synoptic-scale heat and moisture budgets in the vicinity of a mesoscale convective complex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dial, Greg Leander

    1990-01-01

    A CASE STUDY OF THE MESOSCALE AND SYNOPTIC-SCALE HEAT AND MOISTURE BUDGETS IN THE VICINITY OF A MESOSCALE CONVECTIVE COMPLEX A Thesis by GREG LEANDER DIAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial...&j Leandor Dial Approved as lo style and content by: Kcnnctt& C, ftrunrti&lgc (Ctn&i& ol' Co&nn&ittcc) (I tcn&l&c&) Norman W. Na glc (Mcmbcr) E ar . ipscr (I les&I of Dcpartmcnt) I 1 a y I 9 &3 0 ABSTRACT A Case Study of the Mesoscale and Synoptic...

  3. Quantal self-consistent cranking model for monopole excitations in even-even light nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Gulshani

    2014-10-24

    In this article, we derive a quantal self-consistent time-reversal invariant parameter-free cranking model for isoscalar monopole excitation coupled to intrinsic motion in even-even light nuclei. The model uses a wavefunction that is a product of monopole and intrinsic wavefunctions and a constrained variational method to derive, from a many-particle Schrodinger equation, a pair of coupled self-consistent cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the monopole and intrinsic systems. The monopole co-ordinate used is the trace of the quadrupole tensor and hence describes the overall deformation of the nucleus. The monopole and intrinsic wavefunctions are coupled to each other by the two cranking equations and their associated parameters and by two constraints imposed on the intrinsic system. For an isotropic Nilsson shell model and an effective residual two-body interaction, the two coupled cranking equations are solved in the Tamm Dancoff approximation. The strength of the interaction is determined from a Hartree-Fock self-consistency argument. The excitation energy of the first excited state is determined and found to agree closely with those observed in the nuclei He-4, Be-8, C-12, O-16 , Ne-20, Mg-24, and Si-28. The variation of the model parameters are explained. In particular, it is found that the monopole excitation energy as a function of the mass number undergoes an increase whenever the nucleons begin to occupy a new sub-shell state with non-zero orbital angular momentum as a consequence of suppressing or constraining the resulting spurious monopole excitation in the intrinsic system.

  4. Convective plasma stability consistent with MHD equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a decreasing field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsventoukh, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as {beta} {approx} 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than those obtained with the simplest MHD description.

  5. The Effect of the Accuracy of Toroidal Field Measurements on Spatial Consistency of Kinetic Profiles at JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effect of the Accuracy of Toroidal Field Measurements on Spatial Consistency of Kinetic Profiles at JET

  6. Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padhye, N.; Horton, W.

    1998-10-09

    A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth`s geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons.

  7. On the self-consistence of electrodynamics in the early universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Klippert; V. A. De Lorenci; M. Novello; J. M. Salim

    2002-03-27

    The issue of a self-consistent solution of Maxwell-Einstein equations achieves a very simple form when all quantum effects are neglected but a weak vacuum polarization due to an external magnetic field is taken into account. From a semi-classical point of view this means to deal with an appropriate limit of the one-loop effective Lagrangian for electrodynamics. When the corresponding stress-energy tensor is considered as a source of the gravitational field a surprisingly bouncing behavior is obtained. The present toy model leads to important new features which should have taken place in the early universe.

  8. Properties of hadronic systems according to the non-extensive self-consistent thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deppman, A.

    2014-11-11

    The non-extensive self-consistent theory describing the thermodynamics of hadronic systems at high temperatures is used to derive some thermodynamical quantities, as pressure, entropy, speed of sound and trace-anomaly. The calculations are free of fitting parameters, and the results are compared to lattice QCD calculations, showing a good agreement between theory and data up to temperatures around 175 MeV. Above this temperature the effects of a singularity in the partition function at T{sub o} = 192 MeV results in a divergent behaviour in respect with the lattice calculation.

  9. Synchronization in node of complex networks consist of complex chaotic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Qiang, E-mail: qiangweibeihua@163.com [Beihua University computer and technology College, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132021, Jilin (China); Digital Images Processing Institute of Beihua University, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132011, Jilin (China); Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); Xie, Cheng-jun [Beihua University computer and technology College, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132021, Jilin (China); Digital Images Processing Institute of Beihua University, BeiHua University, Jilin, 132011, Jilin (China); Liu, Hong-jun [School of Information Engineering, Weifang Vocational College, Weifang, 261041 (China); Li, Yan-hui [The Library, Weifang Vocational College, Weifang, 261041 (China)

    2014-07-15

    A new synchronization method is investigated for node of complex networks consists of complex chaotic system. When complex networks realize synchronization, different component of complex state variable synchronize up to different scaling complex function by a designed complex feedback controller. This paper change synchronization scaling function from real field to complex field for synchronization in node of complex networks with complex chaotic system. Synchronization in constant delay and time-varying coupling delay complex networks are investigated, respectively. Numerical simulations are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Long-range correlations in finite nuclei: comparison of two self-consistent treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Dewulf; D. Van Neck; L. Van Daele; M. Waroquier

    1997-01-29

    Long-range correlations, which are partially responsible for the observed fragmentation and depletion of low-lying single-particle strength, are studied in the Green's function formalism. The self-energy is expanded up to second order in the residual interaction. We compare two methods of implementing self-consistency in the solution of the Dyson equation beyond Hartree-Fock, for the case of the 16O nucleus. It is found that the energy-bin method and the BAGEL method lead to globally equivalent results. In both methods the final single-particle strength functions are characterized by exponential tails at energies far from the Fermi level.

  11. Self-consistent Green's function calculation of 16O at small missing energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Barbieri; W. H. Dickhoff

    2004-10-19

    Calculations of the one-hole spectral function of 16O for small missing energies are reviewed. The self-consistent Green's function approach is employed together with the Faddeev equations technique in order to study the coupling of both particle-particle and particle-hole phonons to the single-particle motion. The results indicate that the characteristics of hole fragmentation are related to the low-lying states of 16O and an improvement of the description of this spectrum, beyond the random phase approximation, is required to understand the experimental strength distribution. A first calculation in this direction that accounts for two-phonon states is discussed.

  12. Consistent treatment of hydrophobicity in protein lattice models accounts for cold denaturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dijk, Erik; Knowles, Tuomas; Frenkel, Daan; Abeln, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The hydrophobic effect stabilizes the native structure of proteins by minimizing the unfavourable interactions between hydrophobic residues and water through the formation of a hydrophobic core. Here we include the entropic and enthalpic contributions of the hydrophobic effect explicitly in an implicit solvent model. This allows us to capture two important effects: a length-scale dependence and a temperature dependence for the solvation of a hydrophobic particle. This consistent treatment of the hydrophobic effect explains cold denaturation and heat capacity measurements of solvated proteins.

  13. Consistent treatment of hydrophobicity in protein lattice models accounts for cold denaturation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik van Dijk; Patrick Varilly; Tuomas Knowles; Daan Frenkel; Sanne Abeln

    2015-11-25

    The hydrophobic effect stabilizes the native structure of proteins by minimizing the unfavourable interactions between hydrophobic residues and water through the formation of a hydrophobic core. Here we include the entropic and enthalpic contributions of the hydrophobic effect explicitly in an implicit solvent model. This allows us to capture two important effects: a length-scale dependence and a temperature dependence for the solvation of a hydrophobic particle. This consistent treatment of the hydrophobic effect explains cold denaturation and heat capacity measurements of solvated proteins.

  14. Comment on: "On the consistency of solutions of the space fractional Schrödinger equation"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Hawkins; J. M. Schwarz

    2012-10-04

    In [J. Math. Phys. 53, 042105 (2012)], Bay{\\i}n claims to prove the consistency of the purported piece-wise solutions to the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation for an infinite square well. However, his calculation uses standard contour integral techniques despite the absence of an analytic integrand. The correct calculation is presented and supports our earlier work proving that the purported piece-wise solutions do not solve the fractional Schr\\"odinger equation for an infinite square well [M. Jeng, S.-L.-Y. Xu, E. Hawkins, and J. M. Schwarz, J. Math. Phys. 51, 062102 (2010)].

  15. Testing the Self-Consistency of MOND With Three-Dimensional Galaxy Kinematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher W. Stubbs; Arti Garg

    2005-12-02

    We propose a technique to test the idea that non-standard dynamics, rather than dark matter halos, might be responsible for the observed rotation curves of spiral galaxies. In the absence of non-luminous matter, a galactic disk's rotational velocity and its vertical velocity dispersion can be used jointly to test the self-consistency of the galaxy's dynamics. A specific illustrative example, using recent measurements of the disk kinematics of M33, shows this to be a promising approach to assess the viability of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND).

  16. Some exploitations of the self-consistent QRPA approach with the Gogny force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peru, S.; Martini, M.; Dupuis, M.

    2012-10-20

    Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation calculations have been performed with the D1S Gogny force. Giant resonances in exotic nuclei as well as in deformed Mg and Si isotopes have been studied. Dipole responses have been calculated in Ne isotopes and N=16 isotones to study the existence of soft dipole modes in exotic nuclei. The same formalism has been used to describe multipole responses up to octupole in the deformed and heavy nucleus {sup 238}U. Low energy spectroscopy of nickel isotopes has been studied, revealing 0{sup +} states which display a particular structure.

  17. An Active Data-aware Cache Consistency Protocol for Highly-Scalable Data-Shipping DBMS Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    An Active Data-aware Cache Consistency Protocol for Highly-Scalable Data-Shipping DBMS overhead for maintaining client directory consistency. We implement ADCC in a page server DBMS architecture. Keywords active control; cache consistency; parallel communication; data- shipping; DBMS 1.INTRODUCTION

  18. Road Map for Studies to Produce Consistent and High Performance SRF Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni; John F. O’Hanlon

    2007-06-20

    Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator structures made from high purity niobium are becoming the technological choice for a large number of future accelerators and energy recovery LINAC’s (ERL). Most of the presently planned accelerators and ERL requirements will be met with some effort by the current SRF technology where accelerating gradients of about 20 MV/m can be produced on a routine basis with an acceptable yield. However, the XFEL at DESY and the planned ILC require acceleration gradients more than 28 MV/m and 35 MV/m respectively. At the recent ILC meeting at Snowmass (2005) concern was expressed regarding the wide spread in the achieved accelerator gradients and the relatively low yields. For obtaining accelerating gradients of 35 MV/m in SRF accelerator structures consistently, a deeper understanding of the causes for the spread has to be gained and advances have to be made in many scientific and high technology fields, including materials, surface and vacuum sciences, application of reliable processes and procedures, which provide contamination –free surfaces and avoid recontamination and cryogenics related technologies. In this contribution a road map for studies needed to produce consistent and high performance SRF accelerator structures from the needed materials development to clean and non-recontaminating processes and procedures will be presented.

  19. Hazard consistent structural demands and in-structure design response spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Thomas W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costantino, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Costantino, Carl J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Current analysis methodology for the Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis of nuclear facilities is specified in ASCE Standard 4. This methodology is based on the use of deterministic procedures with the intention that enough conservatism is included in the specified procedures to achieve an 80% probability of non-exceedance in the computed response of a Structure, System. or Component for given a mean seismic design input. Recently developed standards are aimed at achieving performance-based, risk consistent seismic designs that meet specified target performance goals. These design approaches rely upon accurately characterizing the probability (hazard) level of system demands due to seismic loads consistent with Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analyses. This paper examines the adequacy of the deterministic SSI procedures described in ASCE 4-98 to achieve an 80th percentile of Non-Exceedance Probability (NEP) in structural demand, given a mean seismic input motion. The study demonstrates that the deterministic procedures provide computed in-structure response spectra that are near or greater than the target 80th percentile NEP for site profiles other than those resulting in high levels of radiation damping. The deterministic procedures do not appear to be as robust in predicting peak accelerations, which correlate to structural demands within the structure.

  20. Correlations in Nuclei: Self-Consistent Treatment and the BAGEL Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Müther; L. D. Skouras

    1993-03-29

    An approach is presented which allows a self-consistent description of the fragmentation of single-particle strength for nucleons in finite nuclei employing the Greens function formalism. The self-energy to be considered in the Dyson equation for the single-particle Greens function contains all terms of first (Hartree-Fock) and second order in the residual interaction. It is demonstrated that the fragmentation of the single-particle strength originating from the terms of second order can efficiently be described in terms of the so-called BAGEL approximation. Employing this approximation the self-energy can be evaluated in a self-consistent way, i.e. the correlations contained in the Greens function are taken into account for the evaluation of the self-energy. As an example this scheme is applied to the nucleus $^{16}O$, using a realistic nucleon nucleon interaction. The effects of the correlations on the occupation probabilities and the binding energy are evaluated.

  1. Self-consistent Green's function method for nuclei and nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. Dickhoff; C. Barbieri

    2004-02-11

    Recent results obtained by applying the method of self-consistent Green's functions to nuclei and nuclear matter are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the description of experimental data obtained from the (e,e'p) and (e,e'2N) reactions that determine one and two-nucleon removal probabilities in nuclei since the corresponding amplitudes are directly related to the imaginary parts of the single-particle and two-particle propagators. For this reason and the fact that these amplitudes can now be calculated with the inclusion of all the relevant physical processes, it is useful to explore the efficacy of the method of self-consistent Green's functions in describing these experimental data. Results for both finite nuclei and nuclear matter are discussed with particular emphasis on clarifying the role of short-range correlations in determining various experimental quantities. The important role of long-range correlations in determining the structure of low-energy correlations is also documented. For a complete understanding of nuclear phenomena it is therefore essential to include both types of physical correlations. We demonstrate that recent experimental results for these reactions combined with the reported theoretical calculations yield a very clear understanding of the properties of {\\em all} protons in the nucleus. We propose that this knowledge of the properties of constituent fermions in a correlated many-body system is a unique feature of nuclear physics.

  2. Status and Opportunities for Improving the Consistency of Technical Reference Manuals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayaweera, Tina; Velonis, Aquila; Haeri, Hossein; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2012-05-01

    Across the United States, energy-efficiency program administrators rely on Technical Reference Manuals (TRMs) as sources for calculations and deemed savings values for specific, well-defined efficiency measures. TRMs play an important part in energy efficiency program planning by providing a common and consistent source for calculation of ex ante and often ex post savings. They thus help reduce energy-efficiency resource acquisition costs by obviating the need for extensive measurement and verification and lower performance risk for program administrators and implementation contractors. This paper considers the benefits of establishing region-wide or national TRMs and considers the challenges of such undertaking due to the difficulties in comparing energy savings across jurisdictions. We argue that greater consistency across TRMs in the approaches used to determine deemed savings values, with more transparency about assumptions, would allow better comparisons in savings estimates across jurisdictions as well as improve confidence in reported efficiency measure savings. To support this thesis, we review approaches for the calculation of savings for select measures in TRMs currently in use in 17 jurisdictions. The review reveals differences in the saving methodologies, technical assumptions, and input variables used for estimating deemed savings values. These differences are described and their implications are summarized, using four, common energy-efficiency measures as examples. Recommendations are then offered for establishing a uniform approach for determining deemed savings values.

  3. A Self Consistent Multiprocessor Space Charge Algorithm that is Almost Embarrassingly Parallel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Nissen, B. Erdelyi, S.L. Manikonda

    2012-07-01

    We present a space charge code that is self consistent, massively parallelizeable, and requires very little communication between computer nodes; making the calculation almost embarrassingly parallel. This method is implemented in the code COSY Infinity where the differential algebras used in this code are important to the algorithm's proper functioning. The method works by calculating the self consistent space charge distribution using the statistical moments of the test particles, and converting them into polynomial series coefficients. These coefficients are combined with differential algebraic integrals to form the potential, and electric fields. The result is a map which contains the effects of space charge. This method allows for massive parallelization since its statistics based solver doesn't require any binning of particles, and only requires a vector containing the partial sums of the statistical moments for the different nodes to be passed. All other calculations are done independently. The resulting maps can be used to analyze the system using normal form analysis, as well as advance particles in numbers and at speeds that were previously impossible.

  4. ThermoElectric Transport Properties of a Chain of Quantum Dots with Self-Consistent Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe A. Jacquet

    2009-02-13

    We introduce a model for charge and heat transport based on the Landauer-Buttiker scattering approach. The system consists of a chain of $N$ quantum dots, each of them being coupled to a particle reservoir. Additionally, the left and right ends of the chain are coupled to two particle reservoirs. All these reservoirs are independent and can be described by any of the standard physical distributions: Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. In the linear response regime, and under some assumptions, we first describe the general transport properties of the system. Then we impose the self-consistency condition, i.e. we fix the boundary values (T_L,\\mu_L) and (T_R,mu_R), and adjust the parameters (T_i,mu_i), for i = 1,...,N, so that the net average electric and heat currents into all the intermediate reservoirs vanish. This condition leads to expressions for the temperature and chemical potential profiles along the system, which turn out to be independent of the distribution describing the reservoirs. We also determine the average electric and heat currents flowing through the system and present some numerical results, using random matrix theory, showing that these currents are typically governed by Ohm and Fourier laws.

  5. Non-perturbative and self-consistent models of neutron stars in R-squared gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Staykov, Kalin V. E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de E-mail: kalin.v.staikov@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper we investigate non-perturbatively and self-consistently the structure of neutron stars in R-squared gravity by simultaneously solving the interior and exterior problem. The mass-radius relations are obtained for several equations of state and for wide range of the R-squared gravity parameter a. Even though the deviation from general relativity for nonzero values of a can be large, they are still comparable with the variations due to different modern realistic equations of state. That is why the current observations of the neutron star masses and radii alone can not put constraints on the value of the parameter a. We also compare our results with those obtained within the perturbative method and we discuss the differences between them.

  6. Experimental motivation and empirical consistency in minimal no-collapse quantum mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maximilian Schlosshauer

    2006-01-15

    We analyze three important experimental domains (SQUIDs, molecular interferometry, and Bose-Einstein condensation) as well as quantum-biophysical studies of the neuronal apparatus to argue that (i) the universal validity of unitary dynamics and the superposition principle has been confirmed far into the mesoscopic and macroscopic realm in all experiments conducted thus far; (ii) all observed "restrictions" can be correctly and completely accounted for by taking into account environmental decoherence effects; (iii) no positive experimental evidence exists for physical state-vector collapse; (iv) the perception of single "outcomes" is likely to be explainable through decoherence effects in the neuronal apparatus. We also discuss recent progress in the understanding of the emergence of quantum probabilities and the objectification of observables. We conclude that it is not only viable, but moreover compelling to regard a minimal no-collapse quantum theory as a leading candidate for a physically motivated and empirically consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics.

  7. Self-Consistent Multiscale Theory of Internal Wave, Mean-Flow Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, D.D.; Aceves, A.; Allen, J.S.; Alber, M.; Camassa, R.; Cendra, H.; Chen, S.; Duan, J.; Fabijonas, B.; Foias, C.; Fringer, O.; Gent, P.R.; Jordan, R.; Kouranbaeva, S.; Kovacic, G.; Levermore, C.D.; Lythe, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Marsden, J.E.; Margolin, L.; Newberger, P.; Olson, E.; Ratiu, T.; Shkoller, S.; Timofeyev, I.; Titi, E.S.; Wynn, S.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The research reported here produced new effective ways to solve multiscale problems in nonlinear fluid dynamics, such as turbulent flow and global ocean circulation. This was accomplished by first developing new methods for averaging over random or rapidly varying phases in nonlinear systems at multiple scales. We then used these methods to derive new equations for analyzing the mean behavior of fluctuation processes coupled self consistently to nonlinear fluid dynamics. This project extends a technology base relevant to a variety of multiscale problems in fluid dynamics of interest to the Laboratory and applies this technology to those problems. The project's theoretical and mathematical developments also help advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of complex behavior in fluid dynamical systems with strong spatial and temporal internal variability.

  8. Diffusion approximations to the chemical master equation only have a consistent stochastic thermodynamics at chemical equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horowitz, Jordan M

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic thermodynamics of a dilute, well-stirred mixture of chemically-reacting species is built on the stochastic trajectories of reaction events obtained from the Chemical Master Equation. However, when the molecular populations are large, the discrete Chemical Master Equation can be approximated with a continuous diffusion process, like the Chemical Langevin Equation or Low Noise Approximation. In this paper, we investigate to what extent these diffusion approximations inherit the stochastic thermodynamics of the Chemical Master Equation. We find that a stochastic-thermodynamic description is only valid at a detailed-balanced, equilibrium steady state. Away from equilibrium, where there is no consistent stochastic thermodynamics, we show that one can still use the diffusive solutions to approximate the underlying thermodynamics of the Chemical Master Equation.

  9. Effective rates from thermodynamically consistent coarse-graining of models for molecular motors with probe particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Many single molecule experiments for molecular motors comprise not only the motor but also large probe particles coupled to it. The theoretical analysis of these assays, however, often takes into account only the degrees of freedom representing the motor. We present a coarse-graining method that maps a model comprising two coupled degrees of freedom which represent motor and probe particle to such an effective one-particle model by eliminating the dynamics of the probe particle in a thermodynamically and dynamically consistent way. The coarse-grained rates obey a local detailed balance condition and reproduce the net currents. Moreover, the average entropy production as well as the thermodynamic efficiency is invariant under this coarse-graining procedure. Our analysis reveals that only by assuming unrealistically fast probe particles, the coarse-grained transition rates coincide with the transition rates of the traditionally used one-particle motor models. Additionally, we find that for multicyclic motors th...

  10. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  11. Can thermal inflation be consistent with baryogenesis in gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayakawa, Taku; Yamada, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Thermal inflation is an attractive idea to dilute cosmic density of unwanted particles such as moduli fields which cause cosmological difficulties. However, it also dilutes preexisting baryon asymmetry and some viable baryogenesis is necessary for a cosmologically consistent scenario. We investigate whether the Affleck-Dine mechanism can produce baryon asymmetry enough to survive after the dilution in gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. Flat directions except for $LH_u$ flat direction cannot provide such huge baryon number because of Q-ball formation. We show that although the $LH_u$ flat direction is special in terms of having $\\mu$-term which prevents Q-ball formation, it cannot explain the observed baryon asymmetry either.

  12. Large tensor mode, field range bound and consistency in generalized G-inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunimitsu, Taro; Watanabe, Yuki; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    We systematically show that in potential driven generalized G-inflation models, quantum corrections coming from new physics at the strong coupling scale can be avoided, while producing observable tensor modes. The effective action can be approximated by the tree level action, and as a result, these models are internally consistent, despite the fact that we introduced new mass scales below the energy scale of inflation. Although observable tensor modes are produced with sub-strong coupling scale field excursions, this is not an evasion of the Lyth bound, since the models include higher-derivative non-canonical kinetic terms, and effective rescaling of the field would result in super-Planckian field excursions. We argue that the enhanced kinetic term of the inflaton screens the interactions with other fields, keeping the system weakly coupled during inflation.

  13. Polygonal web representation for higher order correlation functions of consistent polygonal Markov fields in the plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Schreiber

    2009-05-02

    We consider polygonal Markov fields originally introduced by Arak and Surgailis (1982,1989). Our attention is focused on fields with nodes of order two, which can be regarded as continuum ensembles of non-intersecting contours in the plane, sharing a number of salient features with the two-dimensional Ising model. The purpose of this paper is to establish an explicit stochastic representation for the higher-order correlation functions of polygonal Markov fields in their consistency regime. The representation is given in terms of the so-called crop functionals (defined by a Moebius-type formula) of polygonal webs which arise in a graphical construction dual to that giving rise to polygonal fields. The proof of our representation formula goes by constructing a martingale interpolation between the correlation functions of polygonal fields and crop functionals of polygonal webs.

  14. Macro-particle FEL model with self-consistent spontaneous radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous radiation plays an important role in SASE FELs and storage ring FELs operating in giant pulse mode. It defines the correlation function of the FEL radiation as well as its many spectral features. Simulations of these systems using randomly distributed macro-particles with charge much higher that of a single electron create the problem of anomalously strong spontaneous radiation, limiting the capabilities of many FEL codes. In this paper we present a self-consistent macro-particle model which provided statistically exact simulation of multi-mode, multi-harmonic and multi-frequency short-wavelength 3-D FELs including the high power and saturation effects. The use of macro-particle clones allows both spontaneous and induced radiation to be treated in the same fashion. Simulations using this model do not require a seed and provide complete temporal and spatial structure of the FEL optical field.

  15. Methods for consistent forewarning of critical events across multiple data channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    2006-11-21

    This invention teaches further method improvements to forewarn of critical events via phase-space dissimilarity analysis of data from biomedical equipment, mechanical devices, and other physical processes. One improvement involves conversion of time-serial data into equiprobable symbols. A second improvement is a method to maximize the channel-consistent total-true rate of forewarning from a plurality of data channels over multiple data sets from the same patient or process. This total-true rate requires resolution of the forewarning indications into true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives. A third improvement is the use of various objective functions, as derived from the phase-space dissimilarity measures, to give the best forewarning indication. A fourth improvement uses various search strategies over the phase-space analysis parameters to maximize said objective functions. A fifth improvement shows the usefulness of the method for various biomedical and machine applications.

  16. Quantum Chemistry, and Eclectic Mix: From Silicon Carbide to Size Consistency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamie Marie Rintelman

    2004-12-19

    Chemistry is a field of great breadth and variety. It is this diversity that makes for both an interesting and challenging field. My interests have spanned three major areas of theoretical chemistry: applications, method development, and method evaluation. The topics presented in this thesis are as follows: (1) a multi-reference study of the geometries and relative energies of four atom silicon carbide clusters in the gas phase; (2) the reaction of acetylene on the Si(100)-(2x1) surface; (3) an improvement to the Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) solvent model to enable the study of reactions in both aqueous and nonaqueous solution; and (4) an evaluation of the size consistency of Multireference Perturbation Theory (MRPT). In the following section, the author briefly discusses two topics central to, and present throughout, this thesis: Multi-reference methods and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) methods.

  17. Pairing within the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation at finite temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dang, N Dinh

    2008-01-01

    An approach to pairing in finite nuclei at nonzero temperature is proposed, which incorporates the effects due to the quasiparticle-number fluctuation (QNF) around Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) mean field and dynamic coupling to quasiparticle-pair vibrations within the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation (SCQRPA). The numerical calculations of pairing gap, total energy, and heat capacity were carried out within a doubly folded multilevel model as well as realistic nuclei $^{56}$Fe and $^{120}$Sn. The results obtained show that, under the effect of QNF, in the region of moderate and strong couplings, the sharp transition between the superconducting and normal phases is smoothed out, resulting in a thermal pairing gap, which does not collapse at the BCS critical temperature, but has a tail, which extends to high temperature. The dynamic coupling of quasiparticles to SCQRPA vibrations significantly improves the agreement with the results of exact calculations and those obtained within the ...

  18. Method for using global optimization to the estimation of surface-consistent residual statics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reister, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Barhen, Jacob (Oak Ridge, TN); Oblow, Edward M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    An efficient method for generating residual statics corrections to compensate for surface-consistent static time shifts in stacked seismic traces. The method includes a step of framing the residual static corrections as a global optimization problem in a parameter space. The method also includes decoupling the global optimization problem involving all seismic traces into several one-dimensional problems. The method further utilizes a Stochastic Pijavskij Tunneling search to eliminate regions in the parameter space where a global minimum is unlikely to exist so that the global minimum may be quickly discovered. The method finds the residual statics corrections by maximizing the total stack power. The stack power is a measure of seismic energy transferred from energy sources to receivers.

  19. Community consistency determines the stability transition window of power-grid nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Heetae; Holme, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The synchrony of electric power systems is important in order to maintain stable electricity supply. Recently, the measure basin stability was introduced to quantify a node's ability to recover its synchronization when perturbed. In this work, we focus on how basin stability depends on the coupling strength between nodes. We use the Chilean power grid as a case study. In general, the basin stability goes from zero to one as the coupling strength increases. However, this transition does happen for the same values for different nodes. By understanding the transition for individual nodes, we can further characterize their role in the power-transmission dynamics. We find that nodes with an exceptionally large transition window also have a low community consistency. In other words, they are hard to classify into one community when applying a community detection algorithm to the network. This also gives an efficient way to identify nodes with a long transition window (which is a computationally time-consuming task)...

  20. The Consistent Kinetics Porosity (CKP) Model: A Theory for the Mechanical Behavior of Moderately Porous Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRANNON,REBECCA M.

    2000-11-01

    A theory is developed for the response of moderately porous solids (no more than {approximately}20% void space) to high-strain-rate deformations. The model is consistent because each feature is incorporated in a manner that is mathematically compatible with the other features. Unlike simple p-{alpha} models, the onset of pore collapse depends on the amount of shear present. The user-specifiable yield function depends on pressure, effective shear stress, and porosity. The elastic part of the strain rate is linearly related to the stress rate, with nonlinear corrections from changes in the elastic moduli due to pore collapse. Plastically incompressible flow of the matrix material allows pore collapse and an associated macroscopic plastic volume change. The plastic strain rate due to pore collapse/growth is taken normal to the yield surface. If phase transformation and/or pore nucleation are simultaneously occurring, the inelastic strain rate will be non-normal to the yield surface. To permit hardening, the yield stress of matrix material is treated as an internal state variable. Changes in porosity and matrix yield stress naturally cause the yield surface to evolve. The stress, porosity, and all other state variables vary in a consistent manner so that the stress remains on the yield surface throughout any quasistatic interval of plastic deformation. Dynamic loading allows the stress to exceed the yield surface via an overstress ordinary differential equation that is solved in closed form for better numerical accuracy. The part of the stress rate that causes no plastic work (i.e-, the part that has a zero inner product with the stress deviator and the identity tensor) is given by the projection of the elastic stressrate orthogonal to the span of the stress deviator and the identity tensor.The model, which has been numerically implemented in MIG format, has been exercised under a wide array of extremal loading and unloading paths. As will be discussed in a companion sequel report, the CKP model is capable of closely matching plate impact measurements for porous materials.

  1. Consistent satellite XCO2 retrievals from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT using the BESD algorithm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heymann, J.; Reuter, M.; Hilker, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Kuze, A.; Suto, H.; Deutscher, N. M.; et al

    2015-02-13

    Consistent and accurate long-term data sets of global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are required for carbon cycle and climate related research. However, global data sets based on satellite observations may suffer from inconsistencies originating from the use of products derived from different satellites as needed to cover a long enough time period. One reason for inconsistencies can be the use of different retrieval algorithms. We address this potential issue by applying the same algorithm, the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS (BESD) algorithm, to different satellite instruments, SCIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT (March 2002–April 2012) and TANSO-FTS on-board GOSAT (launched in Januarymore »2009), to retrieve XCO2, the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of CO2. BESD has been initially developed for SCIAMACHY XCO2 retrievals. Here, we present the first detailed assessment of the new GOSAT BESD XCO2 product. GOSAT BESD XCO2 is a product generated and delivered to the MACC project for assimilation into ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). We describe the modifications of the BESD algorithm needed in order to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT and present detailed comparisons with ground-based observations of XCO2 from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). We discuss detailed comparison results between all three XCO2 data sets (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT and TCCON). The comparison results demonstrate the good consistency between the SCIAMACHY and the GOSAT XCO2. For example, we found a mean difference for daily averages of ?0.60 ± 1.56 ppm (mean difference ± standard deviation) for GOSAT-SCIAMACHY (linear correlation coefficient r = 0.82), ?0.34 ± 1.37 ppm (r = 0.86) for GOSAT-TCCON and 0.10 ± 1.79 ppm (r = 0.75) for SCIAMACHY-TCCON. The remaining differences between GOSAT and SCIAMACHY are likely due to non-perfect collocation (±2 h, 10° × 10° around TCCON sites), i.e., the observed air masses are not exactly identical, but likely also due to a still non-perfect BESD retrieval algorithm, which will be continuously improved in the future. Our overarching goal is to generate a satellite-derived XCO2 data set appropriate for climate and carbon cycle research covering the longest possible time period. We therefore also plan to extend the existing SCIAMACHY and GOSAT data set discussed here by using also data from other missions (e.g., OCO-2, GOSAT-2, CarbonSat) in the future.« less

  2. flray Transport in Type Ia In order to solve the rate equations in a consistent manner, PHOENIX must include

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nugent, Peter

    in a consistent manner, PHOENIX must include the effects of non­thermal ionization. In Type Ia supernovae the non

  3. A self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young moving groups in the solar neighbourhood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Cameron P M; Naylor, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We present a self-consistent, absolute isochronal age scale for young (solar neighbourhood based on homogeneous fitting of semi-empirical pre-main-sequence model isochrones using the tau^2 maximum-likelihood fitting statistic of Naylor & Jeffries in the M_V, V-J colour-magnitude diagram. The final adopted ages for the groups are: 149+51-19 Myr for the AB Dor moving group, 24+/-3 Myr for the {\\beta} Pic moving group (BPMG), 45+11-7 Myr for the Carina association, 42+6-4 Myr for the Columba association, 11+/-3 Myr for the {\\eta} Cha cluster, 45+/-4 Myr for the Tucana-Horologium moving group (Tuc-Hor), 10+/-3 Myr for the TW Hya association, and 22+4-3 Myr for the 32 Ori group. At this stage we are uncomfortable assigning a final, unambiguous age to the Argus association as our membership list for the association appears to suffer from a high level of contamination, and therefore it remains unclear whether these stars represent a single population of co...

  4. SELF-CONSISTENT ION CYCLOTRON ANISOTROPY-BETA RELATION FOR SOLAR WIND PROTONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isenberg, Philip A.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C. E-mail: bmaruca@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2013-08-20

    We derive a set of self-consistent marginally stable states for a system of ion-cyclotron waves propagating parallel to the large-scale magnetic field through a homogeneous proton-electron plasma. The proton distributions and the wave dispersions are related through the condition that no further ion-cyclotron resonant particle scattering or wave growth/damping may take place. The thermal anisotropy of the protons in these states therefore defines the threshold value for triggering the proton-cyclotron anisotropy instability. A number of recent papers have noted that the anisotropy of solar wind protons at 1 AU does not seem to be limited by the proton-cyclotron anisotropy threshold, even at low plasma beta. However, this puzzle seems to be due solely to the estimation of this anisotropy threshold under the assumption that the protons have a bi-Maxwellian distribution. We note that bi-Maxwellian distributions are never marginally stable to the resonant cyclotron interaction, so these estimates do not represent physically valid thresholds. The threshold anisotropies obtained from our marginally stable states are much larger, as a function of proton parallel beta, than the bi-Maxwellian estimates, and we show that the measured data remains below these more rigorous thresholds. Thus, the results of this paper resolve the apparent contradiction presented by the solar wind anisotropy observations at 1 AU: the bi-Maxwellian anisotropies are not rigorous thresholds, and so do not limit the proton distributions in the solar wind.

  5. The Quark Propagator in the NJL Model in a self-consistent 1/Nc Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Müller; Michael Buballa; Jochen Wambach

    2010-05-04

    The quark propagator is calculated in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model in a self-consistent 1/Nc-expansion at next-to-leading order. The calculations are carried out iteratively in Euclidean space. The chiral quark condensate and its dependence on temperature and chemical potential is calculated directly and compared with the mean-field results. In the chiral limit, we find a second-order phase transition at finite temperature and zero chemical potential, in agreement with universality arguments. At zero temperature and finite chemical potential, the phase transition is first order. In comparison with the mean-field results, the critical temperature and chemical potential are slightly reduced. We determine spectral functions from the Euclidean propagators by employing the Maximum-Entropy-Method (MEM). Thereby quark and meson masses are estimated and decay channels identified. For testing this method, we also apply it to evaluate perturbative spectral functions, which can be calculated directly in Minkowski space. In most cases we find that MEM is able to reproduce the rough features of the spectral functions, but not the details.

  6. Lamellar Diblock Copolymers on Rough Substrates: Self-consistent Field Theory Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xingkun Man; Jiuzhou Tang; Pan Zhou; Dadong Yan; David Andelman

    2015-08-18

    We present numerical calculations of lamellar phases of di-block copolymers (BCP) confined between two surfaces, where the top surface is flat and the bottom one is corrugated. The corrugated substrate is assumed to have a single $q$-mode of lateral undulations with a wavenumber q_s and amplitude R. We focus on the effects of substrate roughness, parameterized by the dimensionless quantity, q_sR, on the relative stability between parallel and perpendicular orientations of the lamellar phase. The competition between film confinement, energy cost of elastic deformation and gain in surface energy induces a parallel-to-perpendicular transition of the BCP lamellae. Employing self-consistent field theory (SCFT), we study the critical substrate roughness value corresponding to this transition. The critical value increases as function of the surface preference towards one of the two BCP components, and as function of film thickness. But, it decreases with increasing values of the Flory-Huggins parameter. Our findings are equivalent to stating that the critical value decreases as the BCP molecular weight or the natural BCP periodicity increases. We further show that the rough substrate can overcome the formation of parallel lamellae in cases where the top surface has a preference towards one of the two BCP components. Our results are in good agreement with previous experiments, and highlight the physical conditions behind the perpendicular orientation of lamellar phases, as is desired in nanolithography and other industrial applications.

  7. Is there a "most perfect fluid" consistent with quantum field theory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas D. Cohen

    2007-03-05

    It was recently conjectured that the ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density, $ \\eta/ s$, for any fluid always exceeds $\\hbar/(4 \\pi k_B)$. This conjecture was motivated by quantum field theoretic results obtained via the AdS/CFT correspondence and from empirical data with real fluids. A theoretical counterexample to this bound can be constructed from a nonrelativistic gas by increasing the number of species in the fluid while keeping the dynamics essentially independent of the species type. The question of whether the underlying structure of relativistic quantum field theory generically inhibits the realization of such a system and thereby preserves the possibility of a universal bound is considered here. Using rather conservative assumptions, it is shown here that a metastable gas of heavy mesons in a particular controlled regime of QCD provides a realization of the counterexample and is consistent with a well-defined underlying relativistic quantum field theory. Thus, quantum field theory appears to impose no lower bound on $\\eta/s$, at least for metastable fluids.

  8. On the consistency of QCBED structure factor measurements for TiO2 (Rutile)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Jian -Min; Friis, Jesper; Spence, John C. H.

    2003-09-16

    The same Bragg reflection in TiO2 from twelve different CBED patterns (from different crystals, orientations and thicknesses) are analysed quantitatively in order to evaluate the consistency of the QCBED method for bond-charge mapping. The standard deviation in the resulting distribution of derived X-ray structure factors is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional X-ray work, and the standard error (0.026% for FX(110)) is slightly better than obtained by the X-ray Pendellosung method applied to silicon. This is sufficiently accuracy to distinguish between atomic, covalent and ionic models of bonding. We describe the importance of extractingmore »experimental parameters from CCD camera characterization, and of surface oxidation and crystal shape. Thus, the current experiments show that the QCBED method is now a robust and powerful tool for low order structure factor measurement, which does not suffer from the large extinction (multiple scattering) errors which occur in inorganic X-ray crystallography, and may be applied to nanocrystals. Our results will be used to understand the role of d electrons in the chemical bonding of TiO2.« less

  9. Consistent use of type Ia supernovae highly magnified by galaxy clusters to constrain the cosmological parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Redlich, Matthias [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Broadhurst, Tom, E-mail: adizitrin@gmail.com [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Basque Country UPV/EHU, Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    We discuss how Type Ia supernovae (SNe) strongly magnified by foreground galaxy clusters should be self-consistently treated when used in samples fitted for the cosmological parameters. While the cluster lens magnification of a SN can be well constrained from sets of multiple images of various background galaxies with measured redshifts, its value is typically dependent on the fiducial set of cosmological parameters used to construct the mass model. In such cases, one should not naively demagnify the observed SN luminosity by the model magnification into the expected Hubble diagram, which would create a bias, but instead take into account the cosmological parameters a priori chosen to construct the mass model. We quantify the effect and find that a systematic error of typically a few percent, up to a few dozen percent per magnified SN may be propagated onto a cosmological parameter fit unless the cosmology assumed for the mass model is taken into account (the bias can be even larger if the SN is lying very near the critical curves). We also simulate how such a bias propagates onto the cosmological parameter fit using the Union2.1 sample supplemented with strongly magnified SNe. The resulting bias on the deduced cosmological parameters is generally at the few percent level, if only few biased SNe are included, and increases with the number of lensed SNe and their redshift. Samples containing magnified Type Ia SNe, e.g., from ongoing cluster surveys, should readily account for this possible bias.

  10. On the consistency of universally non-minimally coupled $f(R,T,R_{??}T^{??})$ theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismael Ayuso; Jose Beltran Jimenez; Alvaro de la Cruz Dombriz

    2015-05-14

    We discuss the consistency of a recently proposed class of theories described by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the trace of the energy-momentum tensor and the contraction of the Ricci tensor with the energy-momentum tensor. We briefly discuss the limitations of including the energy-momentum tensor in the action, as it is a non fundamental quantity, but a quantity that should be derived from the action. The fact that theories containing non-linear contractions of the Ricci tensor usually leads to the presence of pathologies associated with higher-order equations of motion will be shown to constrain the stability of this class of theories. We provide a general framework and show that the conformal mode for these theories generally has higher-order equations of motion and that non-minimal couplings to the matter fields usually lead to higher-order equations of motion. In order to illustrate such limitations we explicitly study the cases of a canonical scalar field, a K-essence field and a massive vector field. Whereas for the scalar field cases it is possible to find healthy theories, for the vector field case the presence of instabilities is unavoidable.

  11. Consistent Multigroup Theory Enabling Accurate Course-Group Simulation of Gen IV Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahnema, Farzad; Haghighat, Alireza; Ougouag, Abderrafi

    2013-11-29

    The objective of this proposal is the development of a consistent multi-group theory that accurately accounts for the energy-angle coupling associated with collapsed-group cross sections. This will allow for coarse-group transport and diffusion theory calculations that exhibit continuous energy accuracy and implicitly treat cross- section resonances. This is of particular importance when considering the highly heterogeneous and optically thin reactor designs within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) framework. In such reactors, ignoring the influence of anisotropy in the angular flux on the collapsed cross section, especially at the interface between core and reflector near which control rods are located, results in inaccurate estimates of the rod worth, a serious safety concern. The scope of this project will include the development and verification of a new multi-group theory enabling high-fidelity transport and diffusion calculations in coarse groups, as well as a methodology for the implementation of this method in existing codes. This will allow for a higher accuracy solution of reactor problems while using fewer groups and will reduce the computational expense. The proposed research represents a fundamental advancement in the understanding and improvement of multi- group theory for reactor analysis.

  12. About consistence between pi N Delta spin-3/2 gauge couplings and electromagnetic gauge invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Badagnani; C. Barbero; A. Mariano

    2015-03-05

    We analyze the consistence between the recently proposed "spin 3/2 gauge" interaction for the Delta resonance with nucleons and pions, and the fundamental electromagnetic gauge invariance in any radiative amplitude. Chiral symmetric pion-derivative pi N Delta couplings can be substituted through a linear transformation to get Delta-derivative ones, which have the property of decoupling the 1/2 field components of the Delta propagator. Nevertheless, the electromagnetic gauge invariance introduced through minimal substitution in all derivatives, can only be fulfilled at a given order n without destroying the spin 3/2 one by dropping n+1 order terms within an effective field theory (EFT) framework with a defined power counting. In addition, we show that the Ward identity for the gamma Delta gamma vertex cannot be fulfilled with a trimmed 3/2 propagator, which should be necessary in order to keep the spin 3/2 gauge symmetry in the radiative case for the gamma Delta gamma amplitude. Finally, it is shown that radiative corrections of the spin 3/2 gauge strong vertexes at one loop, reintroduce the conventional interaction.

  13. Universal consistent truncation for 6d/7d gauge/gravity duals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achilleas Passias; Andrea Rota; Alessandro Tomasiello

    2015-06-17

    Recently, AdS_7 solutions of IIA supergravity have been classified; there are infinitely many of them, whose expression is known analytically, and with internal space of S^3 topology. Their field theory duals are six-dimensional (1,0) SCFT's. In this paper we show that for each of these AdS_7 solutions there exists a consistent truncation from massive IIA supergravity to minimal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions. This theory has an SU(2) gauge group, and a single scalar, whose value is related to a certain distortion of the internal S^3. This explains the universality observed in recent work on AdS_5 and AdS_4 solutions dual to compactifications of the (1,0) SCFT_6's. Thanks to previous work on the minimal gauged supergravity, the truncation also implies the existence of holographic RG-flows connecting those solutions to the AdS_7 vacuum, as well as new classes of IIA AdS_3 solutions.

  14. Universal consistent truncation for 6d/7d gauge/gravity duals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passias, Achilleas; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, AdS_7 solutions of IIA supergravity have been classified; there are infinitely many of them, whose expression is known analytically, and with internal space of S^3 topology. Their field theory duals are six-dimensional (1,0) SCFT's. In this paper we show that for each of these AdS_7 solutions there exists a consistent truncation from massive IIA supergravity to minimal gauged supergravity in seven dimensions. This theory has an SU(2) gauge group, and a single scalar, whose value is related to a certain distortion of the internal S^3. This explains the universality observed in recent work on AdS_5 and AdS_4 solutions dual to compactifications of the (1,0) SCFT_6's. Thanks to previous work on the minimal gauged supergravity, the truncation also implies the existence of holographic RG-flows connecting those solutions to the AdS_7 vacuum, as well as new classes of IIA AdS_3 solutions.

  15. On the Consistency of QCBED Structure Factor Measurements for TiO2 (Rutile)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Friis, Jesper; Spence, John C.H.

    2003-09-16

    The same Bragg reflection in TiO2 from twelve different CBED patterns (from different crystals, orientations and thicknesses) are analysed quantitatively in order to evaluate the consistency of the QCBED method for bond-charge mapping. The standard deviation in the resulting distribution of derived X-ray structure factors is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than that in conventional X-ray work , and the standard error (0.026% for FX(110)) is slightly better than obtained by the X-ray Pendellosung method applied to silicon. This is sufficiently accuracy to distinguish between atomic, covalent and ionic models of bonding. We describe the importance of extracting experimental parameters from CCD camera characterization, and of surface oxidation and crystal shape. The current experiments show that the QCBED method is now a robust and powerful tool for low order structure factor measurement, which does not suffer from the large extinction (multiple scattering) errors which occur in inorganic X-ray crystallography, and may be applied to nanocrystals. Our results will be used to understand the role of d electrons in the chemical bonding of TiO2.

  16. Cosmic ray electrons, positrons and the synchrotron emission of the Galaxy: consistent analysis and implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardo, Giuseppe Di [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Evoli, Carmelo [II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Gaggero, Daniele [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Grasso, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Siena, Via Roma 56, I-56100 Siena (Italy); Maccione, Luca, E-mail: giuseppe.dibernardo@physics.gu.se, E-mail: carmelo.evoli@desy.de, E-mail: dgaggero@sissa.it, E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it, E-mail: luca.maccione@lmu.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    A multichannel analysis of cosmic ray electron and positron spectra and of the diffuse synchrotron emission of the Galaxy is performed by using the DRAGON code. This study is aimed at probing the interstellar electron source spectrum down to E ?< 1GeV and at constraining several propagation parameters. We find that above 4GeV the e{sup ?} source spectrum is compatible with a power-law of index ? 2.5. Below 4GeV instead it must be significantly suppressed and the total lepton spectrum is dominated by secondary particles. The positron spectrum and fraction measured below a few GeV are consistently reproduced only within low reacceleration models. We also constrain the scale-height z{sub t} of the cosmic-ray distribution using three independent (and, in two cases, original) arguments, showing that values of z{sub t} ?< 2kpc are excluded. This result may have strong implications for particle dark matter searches.

  17. Community consistency determines the stability transition window of power-grid nodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heetae Kim; Sang Hoon Lee; Petter Holme

    2015-04-28

    The synchrony of electric power systems is important in order to maintain stable electricity supply. Recently, the measure basin stability was introduced to quantify a node's ability to recover its synchronization when perturbed. In this work, we focus on how basin stability depends on the coupling strength between nodes. We use the Chilean power grid as a case study. In general, basin stability goes from zero to one as coupling strength increases. However, this transition does not happen at the same value for different nodes. By understanding the transition for individual nodes, we can further characterize their role in the power-transmission dynamics. We find that nodes with an exceptionally large transition window also have a low community consistency. In other words, they are hard to classify to one community when applying a community detection algorithm. This also gives an efficient way to identify nodes with a long transition window (which is computationally time consuming). Finally, to corroborate these results, we present a stylized example network with prescribed community structures that captures the mentioned characteristics of basin stability transition and recreates our observations.

  18. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT B COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J

    2006-01-19

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is a leading candidate for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Therefore, the objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit B glass and perform additional testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit B composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and for additional performance testing at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The glass was characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL with varying exposed surface area and test durations. The leachates from these tests were analyzed to determine the dissolved concentrations of key elements. Acid stripping of leach vessels was performed to determine the concentration of the glass constituents that may have sorbed on the vessels during leach testing. Additionally, the leachate solutions were ultrafiltered to quantify colloid formation. The leached solids from select PCTs were examined in an attempt to evaluate the Pu and neutron absorber release behavior from the glass and to identify the formation of alteration phases on the glass surface. Characterization of the glass prior to testing revealed that some undissolved plutonium oxide was present in the glass. The undissolved particles had a disk-like morphology and likely formed via coarsening of particles in areas compositionally enriched in plutonium. Similar disk-like PuO{sub 2} phases were observed in previous LaBS glass testing at PNNL. In that work, researchers concluded that plutonium formed with this morphology as a result of the leaching process. It was more likely that the presence of the plutonium oxide crystals in the PNNL testing was a result of glass fabrication. A series of PCTs were conducted at 90 C in ASTM Type 1 water. The PCT-Method A (PCT-A) was conducted to compare the Pu LaBS Frit B glass durability to current requirements for High Level Waste (HLW) glass in a geologic repository. The PCT-A test has a strict protocol and is designed to specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of a nuclear waste glass have been consistently controlled during production and, thus, meet the repository acceptance requirements. The PCT-A results on the Pu containing LaBS Frit B glass showed that the glass was very durable with a normalized elemental release value for boron of approximately 0.02 g/L. This boron release value was better than two orders of magnitude better from a boron release standpoint than the current Environmental Assessment (EA) glass used for repository acceptance. The boron release value for EA glass is 16.7 g/L.

  19. Spatial consistency of Chinook salmon redd distribution within and among years in the Cowlitz River, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klett, Katherine J.; Torgersen, Christian; Henning, Julie; Murray, Christopher J.

    2013-04-28

    We investigated the spawning patterns of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha on the lower Cowlitz River, Washington (USA) using a unique set of fine- and coarse-scale 35 temporal and spatial data collected during bi-weekly aerial surveys conducted in 1991-2009 (500 m to 28 km resolution) and 2008-2009 (100-500 m resolution). Redd locations were mapped from a helicopter during 2008 and 2009 with a hand-held global positioning system (GPS) synchronized with in-flight audio recordings. We examined spatial patterns of Chinook salmon redd reoccupation among and within years in relation to segment-scale geomorphic features. Chinook salmon spawned in the same sections each year with little variation among years. On a coarse scale, five years (1993, 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2009) were compared for reoccupation. Redd locations were highly correlated among years resulting in a minimum correlation coefficient of 0.90 (adjusted P = 0.002). Comparisons on a fine scale (500 m) between 2008 and 2009 also revealed a high degree of consistency among redd locations (P < 0.001). On a finer temporal scale, we observed that salmon spawned in the same sections during the first and last week (2008: P < 0.02; and 2009: P < 0.001). Redds were clustered in both 2008 and 2009 (P < 0.001). Regression analysis with a generalized linear model at the 500-m scale indicated that river kilometer and channel bifurcation were positively associated with redd density, whereas sinuosity was negatively associated with redd density. Collecting data on specific redd locations with a GPS during aerial surveys was logistically feasible and cost effective and greatly enhanced the spatial precision of Chinook salmon spawning surveys.

  20. Is Modified Gravity Required by Observations? An Empirical Consistency Test of Dark Energy Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng Wang; Lam Hui; Morgan May; Zoltan Haiman

    2007-10-16

    We apply the technique of parameter-splitting to existing cosmological data sets, to check for a generic failure of dark energy models. Given a dark energy parameter, such as the energy density Omega_Lambda or equation of state w, we split it into two meta-parameters with one controlling geometrical distances, and the other controlling the growth of structure. Observational data spanning Type Ia Supernovae, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), galaxy clustering, and weak gravitational lensing statistics are fit without requiring the two meta-parameters to be equal. This technique checks for inconsistency between different data sets, as well as for internal inconsistency within any one data set (e.g., CMB or lensing statistics) that is sensitive to both geometry and growth. We find that the cosmological constant model is consistent with current data. Theories of modified gravity generally predict a relation between growth and geometry that is different from that of general relativity. Parameter-splitting can be viewed as a crude way to parametrize the space of such theories. Our analysis of current data already appears to put sharp limits on these theories: assuming a flat universe, current data constrain the difference Omega_Lambda(geom) - Omega_Lambda(grow) to be -0.0044 +/- 0.0058 (68% C.L.); allowing the equation of state w to vary, the difference w(geom) - w(grow) is constrained to be 0.37 +/- 0.37 (68% C.L.). Interestingly, the region w(grow) > w(geom), which should be generically favored by theories that slow structure formation relative to general relativity, is quite restricted by data already. We find w(grow) < -0.80 at 2 sigma. As an example, the best-fit flat Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model approximated by our parametrization lies beyond the 3 sigma contour for constraints from all the data sets.