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1

ASCAT Soil Moisture: An Assessment of the Data Quality and Consistency with the ERS Scatterometer Heritage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents a first comparison between remotely sensed surface soil moisture retrieved with the European Remote Sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2) scatterometer (SCAT) and the corresponding product provided by the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT)...

Vahid Naeimi; Zoltan Bartalis; Wolfgang Wagner

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions | Department of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Inherently Governmental Functions Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions Federal law prohibits contractors from performing "inherently governmental functions." This guidance...

3

2002 DOE Final Inherently Governmental and Commercial Activities...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 DOE Final Inherently Governmental and Commercial Activities Inventory 2002 DOE Final Inherently Governmental and Commercial Activities Inventory 2002 DOE Final Inherently...

4

Inherent freeze protection for solar water heaters  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of a method for protection of a solar collector from freezing is described. The method is shown to be technically and economically feasible. A prototype water heating system using the inherent freeze protection method was successfully operated during the winter of 1980 to 1981.

Jeter, S.M.; Leonaitis, L.L.; Leonaitis, L.L.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Solar Power and Me: The Inherent Advantages  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Grade Level: Grade Level: 8-12 Subjects: Math: Algebra I and II Length: 90 Minutes LESSON PLAN Solar Power and Me: The Inherent Advantages Solar Power and Me: The Inherent Advantages Northwest Halifax High School Solar Panels Littleton, NC Photo credit: Mike Beebe INTRODUCTION This is a uniquely interdisciplinary high school algebra and solar energy lesson geared toward an Algebra I-II class. It uses data from a 2.1-kilowatt photovoltaic solar panel system at a high school in rural North Carolina, historical energy statistics from the U.S. Energy Information Administrations (EIA) on solar and renewable energy growth in the U.S., and the financial savings accrued from a residential solar photovoltaic system to teach students the basics of renewable energy and best-fit regression

6

Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions Federal law prohibits contractors from performing "inherently governmental functions." This guidance is designed to provide the basic rules applicable to the Department. Specifically, it: (1) identifies general principles for determining whether a function is inherently governmental; (2) lists functions that have been specifically identified as inherently governmental by one or more sources of Federal law, (3) notes the special considerations applicable to Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs); and (4) offers recommended practices when using contractors' services. Microsoft Word - GC Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions _1-24-11_

7

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.  

SciTech Connect

Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Combination moisture and hydrogen getter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

Harrah, Larry A. (Albuquerque, NM); Mead, Keith E. (Peralta, NM); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Controlling moisture in houses  

SciTech Connect

Most moisture problems in homes in Canada and the Northern United States during the winter are related to too-high indoor humidity. Excessive moisture sourecs such as damp crawl spaces, and lack of ventilation cause this humidity problem. Exhaust fans or air-to-air heat exchangers can easily and economically provide sufficient ventilation.

TenWolde, A.; Suleski, J.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric moisture The moisture content of the air as indicated by several measurements including relative humidity, specific humidity, dewpoint, vapor pressure, water vapor mixing ratio, and water vapor density; note that precipitable water is a separate type. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

12

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture moisture ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture The moisture of the soil measured near the surface. This includes soil wetness and soil water potential. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AMC : Ameriflux Measurement Component CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems SOIL : Soil Measurement from the SGP SWATS : Soil Water and Temperature System SEBS : Surface Energy Balance System

13

Fiber optic moisture sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, R.R.

1984-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

14

Moisture, Microbes and Health  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

effects and their mechanisms. Prevalence studies have shown that half of the housing stock has signs of previous or present moisture faults, and the problems are also common in...

15

Roofing Moisture Tolerance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: A New Design Requirement A.O. Desjarlais and J.E. Christian, Oak Ridge National Laboratory N. A. Byars, University of North Carolina Charlotte This calculator performs the calculations described in Moisture Control in Low-Slope Roofing: A New Design Requirement. This calculator allows the roofing practitioner to determine if a roofing system design requires a vapor retarder or if the system can be modified to enhance its tolerance for small leaks. To use the calculator, simply supply the following information and click on the "Check Roof" button at the bottom of the form. Insulation Type and Thickness (in inches): Fiberboard Polyisocyanurate 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Layer 1 None Fiberboard Polyisocyanurate 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Layer 2

16

Moisture Control | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Moisture Control Moisture Control Moisture Control May 30, 2012 - 10:41am Addthis Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, more comfortable, and prevent mold growth. Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, more comfortable, and prevent mold growth. What does this mean for me? Moisture can support the growth of mold and mildew and can even rot structural members in extreme cases. Effective strategies for addressing moisture in your home will depend on your climate and how your home is constructed. How does it work? Moisture can enter a home as water vapor and as liquid water. Sealing air leaks and providing paths for liquid water to move away from the building can prevent moisture from causing health and comfort problems in your home.

17

Inherently Global Nature of Topological Charge Fluctuations in QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have recently presented evidence that in configurations dominating the regularized pure-glue QCD path integral, the topological charge density constructed from overlap Dirac operator organizes into an ordered space-time structure. It was pointed out that, among other properties, this structure exhibits two important features: it is low-dimensional and geometrically global, i.e. consisting of connected sign-coherent regions with local dimensions 1intense topological charge density. To the contrary, the susceptibility saturates only after the space-time regions with most intense fields are included, such that geometrically global structure is already formed. We demonstrate this result both at the fundamental level (full topological density) and at low energy (effective density). The drastic mismatch between the point of fluctuation saturation (~ 50% of space-time at low energy) and that of global structure formation (energy) indicates that the ordered space-time structure in topological charge is inherently global and that topological charge fluctuations in QCD cannot be understood in terms of individual localized pieces. Description in terms of global brane-like objects should be sought instead.

I. Horvath; A. Alexandru; J. B. Zhang; Y. Chen; S. J. Dong; T. Draper; F. X. Lee; K. F. Liu; N. Mathur; S. Tamhankar; H. B. Thacker

2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

18

The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission: Overview  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. Its mission design consists of L-band ...

O'Neill, Peggy

19

General Counsel's Office Issues Guidance on Inherently Governmental  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

General Counsel's Office Issues Guidance on Inherently General Counsel's Office Issues Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions General Counsel's Office Issues Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions February 4, 2011 - 5:52pm Addthis Today, the Office of the General Counsel issued guidance on the federal prohibition against contractors performing inherently governmental functions. The guidance sets out the basic rules for what contactors can and cannot do and provides best practices for federal DOE employees when using contractor services. Since 2009, the General Counsel's office has made available on its websitenon-privileged legal guidance on topics ranging from contractor relations to standards of conduct to information law. Doing so helps to ensure that the Department's authoritative legal guidance is readily available to all who may need it

20

Disky: a DIY Rotational Interface with Inherent Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disky: a DIY Rotational Interface with Inherent Dynamics Karl Yerkes University of California dynamics, DIY 1. INTRODUCTION We describe Disky, a USB turntable controller, as a do- it-yourself project

California at Santa Barbara, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Moisture Metrics Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

Schuchmann, Mark

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Precision moisture generation and measurement.  

SciTech Connect

In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Moisture Control | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

water. Sealing air leaks and providing paths for liquid water to move away from the building can prevent moisture from causing health and comfort problems in your home....

24

Modeling and application of soil moisture at varying spatial scales with parameter scaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dissertation focuses on characterization of subpixel variability within a satellite-based remotely sensed coarse-scale soil moisture footprint. The underlying heterogeneity of coarse-scale soil moisture footprint is masked by the area-integrated properties within the sensor footprint. Therefore, the soil moisture values derived from these measurements are an area average. The variability in soil moisture within the footprint is introduced by inherent spatial variability present in rainfall, and geophysical parameters (vegetation, topography, and soil). The geophysical parameters/variables typically interact in a complex fashion to make soil moisture evolution and dependent processes highly variable, and also, introduce nonlinearity across spatio-temporal scales. To study the variability and scaling characteristics of soil moisture, a quasi-distributed Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) modeling framework is developed to simulate the hydrological dynamics, i.e., the fluxes and the state variables within the satellite-based soil moisture footprint. The modeling framework is successfully tested and implemented in different hydroclimatic regions during the research. New multiscale data assimilation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques in conjunction with the SVAT modeling framework are developed to quantify subpixel variability and assess multiscale soil moisture fields within the coarse-scale satellite footprint. Reasonable results demonstrate the potential to use these techniques to validate multiscale soil moisture data from future satellite mission e.g., Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission of NASA. The results also highlight the physical controls of geophysical parameters on the soil moisture fields for various hydroclimatic regions. New algorithm that uses SVAT modeling framework is also proposed and its application demonstrated, to derive the stochastic soil hydraulic properties (i.e., saturated hydraulic conductivity) and surface features (i.e., surface roughness and volume scattering) related to radar remote sensing of soil moisture.

Das, Narendra Narayan

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

Forsberg, C.W.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

MOISTURE MONITOR TESTING AND CALIBRATION  

SciTech Connect

ABS>Electrolytic moisture monitors which continuously analyze the moisture content of gases are commercially available. After a period of operation, these instruments may give erroneous readings, frequently because of damage to the electrolytic cell. A gas with a known and reproducible moisture content within the operating range would be useful for making operational response tests on these monltors and for checking their calibration. A paired- hydrate system of a chemical compound exhibits a water vapor pressure that is constant at a constant temperature. ff an unreactive gas is allowed to equilibrate with a paired-hydrate system, the moisture content of the gas is determined by the vapor pressure of the hydrate pair, the total pressure, and the temperature. Hydrated magnesium perchlorate was prepared which contained between four and six moles of water per mole of perchlorate. This material was pulverized lightly then packed into a stainless steel column and 100 cc/minute of air at atmospheric pressure was passed through the bed. The exit air from the column was analyzed with a moisture monitor. A gas residence time of two minutes in the column was found to be sufficient for establishing moisture equilibrium in the exit flow. The moisture content of the exit air was found to vary from 34 to 70 ppm by volume as the temperature of the paired-hydrate system varied from 20 to 28 un. Concent 85% C. Other paired-hydrate systems can extend this range to higher moisture levels. (auth)

Montgomery, C.D.; Googin, J.M.; Phillips, L.R.

1963-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

27

Moisture Tendency Equations in a Tropical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct diagnostic evaluation of the moisture tendency in the moisture equation is very difficult in practice because two poorly measured terms, moisture convergence and precipitation, dominate the equation. Using the near constancy in space and ...

C. López Carrillo; D. J. Raymond

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Foundation and Moisture Control Research Project | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into building foundation and moisture control technologies. Moisture is a significant market...

29

Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

moisture flux moisture flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil moisture flux A quantity measured according to the formula B = {lambda}(dq/dz), where {lambda} is the conductivity of the soil that the moisture is moving through. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems External Instruments ECMWFDIAG : European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

31

Moisture Advection Using Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces a moisture advection formulation that contains relative humidity. In the sigma coordinate system, rewriting the mixing ratio conservation equation in terms of relative humidity leads to an equation that explicitly contains ...

William H. Raymond

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Physics review on inherently safe features of ESBWR  

SciTech Connect

The scope of this physics review includes: 1) the major differences among ESBWR, ABWR and conventional BWR cores, 2) the reason why ESBWR operation is inherently safe based on stability analysis, 3) an innovative wide-blades control rod conceptual core design to reduce cost by reducing number of control rod drives by near 50% for a natural circulation BWR, and 4) an innovative top-entry control rod conceptual core design to take advantage of additional space in the chimney area in order to reduce the plant size and cost for a natural circulation BWR. (authors)

Chiang, R. T. [GE Nuclear Energy, 1989 Little Orchard Street, San Jose, CA 95125 (United States); Fawcett, R. M. [GNF, Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States); Cheung, Y. K.; Chung, A. K. [GE Nuclear Energy, 1989 Little Orchard Street, San Jose, CA 95125 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Soft arc consistency revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Valued Constraint Satisfaction Problem (VCSP) is a generic optimization problem defined by a network of local cost functions defined over discrete variables. It has applications in Artificial Intelligence, Operations Research, Bioinformatics and ... Keywords: Constraint optimization, Graphical model, Local consistency, Soft arc consistency, Soft constraints, Submodularity, Valued constraint satisfaction problem, Weighted constraint satisfaction problem

M. C. Cooper; S. de Givry; M. Sanchez; T. Schiex; M. Zytnicki; T. Werner

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

2002 DOE Final Inherently Governmental and Commercial Activities Inventory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 Inherently Governmental and Commercial Activities Inventory 2 Inherently Governmental and Commercial Activities Inventory 12/23/2002 10:51 AM Org Unit Additional Information 2002ID Agency Bureau Organization unit City StateCode Country Total FTEs FunctionCode Status ReasonCode ReasonSub_Code YrFirstOnInventory YearofCostComapre CIF/FTESavings EstAnnualSavings MEOPerfReview 444 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 15 K999 I 1999 452 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 R660 I 1999 436 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 Y220 I 1999 437 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 Y999 I 1999 438 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 T833 I 1999 439 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 R660 I 1999 440 019 05 AL KANSAS CITY MO US 1 K999 I 1999 441 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 3 K999 I 1999 434 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 Y150 I 1999 443 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 14 K999 I 1999 433 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 4 Y150 I 1999 445 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 1 K999 I 1999 446 019 05 AL ALBUQUERQUE NM US 3 K999 I 1999

35

REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mercury emission compliance is one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggests that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of the mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2} , followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the development and application of a kinetics model to the oxidation data developed in the present program and literature data under MSW conditions. The results indicate that the pathway Hg + Cl = HgCl followed by HgCl + HCl = HgCl{sub 2} + H predominates over Hg + Cl{sub 2} under high-temperature conditions. This primarily occurs because Cl{sub 2} concentrations are too low under the present conditions to contribute significantly.

John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

36

Galvanic battery. [tape wrapping to seal against moisture loss  

SciTech Connect

A galvanic battery comprises rigid battery components and a wrapping of insulating material. The wrapping consists of a length of thin, extensible plastic tape wound in successive laps under lengthwise stretch around the battery and having its outer end secured to a preceeding layer of tape. The tape in combination with the rigid battery components effectively seals the battery against loss of moisture.

Tamminen, P.J.

1962-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

CDIAC Atmospheric Moisture Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Moisture Atmospheric Moisture CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Atmospheric Moisture Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Extended Edited Synoptic Cloud Reports from Ships and Land Stations Over the Globe, 1952-2009 (CDIAC NDP-026C) C.J. Hahn, S.G. Warren, and R. Eastman Six-hourly synoptic observations of dew point depression (combined with air temperature) Land 1971-2009; Ocean 1952-2008 Regional Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data Type/Format Period of Record Six- and Three-Hourly Meteorological Observations from 223 Former U.S.S.R. Stations (CDIAC NDP-048) V. Razuvaev et al. Surface stations; 6- and 3-hourly observations of relative humidity, vapor pressure, humidity deficit, and dew point temperature Varies by station; through 2000

38

THERMALLY SHIELDED MOISTURE REMOVAL DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is presented for removing moisture from the air within tanks by condensation upon a cartridge containing liquid air. An insulating shell made in two halves covers the cartridge within the evacuated system. The shell halves are hinged together and are operated by a system of levers from outside the tank with the motion translated through a sylphon bellows to cover and uncover the cartridge. When the condensation of moisture is in process, the insulative shell is moved away from the liquid air cartridge, and during that part of the process when there is no freezing out of moisture, the shell halves are closed on the cell so thnt the accumulated frost is not evaporated. This insulating shell greatly reduces the consumption of liquid air in this condensation process.

Miller, O.E.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

39

Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

The Global Soil Moisture Data Bank  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture is an important variable in the climate system. Understanding and predicting variations of surface temperature, drought, and flood depend critically on knowledge of soil moisture variations, as do impacts of climate change and ...

Alan Robock; Konstantin Y. Vinnikov; Govindarajalu Srinivasan; Jared K. Entin; Steven E. Hollinger; Nina A. Speranskaya; Suxia Liu; A. Namkhai

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Effects of Cumulus Moisture Transports on the Simulation of Climate with a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid cumulus parameterization was developed to study the effects of cumulus heat and moisture transports on climate simulations. This parameterization consists of a cumulus mass flux representation of the convective fluxes of heat and ...

Bruce A. Albrecht; V. Ramanathan; Byron A. Boville

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Designing for Absolute Moisture Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rarely is an industry trade journal published without at least one article included concerning the topic of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) or the related Sick Building Syndrome (SBI). Whether the subject of the article is a school, an office building or a public assembly building, chances are the origin of the IAQ problems stem from excessive moisture in the space. Excessive moisture in the space can either come from water damage (leaking pipes or poor integrity of the building envelope), or it comes from uncontrolled, excessive humidity in the space. This paper pertains to the latter of these two sources. With the air conditioning technologies available, and the published design data available through ASHRAE today, appropriate HVAC systems can be designed to adequately control not just the temperature in the spaces, but also the humidity.

Nunnelly, R. M.; Fex, J. P.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences Using Inherent Safety Principles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sodium-cooled fast reactors are designed to have a high level of safety. Events of high probability of occurrence are typically handled without consequence through reliable engineering systems and good design practices. For accidents of lower probability, the initiating events are characterized by larger and more numerous challenges to the reactor system, such as failure of one or more major engineered systems and can also include a failure to scram the reactor in response. As the initiating conditions become more severe, they have the potential for creating serious consequences of potential safety significance, including fuel melting, fuel pin disruption and recriticality. If the progression of such accidents is not mitigated by design features of the reactor, energetic events and dispersal of radioactive materials may result. For severe accidents, there are several approaches that can be used to mitigate the consequences of such severe accident initiators, which typically include fuel pin failures and core disruption. One approach is to increase the reliability of the reactor protection system so that the probability of an ATWS event is reduced to less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year, where larger accident consequences are allowed, meeting the U.S. NRC goal of relegating such accident consequences as core disruption to these extremely low probabilities. The main difficulty with this approach is to convincingly test and guarantee such increased reliability. Another approach is to increase the redundancy of the reactor scram system, which can also reduce the probability of an ATWS event to a frequency of less than 1 x 10-6 per reactor year or lower. The issues with this approach are more related to reactor core design, with the need for a greater number of control rod positions in the reactor core and the associated increase in complexity of the reactor protection system. A third approach is to use the inherent reactivity feedback that occurs in a fast reactor to automatically respond to the change in reactor conditions and to result in a benign response to these events. This approach has the advantage of being relatively simple to implement, and does not face the issue of reliability since only fundamental physical phenomena are used in a passive manner, not active engineered systems. However, the challenge is to present a convincing case that such passive means can be implemented and used. The purpose of this paper is to describe this third approach in detail, the technical basis and experimental validation for the approach, and the resulting reactor performance that can be achieved for ATWS events.

R. A. Wigeland; J. E. Cahalan

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Flour moisture control for maximum water addition.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis examines flour moisture control and how this control can be an effective tool for cost minimization in a flour mill. Specifically, this thesis… (more)

Bontrager, Chad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Concept of an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor  

SciTech Connect

As the challenge to ensure no harmful release of radioactive materials at the accidents by deterministic approach instead to satisfy acceptance criteria or safety goal for risk by probabilistic approach, new concept of advanced reactor, an inherently-safe high temperature gas-cooled reactor, is proposed based on the experience of the operation of the actual High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) in Japan, High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), and the design of the commercial plant (GTHTR300), utilizing the inherent safety features of the HTGR (i.e., safety features based on physical phenomena). The safety design philosophy of the inherently-safe HTGR for the safety analysis of the radiological consequences is determined as the confinement of radioactive materials is assured by only inherent safety features without engineered safety features, AC power or prompt actions by plant personnel if the design extension conditions occur. Inherent safety features to prevent the loss or degradation of the confinement function are identified. It is proposed not to apply the probabilistic approach for the evaluation of the radiological consequences of the accidents in the safety analysis because no inherent safety features fail for the mitigation of the consequences of the accidents. Consequently, there are no event sequences to harmful release of radioactive materials if the design extension conditions occur in the inherently-safe HTGR concept. The concept and future R and D items for the inherently-safe HTGR are described in this paper.

Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Masuro [Nuclear Hydrogen and Heat Application Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki-ken, 311-1394 (Japan)

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

46

Influence of Solar-ProbeInherent Atmosphereon In-Situ Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for different options), the power of solar emissions can reach 60-400 W/cm2. The spacecraft would be protectedInfluence of Solar-ProbeInherent Atmosphereon In-Situ Observations A. Hassanein Argonne National document. #12;Influence of Solar-Probe Inherent Atmosphere on In-Situ Observations A. Hassanein*, A. I

Harilal, S. S.

47

Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

48

Microsoft Word - GC Guidance on Inherently Governmental Functions _1-24-11_  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GC GUIDANCE ON INHERENTLY GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS GC GUIDANCE ON INHERENTLY GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS Federal law prohibits contractors from performing "inherently governmental functions." But determining which functions may be performed by contractors - and which may not - is not always self-evident. The rules are complex and the lines that must be drawn are often quite fine. This can be particularly vexing in an agency like the Department of Energy where contractors perform so many important functions. This guidance is designed to provide the basic rules applicable to the Department. Specifically, it: (1) identifies general principles for determining whether a function is inherently governmental; (2) lists functions that have been specifically identified as inherently governmental by one or more sources of Federal law, (3) notes the

49

Moisture-induced embrittlement of iron aluminides. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FeAl alloys {ge}24 at. %Al are H embrittled by both H2 gas and water vapor. This examines effect of H embrittlement by H2 gas and moisture-bearing air on tensile properties and fatigue crack growth resistance of two ordered FeAl intermetallic alloys (28, 36 at. % Al) and one disordered Fe-Al alloy (16 at. % Al). Susceptibility to embrittlement varies with both Al content and ordered state. Tensile ductility of disordered low Al alloy is not affected by moisture-bearing air, and fatigue crack growth resistance is affected only slightly by moisture. However, the higher Al alloys are severely embrittled by moisture-bearing air. Oxidation of Al with concurrent release of H2 is responsible for embrittlement of Fe3Al alloys. It is likely that the smaller amount of Al available for the oxidation reaction in the 16at. % alloy precludes such embrittling reactions. In contrast, H2 is found to be embrittling to all alloys in both cyclic and monotonic tests. Fractography shows that H2 preferentially attacks cleavage planes in these alloys. Inherent fatigue crack growth resistance in an inert environment of the low Al disordered alloy is found to be much lower than that for the high Al alloys. Fatigue crack growth rate in an embrittling environment can be expressed as superposed mechanical fatigue and corrosion-fatigue components. Fatigue crack growth tests in inert and embrittling environments are used to isolate corrosion fatigue of the crack growth rate in Fe-28at. %Al. The corrosion-fatigue component displays a frequency dependence: At lower frequencies, more time is available for penetration of H ahead of the crack tip. H transport in the Fe-Al alloys occurs primarily by dislocation-assisted transport, which allows for penetration depths of 10-100x the distance that can be achieved by bulk diffusion. An equation is developed for the corrosion-fatigue component of crack growth rate which includes stress intensity range and frequency dependence.

Castagna, A.; Stoloff, N.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Soil Moisture: Empirical Data and Model Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique dataset of soil moisture in the upper 1-m soil layer at sites with natural plant cover in the Soviet Union is compared to simulations of soil moisture for the present climate by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Oregon State ...

K. Ya Vinnikov; I. B. Yeserkepova

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

A Soil Moisture Climatology of Illinois  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ten years of soil moisture measurements (biweekly from March through September and monthly during winter) within the top 1 m of soil at 17 grass-covered sites across Illinois are analyzed to provide a climatology of soil moisture for this ...

Steven E. Hollinger; Scott A. Isard

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Soil Moisture Modeling Based on Multiyear Observations in the Sahel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two simple soil moisture models useful for drought monitoring and climate change studies were proposed, based on 4-yr ground observations of root-zone soil moisture in Sahelian Niger. One is a water balance model that calculates soil moisture ...

Y. Yamaguchi; M. Shinoda

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Coupled Soil Moisture and Surface Temperature Prediction Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for soil moisture and soil surface temperature prediction for bare soil is considered in this paper. In describing evaporation rate. soil structure and moisture were taken into account as much as possible. Soil moisture prediction was ...

F. Ács; D. T. Mihailovi?; B. Rajkovi?

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

The Measurement of the Moisture Concentration of Selected Test...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Measurement of the Moisture Concentration of Selected Test Model Ore Zones (April 1977) The Measurement of the Moisture Concentration of Selected Test Model Ore Zones (April...

56

A solution to the inherent list on Nimitz class aircraft carriers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nimitz class aircraft carriers possess an inherent list to starboard that their list control systems (LCS) are typically unable to correct while under Combat Load Conditions. As a result, it has become necessary to use ...

Wolfson, Dianna

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Large inherent optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The recent demonstration of Ge-on-Si diode lasers renews the interest in the unique carrier dynamics of Ge involving both direct (?) and indirect (L) valleys. Here, we report a large inherent direct gap optical gain ...

Wang, Xiaoxin

58

Illinois Soil Moisture under Sod Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term data collection of volumetric soil moisture under sod has been conducted in Illinois for more than 25 years. Numerous applied and modeling studies have been undertaken with these data, often relating results to regional conditions under ...

Robert W. Scott; Edward C. Krug; Stephen L. Burch

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of ...

Entekhabi, Dara

60

Wellbore stress distribution produced by moisture adsorption  

SciTech Connect

For this study, the authors evaluated the stress distribution produced by moisture adsorption around a wellbore by applying the mechanics of deformable solids. This paper shows that the moisture-adsorption process is governed by a diffusion equation and that the equations governing the moisture-induced stress around the hole are similar to those equations used in thermoelasticity. A computational method is developed for calculating the stress distribution around the borehole, and the experimental procedure for obtaining the material constants needed in the computation is presented. This paper also studies the effect of borehole pressure on the stress distribution around the hole. Results show that the magnitude and distribution of stresses around the borehole are very sensitive to the adsorption characteristics and the moisture-induced modulus change of the material.

Yew, C.H.; Chenevert, M.E.; Wang, C.L.; Osisanya, S.O. (Univ. of Texas, TX (US))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Mississippi Moisture Budgets on Regional Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two years of regional analyses based on the Eta Data Assimilation System (EDAS) are used to examine the mesoscale features of the moisture budgets of the Mississippi River basin and its subbasins. Despite the short period, basic aspects of the ...

Ernesto H. Berbery; Eugene M. Rasmusson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Heat and moisture transfer through clothing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. C. Eberhart (ed), Heat transfer in medicine and biology.Convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients for2008. Study of heat and moisture transfer within multi-layer

Voelker, Conrad; Hoffmann, Sabine; Kornadt, Oliver; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Soil Moisture Impacts on Convective Margins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An idealized prototype for the location of the margins of tropical land region convection zones is extended to incorporate the effects of soil moisture and associated evaporation. The effect of evaporation, integrated over the inflow trajectory ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; J. David Neelin

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

A Global Climatology of Tropical Moisture Exports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent paper, a climatology of tropical moisture exports (TMEs) to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) was constructed on the basis of 7-day forward trajectories, started daily from the tropical lower troposphere, which were required to reach a ...

Peter Knippertz; Heini Wernli; Gregor Gläser

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water balance considerations at the soil surface lead to an equation that relates the autocorrelation of soil moisture in climate models to 1) seasonality in the statistics of the atmospheric forcing, 2) the variation of evaporation with soil ...

Randal D. Koster; Max J. Suarez

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Causal consistency in mobile environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Causal consistency stipulates that causally dependent writes to data items should be executed in causal order. Traditionally this has been done by causally ordered message delivery using vector clocks. In a vector clock of size N, each element of the ... Keywords: causal consistency, collaboration, mobility, replication, vector clocks

D. Janaki Ram; M. Uma Mahesh; N. S. K. Chandra Sekhar; Chitra Babu

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Consistent Interaction Of Software Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constructing complex software systems by integrating different software components is a promising and challenging approach. With the functionality of software components given by models it is possible to ensure consistency of such models before implementation ...

Gregor Engels; Jochen M. Küuster; Luuk Groenwegen

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

The trouble with SMT consistency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

SMT typically models translation at the sentence level, ignoring wider document context. Does this hurt the consistency of translated documents? Using a phrase-based SMT system in various data conditions, we show that SMT translates documents remarkably ...

Marine Carpuat; Michel Simard

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Evaluation of Reanalysis Soil Moisture Simulations Using Updated Chinese Soil Moisture Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using 19 yr of Chinese soil moisture data from 1981 to 1999, the authors evaluate soil moisture in three reanalysis outputs: the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40); the National Centers for ...

Haibin Li; Alan Robock; Suxia Liu; Xingguo Mo; Pedro Viterbo

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Distributed programming and consistency: principles and practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, distributed programming has become a topic of widespread interest among developers. However, writing reliable distributed programs remains stubbornly difficult. In addition to the inherent challenges of distribution---asynchrony, concurrency, ...

Peter Alvaro; Neil Conway; Joseph M. Hellerstein

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Development of a hierarchical fuzzy model for the evaluation of inherent safety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inherent safety has been recognized as a design approach useful to remove or reduce hazards at the source instead of controlling them with add-on protective barriers. However, inherent safety is based on qualitative principles that cannot easily be evaluated and analyzed, and this is one of the major difficulties for the systematic application and quantification of inherent safety in plant design. The present research introduces the use of fuzzy logic for the measurement of inherent safety by proposing a hierarchical fuzzy model. This dissertation establishes a novel conceptual framework for the analysis of inherent safety and proposes a methodology that addresses several of the limitations of the methodologies available for current inherent safety analysis. This research proposes a methodology based on a hierarchical fuzzy model that analyzes the interaction of variables relevant for inherent safety and process safety in general. The use of fuzzy logic is helpful for modeling uncertainty and subjectivities implied in evaluation of certain variables and it is helpful for combining quantitative data with qualitative information. Fuzzy logic offers the advantage of being able to model numerical and heuristic expert knowledge by using fuzzy IF-THEN rules. Safety is traditionally considered a subjective issue because of the high uncertainty associated with its significant descriptors and parameters; however, this research recognizes that rather than subjective, "safety" is a vague problem. Vagueness derives from the fact that it is not possible to define sharp boundaries between safe and unsafe states; therefore the problem is a "matter of degree". The proposed method is computer-based and process simulator-oriented in order to reduce the time and expertise required for the analysis. It is expected that in the future, by linking the present approach to a process simulator, process engineers can develop safety analysis during the early stages of the design in a rapid and systematic way. Another important aspect of inherent safety, rarely addressed, is transportation of chemical substances; this dissertation includes the analysis of transportation hazard by truck using a fuzzy logic-based approach.

Gentile, Michela

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

73

Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

Kempe, M. D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

One-Dimensional Soil Moisture Profile Retrieval by Assimilation of Near-Surface Measurements: A Simplified Soil Moisture Model and Field Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Kalman filter assimilation technique is applied to a simplified soil moisture model for retrieval of the soil moisture profile from near-surface soil moisture measurements. First, the simplified soil moisture model is developed, based on an ...

Jeffrey P. Walker; Garry R. Willgoose; Jetse D. Kalma

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Archiving the relaxed consistency web  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The historical, cultural, and intellectual importance of archiving the web has been widely recognized. Today, all countries with high Internet penetration rate have established high-profile archiving initiatives to crawl and archive the fast-disappearing ... Keywords: consistency, digital preservation, social network, web archiving

Zhiwu Xie, Herbert Van de Sompel, Jinyang Liu, Johann van Reenen, Ramiro Jordan

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

On the exploitation of the inherent error resilience of wireless systems under unreliable silicon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the impact of circuit misbehavior due to parametric variations and voltage scaling on the performance of wireless communication systems. Our study reveals the inherent error resilience of such systems and argues that sufficiently ... Keywords: energy-efficiency, error-resiliency, memory failures, reliability, wireless communication systems, yield

Georgios Karakonstantis; Christoph Roth; Christian Benkeser; Andreas Burg

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Fast non-blocking atomic commit: an inherent trade-off  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the time-complexity of the non-blocking atomic commit (NBAC) problem in a synchronous distributed model where t out of n processes may fail by crashing. We exhibit for t ? 3 an inherent trade-off between ... Keywords: atomic commit, complexity, distributed algorithms

Partha Dutta; Rachid Guerraoui; Bastian Pochon

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Moisture transport in silica gel particle beds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A theoretical and experimental study of the performance of silica gel packed particle beds is described. A bench-scale test rig was used to obtain data for parameter values pertinent to solar air-conditioning applications. Both adsorption and desorption experiments were performed for Regular Density (RD) silica gel for a wide range of particle size. Adsorption data were also obtained for Intermediate Density (ID) gel. A model of heat and mass transfer in the bed was developed with special attention paid to the modeling of solid side resistance. For this latter purpose an extensive review of the available literature on moisture adsorption and moisture transport in silica gel was made. Both Knudsen and surface diffusion are found to be important mechanisms of moisture transport in Intermediate Density gels while surface diffusion is dominant in Regular Density gels. A general equation for moisture transport in a spherical silica gel particle was developed and was incorporated into the model equations governing heat and mass transfer between the gel particles and air flowing through a packed particle bed. A computer code DESICCANT was written to solve the coupled set of partial differential equations using a finite difference numerical method. The agreement between theory and experiment for adsorption on RD gel is satisfactory, and is somewhat better for the outlet water vapor concentration than for the outlet air temperature. The agreement for desorption from RD gel and adsorption to ID gel is satisfactory, but not as good as for adsorption on RD gel.

Pesaran, A.A.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

Bill Landman

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of the Effective Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-57441 January 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings J. Woods, J. Winkler, and D. Christensen National Renewable Energy Laboratory Prepared under Task No. BE12.0201

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Impact of Atmospheric Moisture Storage on Precipitation Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Computations of precipitation recycling using analytical models are generally performed under the assumption of negligible change in moisture storage in the atmospheric column. Because the moisture storage term is nonnegligible at smaller time ...

Francina Dominguez; Praveen Kumar; Xin-Zhong Liang; Mingfang Ting

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

New Soil Property Database Improves Oklahoma Mesonet Soil Moisture Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture data from the Oklahoma Mesonet are widely used in research efforts spanning many disciplines within Earth Sciences. These soil moisture estimates are derived by translating measurements of matric potential into volumetric water ...

Bethany L. Scott; Tyson E. Ochsner; Bradley G. Illston; Christopher A. Fiebrich; Jeffery B. Basara; Albert J. Sutherland

83

The Choice of Variable for Atmospheric Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The implications of using different control variables for the analysis of moisture observations in a global atmospheric data assimilation system are investigated. A moisture analysis based on either mixing ratio or specific humidity is prone to ...

Dick P. Dee; Arlindo M. da Silva

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Simulated Water Table and Soil Moisture Climatology Over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We demonstrate the link between two terrestrial water reservoirs: the root-zone soil moisture and the groundwater, and contribute our simulated climatologic water table depth and soil moisture fields over North America to the community. Because ...

Gonzalo Miguez-Macho; Haibin Li; Ying Fan

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Soil Moisture Feedbacks to Precipitation in Southern Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of increased soil moisture on wet season (October–March) precipitation in southern Africa are investigated using the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3). In the CTRL case, soil moisture is allowed to interact dynamically ...

Benjamin I. Cook; Gordon B. Bonan; Samuel Levis

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Mesoscale Monitoring of Soil Moisture across a Statewide Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture is an important component in many hydrologic and land–atmosphere interactions. Understanding the spatial and temporal nature of soil moisture on the mesoscale is vital to determine the influence that land surface processes have on ...

Bradley G. Illston; Jeffrey B. Basara; Christopher A. Fiebrich; Kenneth C. Crawford; Eric Hunt; Daniel K. Fisher; Ronald Elliott; Karen Humes

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Attribution of Seasonal and Regional Changes in Arctic Moisture Convergence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal changes in high-latitude moisture convergence simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model, version 3 (CCSM3) are investigated. Moisture convergence is calculated using the ...

Natasa Skific; Jennifer A. Francis; John J. Cassano

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Impact of Moisture Transport on the Release of Constituents ...  

12 December 2006 a.garrabrants@vanderbilt.edu 3 Moisture Transport Full Saturation Capillary Saturation Continuous Liquid Discontinuous Gas Transition ...

89

Grain Moisture Meter Technical Training - 2013-04-23  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain Moisture Meter Technical Training. Purpose: This seminar provides participants ... nist.gov. Technical Contact: G. Diane ...

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

90

Addressing network-on-chip router transient errors with inherent information redundancy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We exploit the inherent information redundancy in the control path of Network-on-Chip (NoC) routers to manage transient errors, preventing packet loss and misrouting. Outputs of the routing arbitration units in NoC routers can be used to determine arbitration ... Keywords: Networks-on-chip, arbiter, error control coding, information redundancy, on-chip interconnect, router, transient error, triple-modular redundancy

Qiaoyan Yu, Meilin Zhang, Paul Ampadu

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Process for treating moisture laden coal fines  

SciTech Connect

A process is provided for making a free flowing granular product from moisture laden caked coal fines, such as wet cake, by mixing a water immiscible substance, such as oil, with the caked coal, preferably under low shear forces for a period of time sufficient to produce a plurality of free flowing granules. Each granule is preferably comprised of a dry appearing admixture of one or more coal particle, 2-50% by weight water and the water immiscible substance.

Davis, Burl E. (New Kensington, PA); Henry, Raymond M. (Gibsonia, PA); Trivett, Gordon S. (South Surrey, CA); Albaugh, Edgar W. (Birmingham, AL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem  

SciTech Connect

In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

94

Integrating Chemical Hazard Assessment into the Design of Inherently Safer Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reactive hazard associated with chemicals is a major safety issue in process industries. This kind of hazard has caused the occurrence of many accidents, leading to fatalities, injuries, property damage and environment pollution. Reactive hazards can be eliminated or minimized by applying Inherently Safer Design (ISD) principles such as "substitute" or "moderate" strategies. However, ISD would not be a feasible option for industry without an efficient methodology for chemical hazard assessment, which provides the technical basis for applying ISD during process design. In this research, a systematic chemical hazard assessment methodology was developed for assisting the implementation of ISD in the design of inherently safer process. This methodology incorporates the selection of safer chemicals and determination of safer process conditions, which correspond to "substitute" and "moderate" strategies in ISD. The application of this methodology in conjunction with ISD technique can effectively save the time and investment spent on the process design. As part of selecting safer chemicals, prediction models were developed for predicting hazardous properties of reactive chemicals. Also, a hazard index was adopted to rate chemicals according to reactive hazards. By combining the prediction models with the hazard index, this research can provide important information on how to select safer chemicals for the processes, which makes the process chemistry inherently safer. As part of determining safer process conditions, the incompatibility of Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKPO) with iron oxide was investigated. It was found that iron oxide at low levels has no impact on the reactive hazards of MEKPO as well as the operational safety. However, when iron oxide is beyond 0.3 wt%, it starts to change the kinetics of MEKPO runaway reaction and even the reaction mechanism. As a result, with the presence of a certain level of iron oxide (> 0.3 wt%), iron oxide can intensify the reactive hazards of MEKPO and impose higher risk to process operations. The investigation results can help to determine appropriate materials for fabricating process equipment and safer process conditions.

Lu, Yuan

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Moisture Control Handbook: New, low-rise, residential construction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moisture problems are prevalent all over North America, almost independent of climate. They are viewed as one of the single largest factors limiting the useful service life of a building. Elevated levels of moisture in buildings also can lead to serious health effects for occupants. Until recently, very little consensus on moisture control existed in the building community. The information available was typically incomplete, contradictory, usually limited to specific regions, and in many cases misleading. A need to develop a document which presented the issues relating to moisture from a building science or ``systems`` approach existed. This handbook attempts to fill that need and illustrates that energy-efficient, tight envelope design is clearly part of the solution to healthy buildings when interior relative humidity, temperature, and pressure are controlled simultaneously. The first three chapters of the handbook present the basic principles of moisture problems and solutions in buildings. Chapter 1 -- Mold, Mildew, and Condensation, examines surface moisture problems. Chapter 2 -- Moisture Movement, examines how building assemblies get wet from both the exterior and interior. Chapter 3 -- Wetting and Drying of Building Assemblies, introduces the concepts of acceptable performance, moisture balance, and the redistribution of moisture within building assemblies. Chapters 4 through 6 apply the concepts outlined in the previous chapters and present specific moisture control practices for three basic US climate zones. The advantages and disadvantages of several wall, foundation, and roof assemblies are discussed for each climate zone.

Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corp., Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Carmody, J. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Underground Space Center

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Agricultural residues make up a large portion of the immediately available biomass feedstock for renewable energy markets. Current collection and storage methods rely on existing feed and forage practices designed to preserve nutrients and properties of digestibility. Low-cost collection and storage practices that preserve carbohydrates across a range of inbound moisture contents are needed to assure the economic and technical success of the emerging biomass industry. This study examines the movement of moisture in storage and identifies patterns of migration resulting from several on-farm storage systems and their impacts on moisture measurement and dry matter recovery. Baled corn stover and energy sorghum were stored outdoors in uncovered, tarp-covered, or wrapped stacks and sampled periodically to measure moisture and dry matter losses. Interpolation between discrete sampling locations in the stack improved bulk moisture content estimates and showed clear patterns of accumulation and re-deposition. Atmospheric exposure, orientation, and contact with barriers (i.e., soil, tarp, and wrap surfaces) were found to cause the greatest amount of moisture heterogeneity within stacks. Although the bulk moisture content of many stacks remained in the range suitable for aerobic stability, regions of high moisture were sufficient to support microbial activity, thus support dry matter loss. Stack configuration, orientation, and coverage methods are discussed relative to impact on moisture management and dry matter preservation. Additionally, sample collection and data analysis are discussed relative to assessment at the biorefinery as it pertains to stability in storage, queuing, and moisture carried into processing.

William A. Smith; Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney; Lynn M. Wendt

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Reducing the moisture content of clean coals  

SciTech Connect

Coal moisture content can profoundly effect the cost of burning coal in utility boilers. Because of the large effect of coal moisture, the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation (ESEERCO) contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute to investigate advanced coal dewatering methods at its Coal Quality Development Center. This report contains the test result on the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge, the second of four devices to be tested. The high-G solid-bowl centrifuge removes water for coal by spinning the coal/water mixture rapidly in a rotating bowl. This causes the coal to cling to the sides of the bowl where it can be removed, leaving the water behind. Testing was performed at the CQDC to evaluate the effect of four operating variables (G-ratio, feed solids concentration, dry solids feed rate, and differential RPM) on the performance of the high-G solid-bowl centrifuge. Two centrifuges of different bowl diameter were tested to establish the effect of scale-up of centrifuge performance. Testing of the two centrifuges occurred from 1985 through 1987. CQDC engineers performed 32 tests on the smaller of the two centrifuges, and 47 tests on the larger. Equations that predict the performance of the two centrifuges for solids recovery, moisture content of the produced coal, and motor torque were obtained. The equations predict the observed data well. Traditional techniques of establishing the performance of centrifuge of different scale did not work well with the two centrifuges, probably because of the large range of G-ratios used in the testing. Cost of operating a commercial size bank of centrifuges is approximately $1.72 per ton of clean coal. This compares well with thermal drying, which costs $1.82 per ton of clean coal.

Kehoe, D. (CQ, Inc., Homer City, PA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

SciTech Connect

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who  

SciTech Connect

The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Evaluation of moisture damage within asphalt concrete mixes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavements are a major part of the infrastructure in the United States. Moisture damage of these pavements is a significant problem. To predict and prevent this kind of moisture damage a great deal of research has been performed on this issue in past. This study validates an analytical approach based on surface energy aimed at assessing moisture damage. Two types of bitumen and three aggregates are evaluated in the study. The two types of bitumen represent very different chemical extremes and the three aggregates (a limestone, siliceous gravel, and granite) represent a considerable range in mineralogy. Moisture damage was monitered as a change in dynamic modulus with load cycles. The analysis demonstrates the need to consider mixture compliance as well as bond energy in order to predict moisture damage. Mixtures with the two types of bitumen and each aggregate with and without hydrated lime were evaluated. The hydrated lime substantially improved the resistance of the mixture to moisture damage.

Shah, Brij D.

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Investigation of SGP Atmospheric Moisture Budget for CLASIC ?...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of a recently completed investigation of the moisture budget over the Midwestern Corn Belt (Zangvil et al. 2001, 2004) This study will be expanded with * Extended seasons...

102

Investigation of Soil Moisture - Vegetation Interactions in Oklahoma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and-atmosphere interactions are an important component of climate, especially in semi-arid regions such as the Southern Great Plains. Interactions between soil moisture and vegetation modulate land-atmosphere coupling and thus represent a crucial, but not well understood climate factor. This study examines soil moisture-vegetation health interactions using both in situ observations and land surface model simulations. For the observational study, soil moisture is taken from 20 in situ Oklahoma Mesonet soil moisture observation sites, and vegetation health is represented by MODIS-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). For the modeling study, the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model is employed with two different vegetation parameterizations. The first is the model default vegetation parameter which is interannually-invariant leaf area index (LAI). This parameter is referred to as the control parameter. The second is MODIS-derived LAI, which captures interannual differences in vegetation health. Soil moisture simulations from both vegetation parameterizations are compared and the VIC-simulated soil moisture’s sensitivity to the vegetation parameters is also examined. Correlation results from the observation study suggest that soil moisture-vegetation interactions in Oklahoma are inconsistent, varying both in space and time. The modeling results show that using a vegetation parameterization that does not capture interannual vegetation health variability could potentially result in dry or wet biased soil moisture simulations.

Ford, Trenton W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

MOISTURE CONTROL METHODOLOGY FOR GAS PHASE COMPOST BIOFILTERS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gas phase biofilters are used for controlling odors from animal facilities. Some characteristics can affect their performance and moisture content is one very important. A… (more)

Dutra de Melo, Lucas

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Grain Moisture Air-Oven Reference Methods in the United ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Sunflower ground 50/50 with celite None (for moisture cor? rection of crude oil results Icing Mix Powder Triticale ? 16 % Lasagna ...

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Application of the Semi-Lagrangian Inherently Conserving and Efficient (SLICE) Transport Method to Divergent Flows on a C Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Local conservation with the Semi-Lagrangian Inherently Conserving and Efficient (SLICE) transport method with a new trajectory algorithm is studied. Validation results of 1D and 2D passive advection with this new algorithm, which converges twice ...

Ahmed Mahidjiba; Abdessamad Qaddouri; Jean Côté

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for Idaho, Other DOE Sites Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for...

107

Experimental thermal/moisture mapping of industrial safety helmets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the research on thermal/moisture mapping of typical industrial safety helmets using match-head-sized sensors. Three types of the industrial safety helmet were tested, one without ventilation openings, one with small ventilation holes ... Keywords: comfort, industrial helmet, micro climate, perception, thermal/moisture mapping

Z. W. Guan; A. R. Dullah; H. L. Zhou

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Moisture Management of High-R Walls (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

Not Available

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Soil Moisture Drought in China, 1950–2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four physically based land surface hydrology models driven by a common observation-based 3-hourly meteorological dataset were used to simulate soil moisture over China for the period 1950–2006. Monthly values of total column soil moisture from the ...

Aihui Wang; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Justin Sheffield

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

On the Nature of Soil Moisture in Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The soil moisture state simulated by a land surface model is a highly model-dependent quantity, meaning that the direct transfer of one model’s soil moisture into another can lead to a fundamental, and potentially detrimental, inconsistency. This ...

Randal D. Koster; Zhichang Guo; Rongqian Yang; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Kenneth Mitchell; Michael J. Puma

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls  

SciTech Connect

The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

CPAC moisture study: Phase 1 report on the study of optical spectra calibration for moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopic methods, combined with multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration modeling, to quantitatively predict the moisture content of the crust material in Hanford`s waste tank materials. Experiments were conducted with BY-104 simulant material for the 400--1100 nm (VIS), 1100--2500 (NIR), and 400-4000 cm{sup {minus}1}(IR) optical regions. The test data indicated that the NIR optical region, with a single PLS calibration factor, provided the highest accuracy response (better than 0.5 wt %) over a 0--25 wt % moisture range. Issues relating to the preparation of moisture samples with the BY-104 materials and the potential implementation within hot cell and waste tanks are also discussed. The investigation of potential material interferences, including physical and chemical properties, and the scaled demonstration of fiber optic and camera types of applications with simulated waste tanks are outlined as future work tasks.

Veltkamp, D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Center for Process Analytical Chemistry

1993-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

114

Inherent Prevention and Mitigation of Severe Accident Consequences in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect

Safety challenges for sodium-cooled fast reactors include maintaining core temperatures within design limits and assuring the geometry and integrity of the reactor core. Due to the high power density in the reactor core, heat removal requirements encourage the use of high-heat-transfer coolants such as liquid sodium. The variation of power across the core requires ducted assemblies to control fuel and coolant temperatures, which are also used to constrain core geometry. In a fast reactor, the fuel is not in the most neutronically reactive configuration during normal operation. Accidents leading to fuel melting, fuel pin failure, and fuel relocation can result in positive reactivity, increasing power, and possibly resulting in severe accident consequences including recriticalities that could threaten reactor and containment integrity. Inherent safety concepts, including favorable reactivity feedback, natural circulation cooling, and design choices resulting in favorable dispersive characteristics for failed fuel, can be used to increase the level of safety to the point where it is highly unlikely, or perhaps even not credible, for such severe accident consequences to occur.

Roald A. Wigeland; James E. Cahalan

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Inferring soil moisture memory from streamflow observations using a simple water balance model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture is known for its integrative behavior and resulting memory characteristics. Soil moisture anomalies can persist for weeks or even months into the future, making initial soil moisture a potentially important contributor to skill in ...

Rene Orth; Randal D. Koster; Sonia I. Seneviratne

117

Soil Moisture Memory in AGCM Simulations: Analysis of Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (GLACE) Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture memory is a key aspect of land–atmosphere interaction and has major implications for seasonal forecasting. Because of a severe lack of soil moisture observations on most continents, existing analyses of global-scale soil moisture ...

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Randal D. Koster; Zhichang Guo; Paul A. Dirmeyer; Eva Kowalczyk; David Lawrence; Ping Liu; David Mocko; Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Keith W. Oleson; Diana Verseghy

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Specifying memory consistency of write buffer multiprocessors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Write buffering is one of many successful mechanisms that improves the performance and scalability of multiprocessors. However, it leads to more complex memory system behavior, which cannot be described using intuitive consistency models, such as Sequential ... Keywords: Memory consistency framework, alpha, coherence, partial store order, relaxed memory order, sequential consistency, sparc multiprocessors, total store order, write-buffer architectures

Lisa Higham; Lillanne Jackson; Jalal Kawash

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Measuring consistency in TTL-based caches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a general modeling framework to evaluate the performance of cache consistency algorithms. In addition to the usual hit rate, we introduce the hit* rate as a consistency measure, which captures the fraction of non-stale downloads ... Keywords: TTL, bounds on the renewal function, cache consistency, renewal theory, stochastic modeling, web caching

Omri Bahat; Armand M. Makowski

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Moisture retention properties of a mycorrhizal soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The water relations of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants have been compared often, but virtually nothing is known about the comparative water relations of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soils. Mycorrhizal symbiosis typically affects soil structure, and soil structure affects water retention properties; therefore, it seems likely that mycorrhizal symbiosis may affect soil water relations. We examined the water retention properties of a Sequatchie fine sandy loam subjected to three treatments: seven months of root growth by (1) nonmycorrhizal Vigna unguiculata given low phosphorus fertilization, (2) nonmycorrhizal Vigna unguiculata given high phosphorus fertilization, (3) Vigna unguiculata colonized by Glomus intraradices and given low phosphorus fertilization. Mycorrhization of soil had a slight but significant effect on the soil moisture characteristic curve. Once soil matric potential (\\11m) began to decline, changes in \\II m per unit change in soil water content were smaller in mycorrhizal than in the two nonmycorrhizal soils. Within the range of about-1 to-5 MPa, the mycorrhizal soil had to dry more than the nonmycorrhizal soils to reach the same \\11m. Soil characteristic curves of non mycorrhizal soils were similar, whether they contained roots of plants fed high or low phosphorus. The mycorrhizal soil had significantly more water stable aggregates and substantially higher extraradical hyphal densities than the nonmycorrhizal soils. Importantly, we were able to factor out the possibly confounding influence of differential root growth among mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal

Robert M. Augel; Ann L. W. Stodola; Layme E. Tims; Arnold M. Saxton

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Evaluating the influence of antecedent soil moisture on variability of the North American Monsoon precipitation in the coupled MM5/VIC modeling system  

SciTech Connect

The influence of antecedent soil moisture on North American monsoon system (NAMS) precipitation variability was explored using the MM5 mesoscale model coupled with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model. Sensitivity experiments were performed with extreme wet and dry initial soil moisture conditions for both the 1984 wet monsoon year and the 1989 dry year. The MM5-VIC model reproduced the key features of NAMS in 1984 and 1989 especially over northwestern Mexico. Our modeling results indicate that the land surface has memory of the initial soil wetness prescribed at the onset of the monsoon that persists over most of the region well into the monsoon season (e.g. until August). However, in contrast to the classical thermal contrast concept, where wetter soils lead to cooler surface temperatures, less land-sea thermal contrast, weaker monsoon circulations and less precipitation, the coupled model consistently demonstrated a positive soil moisture – precipitation feedback. Specifically, anomalously wet premonsoon soil moisture always lead to enhanced monsoon precipitation, and the reverse was also true. The surface temperature changes induced by differences in surface energy flux partitioning associated with pre-monsoon soil moisture anomalies changed the surface pressure and consequently the flow field in the coupled model, which in turn changed moisture convergence and, accordingly, precipitation patterns. Both the largescale circulation change and local land-atmospheric interactions in response to premonsoon soil moisture anomalies play important roles in the coupled model’s positive soil moisture monsoon precipitation feedback. However, the former may be sensitive to the strength and location of the thermal anomalies, thus leaving open the possibility of both positive and negative soil moisture precipitation feedbacks.

Zhu, Chunmei; Leung, Lai R.; Gochis, David; Qian, Yun; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

2009-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

122

Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study of Moisture Damage Test Methods for Evaluatingart and Critical Review of Test Methods. ” NCAT Report No.Pavement Moisture-Damage Test. ” Transportation Research

Lu, Qing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Intergovernmental relations inherent in the Energy Management Partnership Act: a workshop on information requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results of the first of three workshops that were planned to assess the information needed by the Office of Conservation and Solar Energy (CS) to effectively evaluate the pending Energy Management Partnership Act (EMPA); the workshop concentrated on issues of the EMPA hierarchical partnership. The approach utilized offers two major benefits to CS. First, by considering the problem of program evaluation while EMPA is still in the planning stage, this study identifies any baseline information that should be collected prior to implementation of EMPA, and also provides CS with the opportunity to include evaluation considerations in the operating guidelines for the program. Second, by identifying the potential problems and benefits inherent in EMPA and then identifying the information necessary to evaluate these problems and benefits, information requirements tied to the reasons for needing that information are generated, rather than a long unrelated laundry list of information requirements. Drafting of EMPA is not yet complete. When the term EMPA is used here, it refers to a set of bills that are presently being melded together. The original EMPA bill, which originated in DOE, was designed to expand the role of state and local governments in achieving national energy goals. Specifically, EMPA would provide a total of $110 million annually to state and local governments over a five year period to (1) develop an overall state energy plan, (2) consolidate three existing federal energy grant programs, (3) allow the secretary to fund directly innovative projects at the local level, and (4) provide additional assistance to states to cover the administrative costs of existing energy programs. Other bills, which may be passed in conjuncttion with EMPA or incorporated into EMPA, place additional emphasis on the local level by allocating as much as $400 million annually to local governments.

Hoop, W.J.; Edelson, E.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Evaluation of the Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Estimating Moisture Buffering in Buildings  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model, and its suitability for building simulations. The EMPD model is a compromise between the simple, inaccurate effective capacitance approach and the complex, yet accurate, finite-difference approach. Two formulations of the EMPD model were examined, including the model used in the EnergyPlus building simulation software. An error in the EMPD model we uncovered was fixed with the release of EnergyPlus version 7.2, and the EMPD model in earlier versions of EnergyPlus should not be used.

Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Continuous reactor system results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process for converting high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous fuels. This system, in which thermocatalytic conversion takes place in an aqueous environment, was designed to overcome the problems usually encountered with high-water-content feedstocks. The process uses a reduced nickel catalyst at temperatures as low as 350{degree}C and pressures ranging from 2000 to 4000 psig -- conditions favoring the formation of gas consisting mostly of methane. The results of numerous batch tests showed that the system could convert feedstocks not readily converted by conventional methods. Fifteen tests were conducted in a continuous reactor system to further evaluate the effectiveness of the process for high-moisture biomass gasification and to obtain conversion rate data needed for process scaleup. During the tests, the complex gasification reactions were evaluated by several analytical methods. The results of these tests show that the heating value of the gas ranged from 400 to 500 Btu/scf, and if the carbon dioxide is removed, the product gas is pipeline quality. Conversion of the feedstocks was high. Engineering analysis indicates that, based on these results, a tubular reactor can be designed that should convert greater than 99% of the carbon fed as high-moisture biomass to a gaseous product in a reaction time of less than 11 min.

Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Butner, R.S.; Baker, E.G.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Soil Density/Moisture Gauge | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Soil Density/Moisture Gauge Soil Density/Moisture Gauge Soil Density/Moisture Gauge This scenario provides the planning instructions, guidance, and evaluation forms necessary to conduct an exercise involving a highway shipment of a soil moisture/density gauge (Class 7 - Radioactive). This exercise manual is one in a series of five scenarios developed by the Department of Energy Transportation Emergency Preparedness Program (TEPP). Responding agencies may include several or more of the following: local municipal and county fire, police, sheriff and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel; state, local, and federal emergency response teams; emergency response contractors; and other emergency response resources that could potentially be provided by the carrier and the originating facility (shipper).

128

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal March 11, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility. The DryFining(TM) technology was developed with funding from the first round of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). Great River Energy of Maple Grove, Minn., has selected the WorleyParsons Group to exclusively distribute licenses for the technology, which essentially uses waste heat from a power plant to reduce moisture content

129

GOES-VAS Simultaneous Temperature-Moisture Retrieval Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertical soundings of temperature and moisture derived from the GOES VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) measurements have been produced operationally since summer 1987 at the VAS Data Utilization Center (VDUC). The algorithm which was developed for ...

Christopher M. Hayden

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Global Energy and Moisture Budgets from Rawinsonde Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vertically integrated budgets of moisture and energy for the global atmosphere are presented, based on the GFDL 10-year rawinsonde data analyses of Oort. The extratropical free atmospheric mean wind divergence is derived from vorticity balance, ...

H. I. Savijärvi

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Soil Moisture Content: Statistical Estimation of Its Probability Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stochastic model for the estimation of soil moisture distribution is derived. The series of daily precipitation amounts is described as a chain-dependent process and the surface water balance equation is simplified so that the probability ...

T. Faragó

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Concerning the Relationship between Evapotranspiration and Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evapotranspiration observations have traditionally been scaled by potential evapotranspiration as a means of unifying the soil moisture-evapotranspiration relationship under a variety of meteorological conditions. However, this scaling alone does ...

Peter J. Wetzel; Jy-Tai Chang

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Atmospheric Moisture and Cloud Cover Characteristics Forecast by AMPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) forecasts of atmospheric moisture and cloud fraction (CF) are compared with observations at McMurdo and Amundsen–Scott South Pole station (hereafter, South Pole station) in Antarctica. Overall, it is ...

Ryan L. Fogt; David H. Bromwich

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Amazon Coastal Squall Lines. Part II: Heat and Moisture Transports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The column response to propagating deep convection over the central Amazon Basin is investigated with rawinsonde data from the Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2B). Heat and moisture budgets are calculated from a relatively small surface ...

Steven Greco; John Scala; Jeffrey Halverson; Harold L. Massie Jr.; Wei-Kuo Tao; Michael Garstang

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Determination of Moisture From NOAA Polar Orbiting Satellite Sounding Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for deducing lower troposphere moisture fields from radiances measured by the operational polar orbiting NOAA satellites. Statistical evaluation of the technique demonstrates the viability of the approach. A case study with ...

Christopher M. Hayden; William L. Smith; Harold M. Woolf

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Turbulent Moisture Measurements aboard Instrumented Aircraft with a Capacitive Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors show how a capacitive device measuring moisture can be used aboard instrumented atmospheric aircraft as an alternate sensor for turbulence measurement. Using a calibrated Lyman-? sensor as a reference, the time response of the ...

Pierre Durand; Gabriel Abadie; Aimé Druilhet

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Signature of the Annular Modes in the Moisture Budget  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mid- and high-latitude variations of mass and momentum, variously termed the Arctic and Antarctic oscillations and/or the Northern and Southern Annular Modes also have a signature in the moisture budget. This is investigated, using associated ...

G. J. Boer; S. Fourest; B. Yu

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Precipitation Recycling: Moisture Sources over Europe using ERA-40 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric moisture within a region is supplied by both local evaporation and advected from external sources. The contribution of local evaporation in a region to the precipitation in the same region is defined as “precipitation recycling.” ...

B. Bisselink; A. J. Dolman

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

The Moisture Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric moisture budget from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) is evaluated in polar regions for the period 1979–2005 and compared with previous estimates, accumulation syntheses over polar ice ...

Richard I. Cullather; Michael G. Bosilovich

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Mesoscale Moisture Analysis of the North American Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The regional circulations that contribute moisture to the large precipitation over northwestern Mexico, the core region of the North American monsoon, are investigated using three summer seasons (July–September 1995–97) of Eta Model mesoscale ...

Ernesto Hugo Berbery

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Overview of the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an overview of the Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX), including the field operations, aircraft platforms and missions, instrumentation, and data acquired during 1998 and 2001 field campaigns. A total of eight tropical ...

Ramesh Kakar; Michael Goodman; Robbie Hood; Anthony Guillory

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Moisture Measurements in Residential Attics Containing Radiant Barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Horizontal radiant barriers, rigorously tested during a typical Tennessee winter, allowed moisture to dissipate on a diurnal cycle and caused no structural, wet insulation, or stained-ceiling problems.

1989-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

143

Operational Soil Moisture Estimation for the Midwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An operational soil moisture monitoring capability for the midwestern United States is developed using a multilayer soil water balance model which incorporates daily weather data to calculate precipitation, soil evaporation, plant transpiration, ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Soil moisture modeling and scaling using passive microwave remote sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture in the shallow subsurface is a primary hydrologic state governing land-atmosphere interaction at various scales. The primary objectives of this study are to model soil moisture in the root zone in a distributed manner and determine scaling properties of surface soil moisture using passive microwave remote sensing. The study was divided into two parts. For the first study, a root zone soil moisture assessment tool (SMAT) was developed in the ArcGIS platform by fully integrating a one-dimensional vadose zone hydrology model (HYDRUS-ET) with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation capability. The tool was tested with dataset from the Southern Great Plain 1997 (SGP97) hydrology remote sensing experiment. Results demonstrated that SMAT displayed a reasonable capability to generate soil moisture distribution at the desired resolution at various depths of the root zone in Little Washita watershed during the SGP97 hydrology remote sensing experiment. To improve the model performance, several outstanding issues need to be addressed in the future by: including "effective" hydraulic parameters across spatial scales; implementing subsurface soil properties data bases using direct and indirect methods; incorporating appropriate hydrologic processes across spatial scales; accounting uncertainties in forcing data; and preserving interactions for spatially correlated pixels. The second study focused on spatial scaling properties of the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR)-based remotely sensed surface soil moisture fields in a region with high row crop agriculture. A wavelet based multi-resolution technique was used to decompose the soil moisture fields into larger-scale average soil moisture fields and fluctuations in horizontal, diagonal and vertical directions at various resolutions. The specific objective was to relate soil moisture variability at the scale of the PSR footprint (800 m X 800 m) to larger scale average soil moisture field variability. We also investigated the scaling characteristics of fluctuation fields among various resolutions. The spatial structure of soil moisture exhibited linearity in the log-log dependency of the variance versus scale-factor, up to a scale factor of -2.6 (6100 m X 6100 m) irrespective of wet and dry conditions, whereas dry fields reflect nonlinear (multi-scaling) behavior at larger scale-factors.

Das, Narendra N.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Summary of advanced LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor) evaluations: PRISM (Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module) and SAFR (Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed independent analyses of two advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) concepts. The designs, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) (Berglund, 1987) and the Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR) (Baumeister, 1987), were developed primarily by General Electric (GE) and Rockwell International (RI), respectively. Technical support was provided to DOE, RI, and GE, by the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), particularly with respect to the characteristics of the metal fuels. There are several examples in both PRISM and SAFR where inherent or passive systems provide for a safe response to off-normal conditions. This is in contrast to the engineered safety systems utilized on current US Light Water Reactor (LWR) designs. One important design inherency in the LMRs is the inherent shutdown'', which refers to the tendency of the reactor to transition to a much lower power level whenever temperatures rise significantly. This type of behavior was demonstrated in a series of unscrammed tests at EBR-II (NED, 1986). The second key design feature is the passive air cooling of the vessel to remove decay heat. These systems, designated RVACS in PRISM and RACS in SAFR, always operate and are believed to be able to prevent core damage in the event that no other means of heat removal is available. 27 refs., 78 figs., 3 tabs.

Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Kennett, R.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Kroeger, P.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A simplified model of saltcake moisture distribution. Letter report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This letter report describes the formulation of a simplified model for finding the moisture distribution in a saltcake waste profile that has been stabilized by pumping out the drainable interstitial liquid. The model is based on assuming that capillarity mainly governs the distribution of moisture in the porous saltcake waste. A stead upward flow of moisture driven by evaporation from the waste surface is conceptualized to occur for isothermal conditions. To obtain hydraulic parameters for unsaturated conditions, the model is calibrated or matched to the relative saturation distribution as measured by neutron probe scans. The model is demonstrated on Tanks 104-BY and 105-TX as examples. A value of the model is that it identifies the key physical parameters that control the surface moisture content in a waste profile. Moreover, the model can be used to estimate the brine application rate at the waste surface that would raise the moisture content there to a safe level. Thus, the model can be applied to help design a strategy for correcting the moisture conditions in a saltcake waste tank.

Simmons, C.S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Rapid determination of wood fuel moisture content using a microwave oven for drying  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining moisture content (MC) of wood fuel using a microwave oven for drying the wood was evaluated by drying paired samples of five different wood fuel types in a microwave oven and a conventional oven. When compared to the conventional oven drying method, the microwave technique produces consistently lower MC determinations, although the differences are less than 1 percent. The advantage of the microwave technique is the speed at which MC determinations can be determined (less than 15 minutes). Schedules for drying five wood fuel types are presented. (Refs. 7).

Harris, R.A.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Using CSP to verify sequential consistency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper shows how the theory of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) can be used to establish that a protocol guarantees sequential consistency. The protocol in question is an accepted design based upon lazy caching; it is an ideal example for ... Keywords: CSP, lazy caching protocol, sequential consistency, specification, verification

Gavin Lowe; Jim Davies

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Automated consistency checking of requirements specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes a formal analysis technique, called consistency checking, for automatic detection of errors, such as type errors, nondeterminism, missing cases, and circular definitions, in requirements specifications. The technique ... Keywords: application-independent properties, consistency checking, formal requirements modeling, software cost reduction methodology, tabular notations

Constance L. Heitmeyer; Ralph D. Jeffords; Bruce G. Labaw

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Use of Midlatitude Soil Moisture and Meteorological Observations to Validate Soil Moisture Simulations with Biosphere and Bucket Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture observations in sites with natural vegetation were made for several decades in the former Soviet Union at hundreds of stations. In this paper, the authors use data from six of these stations from different climatic regimes, along ...

Alan Robock; Konstantin Ya Vinnikov; C. Adam Schlosser; Nina A. Speranskaya; Yongkang Xue

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Analysis of Soil Moisture Changes in Europe during a Single Growing Season in a New ECMWF Soil Moisture Assimilation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study aims at stimulating the development of soil moisture data assimilation systems in a direction where they can provide both the necessary control of slow drift in operational NWP applications and support the physical insight in the ...

Bart van den Hurk; Janneke Ettema; Pedro Viterbo

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Chemically Consistent Evolutionary Synthesis Modelling of Galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present our chemically consistent GALEV Evolutionary Synthesis models for galaxies and point out differences to previous generations of models and their effects on the interpretation of local and high-redshift galaxy data.

Uta Fritze-von Alvensleben; Thorsten Tepper García

2006-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

153

Network assisted file system consistency checking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis reports on the design and implementation of Network Assisted NFSCK (or NAN), an extension to NFSCK, a research project about checking file system consistency at NetApp. NFSCK requires disk space to store temporary ...

Zehender, Nicholas (Nicholas G.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Contributions of Precipitation and Soil Moisture Observations to the Skill of Soil Moisture Estimates in a Land Data Assimilation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to soil moisture skill in a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (...

Qing Liu; Rolf H. Reichle; Rajat Bindlish; Michael H. Cosh; Wade T. Crow; Richard de Jeu; Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy; George J. Huffman; Thomas J. Jackson

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Synchrotron Infrared Spectroscopy with Multivariate Spectral Analyses Potentially Facilitates the Classification of Inherent Structures of Feed-Type of Sorghum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to investigate the inherent structural-chemical features of Chinese feed-type sorghum seed using synchrotron-radiation Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM) with two multivariate molecular spectral analysis techniques: Agglomerative Hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component analyses (PCA). The results show that by application of these two multivariate techniques with the infrared spectroscopy of the SRFTIRM, it makes possible to discriminate and classify the inherent molecular structural features among the different layers of sorghum with a great efficiency. With the SRFTIRM, images of the molecular chemistry of sorghum could be generated at an ultra-spatial resolution. The features of nutrient matrix and nutrient make-up and interactions could be revealed.

Yu Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav [College of Agriculture and Bioresources, University of Saskatchewan 51 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, S7N 5A8 (Canada); Liu Dasen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University (China)

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

156

Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity  

SciTech Connect

We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein-Cartan gravity. As a by-product we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.

Tennie, Felix; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R. [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

157

Brief announcement: Exploring the Consistency Problem Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study formally the consistency problem, for replicated shared data, in the Action-Constraint framework (ACF). ACF can describe a large range of application semantics and replication protocols, including optimistic and/or partial replication. ACF is used to decompose the consistency problem into simpler sub-problems. Each is easily understood. Existing algorithms from the literature can be explained as combinations of concrete sub-problem implementations. Using ACF, we design a new serialisation algorithm that does not cause aborts and only needs pairwise agreement (not global consensus).

Nishith Krishna; Marc Shapiro; Karthikeyan Bhargavan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Microwave Moisture Measurement System for Hardwood Lumber Drying  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop a prototype microwave-based moisture sensor system suitable for the kiln drying of hardwood lumber. The moisture sensors developed are battery powered and are capable of communicating with a host kiln control system via spread spectrum wireless communications. We have developed two designs of the sensors working at 4.5 to 6 GHz with linear response to moisture content (MC) over a range of 6-100%. These sensors allow us to make a swept frequency microwave transmission measurement through a small area of a board. Using the prototype electronics and sensors, we have obtained measurements of MC over the above MC range for red oak and yellow poplar with standard deviations of less than 1.5% MC. We have developed data for board thickness corrections and for temperature corrections for the MC measurement system.

Moschler, William W [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hanson, Gregory R [ORNL

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Investigation of moisture in titanium metal powder by pulsed NMR  

SciTech Connect

A sample of titanium metal powder QC 1779 was subjected to five different treatments of dyring and moisture exposure to estimate the effectiveness of normal drying and handling procedures used in the pyrotechnics processing. The treatments were drying in air, drying in two different vacuum furnaces, exposure to normal humidity, and exposure to 100 percent humidity. Statistical evaluation of the NMR results indicates that there is a significant difference between the moisture content of each treatment. Although the combined effects of temperature, pressure, humidity, and treatment time were not studied in a designed manner to determine their significance on the effectiveness of the drying techniques and moisture uptake by sample QC 1779, the experimental evidence does indicate that all four variables do affect the results of the treatments. 2 figures, 6 tables.

Attalla, A.; Bowman, R.C. Jr.; Craft, B.D.; Love, C.M.; Yauger, R.L.

1977-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

160

Instant consistency checking for the UML  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inconsistencies in design models should be detected immediately to save the engineer from unnecessary rework. Yet, tools are not capable of keeping up with the engineers' rate of model changes. This paper presents an approach for quickly, correctly, ... Keywords: consistency, design feedback, incremental analysis

Alexander Egyed

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Explaining Activities as Consistent Groups of Events  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a method for disambiguating uncertain detections of events by seeking global explanations for activities. Given a noisy visual input, and exploiting our knowledge of the activity and its constraints, one can provide a consistent set of events ... Keywords: Activity analysis, Event recognition, Global explanations

Dima Damen; David Hogg

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Surface moisture measurement system hardware acceptance test report  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the results of the hardware acceptance test for the Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS). This test verified that the mechanical and electrical features of the SMMS functioned as designed and that the unit is ready for field service. The bulk of hardware testing was performed at the 306E Facility in the 300 Area and the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility in the 400 Area. The SMMS was developed primarily in support of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Safety Programs for moisture measurement in organic and ferrocyanide watch list tanks.

Ritter, G.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

163

Consistency Test and Constraint of Quintessence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we highlight our recent work in arXiv:0803.4504. In that work, we proposed a new consistency test of quintessence models for dark energy. Our test gave a simple and direct signature if certain category of quintessence models was not consistent with the observational data. For a category that passed the test, we further constrained its characteristic parameter. Specifically, we found that the exponential potential was ruled out at the 95% confidence level and the power-law potential was ruled out at the 68% confidence level based on the current observational data. We also found that the confidence interval of the index of the power-law potential was between -2 and 0 at the 95% confidence level.

Chen, Chien-Wen; Gu, Je-AN; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler-DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce vs. a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite `past' or `future' scalar `time', in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models.

David A. Craig; Parampreet Singh

2013-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

165

Moisture Analysis from Radiosonde and Microwave Spectrometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for analysis of the horizontal and vertical distributions of the moisture field utilizing satellite, upper air and surface data is proposed in this paper. A brief overview of the microwave sensors on board Nimbus 5 and 6 is also ...

Kenneth J. Haydu; T. N. Krishnamurti

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Observation of Atmospheric Fronts Using Raman Lidar Moisture Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a field program using a ground-based Raman lidar system to observe changes in moisture profiles as a cold and a warm front passed over the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The lidar ...

S. H. Melfi; D. Whiteman; R. Ferrare

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Intercomparison of Soil Moisture Memory in Two Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A heavy rain or a dry period can produce an anomaly in soil moisture, and the dissipation of this anomaly may take weeks to months. It is important to understand how land surface models (LSMs) used with atmospheric general circulation models ...

Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Randal D. Koster

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Procurement and Operation Considerations for Moisture Separator Reheaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

State-of-the-art technology can provide solutions for many of the problems that have beset moisture separator reheaters. Changes in design and operating procedures recommended in this study will improve the performance and extend the operating life of these major components.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

An Analysis of Moisture Fluxes into the Gulf of California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the nature of episodes of enhanced warm-season moisture flux into the Gulf of California. Both spatial structure and primary time scales of the fluxes are examined using the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis data for the period 1980–...

Man-Li C. Wu; Siegfried D. Schubert; Max J. Suarez; Norden E. Huang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermal Effects of Moisture in Rigid Insulation Board  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impact of moisture in rigid roof insulation upon energy consumption is often assumed to be a simple function of the conductance. This paper will show that there are complex interactions between conductance, thermal mass, and climate. The energy performance can not be predicted from only the conductance. These results affect removal criteria for wet insulation board.

Crow, G. W.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A Negative Soil Moisture–Precipitation Relationship and Its Causes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines a lagged soil moisture–precipitation (S–P) correlation for 24 yr of boreal summer (1979–2002) from the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40), the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis 2 (R-2), the North American Regional ...

Jiangfeng Wei; Robert E. Dickinson; Haishan Chen

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Self-consistent resonance in a plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As an application of the solution of the equations of electromagnetic self-consistency in a plasma, found in a previous paper, the study of controlled thermo-nuclear fusion is undertaken. This study utilizes the resonance which can be developed in the plasma, as indicated by the above solution, and is based to an analysis of the underlying forced oscillation under friction. As a consequence, we find that, in this way, controlled thermonuclear fusion seems now to be feasible in principle. The treatment is rather elementary, and it may serve as a guide for more detailed calculations.

Evangelos Chaliasos

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

174

Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Root-zone soil moisture controls the land–atmosphere exchange of water and energy, and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly scales. Assimilation of satellite-based surface soil moisture observations into a land ...

Sujay V. Kumar; Rolf H. Reichle; Randal D. Koster; Wade T. Crow; Christa D. Peters-Lidard

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Observed and Simulated Soil Moisture Variability over the Lower Mississippi Delta Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To better understand error and spatial variability sources of soil moisture simulated with land surface models, observed and simulated values of soil moisture (using offline simulations with the Noah land surface model with four soil layers and ...

Georgy V. Mostovoy; Valentine G. Anantharaj

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Moisture degradation in FRP bonded concrete systems : an interface fracture approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) characterization, and kink criterion implementation, form a synergistic analysis of the mechanistic debonding behavior affected by moisture. Results have shown that moisture affected debonding is a highly complex ...

Au, Ching, 1977-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Parameter Sensitivity in LSMs: An Analysis Using Stochastic Soil Moisture Models and ELDAS Soil Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integration of simulated and observed states through data assimilation as well as model evaluation requires a realistic representation of soil moisture in land surface models (LSMs). However, soil moisture in LSMs is sensitive to a range of ...

Adriaan J. Teuling; Remko Uijlenhoet; Bart van den Hurk; Sonia I. Seneviratne

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Diagnosis of Tropospheric Moisture over Saudi Arabia and Influences of IOD and ENSO  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic study of atmospheric moisture data over Saudi Arabia derived from a 43-yr National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis revealed that moisture convergence in the lower ...

Arun Chakraborty; Swadhin K. Behera; Milind Mujumdar; Ryohji Ohba; Toshio Yamagata

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Measurement scheduling for soil moisture sensing: From physical models to optimal control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we consider the problem of monitoring soil moisture evolution using a wireless network of in situ sensors. Continuously sampling moisture levels with these sensors incurs high-maintenance and energy consumption ...

Shuman, David I.

180

Evaluation of Soil Moisture Effects on the Generation and Modification of Mesoscale Circulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current study provides an evaluation of thermally induced circulation over flat terrain due to nonuniform horizontal distribution of soil moisture availability. Additionally, the effect of soil moisture availability on the thermally induced ...

Y. Ookouchi; M. Segal; R. C. Kessler; R. A. Pielke

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effects of Soil Moisture on Temperatures, Winds, and Pollutant Concentrations in Los Angeles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the effects of soil moisture initialization in a coupled air quality–meteorological model on temperature profiles, wind speeds, and pollutant concentrations. Three simulations, each with different initial soil moisture fields, ...

Mark Z. Jacobson

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Soil Moisture Analyses at ECMWF: Evaluation Using Global Ground-Based In Situ Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ soil moisture from 117 stations across the world and under different biome and climate conditions are used to evaluate two soil moisture products from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF)—namely, the operational ...

C. Albergel; P. de Rosnay; G. Balsamo; L. Isaksen; J. Muñoz-Sabater

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Measurements and modeling of moisture diffusion processes in transformer insulation using interdigital dielectrometry sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The presence of moisture in a transformer deteriorates the transformer insulation by decreasing its electrical, mechanical, and thermal strength. Therefore, it is important to monitor the moisture condition in both liquid ...

Du, Yanqing, 1971-

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Skill and Global Trend Analysis of Soil Moisture from Reanalyses and Microwave Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ soil moisture measurements from 2007 to 2010 for 196 stations from five networks across the world (United States, France, Spain, China, and Australia) are used to determine the reliability of three soil moisture products: (i) a revised ...

C. Albergel; W. Dorigo; R. H. Reichle; G. Balsamo; P. de Rosnay; J. Muñoz-Sabater; L. Isaksen; R. de Jeu; W. Wagner

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Conservation of Moisture in a Hybrid Kuo-Type Cumulus Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The conservation of moisture requirement used in a hybrid Kuo-type cumulus parameterization scheme is generalized so that the source of moisture for the cumulus process originates from all layers below the level of condensation, including the ...

William H. Raymond; Robert M. Aune

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A Comparison of Soil Moisture Models Using Soil Climate Analysis Network Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the lack of field measurements, models are often used to monitor soil moisture conditions. Therefore, it is important to find a model that can accurately simulate soil moisture under a variety of land surface conditions. In this paper, ...

Lei Meng; Steven M. Quiring

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Global Soil Moisture from Satellite Observations, Land Surface Models, and Ground Data: Implications for Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three independent surface soil moisture datasets for the period 1979–87 are compared: 1) global retrievals from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), 2) global soil moisture derived from observed meteorological forcing using the ...

Rolf H. Reichle; Randal D. Koster; Jiarui Dong; Aaron A. Berg

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

On the relationship of soil moisture and extreme temperatures in East China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture conditions affect energy partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes, resulting in a change in surface temperatures. In this study, relationship between antecedent soil moisture conditions (as indicated by the 6-month ...

Lei Meng; Yanjun Shen

189

A Novel Method for Quantifying Value in Spaceborne Soil Moisture Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel methodology is introduced for quantifying the added value of remotely sensed soil moisture products for global land surface modeling applications. The approach is based on the assimilation of soil moisture retrievals into a simple surface ...

Wade T. Crow

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Evaluating the Simulated Seasonality of Soil Moisture with Earth Observation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A critical function of a land surface scheme, used in climate and weather prediction models, is to partition the energy from insolation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. Many use a soil moisture function to control the surface moisture fluxes ...

Richard J. Ellis; Christopher M. Taylor; Graham P. Weedon; Nicola Gedney; Douglas B. Clark; Sietse Los

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

From Near-Surface to Root-Zone Soil Moisture Using Different Assimilation Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Root-zone soil moisture constitutes an important variable for hydrological and weather forecast models. Microwave radiometers like the L-band instrument on board the European Space Agency’s (ESA) future Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) ...

Joaquín Muñoz Sabater; Lionel Jarlan; Jean-Christophe Calvet; François Bouyssel; Patricia De Rosnay

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Summer Rainfall Forecast Spread in an Ensemble Initialized with Different Soil Moisture Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of an ensemble forecasting system initialized using varied soil moisture alone has been evaluated for rainfall forecasts of six warm season convective cases. Ten different soil moisture analyses were used as initial conditions in ...

Eric A. Aligo; William A. Gallus Jr.; Moti Segal

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Assimilation of Disaggregated Microwave Soil Moisture into a Hydrologic Model Using Coarse-Scale Meteorological Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-surface soil moisture retrieved from Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)-type data is downscaled and assimilated into a distributed soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model with the ensemble Kalman filter. Because satellite-based ...

O. Merlin; A. Chehbouni; G. Boulet; Y. Kerr

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

The Soil Moisture Active and Passive Mission (SMAP): Science and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The soil moisture active and passive mission (SMAP) will provide global maps of soil moisture content and surface freeze/thaw state. Global measurements of these variables are critical for terrestrial water and carbon cycle ...

Entekhabi, Dara

195

Influence of Soil Moisture on Urban Microclimate and Surface-Layer Meteorology in Oklahoma City  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of soil moisture on surface-layer atmosphere is examined in this paper by analyzing the outputs of model simulations for different initial soil moisture configurations with particular emphasis on urban microclimate. In addition to a ...

Syed Zahid Husain; Stéphane Bélair; Sylvie Leroyer

196

Icing Study of Moisture in Jet-A Fuel, Ambient to -40?C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2011. Symposium, Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Icing Study of Moisture in ...

197

Self Consistent Models of the Solar Wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The origins of the hot solar corona and the supersonically expanding solar wind are still the subject of much debate. This paper summarizes some of the essential ingredients of realistic and self-consistent models of solar wind acceleration. It also outlines the major issues in the recent debate over what physical processes dominate the mass, momentum, and energy balance in the accelerating wind. A key obstacle in the way of producing realistic simulations of the Sun-heliosphere system is the lack of a physically motivated way of specifying the coronal heating rate. Recent models that assume the energy comes from Alfven waves that are partially reflected, and then dissipated by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, have been found to reproduce many of the observed features of the solar wind. This paper discusses results from these models, including detailed comparisons with measured plasma properties as a function of solar wind speed. Some suggestions are also given for future work that could answer the many remain...

Cranmer, Steven R

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Understanding the Impacts of Moisture and Thermal Ageing on Transformer's Insulation by Dielectric Response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the Impacts of Moisture and Thermal Ageing on Transformer's Insulation by Dielectric of oil and paper in a transformer degrade primarily due to thermal ageing and moisture ingress insulation in a transformer. Index Terms -- Condition monitoring, gel permeation chromatography, moisture

Saha, Tapan Kumar

199

In-situ soil moisture sensing: Optimal sensor placement and field estimation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the problem of optimal sensor placement in the context of soil moisture sensing. We show that the soil moisture data possesses some unique features that can be used together with the commonly used Gaussian assumption to construct more scalable, ... Keywords: 2D/3D sensor placement, Gaussian process, Gaussian regression, Soil moisture, coarse-grained orderings

Xiaopei Wu; Mingyan Liu; Yue Wu

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Moisture Retention Curves of Topopah Spring Tuff at Elevated Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Knowledge of unsaturated flow and transport in porous media is critical for understanding the movement of water and solute through the unsaturated zone. The suction potential of rock determines the imbibition of water and, therefore, the moisture retention in the matrix. That, in turn, affects the relative importance of matrix flow and fracture flow, and their interaction, because greater suction potential moves more water from fractures into the matrix and therefore retards fracture flow. The moisture content as a function of the suction potential is called a moisture retention curve or a characteristic curve. Moisture-retention data are important input for numerical models of water movement in unsaturated porous media. Also important are the effect of sample history on the moisture-retention curves and whether there is significant hysteresis between wetting and drying measurements. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) of the U.S. Department of Energy is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. The potential repository horizon will be in the unsaturated zone of the Topopah Spring member (densely welded) of the Paintbrush Tuff unit at Yucca Mountain. This unit is highly fractured. Therefore, transport of water within the near field of the nuclear waste package in the repository is strongly influenced by the suction potential of the repository host rocks at elevated temperatures. In a high-level nuclear waste repository, the rock mass around the waste packages will become dry because of the thermal load of the waste but will then re-wet during the cool-down period as the thermal output of the waste packages declines. Much of this process will occur at temperatures above ambient temperature. The goal of our work is to determine the importance of temperature and the wetting-drying hysteresis on the measured moisture retention curves of the densely welded tuff. For Topopah Spring tuff the suction potential is assumed to be primary due to the matric potential.

Lin, W.; Roberts, J.; Carlberg, E.; Ruddle, D.; Pletcher, R.

2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Residential pollutants and ventilation strategies: Moisture and combustion products  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews literature that reports investigations of residential ventilation and indoor air quality. Two important residential pollutant classes, moisture and combustion pollutants, are examined. A companion paper examines volatile organic compounds and radon. Control strategies recommended from the review include appropriate building design to prevent or limit the sources of the pollutants within the space, proper operation and maintenance to prevent adverse conditions from developing during the building's life and appropriate use of ventilation. The characteristics of these pollutant sources suggest that ventilation systems in residences should have several properties. Moisture control puts significant restrictions on a ventilation system. The system should function continuously (averaged over days) and distribute ventilation throughout the habitable space. Combustion sources require task ventilation that functions reliably.

Hadlich, D.E.; Grimsrud, D.T.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in different climate zones Title Application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in different climate zones Publication Type Conference Paper Year of Publication 2009 Authors Krus, Martin, Thierry Stephane Nouidui, and Klaus Sedlbauer Conference Name 6th International Conference on Cold Climate, Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Conference Location Sisimiut, Groenland Abstract The application of software tools for moisture protection of buildings in different climatic zones is demonstrated in this paper. The basics of the programs are presented together with a typical application for a problem specific for the chosen climatic zone. A 1-D calculation has been performed for tropical climate zone with the improvement of a flat roof in Bangkok as an example. For half timbered buildings, which are common in the temperate zone with the 2-D model an infill insulation and its benefits are demonstrated. Finally the combined appliance of the whole building model and the mould risk prognosis model is shown in detail as a special case for the cold climate zone: In heated buildings of cold climate zones the internal climate with its low relative humidity in wintertime often causes discomfort and health problems for the occupants. In case of using air humidifier the risk of mould growth increases. Instead of an uncontrolled humidifying of the dry air an innovativecontrol system using a thermal bridge, which switches the humidifier off when condensation occurs is presented. To quantify the improvement in the comfort while preventing the risk of mould growth for a typical building comparative calculations of the resulting inner climates and its consequences on comfort have been performed.

203

Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms` underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940`s. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination.

Board, B.D.

1996-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

204

Scoping Study of Moisture Carryover in Boiling Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several BWRs have recently experienced higher than expected shutdown dose rates in steam-affected components/areas. The dose rate increases appear to be associated with increases in reactor water Co-60 activity and moisture carryover (MCO), particularly in the latter portions of the operating cycle. In addition to mechanical carryover, it has been suggested that volatile impurities such as hydrochloric acid may be transported with the BWR steam and concentrate in condensate on surfaces, such as the low p...

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

205

Geometrically consistent approach to stochastic DBI inflation  

SciTech Connect

Stochastic effects during inflation can be addressed by averaging the quantum inflaton field over Hubble-patch-sized domains. The averaged field then obeys a Langevin-type equation into which short-scale fluctuations enter as a noise term. We solve the Langevin equation for an inflaton field with a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term perturbatively in the noise and use the result to determine the field value's probability density function (PDF). In this calculation, both the shape of the potential and the warp factor are arbitrary functions, and the PDF is obtained with and without volume effects due to the finite size of the averaging domain. DBI kinetic terms typically arise in string-inspired inflationary scenarios in which the scalar field is associated with some distance within the (compact) extra dimensions. The inflaton's accessible range of field values therefore is limited because of the extra dimensions' finite size. We argue that in a consistent stochastic approach the inflaton's PDF must vanish for geometrically forbidden field values. We propose to implement these extra-dimensional spatial restrictions into the PDF by installing absorbing (or reflecting) walls at the respective boundaries in field space. As a toy model, we consider a DBI inflaton between two absorbing walls and use the method of images to determine its most general PDF. The resulting PDF is studied in detail for the example of a quartic warp factor and a chaotic inflaton potential. The presence of the walls is shown to affect the inflaton trajectory for a given set of parameters.

Lorenz, Larissa; Martin, Jerome; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi [Theoretical and Mathematical Physics Group, Centre for Particle Physics and Phenomenology, Louvain University, 2 Chemin du Cyclotron, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095-CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Research Center for the Early Universe, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8568 (Japan)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

The integration of Dow's Fire and Explosion Index into process design and optimization to achieve an inherently safer design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The integration of the safety parameter into process design and optimization is essential. However, there is no previous work in integrating the fire and explosion index (F&EI) into design and optimization. This research proposed a procedure for integrating safety into the design and optimization framework by using the safety parameter as optimization constraint. The method used in this research is Dow�s Fire and Explosion Index which is usually calculated manually. This research automates the calculation of F&EI. The ability to calculate the F&EI, to determine loss control credit factors and business interruption, and to perform process unit risk analysis are unique features of this F&EI program. In addition to F&EI calculation, the F&EI program provides descriptions of each item of the penalties, chemicals/materials databases, the flexibility to submit known chemical/material data to databases, and material factor calculations. Moreover, the sensitivity analyses are automated by generating charts and expressions of F&EI as a function of material inventory and pressure. The expression will be the focal point in the process of integrating F&EI into process design and optimization framework. The proposed procedure of integrating F&EI into process design and optimization framework is verified by applying it into reactor-distillation column system. The final result is the optimum economic and inherently safer design for the reactor and distillation column system.

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Moisture monitoring of ferrocyanide tanks: An evaluation of methods and tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews the strengths and limitations of moisture monitoring technologies that could be used for determining moisture concentration in Hanford Site single-shell ferrocyanide waste tanks. Two technologies (neutron diffusion and near-infrared spectroscopy) are being pursued as part of the ferrocyanide program. A third technology, Raman spectroscopy, is in development as a speciation tool at the Westinghouse Hanford Company 222-S Laboratory. The potential application of Raman spectroscopy to moisture monitoring is discussed.

Meacham, J.E.; Babad, H.; Toffer, H.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Microsoft Word - Flue Gas Moisture.Final Report.Abstract.Summary...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The...

209

Investigation of Conditions for Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete and Appropriate Laboratory Test Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pavement Moisture-Damage Test. ” Transportation Researchgreater than five years. 6. Test sections may be necessaryand Parker, F. (1998). “Test for Plastic Fines in Aggregates

Harvey, John T; Lu, Qing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

P2.7 Effect of Moisture in Ammonia on LED Device Performance and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incorporation of oxygen into nitride layers from water vapor (moisture) in the ammonia not ... Characterization of the Absorbance Bleaching in Alinas/Algainas

211

Broadband Dieletric Properties of Impregnated Transformer Paper Insulation at Various Moisture Contents.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The actual life of a transformer is determined by ageing of the cellulosic insulation such as transformer paper. The presence of moisture in the… (more)

Cheng, Jialu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Anthropogenic moisture production and its effect on boundary layer circulations over New York City  

SciTech Connect

A heat and moisture excess over New York City is shown to exist by the analysis of helicopter soundings of temperature and wet bulb depression. The magnitude of the temporal and spatial distribution of anthropogenic moisture emissions in New York City were estimated from fuel usage data. The URBMET urban boundary layer model was used to evaluate the effects on the dynamics of the urban boundary layer resulting from the observed urban moisture excess. Work is currently in progress which seeks to determine the fraction of the observed moisture excess over New York that is due to anthropogenic sources. (auth)

Bornstein, R.D.; Tam, Y.T.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

SPECIAL ACQUISITION REQUIREMENTS ─ TYPICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH PERSONAL SERVICES AND INHERENTLY GOVERNMENTAL FUNCITONS WHEN CONTRACTORS WORK IN THE FEDERAL WORKPLACE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

-------- -------- -------------------------------- Chapter 37.114 (December 2010) 1 FEDERAL AND CONTRACTOR EMPLOYEE ROLES IN THE FEDERAL WORKPLACE: CONTRACTOR AND CONTRACTOR WORK PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION, INHERENTLY GOVERNMENTAL FUNCTIONS, PERSONAL SERVICES, AND FEDERAL INVOLVEMENT IN CONTRACTOR PERSONNEL DECISIONS References: FAR 7.5, 37.000, 37.103, 37.104, 37.114; DEAR 937; Acquisition Guide 3.1, 9.1, 37.1, 37.2, 70.7 Overview  The purpose of this guide chapter is to aid in establishing effective management controls for: o identification of contractor employees and their work product o inherently governmental functions o personal services and o Federal involvement in contractor personnel decisions

214

Retrieving the Root-Zone Soil Moisture from Surface Soil Moisture or Temperature Estimates: A Feasibility Study Based on Field Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bulk soil water content must be estimated accurately for short- and medium-term meteorological modeling. A method is proposed to retrieve the total soil moisture content as well as the field capacity from observed surface parameters such as ...

J-C. Calvet; J. Noilhan; P. Bessemoulin

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating  

SciTech Connect

Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX): Background, Hydrometeorological Conditions, and Preliminary Findings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Moisture–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment (SMACEX) was conducted in conjunction with the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) during June and July 2002 near Ames, Iowa—a corn and soybean production region. The primary objective of SMEX02 ...

William P. Kustas; Jerry L. Hatfield; John H. Prueger

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

February 1992 R. H. Johnson 353 Heat and Moisture Sources and Sinks of Asian Monsoon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

February 1992 R. H. Johnson 353 Heat and Moisture Sources and Sinks of Asian Monsoon Precipitating The structure and properties of ,heat and moisture sources and sinks of the Asian monsoon are reviewed. Results by the Asian monsoon, with the detailed structure of this distribution determined in large part by a wide

Johnson, Richard H.

218

Original article A mathematical model to describe the change in moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Original article A mathematical model to describe the change in moisture distribution in maize distribution were observed during the treatment and modelled through a phenomenological model based injection of saturated steam at a fixed pressure into a vessel containing starch at residual moisture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

NEC Hazardous classification and compliance regarding the surface moisture monitor measurement system  

SciTech Connect

The National Electrical Code, NFPA 70, and National Fire Protection Association requirements for use of Surface Moisture Monitor Systems in classified locations are discussed. The design and configuration of the surface moisture monitor are analyzed with respect to how they comply with requirements of the National Electrical Code requirements, articles 500-504.

Bussell, J.H., WHC

1996-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

220

Analysis of Annual Thermal and Moisture Performance of Radiant Barrier Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A detailed thermal energy analysis model helps identify locations where radiant barriers are cost-effective while analyzing moisture performance to predict potential problem areas. The model described in this report estimates annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates from horizontal radiant barrier applications in a variety of climates.

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

TTUS FP&C Design & Building Standards Division 7 Thermal & Moisture Protection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TTUS FP&C Design & Building Standards Division 7 ­ Thermal & Moisture Protection Division for this project. Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) are not allowed without permission from the TTUS & Building Standards Division 7 ­ Thermal & Moisture Protection Bituminous Waterproofing Surfaces

Gelfond, Michael

222

Increase of Steam Moisture in the BWR-Facility KKP 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Main steam moisture in a BWR facility is determined by steam quality at core outlet and efficiency of steam separators and steam dryers. Transport of water with steam is accompanied by transport of radionuclides out of RPV resulting in enhanced radiation level in the main steam system. A remarkable increase of main steam moisture started at KKP 1 in 1997. In the following years increase of steam outlet moisture started at lower and lower core mass flow rates. Dose rate in main steam system increased simultaneously. Core mass flow rate and thus thermal power had to be reduced during stretch out operation to keep the main steam moisture below the specified boundary of 0.2 %. This boundary also guarantees, that radiological exposure remains far below approved values. The increase of main steam moisture corresponds with the application of low leakage core loading. Low leakage core loading results in enhanced steam generation in the center and in reduced steam generation in the outer zones of the core. It can be shown, that the uneven steam generation in the core became stronger over the years. Therefore, steam quality at inlet of the outer steam separators was getting lower. This resulted in higher carry over of water in this steam separators and steam dryers, thus explaining the increasing main steam moisture. KKP 1 started in 2000 with spectral shift operation. As one should expect, this resulted in reduced steam moisture. It remains the question of steam moisture in case of stretch out operation. Countermeasures are briefly discussed. (authors)

Noack, Volker [EnBW Kraftwerke AG (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The models results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The model results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The Role of Conservation of Mass in the Satellite-Derived Poleward Moisture Transport over the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poleward meridional moisture transport across the Southern Ocean during 1988 is investigated by applying conservation of mass to the wind derivation approach of Slonaker and Van Woert. The moisture field is from the Television and Infrared ...

Cheng-Zhi Zou; Michael L. Van Woert

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

The Impact of Root Weighting on the Response of Transpiration to Moisture Stress in Land Surface Schemes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface schemes (LSSs) for large-scale climate models use a variety of different methods to represent the influence of soil moisture on transpiration. One area in which they differ is in the treatment of vertical soil moisture distribution. ...

Carl E. Desborough

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

A Change Detection Algorithm for Retrieving High-Resolution Soil Moisture From SMAP Radar and Radiometer Observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A change detection algorithm has been developed in order to obtain high-resolution soil moisture estimates from future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) L-band radar and radiometer observations. The approach combines ...

Piles, Maria

228

The Effect of Atmospheric Water Vapor on Neutron Count in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil ...

R. Rosolem; W. J. Shuttleworth; M. Zreda; T. E. Franz; X. Zeng; S. A. Kurc

229

An algorithm to estimate soil moisture over vegetated areas based on in situ and remote sensing information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm is proposed for estimating soil moisture over vegetated areas. The algorithm uses in situ and remote sensing information and statistical tools to estimate soil moisture at 1 km spatial resolution and at 20 cm ...

N. D. Ramírez-Beltran, C. Calderón-Arteaga, E. Harmsen, R. Vasquez, J. Gonzalez

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Evaluation of AMSR-E-Derived Soil Moisture Retrievals Using Ground-Based and PSR Airborne Data during SMEX02  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Land Surface Microwave Emission Model (LSMEM) is used to derive soil moisture estimates over Iowa during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) field campaign, using brightness temperature data from the Advanced Microwave Sounding ...

M. F. McCabe; H. Gao; E. F. Wood

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Retrieval of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Water Content Using SSM/I Data over a Corn and Soybean Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for soil moisture and vegetation water content retrieval using Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) brightness temperature over a corn and soybean field region was analyzed and assessed using datasets from the Soil Moisture ...

Jun Wen; Thomas J. Jackson; Rajat Bindlish; Ann Y. Hsu; Z. Bob Su

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval and Mapping Using High-Frequency Microwave Satellite Observations in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies have shown the advantages of low-frequency (<5 GHz) microwave sensors for soil moisture estimation. Although higher frequencies have limited soil moisture retrieval capabilities, there is a vast quantity of systematic global high-...

Thomas J. Jackson; Ann Y. Hsu; Peggy E. O'Neill

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Characterizing Soil Physical Properties for Soil Moisture Monitoring with the North Carolina Environment and Climate Observing Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture has important implications for meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. This has led to growing interest in development of in situ soil moisture monitoring networks. Measurement interpretation is severely limited without ...

Weinan Pan; R. P. Boyles; J. G. White; J. L. Heitman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The Effect of Atmospheric Water Vapor on Neutron Count in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil ...

R. Rosolem; W. J. Shuttleworth; M. Zreda; T. E. Franz; X. Zeng; S. A. Kurc

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Using TRMM/TMI to Retrieve Surface Soil Moisture over the Southern United States from 1998 to 2002  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Passive microwave remote sensing has been recognized as a potential method for measuring soil moisture. Combined with field observations and hydrological modeling brightness temperatures can be used to infer soil moisture states and fluxes in ...

H. Gao; E. F. Wood; T. J. Jackson; M. Drusch; R. Bindlish

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Increase in Near-Surface Atmospheric Moisture Content due to Land Use Changes: Evidence from the Observed Dewpoint Temperature Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land use change can significantly affect root zone soil moisture, surface energy balance, and near-surface atmospheric temperature and moisture content. During the second half of the twentieth century, portions of the North American Great Plains ...

Rezaul Mahmood; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Ronnie D. Leeper; Stuart A. Foster

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Springtime Soil Moisture, Natural Climatic Variability, and North American Drought as Simulated by the NCAR Community Climate Model 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous results concerning the role that summertime soil moisture reductions can play in amplifying or maintaining North American droughts are extended to include the role of springtime soil moisture reductions and the role that natural climatic ...

Robert J. Oglesby

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development of the Soil Moisture Index to Quantify Agricultural Drought and Its “User Friendliness” in Severity-Area-Duration Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the role of soil moisture in quantifying drought through the development of a drought index using observed and modeled soil moisture. In Nebraska, rainfall is received primarily during the crop-growing season and the supply of ...

Venkataramana Sridhar; Kenneth G. Hubbard; Jinsheng You; Eric D. Hunt

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Impact of Vegetation Feedback on the Response of Precipitation to Antecedent Soil Moisture Anomalies over North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies support a positive soil moisture–precipitation feedback over a major fraction of North America; that is, initial soil moisture anomalies lead to precipitation anomalies of the same sign. To investigate how vegetation feedback ...

Yeonjoo Kim; Guiling Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Development of the prototype Munitions Case Moisture Meter, Model ORNL-1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

There is a great need for a rapid and simple means of determining the moisture content in combustible cartridge case (ccc) munitions. Previous studies have demonstrated that accumulation of moisture in ccc rounds, such as the M829, leads to softening of the case wall and weakening of the adhesive joint. Moisture in the ccc can lead to incomplete combustion of the case upon firing the round. Currently, there are no facile methods for measuring the moisture content. A prototype portable meter for non-destructive and rapid estimation of moisture in ccc has been developed. The Munitions Case Moisture Meter Model ORNL-1 demonstrates the feasibility of developing an instrument based on the moisture dependence of dielectric properties, to measure moisture in ccc munitions in storage and in the field. These instruments are simple, inexpensive, lightweight, portable, low-power battery operated, and intrinsically safe. They provide nondestructive, noninvasive, and rapid measurements. Calibration data for the prototype are not available at this time. Therefore, calibration of the meter and the development of a scale reading directly moisture content in munitions rounds could not be completed. These data will be supplied by the US Army from its tests of the meter with actual munitions. However, experimental results on empty cccs in laboratory conditions demonstrate satisfactory performance of the instrument. Additional work is needed to bring the prototype to its optimum usefulness and accuracy for field measurements. This includes: Calibration of the meter scale with full-up munitions; Data and evaluation procedures to adjust the performance of the meter for different environmental conditions such as temperature and humidity; and Studies of the dielectric properties of moist ccc materials, as a function of frequency and temperature, are needed for adjustment of the meter for optimal performance.

Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Griest, W.H.

1993-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Bounds and self-consistent estimates for elastic constants of granular polycrystals composed of orthorhombics or crystal with higher symmetries  

SciTech Connect

Methods for computing Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related self-consistent estimates of elastic constants for polycrystals composed of crystals having orthorhombic symmetry have been known for about three decades. However, these methods are underutilized, perhaps because of some perceived difficulties with implementing the necessary computational procedures. Several simplifications of these techniques are introduced, thereby reducing the overall computational burden, as well as the complications inherent in mapping out the Hashin-Shtrikman bounding curves. The self-consistent estimates of the effective elastic constants are very robust, involving a quickly converging iteration procedure. Once these self-consistent values are known, they may then be used to speed up the computations of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds themselves. It is shown furthermore that the resulting orthorhombic polycrystal code can be used as well to compute both bounds and self-consistent estimates for polycrystals of higher-symmetry tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic (but not trigonal) materials. The self-consistent results found this way are shown to be the same as those obtained using the earlier methods, specifically those methods designed specially for each individual symmetry type. But the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds found using the orthorhombic code are either the same or (more typically) tighter than those found previously for these special cases (i.e., tetragonal, hexagonal, and cubic). The improvement in the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds is presumably due to the additional degrees of freedom introduced into the available search space.

Berryman, J. G.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Ground-Coupled Heat and Moisture Transfer from Buildings; Part 2: Application (Preprint)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper the effects of moisture on the heat transfer from two basic types of building foundations, a slab-on-grade and a basement, are examined. A two-dimensional finite element heat and moisture transfer program is used to show the effects of precipitation, soil type, foundation insulation, water table depth, and freezing on the heat transfer from the building foundation. Comparisons are made with a simple heat conduction model to illustrate the dependency of the soil thermal conductivity on moisture content.

Deru, M.P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Kirkpatrick, A.T. (Colorado State University)

2001-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermodynamic analysis on heavy metals partitioning impacted by moisture during the MSW incineration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Partitioning of HMs affected by moisture was investigated by thermodynamic analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in moisture and in temperature was opposite impact on HMs contribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The extent of temperature decreased by increase in moisture determines the impact. - Abstract: A thermodynamic calculation was carried out to predict the behavior and speciation of heavy metals (HMs), Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration with the different moisture levels. The calculation was based on the minimization of the total Gibbs free energy of the multi-components and multi-phases closed system reaching chemical equilibrium. The calculation also indicated the reaction directions and tendencies of HMs components. The impacts of chlorine additives (No PVC, 1%PVC, and 5%PVC) and moisture on the behavior of HMs were investigated at different temperature levels in the system (750 Degree-Sign C, 950 Degree-Sign C, and 1150 Degree-Sign C). Furthermore, because the incineration temperature falls down with the increase in moisture in waste, the co-influence of moisture and temperature in combusting MSW on the HMs was also studied with the given chlorine (as 1%PVC + 0.5%NaCl). The results showed that in the non-chlorine system, the impact of the moisture on Pb, Zn, and Cu was not significant, and the ratio of compound transformation was less than 10%, except the Cd compounds at 950 Degree-Sign C and 1150 Degree-Sign C. In the system with low chlorine (as 1%PVC) at constant temperature, the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferred to oxides, and when the content of chlorine rose up (as 5%PVC), the ratio of the chlorides of HMs (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) transferring to oxides fell down noticeably. When the moisture varied together with the temperature, the Zn and Cu compounds transferred from chlorides to oxides with increase in moisture as well as decrease in temperature. At the temperature of 700-1000 Degree-Sign C, the impact of temperature on Pb and Cd was little and the moisture was the main factor; while at the temperature of 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C, the impact of increase in moisture and decrease in temperature on Pb and Cd was almost equal and reversed.

Zhang Yanguo; Li Qinghai; Jia Jinyan [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Meng Aihong, E-mail: mengah@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

AMORPHOUS THIN FILMS CONSISTING OF TERNARY MgZnCa ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 20, 2012 ... AMORPHOUS THIN FILMS CONSISTING OF TERNARY MgZnCa-ALLOYS by K. Schlüter, C. Zamponi, U. Schürmann, N. Hort, L. Kienle, K.U. ...

245

UK Energy Consumption by Sector The energy consumption data consists...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Consumption by Sector The energy consumption data consists of five spreadsheets: "overall data tables" plus energy consumption data for each of the following...

246

Time consistency and risk averse dynamic decision models ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

asset and liability management, scheduling and energy planning. Indeed, ..... the recursive time consistent alternative developed for a CVaR-based portfo-.

247

The Effect of Heterogeneous Soil Moisture on a Summer Baroclinic Circulation in the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermally induced circulations, similar to sea breezes, may be established in the presence of horizontal gradients in soil moisture, soil type, vegetation, or snow cover. The expense of extensive observational networks and the relatively small-...

Jerome D. Fast; Michael D. McCorcle

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Estimating Watershed Evapotranspiration with PASS. Part I: Inferring Root-Zone Moisture Conditions Using Satellite Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model framework for parameterized subgrid-scale surface fluxes (PASS) has been modified and applied as PASS1 to use satellite data, models, and limited surface observations to infer root-zone available moisture (RAM) content with high spatial ...

J. Song; M. L. Wesely; R. L. Coulter; E. A. Brandes

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Assessing the Influence of Soil Moisture on Seasonal Climate Variability with AGCMs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ensembles of boreal summer atmospheric simulations, spanning a 15-yr period (1979–93), are performed with the Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle (ARPEGE) climate model to investigate the possible influence of soil moisture (SM) on ...

H. Douville

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Relationships between Gulf of California Moisture Surges and Precipitation in the Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships between Gulf of California moisture surges and precipitation in the southwestern United States are examined. Standard surface observations are used to identify gulf surge events at Yuma, Arizona, for a multiyear (July–August of 1977–...

R. W. Higgins; W. Shi; C. Hain

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Reconciling Simulated Moisture Fluxes Resulting from Alternate Hydrologic Model Time Steps and Energy Budget Closure Assumptions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrological model predictions are sensitive to model forcings, input parameters, and the parameterizations of physical processes. Analyses performed for the Variable Infiltration Capacity model show that the resulting moisture fluxes are ...

Ingjerd Haddeland; Dennis P. Lettenmaier; Thomas Skaugen

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Determining Soil Moisture from Geosynchronous Satellite Infrared Data: A Feasibility Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the absence of a current capability for global routine daily soil moisture observation, an infrared technique using existing instrumentation is sought. Numerical modeling results are reported from a pilot study, the purpose of which was to ...

Peter J. Wetzel; David Atlas; Robert H. Woodward

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Soil Moisture Initialization Error and Subgrid Variability of Precipitation in Seasonal Streamflow Forecasting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Offline simulations over the conterminous United States (CONUS) with a land surface model are used to address two issues relevant to the forecasting of large-scale seasonal streamflow: (i) the extent to which errors in soil moisture initialization ...

Randal D. Koster; Gregory K. Walker; Sarith P. P. Mahanama; Rolf H. Reichle

254

Indian and Pacific Ocean Influences on Southeast Australian Drought and Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative influences of Indian and Pacific Ocean modes of variability on Australian rainfall and soil moisture are investigated for seasonal, interannual, and decadal time scales. For the period 1900–2006, observations, reanalysis products, and ...

Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Alexander Sen Gupta; Peter R. Briggs; Matthew H. England; Peter C. McIntosh; Gary A. Meyers; Michael J. Pook; Michael R. Raupach; James S. Risbey

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Paleoclimatic Analogs to Twentieth-Century Moisture Regimes Across the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumental Palmer Drought Severity Indexes (PDSI) averaged over the western United States and Great Plains document three major decadal moisture regimes during the twentieth century: the early twentieth-century pluvial, the Dust Bowl drought, ...

Falko K. Fye; David W. Stahle; Edward R. Cook

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Intraseasonal Variability of Moisture and Rainfall over the South American Altiplano  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precipitation over the South American Altiplano (about 4000 m above sea level) is mostly concentrated during the austral summer (December–January–February) when mean easterly flow in the middle and upper troposphere favors the moisture transport ...

RenéD. Garreaud

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Heat and Moisture Budgets and Circulation Characteristics of a Frontal Squall Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat and moisture budgets and mesoscale circulation features for the developing, mature, and dissipating stages of an intense frontal squall line that occurred in the central United States are investigated. The slow propagating behavior of the ...

Xin Lin; Richard H. Johnson

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Comparison of the annual cycles of moisture supply over southwest and southeast China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation in regional precipitation over Southeast and Southwest China depends strongly on externally imported moisture rather than local evaporation. Associated with the different climate over the two regions, great discrepancies appear in ...

Xiuzhen Li; Wen Zhou; Chongyin Li; Jie Song

259

The Effect of Moisture on Layer Thicknesses Used to Monitor Global Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mean layer virtual temperature estimates, based on geopotential height measurements, form the basis for one approach being used to monitor changes in upper-air temperature. However, virtual temperature is a function of atmospheric moisture ...

W. P. Elliott; D. J. Gaffen; J. K. Angell; J. D. W. Kahl

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Thermodynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a regional model simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model ...

Samson Hagos; L. Ruby Leung; Jimy Dudhia

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

A Lagrangian Climatology of Tropical Moisture Exports to the Northern Hemispheric Extratropics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Case studies have shown that heavy precipitation events and rapid cyclogenesis in the extratropics can be fueled by moist and warm tropical air masses. Often the tropical moisture export (TME) occurs through a longitudinally confined region in ...

Peter Knippertz; Heini Wernli

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Deriving soil moisture with the combined L-band radar and radiometer measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, we develop a combined active/passive technique to estimate surface soil moisture with the focus on the short vegetated surfaces. We first simulated a database for both active and passive signals under SMAP's ...

Shi, Jiancheng

263

Data Assimilation in the Presence of Forecast Bias: The GEOS Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe the application of the unbiased sequential analysis algorithm developed by Dee and da Silva to the Goddard Earth Observing System moisture analysis. The algorithm estimates the slowly varying, systematic component of model ...

Dick P. Dee; Ricardo Todling

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Generation of Moist Potential Vorticity in Extratropical Cyclones. Part II: Sensitivity to Moisture Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of different moisture distributions on the generation of moist potential vorticity (MPV) in extratropical cyclones are examined by numerical simulations. These sensitivity experiments show that low-level negative MPV generation ...

Han-Ru Cho; Zuohao Cao

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Sensitivity of the Great Plains Severe-Storm Environment to Soil-Moisture Distribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the influence of differences in ground moisture over the southern Great Plairs and the Mexican plateau on the formation and evolution of the dryline, the elevated mixed layer, and the local planetary boundary layer. These ...

John M. Lanicci; Toby N. Carlson; Thomas T. Warner

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Sensitivity of Forecast Rainfall in a Texas Convective System to Soil Moisture and Convective Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of soil moisture on the forecast of a small-scale convective system, and sensitivity of results to the convective parameterization used, are investigated through Eta Model simulations (run in an operational-like setting) of a ...

William A. Gallus Jr.; Moti Segal

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Satellite Estimation of the Surface Energy Balance, Moisture Availability and Thermal Inertia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for inferring the distribution of surface heat and evaporative fluxes and the ground moisture availability and thermal inertia (ground conductive capacity) is used to analyze two urbanized areas, Los Angeles and St. Louis. The technique ...

Toby N. Carlson; Joseph K. Dodd; Stanley G. Benjamin; James N. Cooper

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Relations between Soil Moisture and Satellite Vegetation Indices in the U.S. Corn Belt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite-derived vegetation indices extracted over locations representative of midwestern U.S. cropland and forest for the period 1990–94 are analyzed to determine the sensitivity of the indices to neutron probe soil moisture measurements of the ...

Jimmy O. Adegoke; Andrew M. Carleton

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Surface Emissivity Impact on Temperature and Moisture Soundings from Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate land surface emissivity (LSE) is critical for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles along with land surface temperature from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounder radiances; it is also critical to assimilating IR ...

Zhigang Yao; Jun Li; Jinlong Li; Hong Zhang

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Local Advection of Momentum, Heat, and Moisture during the Melt of Patchy Snow Covers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical atmospheric boundary layer model, based on higher-order turbulence closure assumptions, is developed and used to simulate the local advection of momentum, heat, and moisture during the melt of patchy snow covers over a 10-km ...

Glen E. Liston

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Transport of Atmospheric Moisture during Three Extreme Rainfall Events over the Mackenzie River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lagrangian trajectories were computed for three extreme summer rainfall events (with rainfall exceeding 100 mm) over the southern Mackenzie River basin to test the hypothesis that the low-level moisture feeding these rainstorms can be traced back ...

Julian C. Brimelow; Gerhard W. Reuter

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Soil Moisture Estimation Using Thermal Inertia: Potential and Sensitivity to Data Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal inertia retrieval using a thermal infrared remote sensing technique has been examined as a possible method for estimating soil moisture. This method is an application of the theory that thermal inertia highly correlates with soil water ...

Dai Matsushima; Reiji Kimura; Masato Shinoda

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Using a Soil Hydrology Model to Obtain Regionally Averaged Soil Moisture Values  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Soil Hydrology Model (SHM) was modified, and daily simulations of soil volumetric water content were made at 38 Oklahoma Mesonet sites for July 1997. These model results were compared with soil moisture observations made at the mesonet sites ...

Todd M. Crawford; David J. Stensrud; Toby N. Carlson; William J. Capehart

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Midlatitude Eddies, Storm-Track Diffusivity, and Poleward Moisture Transport in Warm Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work using both simplified and comprehensive GCMs has shown that poleward moisture transport across midlatitudes follows Clausius–Clapeyron scaling at temperatures close to modern, but that it reaches a maximum at sufficiently elevated ...

Rodrigo Caballero; John Hanley

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Ohio River Valley Winter Moisture Conditions Associated with the Pacific–North American Teleconnection Pattern  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between the Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and Ohio River Valley (ORV) winter precipitation and hydrology is described. The PNA is significantly linked to moisture variability in an area extending from ...

Jill S. M. Coleman; Jeffrey C. Rogers

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Retrieval of Clear Sky Moisture Profiles using the 183 GHz Water Vapor Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for retrieving vertical moisture profiles from downlooking radiometric measurements of atmospheric radiation near the 183 GHz water vapor line is described. A simulation experiment utilizing this retrieval technique and temperature ...

Ramesh K. Kakar

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Study of Satellite-derived Moisture with Emphasis on the Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) moisture retrievals are compared to the National Meteorological Center Regional Analysis and Forecast System (RAFS) 12-h forecast and to 1200 UTC rawinsondes over the United ...

Anthony J. Schreiner; Christopher M. Hayden; Cecil A. Paris

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Where Does the Iberian Peninsula Moisture Come From? An Answer Based on a Lagrangian Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigated the main sources of moisture in the atmosphere over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) at annual and seasonal scales using FLEXPART, a powerful new 3D Lagrangian diagnosis method that identifies the humidity contributions to the ...

Luis Gimeno; Raquel Nieto; Ricardo M. Trigo; Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano; Juan Ignacio López-Moreno

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Partitioning Mass, Heat, and Moisture Budgets of Explicitly Simulated Cumulus Ensembles into Convective and Stratiform Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated data from the UCLA Cumulus Ensemble Model (CEM) are analyzed to partition mass, heat, and moisture budgets of cumulus ensembles into convective and stratiform components. A method based primarily on the horizontal distribution of ...

Kuan-Man Xu

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Soil Moisture, Snow, and Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface model experiments are used to quantify, for a number of U.S. river basins, the contributions (isolated and combined) of soil moisture and snowpack initialization to the skill of seasonal streamflow forecasts at multiple leads and for ...

Sarith Mahanama; Ben Livneh; Randal Koster; Dennis Lettenmaier; Rolf Reichle

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Analysis of Soil Moisture from Near-Surface Parameters: A Feasibility Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that it is possible to estimate soil moisture from the evolution of atmospheric parameters near the surface (temperature and relative humidity) if a realistic surface transfer model is available. ...

Jean-François Mahfouf

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

The Impacts of Convective Parameterization and Moisture Triggering on AGCM-Simulated Convectively Coupled Equatorial Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the impacts of convective parameterization and moisture convective trigger on convectively coupled equatorial waves simulated by the Seoul National University (SNU) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM). Three different ...

Jia-Lin Lin; Myong-In Lee; Daehyun Kim; In-Sik Kang; Dargan M. W. Frierson

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Potential Predictability of U.S. Summer Climate with “Perfect” Soil Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential predictability of surface-air temperature and precipitation over the United States was assessed for a GCM forced by observed sea surface temperatures and an estimate of observed soil-moisture content. The latter was obtained by ...

Fanglin Yang; Arun Kumar; K-M. Lau

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Influence of the Background Wind on the Local Soil Moisture-Precipitation Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of soil moisture anomalies on airmass convection over semi-arid regions has been recognized in several studies. The underlying mechanisms remain partly unclear. An open question is why wetter soils can result in either an increase ...

Paul Froidevaux; Linda Schlemmer; Juerg Schmidli; Wolfgang Langhans; Christoph Schär

285

Implications of Parameter Uncertainty on Soil Moisture Drought Analysis in Germany  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulated soil moisture is increasingly used to characterize agricultural droughts but its parametric uncertainty, which essentially affects all hydrological fluxes and state variables, is rarely considered for identifying major drought events. In ...

Luis Samaniego; Rohini Kumar; Matthias Zink

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Stochastic Models for the Kinematics of Moisture Transport and Condensation in Homogeneous Turbulent Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of a condensing passive scalar is studied as a prototype model for the kinematics of moisture transport on isentropic surfaces. Condensation occurs whenever the scalar concentration exceeds a specified local saturation value. Since ...

Paul A. O’Gorman; Tapio Schneider

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Impact of ASCAT soil moisture assimilation on regional precipitation forecasts: A case study for Austria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, remotely sensed soil moisture data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) on the meteorological operational (METOP) satellite are assimilated in the regional forecasting model ALADIN-AUSTRIA using a simplified Extended Kalman ...

Stefan Schneider; Yong Wang; Wolfgang Wagner; Jean-Francois Mahfouf

288

Ability to Forecast Regional Soil Moisture with a Distributed Hydrological Model Using ECMWF Rainfall Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study mimics an online forecast system to provide nine day-ahead forecasts of regional soil moisture. It uses modified ensemble rainfall forecasts from the numerical weather prediction model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather ...

J. M. Schuurmans; M. F. P. Bierkens

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Evaluation of Soil Moisture in the NCEP–NCAR and NCEP–DOE Global Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares soil moisture analyses from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) global reanalysis (R-1) and the later NCEP– Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model ...

Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Masao Kanamitsu; John O. Roads; Wesley Ebisuzaki; Kenneth E. Mitchell; Dag Lohmann

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed Soil Moisture Observing Networks: Design, Instrumentation, and Preliminary Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NOAA Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program has deployed soil moisture observing networks in the watersheds of the Russian River and the North Fork (NF) of the American River in northern California, and the San Pedro River in southeastern ...

Robert J. Zamora; F. Martin Ralph; Edward Clark; Timothy Schneider

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Influence of Soil Moisture on the Asian and African Monsoons. Part II: Interannual Variability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relevance of soil moisture (SM) for simulating the interannual climate variability has not been much investigated until recently. Much more attention has been paid on SST anomalies, especially in the Tropics where the El Niño–Southern ...

H. Douville

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Modeling land surface processes of the midwestern United States : predicting soil moisture under a warmer climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation seeks to quantify the response of soil moisture to climate change in the midwestern United States. To assess this response, a dynamic global vegetation model, Integrated Biosphere Simulator, was coupled ...

Winter, Jonathan (Jonathan Mark)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Evaluation of the Optimum Interpolation and Nudging Techniques for Soil Moisture Analysis Using FIFE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Initialization of land surface prognostic variables is a crucial issue for short- and medium-range forecasting as well as at seasonal timescales. In this study, two sequential soil moisture analysis schemes are tested, both based on the ...

Hervé Douville; Pedro Viterbo; Jean-François Mahfouf; Anton C. M. Beljaars

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Large-Scale Heat and Moisture Budgets over the ASTEX Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rawinsonde data collected from the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) were used to investigate the mean and temporal characteristics of large-scale heat and moisture budgets for a 2-week period in June 1992. During this period a ...

Paul E. Ciesielski; Wayne H. Schubert; Richard H. Johnson

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Comparing Aerosol and Low-Level Moisture Influences on Supercell Tornadogenesis: Three-Dimensional Idealized Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four three-dimensional, nested-grid numerical simulations were performed using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to compare the effects of aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to those of low-level moisture [and thus ...

David G. Lerach; William R. Cotton

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Estimation of soil moisture in paddy field using Artificial Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In paddy field, monitoring soil moisture is required for irrigation scheduling and water resource allocation, management and planning. The current study proposes an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model to estimate soil moisture in paddy field with limited meteorological data. Dynamic of ANN model was adopted to estimate soil moisture with the inputs of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and precipitation. ETo was firstly estimated using the maximum, average and minimum values of air temperature as the inputs of model. The models were performed under different weather conditions between the two paddy cultivation periods. Training process of model was carried out using the observation data in the first period, while validation process was conducted based on the observation data in the second period. Dynamic of ANN model estimated soil moisture with R2 values of 0.80 and 0.73 for training and validation processes, respectively, indicated that tight linear correlations between observed and estimated values of s...

Arif, Chusnul; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Doi, Ryoichi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

How Does Soil Moisture Influence the Early Stages of the South American Monsoon?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article discusses the feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation during the early stages of the South American monsoon. The system achieves maximum precipitation over the southern Amazon basin and the Brazilian highlands during the ...

Estela A. Collini; Ernesto H. Berbery; Vicente R. Barros; Matthew E. Pyle

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Numerical Simulations of Effects of Soil Moisture and Modification by Mountains over New Zealand in Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically most soil moisture–land surface impact studies have focused on continents because of the important forecasting and climate implications involved. For a relatively small isolated mountainous landmass in the ocean such as New Zealand, ...

Yang Yang; Michael Uddstrom; Mike Revell; Phil Andrews; Hilary Oliver; Richard Turner; Trevor Carey-Smith

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

The Effect of Satellite Rainfall Error Modeling on Soil Moisture Prediction Uncertainty  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assesses the impact of satellite rainfall error structure on soil moisture simulations with the NASA Catchment land surface model. Specifically, the study contrasts a complex satellite rainfall error model (SREM2D) with the standard ...

Viviana Maggioni; Rolf H. Reichle; Emmanouil N. Anagnostou

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Using a Microwave Emission Model to Estimate Soil Moisture from ESTAR Observations during SGP99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1999 Southern Great Plains Hydrology Experiment (SGP99) provides comprehensive datasets for evaluating microwave remote sensing of soil moisture algorithms that involve complex physical properties of soils and vegetation. The Land Surface ...

Huilin Gao; Eric F. Wood; Matthias Drusch; Wade Crow; Thomas J. Jackson

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

A Revised Framework for Analyzing Soil Moisture Memory in Climate Data: Derivation and Interpretation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A revised framework for the analysis of soil moisture memory characteristics of climate models and observational data is derived from the approach proposed by Koster and Suarez. The resulting equation allows the expression of the month-to-month ...

Sonia I. Seneviratne; Randal D. Koster

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Effects of Soil Moisture on the Responses of Soil Temperatures to Climate Change in Cold Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At high latitudes, changes in soil moisture could alter soil temperatures independently of air temperature changes by interacting with the snow thermal rectifier. The authors investigated this mechanism with model experiments in the Community Land ...

Zachary M. Subin; Charles D. Koven; William J. Riley; Margaret S. Torn; David M. Lawrence; Sean C. Swenson

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Energy Balance Partitioning and Net Radiation Controls on Soil Moisture–Precipitation Feedbacks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of model runs using the University of Oklahoma’s Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) were conducted to investigate the relative impacts of energy balance partitioning and net radiation on soil moisture–precipitation feedbacks in ...

Aubrey R. Jones; Nathaniel A. Brunsell

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Soil Moisture Feedbacks on Convection Triggers: The Role of Soil–Plant Hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linkages between soil moisture dynamics and convection triggers, defined here as the first crossing between the boundary layer height (hBL) and lifting condensation level (hLCL), are complicated by a large number of interacting processes ...

Mario Siqueira; Gabriel Katul; Amilcare Porporato

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

A Preliminary Study of Severe Wind-Producing MCSs in Environments of Limited Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An examination of severe wind-producing mesoscale convective systems that occur in environments of very limited moisture is presented. Such systems, herein referred to as low-dewpoint derechos (LDDs), are difficult to forecast as they form in ...

Stephen F. Corfidi; Sarah J. Corfidi; David A. Imy; Allen L. Logan

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Influence of MODIS-derived dynamic vegetation on VIC-simulated soil moisture in Oklahoma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture-vegetation interactions are an important component of land-atmosphere coupling, especially in semi-arid regions such as the North American Great Plains. However, many land surface models parameterize vegetation using an interannually-...

Trent W. Ford; Steven M. Quiring

307

Continuous wave acoustic method for determination of moisture content in agricultural soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work deals with the problem of measuring moisture content in agricultural soil by means of an on-site, easy to use and real-time acoustic wave system. The method is based on the propagation of an acoustic continuous wave (CW) with frequencies below ... Keywords: Continuous wave, Irrigation monitoring and control, Soil moisture measurement, Sound propagation in soil, Speed of sound, Texture of soil, Transit time

R. K. Sharma; A. K. Gupta

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The Role of Moisture and Hydrogen in Hot-Salt Cracking of Titanium Alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study investigated the role of moisture and hydrogen in the stress corrosion cracking of Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V exposed to hot chloride salts. The adsorption and retention of moisture during the application of salt deposits and subsequent heating, and the extent of HCl and hydrogen generation during corrosion were studied using radiotracer techniques and mass spectrographic analysis of volatile corrosion products.

Rideout, S.P.

2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

309

ON CONSISTENT FUSION OF MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS Dept. of Electrical Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON CONSISTENT FUSION OF MULTIMODAL BIOMETRICS S. Y. Kung Dept. of Electrical Engineering Princeton feasible. Therefore, multi-modality adaptive fusion, combining audio and visual information, offers architecture. In addition, a consistent fusion strategy is in- troduced as a baseline fusion scheme, which

Mak, Man-Wai

310

An optimal coarse-grained arc consistency algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of constraint propagation is the main feature of any constraint solver. It is thus of prime importance to manage the propagation in an efficient and effective fashion. There are two classes of propagation algorithms for general constraints: fine-grained ... Keywords: Arc consistency, Constraint networks, Constraint programming systems, Non-binary constraints, Path consistency

Christian Bessière; Jean-Charles Régin; Roland H. C. Yap; Yuanlin Zhang

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Performance evaluation of corner detectors using consistency and accuracy measures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the performance of several popular corner detectors using two newly defined criteria. The majority of authors of published corner detectors have not used theoretical criteria to measure the consistency and accuracy of their algorithms. ... Keywords: Accuracy, CSS, Consistency, Corner detection, Performance evaluation

Farzin Mokhtarian; Farahnaz Mohanna

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Answer sets for consistent query answering in inconsistent databases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relational database is inconsistent if it does not satisfy a given set of integrity constraints. Nevertheless, it is likely that most of the data in it is consistent with the constraints. In this paper we apply logic programming based on answer ... Keywords: answer set programming, consistency, databases, integrity constraints

Marcelo Arenas; Leopoldo Bertossi; Jan Chomicki

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Consistency in multi-viewpoint design of enterprise information systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Different stakeholders in the design of an enterprise information system have their own view on that design. To help produce a coherent design this paper presents a framework that aids in specifying relations and consistency rules between such views. ... Keywords: Conceptual modelling, Enterprise information systems, Multi-viewpoint design, View integration, Viewpoint consistency

Remco M. Dijkman; Dick A. C. Quartel; Marten J. van Sinderen

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Programmer-centric conditions for itanium memory consistency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We formulate a programmer-centric description of the memory consistency model provided by the Itanium architecture. This allows reasoning about programs at a non-operational level in the natural way, not obscured by the implementation details of the ... Keywords: itanium multi-processor, programmer-centric memory consistency

Lisa Higham; LillAnne Jackson; Jalal Kawash

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Analysis of organic carbon and moisture in Hanford single-shell tank waste  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a revised analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory involving the organic carbon laboratory measurement data for Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) obtained from a review of the laboratory analytical data. This activity has as its objective to provide a best-estimate, including confidence levels, of total organic carbon (TOC) and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford. The TOC and moisture information presented in this report is useful as part of the criteria to identify SSTs for additional measurements, or monitoring for the Organic Safety Program. In April 1994, an initial study of the organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tanks was completed at PNL. That study reflected the estimates of TOC based on tank characterizations datasets that were available at the time. Also in that study, estimation of dry basis TOC was based on generalized assumptions pertaining to the moisture of the tank wastes. The new information pertaining to tank moisture and TOC data that has become available from the current study influences the best estimates of TOC in each of the SSTs. This investigation of tank TOC and moisture has resulted in improved estimates based on waste phase: saltcake, sludge, or liquid. This report details the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the estimates of TOC and moisture in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford.

Toth, J.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Lerchen, M.E.; Hill, J.G.; Whitney, P.D.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Consistent Thermodynamics for Quasiparticle Boson System with Zero Chemical Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle boson system with effective mass $m^*$ and zero chemical potential is studied. We take the quasiparticle gluon plasma model as a toy model. The failure of previous treatments based on traditional partial derivative is addressed. We show that a consistent thermodynamic treatment can be applied to such boson system provided that a new degree of freedom $m^*$ is introduced in the partial derivative calculation. A pressure modification term different from the vacuum contribution is derived based on the new independent variable $m^*$. A complete and self-consistent thermodynamic treatment for quasiparticle system, which can be widely applied to effective mass models, has been constructed.

Shaoyu Yin; Ru-Keng Su

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

317

Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for Idaho, Other DOE Sites Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for Idaho, Other DOE Sites November 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis IDAHO FALLS, Idaho - Contracting companies supporting EM's cleanup program at the Idaho site volunteered to be among the first to use a new DOE training reciprocity program designed to bring more consistency to health and safety training across the complex, reduce redundancy and realize savings and other efficiencies. The DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) program is meant to eliminate the need for Department employees and contractors to take redundant training when they move among multiple sites in the complex.

318

Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for Idaho, Other DOE Sites Training Reciprocity Achieves Greater Consistency, Saves Time and Money for Idaho, Other DOE Sites November 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis IDAHO FALLS, Idaho - Contracting companies supporting EM's cleanup program at the Idaho site volunteered to be among the first to use a new DOE training reciprocity program designed to bring more consistency to health and safety training across the complex, reduce redundancy and realize savings and other efficiencies. The DOE Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) program is meant to eliminate the need for Department employees and contractors to take redundant training when they move among multiple sites in the complex.

319

BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" BILIWG: Consistent "Figures of Merit" A finite set of results reported in consistent units * To track progress of individual projects on a consistent basis * To enable comparing projects in a transparent manner Potential BILIWG Figures of Merit Key BILI Distributed Reforming Targets * Cost ($/kg of H2): H2A analysis - Distributed reforming station,1000 kg/day ave./daily dispensed, 5000/6250 psi (and 10,000/12,000 psi) dispensing, 500 units/yr. * nth unit vs. 500 units/yr ? * production unit only (with 300 psi outlet pressure) ? * Production unit efficiency: LHV H2 out/(LHV of feedstocks and all other energy in) GTG - WTG efficiency? - Feedstock conversion energy efficiency? * Production unit capital cost: Distributed reforming station,1000 kg/day ave./daily dispensed, 300 psi outlet pressure

320

The Pilgrim: A New Consistency Protocol for Distributed Shared Memory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a new consistency protocol for distributed shared memory (DSM) where different shared objects are replicated at each site. This protocol was developed for the cooperative platform called CAliF: Cooperative Application Framework. This system uses the DSM to allow programmers to share objects or variables without having to manage the exchange. We present an algorithm which uses the token technique. The token is data structure which contains the updates of shared data. These data are carried through the ring on the token, named Pilgrim. Pilgrim protocol provides both reliable consistency and guaranteed performance according to the type of application described. The protocol is discussed and proved, and we demonstrate its qualities. Key words: consistency protocol, cooperative work, distributed shared memory, virtual ring. 1 Introduction In this paper, we propose a new consistency protocol for distributed shared memory (DSM) where different shared objects are replicated at eac...

H. Guyennet; J-c. Lapayre; M. Tréhel

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NPP Boreal Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1977...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1977-1994 Data Citation Cite this data set as follows: Gower, S. T., O. Krankina, R. J. Olson, M. Apps, S. Linder, and C. Wang. 2001. NPP...

322

NPP Tropical Forest: Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Consistent Worldwide Site Estimates, 1967-1999 Data Citation Cite this data set as follows: Clark, D. A., S. Brown, D. W. Kicklighter, J. Q. Chambers, J. R. Thomlinson, J. Ni, and...

323

Poor man's social network: consistently trade freshness for scalability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Typical social networking functionalities such as feed following are known to be hard to scale. Different from the popular approach that sacrifices consistency for scalability, in this paper we describe, implement, and evaluate a method that can simultaneously ...

Zhiwu Xie; Jinyang Liu; Herbert Van De Sompel; Johann Van Reenen; Ramiro Jordan

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Thermodynamic consistency of liquid-gas lattice Boltzmann simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lattice Boltzmann simulations have been very successful in simulating liquid-gas and other multi-phase fluid systems. However, the underlying second order analysis of the equation of motion has long been known to be insufficient to consistently derive the fourth order terms that are necessary to represent an extended interface. These same terms are also responsible for thermodynamic consistency, i.e. to obtain a true equilibrium solution with both a constant chemical potential and a constant pressure. In this article we present an equilibrium analysis of non-ideal lattice Boltzmann methods of sufficient order to identify those higher order terms that lead to a lack of thermodynamic consistency. We then introduce a thermodynamically consistent forcing method.

A. J. Wagner

2006-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

325

Consistent and efficient reconstruction of latent tree models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the problem of learning a latent tree graphical model where samples are available only from a subset of variables. We propose two consistent and computationally efficient algorithms for learning minimal latent ...

Choi, Myung Jin

326

A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Moisture-Induced Damage in Asphalt Mixtures: Formulation and Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deleterious effect of moisture on the structural integrity of asphalt mixtures has been recognized as one of the main causes of early deterioration of asphalt pavements. This phenomenon, usually referred to as moisture damage, is defined as the progressive loss of structural integrity of the mixture that is primarily caused by the presence of moisture in liquid or vapor state. Moisture damage is associated with the development of different physical, mechanical, and chemical processes occurring within the microstructure of the mixture at different intensities and rates. Although there have been important advancements in identifying and characterizing this phenomenon, there is still a lack of understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring at the microscopic level. This situation has motivated the research work reported in this dissertation. The main objective of this dissertation is to formulate and apply a numerical micromechanical model of moisture-induced damage in asphalt mixtures. The model focuses on coupling the effects of moisture diffusion—one of the three main modes of moisture transport within asphalt mixtures—with the mechanical performance of the microstructure. Specifically, the model aims to account for the effect of moisture diffusion on the degradation of the viscoelastic bulk matrix of the mixture (i.e., cohesive degradation) and on the gradual deterioration of the adhesive bonds between the aggregates and the asphalt matrix (i.e., adhesive degradation). The micromechanical model was applied to study the role of some physical and mechanical properties of the constitutive phases of the mixtures on the susceptibility of the mixture to moisture damage. The results from this analysis suggest that the diffusion coefficients of the asphalt matrix and aggregates, as well as the bond strength of the aggregate-matrix interface, have the most influence on the moisture susceptibility of the mixtures. The micromechanical model was further used to investigate the influence of the void phase of asphalt mixtures on the generation of moisture-related deterioration processes. Two different probabilistic-based approaches were used to accomplish this objective. In the first approach, a volumetric distribution of air voids sizes measured using X-Ray Computed Tomography in a dense-graded asphalt mixture was used to generate probable void structures in a microstructure of an asphalt mixture. In the second approach, a stochastic modeling technique based on random field theory was used to generate probable air voids distributions of the mixture. In this second approach, the influence of the air voids was accounted for by making the physical and mechanical properties of the asphalt matrix dependent on probable voids distributions. Although both approaches take into consideration the characteristics of the air void phase on the mechanical response of the mixtures subjected to moist environments, the former explicitly introduces the air phase within the microstructure while the latter indirectly includes its effects by modifying the material properties of the bulk matrix. The results from these simulations demonstrated that the amount, variability and location of air voids are decisive in determining the moisture-dependent performance of asphalt mixtures. The results from this dissertation provide new information on the kinetics of moisture damage mechanisms in asphalt mixtures. In particular, the results obtained from applying the micromechanical model permitted identification of the relative influence of the characteristics of the constitutive phases of a mixture on its moisture-related mechanical performance. This information can be used as part of design methodologies of asphalt mixtures, and/or as an input in life-cycle analysis models and maintenance programs of road infrastructure.

Caro Spinel, Silvia

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile Â… Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duct leakage was a key factor in moisture Duct leakage was a key factor in moisture damage in manufactured homes in humid climates. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 2. House-as-a-System Solutions 2.1 New Homes with Whole-House Packages Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing Research by Building America diagnosed the causes and prescribed a cure that dramatically reduced moisture problems in manufactured housing in Florida. In the late 1990s, Building America researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) worked with manufactured home builders to diagnose moisture problems in homes in Florida. Moisture issues were so severe that in some homes researchers could push their fingers through the saturated drywall. Using a

328

Crack model for toughness of green parts with moisture or a fluid binder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is presented to predict the toughness, KIC, of green ceramics based on the binding forces of meniscuses formed between particles near the tip of the critical flaw. The model considers capillary pressure, surface tension and the viscous flow of binder. Calculations were determined for moisture only but the model can also be applied to binder meniscuses. Capillary pressure is highest at low moisture content. By using well established force distance relationships for the meniscus between single particles, toughness was determined as a function of moisture content. For non-agglomerated particles, KIC increases with moisture content and decreases with contact angle and no particle size dependence was found. On the other hand, if particles are agglomerated and the meniscus is between agglomerates, the toughness is particles size dependent and the toughness reaches a maximum at low moisture content. This model assumes that the capillary pressure is transmitted throughout the green part. The calculated values of KIC agree approximately with the measured toughness values of binderless green parts having two different specific surface areas.

W. Roger Cannon; Paul A. Lessing; Larry D. Zuck

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Generation of a Consistent Terrestrial Net Primary Production Data Set  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Generation of a Consistent Terrestrial Net Generation of a Consistent Terrestrial Net Primary Production Data Set Final Report NASA Reference Number TE/99-0005 May 3, 2001 Richard J. Olson and Jonathan M. O. Scurlock Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6407 This project, "Generation of a Consistent Terrestrial Net Primary Production Data Set", is a coordinated, international effort to compile global estimates of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) for parameterization, calibration, and validation of NPP models. The project (NASA Reference Number TE/99-0005) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Office of Earth Science, Terrestrial Ecology Program under Interagency Agreement number 2013-M164-A1, under

330

Self-consistent quasiparticle model for quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Here we present a self-consistent quasi-particle model for quark-gluon plasma and apply it to explain the non-ideal behaviour seen in lattice simulations. The basic idea, borrowed from electrodynamic plasma, is that the gluons acquire mass as it propagates through plasma due to collective effects and is approximately equal to the plasma frequency. The statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of such a system is studied by treating it as an ideal gas of massive gluons. Since mass or plasma frequency depends on density, which itself is a thermodynamic quantity, the whole problem need to be solved self-consistently.

Vishnu M. Bannur

2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

331

Variation in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon and water exchange in a California grassland experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in soil moisture and N availability modulates carbon andamount and timing, N availability, and plant communityparticularly as water availability was increased. These

St. Clair, S.B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Thermodynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a Regional Model with Constrained Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden Julian Oscillation, an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a WRF simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model realistically simulates the two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007-2008. The analysis shows that instabilities and damping associated with variations in diabatic heating and energy transport work in concert to provide the MJO with its observed characteristics. The results are used to construct a simplified paradigm of MJO thermodynamics. Furthermore, the effect of moisture nudging on the simulation is analyzed to understand the limitations of the model cumulus parameterization. Without moisture nudging, the parameterization fails to provide adequate low-level (upper-level) moistening during the early (late) stage of the MJO active phase. The moistening plays a critical role in providing stratiform heating variability that is an important source of eddy available potential energy for the model MJO.

Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Dudhia, Jimy

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

New Peak Moisture Design Data in the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 26 of the 1997 edition of the Handbook of Fundamentals published by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers) contains climatic design data that has been completely revised, recalculated and expanded. Designers of air conditioning systems for hot and humid climates will be pleased to note that, for the first time, the chapter contains values for peak moisture conditions. This is in sharp contrast to older editions, which contained only the average moisture during periods of peak dry bulb temperatures. The new data show that using earlier, temperature-based data for humidity design underestimates the true peak moisture loads by 30 to 50% depending on the humidity control level in the space. This paper explains the new data elements and suggests some of its potential implications for engineers designing air conditioning systems for hot and humid climates.

Harriman, L.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Low-temperature conversion of high-moisture biomass: Topical report, January 1984--January 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing a low-temperature, catalytic process that converts high-moisture biomass feedstocks and other wet organic substances to useful gaseous and liquid fuels. The advantage of this process is that it works without the need for drying or dewatering the feedstock. Conventional thermal gasification processes, which require temperatures above 750/degree/C and air or oxygen for combustion to supply reaction heat, generally cannot utilize feedstocks with moisture contents above 50 wt %, as the conversion efficiency is greatly reduced as a result of the drying step. For this reason, anaerobic digestion or other bioconversion processes traditionally have been used for gasification of high-moisture feedstocks. However, these processes suffer from slow reaction rates and incomplete carbon conversion. 50 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Elliott, D.C.; Butner, R.S.; Neuenschwander, G.G.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Induction of enhanced methane oxidation in compost: Temperature and moisture response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Landfilling is one of the most common ways of municipal solid waste disposal. Degradation of organic waste produces CH{sub 4} and other landfill gases that significantly contribute to global warming. However, before entering the atmosphere, part of the produced CH{sub 4} can be oxidised while passing through the landfill cover. In the present study, the oxidation rate of CH{sub 4} was studied with various types of compost as possible landfill cover. The influence of incubation time, moisture content and temperature on the CH{sub 4} oxidation capacity of different types of compost was examined. It was observed that the influence of moisture content and temperature on methane oxidation is time-dependent. Maximum oxidation rates were observed at moisture contents ranging from 45% to 110% (dry weight basis), while the optimum temperature ranged from 15 to 30 deg. C.

Mor, Suman [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India) and Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: sumanmor@yahoo.com; Visscher, Alex de [Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ravindra, Khaiwal [Micro and Trace Analysis Centre, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Dahiya, R.P. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Chandra, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Cleemput, Oswald van [Department of Applied Analytical and Physical Chemistry, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Final Report Fermionic Symmetries and Self consistent Shell Model  

SciTech Connect

In this final report in the field of theoretical nuclear physics we note important accomplishments.We were confronted with "anomoulous" magnetic moments by the experimetalists and were able to expain them. We found unexpected partial dynamical symmetries--completely unknown before, and were able to a large extent to expain them.The importance of a self consistent shell model was emphasized.

Larry Zamick

2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

337

Consistency of functional learning methods based on derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In some real world applications, such as spectrometry, functional models achieve better predictive performances if they work on the derivatives of order m of their inputs rather than on the original functions. As a consequence, the use of derivatives ... Keywords: Consistency, Derivatives, Functional Data Analysis, RKHS, SVM, Smoothing splines, Statistical learning

Fabrice Rossi; Nathalie Villa-Vialaneix

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Consistency among speech parameter vectors: Application to predicting speech intelligibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous researchers interested in physical assessment of speech intelligibility have largely based their predictions on preservation of spectral shape. A new approach is presented in which intelligibility is predicted to be preserved only if a transformation modifies relevant speech parameters in a consistent manner. In particular

Matthew H. Power; Louis D. Braida

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Molecular nanoplasmonics: self-consistent electrodynamics in current carrying junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a biased molecular junction subjected to external time-dependent electromagnetic field. We discuss local field formation due to both surface plasmon-polariton excitations in the contacts and the molecular response. Employing realistic parameters we demonstrate that such self-consistent treatment is crucial for proper description of the junction transport characteristics.

White, Alexander J; Galperin, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A nuclear Frechet space consisting of C -functions and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nuclear Fr´echet space consisting of C -functions and failing the bounded approximation property Dietmar Vogt Abstract An easy and transparent example is given of a nuclear Fre´echet space failing of Grothendieck whether every nuclear Fr´echet space has the bounded approximation property was open for quite

Vogt, Dietmar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Consistent Data Assimilation of Isotopes: 242Pu and 105Pd  

SciTech Connect

In this annual report we illustrate the methodology of the consistent data assimilation that allows to use the information coming from integral experiments for improving the basic nuclear parameters used in cross section evaluation. A series of integral experiments are analyzed using the EMPIRE evaluated files for 242Pu and 105Pd. In particular irradiation experiments (PROFIL-1 and -2, TRAPU-1, -2 and -3) provide information about capture cross sections, and a critical configuration, COSMO, where fission spectral indexes were measured, provides information about fission cross section. The observed discrepancies between calculated and experimental results are used in conjunction with the computed sensitivity coefficients and covariance matrix for nuclear parameters in a consistent data assimilation. The results obtained by the consistent data assimilation indicate that not so large modifications on some key identified nuclear parameters allow to obtain reasonable C/E. However, for some parameters such variations are outside the range of 1 s of their initial standard deviation. This can indicate a possible conflict between differential measurements (used to calculate the initial standard deviations) and the integral measurements used in the statistical data adjustment. Moreover, an inconsistency between the C/E of two sets of irradiation experiments (PROFIL and TRAPU) is observed for 242Pu. This is the end of this project funded by the Nuclear Physics Program of the DOE Office of Science. We can indicate that a proof of principle has been demonstrated for a few isotopes for this innovative methodology. However, we are still far from having explored all the possibilities and made this methodology to be considered proved and robust. In particular many issues are worth further investigation: • Non-linear effects • Flexibility of nuclear parameters in describing cross sections • Multi-isotope consistent assimilation • Consistency between differential and integral experiments

G. Palmiotti; H. Hiruta; M. Salvatores

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

ANALYSIS OF THE AXIAL GAP VS FIBERBOARD MOISTURE CONTENT IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE  

SciTech Connect

The fiberboard assembly within a 9975 shipping package contains a modest amount of moisture, which can migrate to the cooler regions of the package when an internal heat load is present. Typically, this leads to increased moisture levels in the bottom fiberboard layers, along with elevated chloride levels which can leach from the fiberboard. Concerns have been raised that this condition could lead to corrosion of the stainless steel drum. It has been postulated that checking the axial gap at the top of the package against the current 1 inch maximum criterion provides a sufficient indication regarding the integrity of the fiberboard and drum. This report estimates the increase in axial gap that might be expected for a given moisture increase in the bottom fiberboard layers, and the likelihood that the increase will create a nonconforming condition that will lead to identification of the moisture increase. Using data relating the fiberboard moisture content with the degree of compaction under load, the present analysis indicates that the axial gap will increase by 0.282 inch as the bottom fiberboard layers approach the saturation point. This increase will cause approximately 58% of packages with otherwise nominal package component dimensions to fail the axial gap criterion, based on a survey of axial gap values recorded in K-Area surveillance activities. As the moisture content increases above saturation, the predicted increase in axial gap jumps to 0.405 inch, which would result in 92% or more of all packages failing the axial gap criterion. The data and analysis described in this report are specific to cane fiberboard. While it is expected that softwood fiberboard will behave similarly, such behavior has not yet been demonstrated.

Daugherty, W.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Inherently Reliable Boiler Component Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the lessons learned during the last decade in efforts to improve the reliability and availability of boilers used in the production of electricity. The information in this report can assist in component modifications and new boiler designs.

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

The inherent price of indulgence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a tight lower bound on the time complexity of indulgent consensus algorithms, i.e., consensus algorithms that use unreliable failure detectors. We state and prove our tight lower bound in the unifying framework of round-by-round fault ...

Partha Dutta; Rachid Guerraoui

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The inherent price of indulgence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An indulgent algorithm is a distributed algorithm that tolerates asynchronous periods of the network when process crash detection is unreliable. This paper presents a tight bound on the time complexity of indulgent consensus algorithms.We consider a ... Keywords: consensus time complexity, distributed algorithms, fault tolerance

Partha Dutta; Rachid Guerraoui

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs  

SciTech Connect

As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Controlling Deformation in Elastic and Viscoelastic Beams Due to Temperature and Moisture Changes Using Piezoelectric Actuator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyzes the implementation of surface bonded piezoelectric actuators to control or minimize the deformation in elastic or viscoelastic cantilever beams due to simultaneous heat and moisture diffusion. The problem is addressed in the context of linearized elasticity and linearized viscoelasticity. The constitutive equations are derived from the balance laws for mass, linear and angular momenta, energy, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics. The constitutive equations for linearized elasticity are then obtained as a consequence of small deformation assumption. The temperature and moisture induced deformation is introduced through the coefficient of thermal expansion CTE and coefficient of moisture expansion CME. The constitutive equations for linearized viscoelasticity are obtained by correspondence principle. The coupled temperature and moisture diffusion equations are obtained as a consequence of Clausius-Duhem inequality. The extent of coupling between heat conduction and moisture diffusion phenomena is studied by varying the ratio of their diffusivities and a non-dimensional coupling parameter. The effect of coupled unsteady heat conduction and moisture diffusion phenomena on the short and long term response characteristics of the beam such as displacement, stress and strain fields is studied. Based on these response characteristics, the magnitude of external actuating voltage required to minimize deformation is predicted. This is followed by a comparative study of the field variables in cases of actuated and unactuated beams. Four materials are chosen for this study; aluminium, epoxy, carbon fiber reinforced polymer with fiber volume fraction of 60 percent, and an epoxy-like viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic material is assumed to be thermorheologically simple. The shift factor is assumed to be a linear function of temperature and moisture fields. To address this problem numerically, a finite difference formulation is presented for the field equations and boundary conditions. This numerical scheme is validated by solving the problem of uniformly loaded cantilever beam and comparing the results with the analytical solution known a priori. The results obtained numerically are validated by comparison with experimental results. It is observed that the under the effect of external actuation, the stress and displacement fields are largely minimized in all four cases chosen for study. The bending in the unactuated viscoelastic beam is more pronounced than bending in the unactuated elastic beam. This is due to the softening of the material with time due to evolving temperature and moisture fields. However, relatively lesser external actuating voltage is necessary to minimize bending in the former case compared to the latter. The magnitude of actuating electric field required in the piezoelectric layer suggests a need to address the problem with in a non-linear framework, no such attempt is made in this study.

Kuravi, Ramachandra Srinivasa Chaitanya

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Dynamic Self-Consistent Field Theory for Unentangled Homopolymer Fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a lattice formulation of a dynamic self-consistent field (DSCF) theory that is capable of resolving interfacial structure, dynamics and rheology in inhomogeneous, compressible melts and blends of unentangled homopolymer chains. The joint probability distribution of all the Kuhn segments in the fluid, interacting with adjacent segments and walls, is approximated by a product of one-body probabilities for free segments interacting solely with an external potential field that is determined self-consistently. The effect of flow on ideal chain conformations is modeled with FENE-P dumbbells, and related to stepping probabilities in a random walk. Free segment and stepping probabilities generate statistical weights for chain conformations in a self-consistent field, and determine local volume fractions of chain segments. Flux balance across unit lattice cells yields mean-field transport equations for the evolution of free segment probabilities and of momentum densities on the Kuhn length scale. Diffusive and viscous contributions to the fluxes arise from segmental hops modeled as a Markov process, with transition rates reflecting changes in segmental interaction, kinetic energy, and entropic contributions to the free energy under flow.

Maja Mihajlovic; Tak Shing Lo; Yitzhak Shnidman

2004-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.

Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Mosher, Scott W [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

351

Application of PSO-RBFNN to the Prediction of Moisture Content in Crude Oil of Wellheat Metering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crude oil moisture content is a significant data of surface flow rate, and is also an indispensable parameter of measuring the development prospects of oilfield. During logging mining the oil field and the transportation, high precision measurement data ... Keywords: moisture content, crude oil, PSO-RBF neural network, prediction model

Lulu Zhang; Cuiling Liu

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Steam Turbine Efficiency and Corrosion: Effects of Surface Finish, Deposits, and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The causes of steam turbine losses have been recognized for over 50 years. In practice, deposits and surface finish account for major losses during turbine blade path audits. This report presents new experimental information on the effects of surface finish, moisture removal, and deposits.

2001-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

Boundary Layer Evolution within a Canyonland Basin. Part I: Mass, Heat, and Moisture Budgets from Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Individual terms of the mass, heat, and moisture budget equations are evaluated for an atmospheric control volume in Colorado's Sinbad Basin using tethered balloon and surface energy budget data obtained during a 16.5-h period on 15?16 July 1988. ...

C. David Whiteman; Thomas B. McKee; J. C. Doran

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Representation of Boundary Layer Moisture Transport in Cloud-Resolving Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the important roles of the PBL is to transport moisture from the surface to the cloud layer. However, how this transport process can be accounted for in cloud-resolving models (CRMs) is not sufficiently clear and has rarely been examined. A ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Akio Arakawa

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Influence of leaf area index prescriptions on simulations of heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes ...

Jatin Kala; Mark Decker; Jean-François Exbrayat; Andy J. Pitman; Claire Carouge; Jason P. Evans; Gab Abramowitz; David Mocko

356

The Value of Coarse-Scale Soil Moisture Observations for Regional Surface Energy Balance Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using high-resolution (1 km) hydrologic modeling of the 575 000-km2 Red–Arkansas River basin, the impact of spatially aggregating soil moisture imagery up to the footprint scale (32–64 km) of spaceborne microwave radiometers on regional-scale ...

Wade T. Crow; Eric F. Wood

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Effects of Material Moisture Adsorption and Desorption on Building Cooling Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moisture adsorption and desorption (MAD) by internal building materials and furnishings can be significant in buildings. For many building cooling strategies, MAD may have overriding effects on building cooling loads. For example, natural ventilation of buildings in hot, humid climates has been shown to induce higher latent loads and higher room relative humidities during periods following the ventilation.

Fairey, P.; Kosar, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Tropical Precipitation Rates during SOP-1, FGGE, Estimated from Heat and Moisture Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents global estimates of precipitation rates from 30°N to 30°S, derived from the “apparent” heat source (Q1) and “apparent” moisture sink (Q2) budgets using the NASA Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres Level III-b analyses collected ...

Catherine B. Pedigo; Dayton G. Vincent

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Twentieth-Century Trends in Runoff, Evapotranspiration, and Soil Moisture in the Western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A physically based hydrology model is used to produce time series for the period 1916–2003 of evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and soil moisture (SM) over the western United States from which long-term trends are evaluated. The results show that ...

Alan F. Hamlet; Philip W. Mote; Martyn P. Clark; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Evaluation of the Global Atmospheric Moisture Budget as Seen from Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the period 1987 to 1993, quantities central to the global moisture budget from the global analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC), and NASA/Goddard have been ...

Kevin E. Trenberth; Christian J. Guillemot

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

The Usage of Screen-Level Parameters and Microwave Brightness Temperature for Soil Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on testing two different soil moisture analysis systems based on screen-level parameters (2-m temperature T2m, 2-m relative humidity RH2m) and 1.4-GHz passive microwave brightness temperatures TB. First, a simplified extended ...

G. Seuffert; H. Wilker; P. Viterbo; M. Drusch; J-F. Mahfouf

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Impacts of Shallow Convection on MJO Simulation: A Moist Static Energy and Moisture Budget Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of shallow convection in Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined in terms of the moist static energy (MSE) and moisture budgets. Two experiments are carried out using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0 (CAM3.0)...

Qiongqiong Cai; Guang J. Zhang; Tianjun Zhou

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

A Growing-Season Hydroclimatology, Focusing on Soil Moisture Deficits, for the Ohio Valley Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hydroclimatology, or description of long-term means and interannual variation, that focuses on soil moisture deficits was constructed for the period of 1895–1998 for a six-state region composing the Ohio Valley. The term “deficit” is considered ...

Andrew J. Grundstein; Mace L. Bentley

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Climate control for southeastern China moisture and precipitation: Indian or East Asian monsoon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate control for southeastern China moisture and precipitation: Indian or East Asian monsoon content over SECN is regulated primarily by both the Indian and East Asian monsoons. Further analysis indicated that the variability of the East Asian summer monsoon is substantially regulated by the western

365

Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality ? H. DOUVILLE, S of moist static energy. Particularly intriguing is the observed relationship between summer monsoon influence of SST and SM boundary conditions on the West African monsoon predictability over the 1986

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Measurements and modeling of the effect of convective clouds on the upper tropospheric moisture budget  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to determine the upper tropospheric moisture budget associated with convective events, and in particular to extend process models to higher altitudes than have been achieved previously. Although upper tropospheric moisture concentrations are several orders of magnitude lower than those near the surface, upper tropospheric moisture exerts an important influence on climate. On a per-molecule basis, greenhouse absorption due to water vapor is about one hundred times more effective at high altitudes than at low altitudes. Several one-dimensional radiative convective models have been used to demonstrate the importance of upper tropospheric moisture on climate. These models show that for a given fractional increase in water vapor at a given altitude the response or change in surface temperature is qualitatively the same. At present, considerable controversy exists over the nature of the vertical redistribution of water vapor in a changing climate, and particularly the distribution of water vapor in the upper troposphere. Lacking suitable data, this controversy is also reflected in the cumulus parameterization schemes that are currently used in models. Understanding upper tropospheric moistening processes are therefore of prime importance in addressing the water vapor feedback question.

Bisson, S.E.; Goldsmith, J.E.M. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Del Genio, A.D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Mesoscale Budgets of Heat and Moisture in a Convective System over the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect midlatitude organized onvection on its environment is diagnosed through the calculation of mesoscale heat and moisture budgets over a region during the 10–11 April 1979 AYE-SESAME case. The noise level or error at individual points is ...

Ying-Hwa Kuo; Richard A. Anthes

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Investigating the Role of Moisture in Concrete Tie Rail Seat Deterioration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigating the Role of Moisture in Concrete Tie Rail Seat Deterioration Proceedings of the 2009 ABSTRACT Rail seat deterioration (RSD) is the most critical problem with concrete tie performance on North American freight railroads. Currently, the causes and mechanics of RSD are not sufficiently understood

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

369

Delamination in Thermohyperelastic Plastic IC Packaging Material Due to Thermal Load and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lamination failure as “popcorn” form of plastic electronic packages under thermal stress induced by heat mismatch and vapor pressure induced by the moisture during the solder-reflow process is studied. When plastic electronic packages are ... Keywords: popcorn failure, thermohyperelastic material, vapor pressure

Zhigang Li; Xuexia Yang; Xuefeng Shu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mesoscale Moisture Transport by the Low-Level Jet during the IHOP Field Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous studies of the low-level jet (LLJ) over the central Great Plains of the United States have been unable to determine the role that mesoscale and smaller circulations play in the transport of moisture. To address this issue, two aircraft ...

Edward I. Tollerud; Fernando Caracena; Steven E. Koch; Brian D. Jamison; R. Michael Hardesty; Brandi J. McCarty; Christoph Kiemle; Randall S. Collander; Diana L. Bartels; Steven Albers; Brent Shaw; Daniel L. Birkenheuer; W. Alan Brewer

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A Numerical Study to Investigate the Relationship between Moisture Convergence Patterns and Orography in Central Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines small-scale orographic effects on atmospheric moisture convergence at the ridge–valley scale in the Grande de Santiago River basin in central Mexico during a major monsoon storm on 13–14 August 1999. The simulation was ...

S. Bhushan; A. P. Barros

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A Self-consistent Model of the Black Hole Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a self-consistent model which describes a black hole from formation to evaporation including the back reaction from the Hawking radiation. In the case where a null shell collapses, at the beginning the evaporation occurs, but it stops eventually, and a horizon and singularity appear. On the other hand, in the generic collapse process of a continuously distributed null matter, the black hole evaporates completely without forming a macroscopically large horizon nor singularity. We also find a stationary solution in the heat bath, which can be regarded as a normal thermodynamic object.

Hikaru Kawai; Yoshinori Matsuo; Yuki Yokokura

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

373

Measuring extended Higgs sectors as a consistent free couplings model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extended Higgs sectors appear in many models for physics beyond the Standard Model. Current Higgs measurements at the LHC are starting to significantly constrain them. We study their Higgs coupling patterns at tree level as well as including quantum corrections. Our benchmarks include a dark singlet-doublet extension and several two-doublet setups. Using SFitter we translate the current Higgs coupling measurements for one light Higgs state into their respective parameter spaces. Finally, we show how two-Higgs-doublet models can serve as a consistent ultraviolet completion of an assumed single Standard-Model-like Higgs boson with free couplings.

David Lopez-Val; Tilman Plehn; Michael Rauch

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

Ferrocyanide safety program: Moisture migration test in ferrocyanide simulant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the initial phases of the Ferrocyanide Safety Program, it was presumed that actual sludge in tanks would behave as if it were a two-phase system in which a brine phase would seep through the insoluble solid phase of ferrocyanide and other precipitated salts. After flowsheet materials were produced and extensively tested, it became apparent that the ferrocyanide precipitates held extensive quantities of water (50% by weight or more) that were far above what would be expected from hydrated salts. Because little or no draining of this fluid occurred over a period of months, it was concluded that the precipitates and their solution would act as a homogeneous single phase in much the same way as natural clays. Suggestions were made that the testing of clays could add to existing knowledge of sludge hydraulic and rheologic properties, at a much-reduced cost in chemicals and time over that required for flowsheet materials. Tests were conducted in a 400-L volume of ferrocyanide sludge simulant to determine thermal characteristics around heated zones. At low heat loads, surface vapor losses were much lower than return rates, resulting in no net change in water content. Under boiling conditions, no bulk dryout occurred. These results were consistent with the results from earlier small-scale experiments.

Crippen, M.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Moisture content and unsaturated conditions in UMTRA project radon barriers  

SciTech Connect

A typical Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal facility consists of uranium tailings and other contaminated materials covered by a three to six foot thick radon barrier and six inches of filter sand, overlain by one foot of erosion-protection riprap. To comply with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project, groundwater concentration limits of hazardous constitutents cannot be exceeded at the point of compliance, which is the downgradient limit of the waste management area. The typical radon barrier has a saturated hydraulic conductivity of approximately 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/s). Long-term seepage rates from a disposal facility with an unsaturated radon barrier may permit the concentration limits to be met at the point of compliance. Field studies were undertaken to measure the percent saturation and the relation of percent saturation to soil tension, and to predict the hydraulic conductivity as a function of percent saturation in radon barriers at three UMTRA Project disposal facilities that have been completed for up to two years. Presently typical covers have been completed at the Shiprock, Clive, and Burrell sites, and they are planned or under construction at the Ambrosia Lake, Green River, Lakeview, Mexican Hat, Slick Rock, and Tuba City sites. 2 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Radiant barriers in houses: Energy, comfort, and moisture considerations in a northern climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to determine the conditions under which radiant barrier utilization in attics is appropriate technology in building construction for a northern climate in Utah. A sample of 12 appropriate houses with radiant barriers were selected using predetermined criteria. Another 12 houses without radiant barriers were selected as a control sample and paired with the first 12 houses using predetermined criteria. The research involved three different types of data and analyses. First, a questionnaire survey was completed by the occupants of the 12 sample houses, with radiant barriers. The survey included such factors as: (1) comfort, (2) energy, and (3) potential increased moisture content as perceived by the occupants. Second, a t-test was used to calculate the statistical comparison of utility usage between the 12 sample houses with radiant barriers and the 12 control houses without radiant barriers. Third, the moisture content of the wood framing above and below the radiant barriers was measured over a three month period during the winter months. Data analysis indicated: (1) occupants did perceive that more comfort resulted from the installation of radiant barriers, (2) occupants did not observe additional moisture artifacts after the installation of radiant barriers, (3) occupants did perceive cost savings from utility benefits resulting from the use of radiant barriers, especially in cooling the houses in summer, (4) there was no significant difference between utility usage of houses with radiant barriers and houses without radiant barriers, (5) the moisture content in the ceiling joists of all 24 houses, except one, had a moisture content measurement less than eight percent, and (6) houses with radiant barriers have higher humidity levels within the living space than houses without radiant barrier installation.

Mendenhall, R.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple renormalization theory of plasma particle interactions is proposed. It primarily stems from generic properties of equilibrium distribution functions and allows one to obtain the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for an effective interaction potential of two chosen particles in the presence of a third one. The same equation is then strictly derived from the Bogolyubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy for equilibrium distribution functions in the pair correlation approximation. This enables one to construct a self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas, correctly accounting for the close interrelation of charged and neutral components thereof. Minimization of the system free energy provides ionization equilibrium and, thus, permits one to study the plasma composition in a wide range of its parameters. Unlike standard chemical models, the proposed one allows one to study the system correlation functions and thereby to obtain an equation of state which agrees well with exact results of quantum-mechanical activity expansions. It is shown that the plasma and neutral components are strongly interrelated, which results in the short-range order formation in the corresponding subsystem. The mathematical form of the results obtained enables one to both firmly establish this fact and to determine a characteristic length of the structure formation. Since the cornerstone of the proposed self-consistent chemical model of partially ionized plasmas is an effective pairwise interaction potential, it immediately provides quite an efficient calculation scheme not only for thermodynamical functions but for transport coefficients as well.

Arkhipov, Yu. V.; Baimbetov, F. B.; Davletov, A. E. [Department of Physics, Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96, Almaty 050012 (Kazakhstan)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Impact of Spring Soil Moisture on Surface Energy Balance and Summer Monsoon Circulation over East Asia and Precipitation in East China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted on the impact of soil moisture on the climate, but few studies have attempted to diagnose the linkage between soil moisture and climate variability using observational data. Here, using both observed and ...

Renhe Zhang; Zhiyan Zuo

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Global Trends and Variability in Soil Moisture and Drought Characteristics, 1950–2000, from Observation-Driven Simulations of the Terrestrial Hydrologic Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global and regional trends in drought for 1950–2000 are analyzed using a soil moisture–based drought index over global terrestrial areas, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. The soil moisture fields are derived from a simulation of the ...

Justin Sheffield; Eric F. Wood

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Hillslope-scale soil moisture estimation with a physically-based ecohydrology model and L-band microwave remote sensing observations from space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil moisture is a critical hydrosphere state variable that links the global water, energy, and carbon cycles. Knowledge of soil moisture at scales of individual hillslopes (10's to 100's of meters) is critical to advancing ...

Flores, Alejandro Nicolas

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Does Evaporation over the Arabian Sea Play a Crucial Role in Moisture Transport across the West Coast of India during an Active Monsoon Period?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study interannual variability of the contributions of evaporation and moisture flux from the Southern Hemisphere towards the moisture transport across the west coast of India is examined. The mean rates of evaporation and ...

Y. Sadhuram; M. R. Ramesh Kumar

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Assessment of Trends and Possible Climate Change Impacts on Summer Moisture Availability in Western Canada based on Metrics of the Palmer Drought Severity Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares three existing Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) formulations for simulating summer moisture variability in western Canada and a preliminary analysis of climate change impacts on summer moisture anomalies. The three models ...

A. K. Gobena; T. Y. Gan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Consistent description of kinetic equation with triangle anomaly  

SciTech Connect

We provide a consistent description of the kinetic equation with a triangle anomaly which is compatible with the entropy principle of the second law of thermodynamics and the charge/energy-momentum conservation equations. In general an anomalous source term is necessary to ensure that the equations for the charge and energy-momentum conservation are satisfied and that the correction terms of distribution functions are compatible to these equations. The constraining equations from the entropy principle are derived for the anomaly-induced leading order corrections to the particle distribution functions. The correction terms can be determined for the minimum number of unknown coefficients in one charge and two charge cases by solving the constraining equations.

Pu Shi; Gao Jianhua; Wang Qun [Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Solutions: A Self-consistent Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the surface tension of electrolyte solutions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Employing field-theoretical methods, and considering short-range interactions of anions with the surface, we expand the Helmholtz free energy to first-order in a loop expansion and calculate self-consistently the excess surface tension. We obtain analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, as a direct generalization of the well-known Onsager-Samaras theory. Our theory fits well a wide range of concentrations for different salts using two fit parameters, reproducing the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Markovich, Tomer; Podgornik, Rudi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Consistent Streaming Through Time: A Vision for Event Stream Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Event processing will play an increasingly important role in constructing enterprise applications that can immediately react to business critical events. Various technologies have been proposed in recent years, such as event processing, data streams and asynchronous messaging (e.g. pub/sub). We believe these technologies share a common processing model and differ only in target workload, including query language features and consistency requirements. We argue that integrating these technologies is the next step in a natural progression. In this paper, we present an overview and discuss the foundations of CEDR, an event streaming system that embraces a temporal stream model to unify and further enrich query language features, handle imperfections in event delivery, define correctness guarantees, and define operator semantics. We describe specific contributions made so far and outline next steps in developing the CEDR system.

Roger S. Barga; Jonathan Goldstein; Mohamed Ali; Mingsheng Hong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

CONSISTENT SELF-SIMILAR MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS EVOLUTION OF CORONAL TRANSIENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The self-similar model of coronal transients by B. C. Low is reconsidered. Due to a modification of the basic set of the initial assumptions of the model, a new class of more consistent solutions is found. The main advantage of these new solutions is that they do not contain areas with a physically inconsistent negative pressure. Instead, the novel solutions are derived on the basis of a special prescription for the thermal pressure of the transients that guarantees, by design, its positiveness throughout the whole evolution domain. The possible importance of these solutions for understanding the physics of the transient interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs; originating from the Sun), and magnetic clouds as a subclass of these, is discussed. A practical example is cited illustrating the application of our analytic results to describe some properties of real ICMEs. Some directions and scopes for further research are outlined.

Shapakidze, David; Rogava, Andria [E. Kharadze Georgian National Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia Chavchavadze State University, Tbilisi (Georgia); Debosscher, Arnold; Poedts, Stefaan [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Surface Tension of Electrolyte Solutions: A Self-consistent Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the surface tension of electrolyte solutions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces. Employing field-theoretical methods, and considering short-range interactions of anions with the surface, we expand the Helmholtz free energy to first-order in a loop expansion and calculate self-consistently the excess surface tension. We obtain analytically the surface-tension dependence on the ionic strength, ionic size and ion-surface interaction, as a direct generalization of the well-known Onsager-Samaras theory. Our theory fits well a wide range of concentrations for different salts using two fit parameters, reproducing the reverse Hofmeister series for anions at the air/water and oil/water interfaces.

Tomer Markovich; David Andelman; Rudi Podgornik

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

388

Inherent fluctuation-mediated equivalent force drives directional motions of nanoscale asymmetric particles -- Surf-riding of asymmetric molecules in thermal fluctuations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a simple theoretical model of a nanoscale asymmetric particle/molecule with asymmetric structure or/and asymmetric charge distribution, here using a charge dipole as an example, we show that there is unidirectional transportation mediated by non-white fluctuations if the asymmetric orientation of the particle/molecule is constrained. This indicates the existence of an inherent equivalent force, which drives the particle/molecule itself along the orientation of the asymmetric particle in the environment of fluctuations. In practical systems, equivalent force also exist in the asymmetric molecules, such as water and ethanol, at the ambient condition since thermal fluctuations are not white anymore at nanoscale [Wan, R., J. Hu, and H. Fang, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 2012, 55, 751]. Molecular dynamic simulations show that there is unidirectional transportation of an ultrathin water layer on solid surface at room temperature when the orientations of water molecules have a preference. The finding will play an essential role in the understanding of the world from a molecular view and the developing of novel technology for various nanoscale and bulk applications, such as chemical separation, water treatment, sensing and drug delivery.

Yusong Tu; Nan Sheng; Rongzheng Wan; Haiping Fang

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

The effects of moisture and particle size of feedlot biomass on co-firing burner performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biomass (conventional and non-conventional) fuels co-fired with coal for power and steam generation are being tested and evaluated at several generation stations in the United States. The co-firing technology is expected to reduce landfill requirements for biomass wastes, and to provide a renewable, low pollution and zero net carbon dioxide fuel. The choice of the biomass depends upon local availability and cost of the transportation. The renewable biomass fuels range from agro to animal waste based fuels. For coal fired power plants located around feedlots where cattle are raised, the renewable biomass is the cattle manure, called feedlot biomass (FB). Thus coal could be mixed with feedlot biomass and then fired in existing boiler burners. A 30 KW (100,000 Btu/hr) boiler burner facility was built at Texas A&M University Boiler Burner Laboratory and the burner was fired with coal or coal-FB blends. Most of the previous data concerned with coal performance results from co-firing of low moisture FB (25%); so feeding at low flow rate becomes a problem. In order to test the effects of moisture on burner performance, the reactor was modified with external water injection through an atomizer in order to simulate higher moisture. The atomizer uses an airblast to atomize the water into finer droplets. At fixed equivalence ratio and swirl number for the secondary inlet air stream, the test variables selected were simulated moisture contents and particle sizes of feedlot biomass. Measurements of NO[], O?, CO and CO? along the furnace are reported. The summaries of results are as follows. With the atomized air only (i.e. without external water injection), the NO[] concentrations increased from 350 ppm to 650 ppm while CO decreased from 46,000 ppm to 18,000 ppm (data measured at the first probe, 6" from the burner). The external water injection used to simulate high moisture FB decreased the pollutant emissions (NO[]) from 570 ppm (zero external water with atomizing air injection) to 300 ppm (40% water in FB) but increased CO from 2,500 ppm (zero external water with atomizing air injection) to 10,500 ppm (40% water in FB) (data of moisture effect measured at the last probe, 36" from the burner) due to more incomplete burning. The small particles FB produced less NO[] but more CO than those from other sizes.

Chen, Chen-Jung

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

CHANGES IN MOISTURE, CARBON, NITROGEN, SULPHUR, VOLATILES, AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF MISCANTHUS DURING TORREFACTION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Torrefaction tests were carried out on miscanthus samples in order to understand the changes in chemical composition at temperatures of 250–350°C and residence times of 30–120 minutes. The raw material chemical composition was moisture content 7.97%, moisture-free carbon (C) 47.73%, hydrogen (H) 5.85%, nitrogen (N) 0.28%, sulphur (S) 0.02%, volatiles (V) 83.29% for volatiles, and moisture and ash-free (MAF) calorific value (CV) 8423 BTU/lb (19.59 MJ/kg). Torrefaction at temperatures of 250°C and residence time of 30 minutes resulted in a significant decrease in moisture by about 82.68%, but the other components, C, H, N, S, and V changed only marginally. Increasing the torrefaction temperature to 350°C and residence time to 120 minutes further reduced the moisture to a final value of 0.54% (a 93.2% reduction compared to original) and also resulted in a significant decrease in the other components, H, N, and V by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. The carbon content at 350°C and 120 minutes increased by about 4% and sulfur values were below detection limits. The calorific values increased by about 5.59% at 250°C and 30 minutes, whereas at 350°C and 120 minutes, the increase was much greater (about 75.61%) and resulted in a maximum degree of carbonization of 1.60. The H/C ratio decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperature, where a minimum value of 0.6 was observed at 350°C and 120 minutes. The regression equations developed with respect to torrefaction temperature and times have adequately described the changes in chemical composition. The surface plots developed based on the regression equations indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 300–350°C and residence times of 30–120 minutes residence time can help to increase carbon content, calorific value, and degree of carbonization to > 49.4%, >11,990 BTU/lb (27 MJ/kg), and 1.4, and reduce moisture, nitrogen, volatile, and the H/C ratio to 0.525–0.725, 2.9–3.9, 0.225–0.235, and <1.4.

Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard Boardman; Christopher Wright; John Heintzelman

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Understanding Spatio-Temporal Variability and Associated Physical Controls of Near-Surface Soil Moisture in Different Hydro-Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-surface soil moisture is a key state variable of the hydrologic cycle and plays a significant role in the global water and energy balance by affecting several hydrological, ecological, meteorological, geomorphologic, and other natural processes in the land-atmosphere continuum. Presence of soil moisture in the root zone is vital for the crop and plant life cycle. Soil moisture distribution is highly non-linear across time and space. Various geophysical factors (e.g., soil properties, topography, vegetation, and weather/climate) and their interactions control the spatio-temporal evolution of soil moisture at various scales. Understanding these interactions is crucial for the characterization of soil moisture dynamics occurring in the vadose zone. This dissertation focuses on understanding the spatio-temporal variability of near-surface soil moisture and the associated physical control(s) across varying measurement support (point-scale and passive microwave airborne/satellite remote sensing footprint-scale), spatial extents (field-, watershed-, and regional-scale), and changing hydro-climates. Various analysis techniques (e.g., time stability, geostatistics, Empirical Orthogonal Function, and Singular Value Decomposition) have been employed to characterize near-surface soil moisture variability and the role of contributing physical control(s) across space and time. Findings of this study can be helpful in several hydrological research/applications, such as, validation/calibration and downscaling of remote sensing data products, planning and designing effective soil moisture monitoring networks and field campaigns, improving performance of soil moisture retrieval algorithm, flood/drought prediction, climate forecast modeling, and agricultural management practices.

Joshi, Champa

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

IMPROVING CONSISTENCY OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS IN THE DOE COMPLEX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The low-level waste (LLW) performance assessment (PA) process has been traditionally focused on disposal facilities at a few United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites and commercial disposal facilities. In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the scope of the use of PA-like modeling approaches, involving multiple activities, facilities, contractors and regulators. The scope now includes, for example: (1) National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) assessments, (2) CERCLA disposal cells, (3) Waste Determinations and High-Level Waste (HLW) Closure activities, (4) Potential on-site disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste, and (5) In-situ decommissioning (including potential use of existing facilities for disposal). The dramatic increase in the variety of activities requiring more detailed modeling has resulted in a similar increase in the potential for inconsistency in approaches both at a site and complexwide scale. This paper includes a summary of USDOE Environmental Management (EM) sponsored initiatives and activities for improved consistency. New initiatives entitled the Performance Assessment Community of Practice and Performance Assessment Assistance Team are also introduced.

Seitz, R; Elmer Wilhite, E

2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

393

THE PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TEST HOW AND WHY IT WAS DEVELOPED  

SciTech Connect

The Product Consistency Test (PCT), American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard C1285, is currently used world wide for testing glass and glass-ceramic waste forms for high level waste (HLW), low level waste (LLW), and hazardous wastes. Development of the PCT was initiated in 1986 because HLW glass waste forms required extensive characterization before actual production began and required continued characterization during production ({ge}25 years). Non-radioactive startup was in 1994 and radioactive startup was in 1996. The PCT underwent extensive development from 1986-1994 and became an ASTM consensus standard in 1994. During the extensive laboratory testing and inter- and intra-laboratory round robins using non-radioactive and radioactive glasses, the PCT was shown to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, to distinguish between glasses of different durability and homogeneity, and to easily be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. In 1997, the scope was broadened to include hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) waste glasses. In 2002, the scope was broadened to include glass-ceramic waste forms which are currently being recommended for second generation nuclear wastes yet to be generated in the nuclear renaissance. Since the PCT has proven useful for glass-ceramics with up to 75% ceramic component and has been used to evaluate Pu ceramic waste forms, the use of this test for other ceramic/mineral waste forms such as geopolymers, hydroceramics, and fluidized bed steam reformer mineralized product is under investigation.

Jantzen, C; Ned Bibler, N

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Indicator strip and portable instrument technologies for determining nitroesters or moisture in combustible cartridge cases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sometimes large round-to-round variability observed in accelerated environmental testing, plus difficulties in quantifying the environmental histories of a given round suggest the need for nondestructive rapid tests of munitions to supplement lifetime prediction models in quality assurance of munitions. Technologies are being developed for reagent strips which can be affixed to rounds and which will visually indicate the presence and extent of nitroester migration by a visible color change. A solid state adaptation of a modified Griess reagent develops a red-purple color in the presence of nitroesters. Performance of current designs tested in the laboratory suggest a short-term (ca. one month) single usage. Dielectric capacitance is a promising means for rapid, nondestructive moisture determinations using a portable battery-powered instrument. Laboratory studies with a modified, inexpensive, commercial device have demonstrated fast (a few seconds) detection of case wall moisture content.

Griest, W.H.; Ho, C.H.; Moneyhun, J.H.; Agouridis, D.C.; Gayle, T.M.; Bates, B.E.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Transport of radioactive droplet moisture from a source in a nuclear power plant spray pond  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition to a change in the microclimate in the region surrounding a nuclear power plant resulting from the emission of vapor form a cooling tower, evaporation of water from the water surface of a cooling pond or a spray pond, in the latter case direct radioactive contamination of the underlying surface around the nuclear power plant can also occur due to discharge of process water (radioactive) into the pond and its transport in the air over a certain distance in the form of droplet moisture. A typical example may be the situation at the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in 1986 when accidental discharge of process water into the cooling pond occurred. Below we present a solution for the problem of transport of droplet moisture taking into account its evaporation, which may be used to estimate the scale of radioactive contamination of the locality.

Elokhin, A.P.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Production of High Quality Dust Control Foam to Minimize Moisture Addition to Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Foam is displacing wet suppression as the method of choice for controlling fugitive emissions from coal. Coal treated by wet suppression consumes through moisture addition, a heat energy equivalent of 1 ton out of every 500 tons fired. The application of foam requires less than 10% of the moisture usually required for wet suppression. In addition, foam is a much more effective dust suppressant, especially on respirable dust (particle with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns). To achieve maximum benefit from foam dust control, efficient on-site production of dry, stable foam is required. This paper discusses the basics of foam production and the many variables affecting foam expansion ratios. Successful applications of foam are also described.

Termine, F.; Jordan, S. T.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Towards a self-consistent orbital evolution for EMRIs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We intend to develop part of the theoretical tools needed for the detection of gravitational waves coming from the capture of a compact object, 1-100 solar masses, by a Supermassive Black Hole, up to a 10 billion solar masses, located at the centre of most galaxies. The analysis of the accretion activity unveils the star population around the galactic nuclei, and tests the physics of black holes and general relativity. The captured small mass is considered a probe of the gravitational field of the massive body, allowing a precise measurement of the particle motion up to the final absorption. The knowledge of the gravitational signal, strongly affected by the self-force - the orbital displacement due to the captured mass and the emitted radiation - is imperative for a successful detection. The results include a strategy for wave equations with a singular source term for all type of orbits. We are now tackling the evolution problem, first for radial fall in Regge- Wheeler gauge, and later for generic orbits in the harmonic or de Donder gauge for Schwarzschild-Droste black holes. In the Extreme Mass Ratio Inspiral, the determination of the orbital evolution demands that the motion of the small mass be continuously corrected by the self-force, i.e. the self-consistent evolution. At each of the integration steps, the self-force must be computed over an adequate number of modes; further, a differential-integral system of general relativistic equations is to be solved and the outputs regularised for suppressing divergences. Finally, for the provision of the computational power, parallelisation is under examination.

Alessandro Spallicci; Patxi Ritter; Sylvain Jubertie; Stèphane Cordier; Sofiane Aoudia

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

398

The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste  

SciTech Connect

To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition.

Cash, R.J.

1995-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

399

Development of Optical Technologies for Monitoring Moisture and Particulate in Geothermal Steam  

SciTech Connect

The results of an investigation directed at evaluating the feasibility of using optical measurements for the real-time monitoring moisture and particulate in geothermal steam is described. The measurements exploit new technologies that have been developed for the telecommunications industry and includes new solid state laser devices, large-bandwidth, high-sensitivity detectors and low loss optical fiber compo-nents. In particular, the design, fabrication, and in-plant testing of an optical steam monitor for the detection of moisture is presented. The measurement principle is based upon the selective absorption of infrared energy in response to the presence of moisture. Typically, two wavelengths are used in the measurements: a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by water and a reference wavelength that is minimally influenced by water and steam which serves as a reference to correct for particulate or droplet scattering. The two wavelengths are chosen to be as close as possible in order to more effectively correct for scattering effects. The basic instrumentation platform developed for the in-situ monitoring of steam moisture can be modified and used to perform other measurements of interest to plant operators. An upgrade that will allow the instrument to be used for the sensitive detection of particulate in process streams has been investigated. The new monitor design involves the use of laser diodes that are much less sensitive to water and water vapor and more sensitive to scattering phenomena, as well as new processing techniques to recover these signals. The design reduces the averaging time and sampling volume, while increasing the laser probe power, enhancing particulate detection sensitivity. The design concept and initial laboratory experiments with this system are also reported.

J. K. Partin

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Testing and Evaluation of a Moisture Separator Drain Demineralizer at Davis-Besse Nuclear Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Davis-Besse plant data show that by polishing 15-20 percent of the moisture separator drains, the entire flow from the drains can be pumped forward, increasing plant power output significantly. In addition, this process extended the useful lifetime of condensate polishers by a factor of about 6, reducing resin replacement costs by approximately $450,000/yr. Information obtained can be applied to all once-through steam generator PWRs.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

CHAMPS-Multizone-A Combined Heat, Air, Moisture and Pollutant Simulation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CHAMPS-Multizone-A Combined Heat, Air, Moisture and Pollutant Simulation CHAMPS-Multizone-A Combined Heat, Air, Moisture and Pollutant Simulation Environment for Whole-building Performance Analysis Title CHAMPS-Multizone-A Combined Heat, Air, Moisture and Pollutant Simulation Environment for Whole-building Performance Analysis Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2012 Authors Zhang, J. S., Wei Feng, John Grunewald, Andreas Nicolai, and Carey Zhang Journal HVAC&R Research Volume 18 Issue 1-2 Abstract A computer simulation tool, named "CHAMPS-Multizone" is introduced in this paper for analyzing bothenergy and IAQ performance of buildings. The simulation model accounts for the dynamic effects ofoutdoor climate conditions (solar radiation, wind speed and direction, and contaminant concentrations),building materials and envelope system design, multizone air and contaminant flows in buildings,internal heat and pollutant sources, and operation of the building HVAC systems on the buildingperformance. It enables combined analysis of building energy efficiency and indoor air quality. Themodel also has the ability to input building geometry data and HVAC system operation relatedinformation from software such as SketchUp and DesignBuilder via IDF file format. A "bridge" to accessstatic and dynamic building data stored in a "virtual building" database is also developed, allowingconvenient input of initial and boundary conditions for the simulation, and for comparisons between thepredicted and measured results. This paper summarizes the mathematical models, adoptedassumptions, methods of implementation, and verification and validation results. The needs andchallenges for further development are also discussed

404

Measurement of effective thermal conductivity of wheat as a function of moisture content  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Grain drying and storage are one of the main activities of agricultural industry. Increasing energy costs have stressed the importance of calculation of heat and mass transfer in a grain bulk in order to be able to optimize drying facilities. Another limitation during drying is the preservation of grain structure and its nutritional values, Muehlbauer and Christ have shown that damage to the grain structure and grain nutritional value is dependent upon grain temperature and drying time. Therefore, proper conditions during drying and storage of cereal grains require the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of the grains. The effective thermal conductivity of two varieties of Triticum durum wheat and a wheat product, bulgur, is determined at different moisture contents and at ambient temperature by the transient lime heat source method. The moisture contents of the samples ranged from 9.17 to 38.65% wet basis and the bulk densities ranged from 675 to 827 kg/m{sup 3}. Under those conditions, the measured effective thermal conductivities ranged from 0.159 to 0.201 W/m.K. The effective thermal conductivity is found to be linearly increasing with moisture content. The results are also in good agreement with literature values.

Tavman, S. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.] [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Food Engineering Dept.; Tavman, I.H. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.] [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Size reduction of high- and low-moisture corn stalks by linear knife grid system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High- and low-moisture corn stalks were tested using a linear knife grid size reduction device developed for first-stage size reduction. The device was used in conjunction with a universal test machine that quantified shearing stress and energy characteristics for forcing a bed of corn stalks through a grid of sharp knives. No published engineering performance data for corn stover with similar devices are available to optimize performance; however, commercial knife grid systems exist for forage size reduction. From the force displacement data, mean and maximum ultimate shear stresses, cumulative and peak mass-based cutting energies for corn stalks, and mean new surface area-based cutting energies were determined from 4 5 refill runs at two moisture contents (78.8% and 11.3% wet basis), three knife grid spacings (25.4, 50.8, and 101.6 mm), and three bed depths (50.8, 101.6, and 152.4 mm). In general, the results indicated that peak failure load, ultimate shear stress, and cutting energy values varied directly with bed depth and inversely with knife grid spacing. Mean separation analysis established that high- and low-moisture conditions and bed depths 101.6 mm did not differ significantly (P corn stalks were much smaller than reported cutting energy requirements. Ultimate shear stress and cutting energy results of this research should aid the engineering design of commercial scale linear knife gird size reduction equipment for various biomass feedstocks.

Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Narayan, S. [First American Scientific Co.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Impact of Sea Surface Temperature and Soil Moisture on Summer Precipitation in the United States Based on Observational Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and soil moisture on summer precipitation over two regions of the United States (the upper Mississippi River basin and the Great Plains) based on data from observation and observation-...

Rui Mei; Guiling Wang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

An Examination of Meteorological and Soil Moisture Conditions in the Babocomari River Basin Before the Flood Event of 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program has deployed a soil moisture observing network in the Babocomari River Basin located in southeastern Arizona. The Babocomari River is a major ...

Robert J. Zamora; Edward P. Clark; Eric Rogers; Michael B. Ek; Timothy M. Lahmers

408

The Transformation of Tropical Storm Agnes into an Extratropical Cyclone. Part II: Moisture, Vorticity and Kinetic Energy Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moisture, vorticity and kinetic energy budgets are constructed to diagnose the transformation of tropical storm Agnes (June 1972) into an extratropical cyclone in this second of two papers on Agnes. The vertical motions and divergent wind ...

Geoffrey J. DiMego; Lance F. Bosart

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Impact of Hillslope-Scale Organization of Topography, Soil Moisture, Soil Temperature, and Vegetation on Modeling Surface Microwave Radiation Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microwave radiometry will emerge as an important tool for global remote sensing of near-surface soil moisture in the coming decade. In this modeling study, we find that hillslope-scale topography (tens of meters) influences ...

Flores, Alejandro N.

410

The Relationship of Soil Moisture Parameterizations to Subsequent Seasonal and Monthly Mean Temperature in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The water content parameter and the moisture anomaly index, both derived from the Palmer Drought Severity model, were correlated against subsequent mean monthly and seasonal (three-month means) temperatures for 344 climatic divisions in the ...

Thomas R. Karl

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change  

SciTech Connect

The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

412

An Intercomparison of ERS-Scat and AMSR-E Soil Moisture Observations with Model Simulations over France  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a study undertaken in preparation of the work leading up to the assimilation of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations into the land surface model (LSM) Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) at Météo-...

Christoph Rüdiger; Jean-Christophe Calvet; Claire Gruhier; Thomas R. H. Holmes; Richard A. M. de Jeu; Wolfgang Wagner

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Copula-Derived Observation Operators for Assimilating TMI and AMSR-E Retrieved Soil Moisture into Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Assimilating soil moisture from satellite remote sensing into land surface models (LSMs) has potential for improving model predictions by providing real-time information at large scales. However, the majority of the research demonstrating this ...

Huilin Gao; Eric F. Wood; Matthias Drusch; Matthew F. McCabe

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Effects of Initial Soil Moisture on Rainfall Generation and Subsequent Hydrologic Response during the North American Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through the use of a mesoscale meteorological model and distributed hydrologic model, the effects of initial soil moisture on rainfall generation, streamflow, and evapotranspiration during the North American monsoon are examined. A collection of ...

Enrique R. Vivoni; Kinwai Tai; David J. Gochis

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Comparative Experiments with MAPS on Different Parameterization Schemes for Surface Moisture Flux and Boundary-Layer Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study compares several formulations parameterizing the surface moisture flux and boundary-layer processes using the ?-? hybrid-b model of the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) within both 1D and 3D frameworks.

Zaitao Pan; Stanley G. Benjamin; John M. Brown; Tatiana Smirnova

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Global Fields of Soil Moisture and Land Surface Evapotranspiration Derived from Observed Precipitation and Surface Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The global fields of normal monthly soil moisture and land surface evapotranspiration are derived with a simple water budget model that has precipitation and potential evapotranspiration as inputs. The precipitation is observed and the potential ...

Y. Mintz; G. K. Walker

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Evaluation of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager Satellite Data for Regional Soil Moisture Estimation over the Red River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional-scale estimation of soil moisture using in situ field observations is not possible due to problems with the representativeness of the sampling and costs. Remotely sensed satellite data are helpful in this regard. Here, the simulations of ...

Venkataraman Lakshmi; Eric F. Wood; Bhaskar J. Choudhury

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Effects of Spatial Variations of Soil Moisture and Vegetation on the Evolution of a Prestorm Environment: A Numerical Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To study the effects of spatial variations of soil moisture and coverage coverage on the evolution of a prestorm environment, the Goddard mesoscale model (GMASS) was modified to incorporate a simple evapo-transpiration model that requires them ...

Jy-Tai Chang; Peter J. Wetzel

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Soil Moisture Estimation Using GOES-VISSR Infrared Data: A Case Study with a Simple Statistical Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five days of clear sky observations over Kansas and Nebraska are used to examine the statistical relationship between soil moisture and infrared surface temperature observations taken from a geosynchronous satellite. The approach relies on ...

Peter J. Wetzel; Robert H. Woodward

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Pathways Relating Soil Moisture Conditions to Future Summer Rainfall within a Model of the Land–Atmosphere System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the key pathways and mechanisms through which soil moisture conditions affect future rainfall over the U.S. Midwest are investigated using a regional climate model. A series of numerical experiments are performed to identify these ...

Jeremy S. Pal; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Influence of Soil Moisture on the Asian and African Monsoons. Part I: Mean Monsoon and Daily Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture responds to precipitation variability but also affects precipitation through evaporation. This two-way interaction has often been referred to as a positive feedback, since the water added to the land surface during a precipitation ...

H. Douville; F. Chauvin; H. Broqua

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A Composite Life Cycle of Nonsquall Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Tropical Ocean. Part II: Heat and Moisture Budgets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heat and moisture budgets associated with five large nonsquall cloud clusters observed during Phase 3 of the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) are investigated. The input data for the budget ...

Steven K. Esbensen; Jough-Tai Wang; Edward I. Tollerud

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Accuracy of Diagnostic Heat and Moisture Budgets Using SESAME-79 Field Data as Revealed by Observing System Simulation Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accuracy of diagnostic heat and moisture budgets using the AVE-SESAME 1979 data is investigated through a series of observing system simulation experiments. The four-dimensional (including time) data set provided by a mesoscale model is used ...

Ying-Hwa Kuo; Richard A. Anthes

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Preliminary Results from Long-Term Measurements of Atmospheric Moisture in the Marine Boundary Layer in the Gulf of Mexico*  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of boundary layer moisture have been acquired from Rotronic MP-100 sensors deployed on two National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys in the northern Gulf of Mexico from June through November 1993. For one sensor that was retrieved ...

Laurence C. Breaker; David B. Gilhousen; Lawrence D. Burroughs

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Sensitivity of Convective Initiation Prediction to Near-Surface Moisture When Assimilating Radar Refractivity: Impact Tests Using OSSEs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system is enhanced to include the analysis of radar-derived refractivity measurements. These refractivity data are most sensitive to atmospheric moisture content ...

Nicholas A. Gasperoni; Ming Xue; Robert D. Palmer; Jidong Gao

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Simulations of the Effects of Water Vapor, Cloud Liquid Water, and Ice on AMSU Moisture Channel Brightness Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer simulations are performed to determine how water vapor and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water and ice particles within typical midlatitude atmospheres affect brightness temperatures TB's of moisture sounding channels used in ...

Bradley M. Muller; Henry E. Fuelberg; Xuwu Xiang

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Inference of Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Moisture and Temperature Structure Using Airborne Lidar and Infrared Radiometer Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for retrieving near-surface moisture and profiles of mixing ratio and potential temperature through the depth of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) using airborne lidar and multichannel infrared radiometer data is ...

Stephen P. Palm; Denise Hagan; Geary Schwemmer; S. H. Melfi

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Mean and Flux Horizontal Variability of Virtual Potential Temperature, Moisture, and Carbon Dioxide: Aircraft Observations and LES Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of the horizontal variability of surface properties on the turbulent fluxes of virtual potential temperature, moisture, and carbon dioxide are investigated by combining aircraft observations with large-eddy simulations (LESs). Daytime ...

Monica Górska; Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano; Margaret A. LeMone; Chiel C. van Heerwaarden

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Mixed Boundary Conditions versus Coupling with an Energy–Moisture Balance Model for a Zonally Averaged Ocean Climate Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Wright and Stocker oceanic thermohaline circulation model is coupled to a recently developed zonally averaged energy moisture balance model for the atmosphere. The results obtained with this coupled model are compared with those from an ocean-...

H. Bjornsson; L. A. Mysak; G. A. Schmidt

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

The Moisture Mode in the Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model. Part II: Nonlinear Behavior on an Equatorial ? Plane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical calculations of a simplified quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM) on the equatorial ? plane have been performed to explore the nonlinear regime of the moisture mode. Sensitivity tests have examined the effects of ...

Masahiro Sugiyama

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Global Retrospective Estimation of Soil Moisture Using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Model, 1980–93  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A daily set of surface meteorological forcings, model-derived surface moisture fluxes, and state variables for global land areas for the period of 1979–93 is described. The forcing dataset facilitates global simulations and evaluation of land ...

Bart Nijssen; Reiner Schnur; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Numerical Simulations of the Effect of Soil Moisture and Vegetation Cover on the Development of Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional (column) version of a primitive equations model has been used to study the impact of soil moisture and vegetation cover on the development of deep cumulus convection in the absence of dynamical forcing. The model includes ...

Craig A. Clark; Paymond W. Arritt

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

An Integrated Framework for a Joint Assimilation of Brightness Temperature and Soil Moisture Using the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study has applied the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) in a two-step assimilation procedure to jointly assimilate brightness temperature into a radiative transfer model and soil moisture into a land surface model. The first ...

Gift Dumedah; Aaron A. Berg; Mark Wineberg

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

The Anomalous Rainfall over the United States during July 1993: Sensitivity to Land Surface Parameterization and Soil Moisture Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the sensitivity of short- and medium-range precipitation forecasts for the central United States to land surface parametrization and soil moisture anomalies. Two forecast systems with different land surface and boundary layer ...

Anton C. M. Beljaars; Pedro Viterbo; Martin J. Miller; Alan K. Betts

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

A wireless soil moisture smart sensor web using physics-based optimal control: Concept and initial demonstrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective of the technology, supported by the ...

Moghaddam, Mahta

436

Dependence of Extreme Daily Maximum Temperatures on Antecedent Soil Moisture in the Contiguous United States during Summer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents an analysis of the dependence of summertime daily maximum temperature on antecedent soil moisture using daily surface observations from a selection of stations in the contiguous United States and daily time series of soil ...

Imke Durre; John M. Wallace; Dennis P. Lettenmaier

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Precipitation and soil impacts on partitioning of subsurface moisture in Avena barbata: Observations from a greenhouse experiment  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of two grassland soils and precipitation regimes on soil-moisture dynamics. We set up an experiment in a greenhouse, and monitored soil moisture dynamics in mesocosms planted with Avena barbata, an annual species found in California grasslands. By repeating the precipitation input at regular intervals, we were able to observe plant manipulation of soil moisture during well-defined periods during the growing season. We found that the amount of water partitioned to evapotranspiration, seepage, and soil storage varied among different growth stages. Further, both soil type and precipitation regimes had a significant impact on redistributing soil moisture. Whereas in the low-precipitation treatments most water was released to the atmosphere as evapotranspiration, major losses from the high-precipitation treatment occurred as gravity drainage. Observations from this study emphasize the importance of understanding intra-seasonal relationships between vegetation, soil, and water.

Salve, R.; Torn, M.S.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Analyzing the Potential Impacts of Soil Moisture on the Observed and Model-Simulated Australian Surface Temperature Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on observational and modeling analyses, this study aims to assess the potential influence of land surface conditions (soil moisture, in particular) on the Australian surface temperature variations. At first, a simple linear regression ...

Huqiang Zhang

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Column Water Vapor Statistics and Their Relationship to Deep Convection, Vertical and Horizontal Circulation, and Moisture Structure at Nauru  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relationships among relatively high-frequency probability distribution functions (pdfs) of anomalous column water vapor (cwv), precipitating deep convection, and the vertical and horizontal structures of circulation and tropospheric moisture are ...

Benjamin R. Lintner; Christopher E. Holloway; J. David Neelin

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Experimental results for diffusion and infiltration of moisture in concrete masonry walls exposed to hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental test results for heat and moisture migration in walls exposed to hot and humid climates. The research was conducted to study the problem of mold and mildew caused by moisture transfer into walls of concrete masonry unit (CMU) type construction by diffusion and convective transport by air infiltration. This type of construction is common in commercial buildings in the southern US. The tests were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated heat and moisture transfer by diffusion. Phase 2 testing involved air infiltration through the test walls. Data were also collected to determine the rate at which the test walls would dry out without infiltration present. Test results indicate that an exterior vapor retarder will reduce the moisture migration into the wall and thereby lower the moisture accumulation due to infiltration when a vapor retarder (such as vinyl wallpaper) is used for the interior surface treatment. Testing also showed that while the exterior wall treatment does have an effect on reducing the total moisture accumulation in the test walls, the interior wall treatment has a much larger impact when infiltration is present. The data support a proposed criterion for the onset of mold and mildew, which requires a monthly average surface relative humidity of 80% with temperatures between 32 F and 105 F.

Hosni, M.H.; Sipes, J.M.; Wallis, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A self-consistent treatment of electron transfer in the limit of strong friction via the mixed quantum classical Liouville method  

SciTech Connect

Electron transfer is investigated at the limit of strong friction. The analysis is based on the generic model of a two-state system bilinearly coupled to a harmonic bath. The dynamics is described within the framework of the mixed quantum classical Liouville (MQCL) equation, which is known to be exact for this model. In the case of zero electronic coupling, it is shown that while the dynamics of the electronic populations can be described by a Markovian quantum Smoluchowski equation, that of the electronic coherences are inherently non-Markovian. A non-Markovian modified Zusman equation is derived in the presence of electronic coupling and shown to be self-consistent in cases where the standard Zusman equation is not.

Shi Qiang [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Geva, Eitan [Department of Chemistry and the FOCUS center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1055 (United States)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

442

Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

David M. Dean

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Biochars impact on soil moisture storage in an Ultisol and two Aridisols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biochar additions to soils can improve soil water storage capability, however, there is sparse information identifying feedstocks and pyrolysis conditions that maximize this improvement. Nine biochars were pyrolyzed from five feedstocks at two temperatures and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. Biochars were mixed at 2% wt w{sup -1} into a Norfolk loamy sand (Fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Typic Kandiudult), a Declo silt loam (Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic xeric Haplocalcid), or a Warden silt loam (Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic xeric Haplocambid). Untreated soils served as controls. Soils were laboratory incubated in pots for 127 days and were leached about every 30 days with deionized water. Soil bulk densities were measured before each leaching event. For six days thereafter, pot holding capacities (PHC) for water were determined gravimetrically and were used as a surrogate for soil moisture contents. Water tension curves were also measured on the biochar treated and untreated Norfolk soil. Biochar surface area, surface tension, ash, C, and Si contents, in general, increased when produced under higher pyrolytic temperatures ({ge}500 C). Both switchgrass biochars caused the most significant water PHC improvements in the Norfolk, Declo and Warden soils compared to the controls. Norfolk soil water tension results at 5 and 60 kPa corroborated that biochar from switchgrass caused the most significant moisture storage improvements. Significant correlation occurred between the PHC for water with soil bulk densities. In general, biochar amendments enhanced the moisture storage capacity of Ultisols and Aridisols, but the effect varied with feedstock selection and pyrolysis temperature.

Novak, Jeffrey M.; Busscher, Warren J.; Watts, Don W.; Amonette, James E.; Ippolito, James I.; Lima, Isabel M.; Gaskin, Julia; Das, K. C.; Steiner, Christoph; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Rehrah, Djaafar; Schomberg, Harry

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

444

HYGROSCOPIC MOISTURE SORPTION KINETICS MODELING OF CORN STOVER AND ITS FRACTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Corn stover, a major crop-based lignocellulosic biomass feedstock, is required to be at an optimum moisture content for efficient bioconversion processes. Environmental conditions surrounding corn stover, as in storage facilities, affect its moisture due to hygroscopic sorption or desorption. The measurement and modeling of sorption characteristics of corn stover and its leaf, husk, and stalk fractions are useful from utilization and storage standpoints, hence investigated in this article. A benchtop low-temperature humidity chamber provided the test environments of 20 C, 30 C, and 40 C at a constant 95% relative humidity. Measured sorption characteristics with three replications for each fraction were obtained from instantaneous sample masses and initial moisture contents. Observed sorption characteristics were fitted using exponential, Page, and Peleg models. Corn stover fractions displayed a rapid initial moisture uptake followed by a slower sorption rates and eventually becoming almost asymptotic after 25 h. Sorption characteristics of all corn stover fractions were significantly different (P < 0.0001) but not the effect of temperature (P > 0.05) on these fractions. The initial 30 min of sorption was found to be critical due to peak rates of sorption from storage, handling, and processing standpoints. The Page and Peleg models had comparable performance fitting the sorption curves (R2 = 0.995), however the exponential model (R2 = 0.91) was not found suitable because of patterned residuals. The Arrhenius type relationship (P < 0.05; R2 = 0.80) explained the temperature variation of the fitted sorption model parameters. The Peleg model fitted constants, among the sorption models studied, had the best fit (R2 = 0.93) with the Arrhenius relationship. A developed method of mass proportion, involving individual corn stover fraction dry matter ratios, predicted the whole corn stover sorption characteristics from that of its individual fractions. Sorption characteristics models of individual corn stover fractions and predicted whole corn stover including a nomogram can be used for direct and quick estimation. Developed sorption characteristics find application in several fields of corn stover biomass processing, handling, and transport

Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

International H2O Project (IHOP) 2002: Datasets Related to Atmospheric Moisture and Rainfall Prediction  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

IHOP 2002 was a field experiment that took place over the Southern Great Plains of the United States from 13 May to 25 June 2002. The chief aim of IHOP_2002 was improved characterization of the four-dimensional (4-D) distribution of water vapor and its application to improving the understanding and prediction of convection. The region was an optimal location due to existing experimental and operational facilities, strong variability in moisture, and active convection [copied from http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/ihop/]. The project's master list of data identifies 146 publicly accessible datasets.

Schanot, Allen [IHOP 2002 PI; Friesen, Dick [IHOP 2002 PI

446

Radius of influence for a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe : theory and Monte Carlo simulations.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lateral footprint of a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe was determined using diffusion theory and neutron transport simulations. The footprint is radial and can be described by a single parameter, an e-folding length that is closely related to the slowing down length in air. In our work the slowing down length is defined as the crow-flight distance traveled by a neutron from nuclear emission as a fast neutron to detection at a lower energy threshold defined by the detector. Here the footprint is defined as the area encompassed by two e-fold distances, i.e. the area from which 86% of the recorded neutrons originate. The slowing down length is approximately 150 m at sea level for neutrons detected over a wide range of energies - from 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 5} eV. Both theory and simulations indicate that the slowing down length is inversely proportional to air density and linearly proportional to the height of the sensor above the ground for heights up to 100 m. Simulations suggest that the radius of influence for neutrons >1 eV is only slightly influenced by soil moisture content, and depends weakly on the energy sensitivity of the neutron detector. Good agreement between the theoretical slowing down length in air and the simulated slowing down length near the air/ground interface support the conclusion that the footprint is determined mainly by the neutron scattering properties of air.

Desilets, Darin

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

Karagiozis, A.N.

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

Field study of moisture damage in walls insulated without a vapor barrier. Final report for the Oregon Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

Considerable uncertainty has existed over whether or not wall insulation installed without a vapor barrier causes an increased risk of moisture damage (wood decay) within walls. This report describes the results of one of the first major studies in the country aimed at finding out if such a moisture problem really exists. The exterior walls of a total of 96 homes in Portland, Oregon were opened, of which 70 had retrofitted insulation and 26 were uninsulated and were a control group. The types of insulation included urea-formaldehyde foam (44), mineral wool (16), and cellulose (10). In each opened wall cavity the moisture content of wood was measured and insulation and wood samples were taken for laboratory analysis of moisture content and for the determination of the presence of absence of decay fungi. Foam shrinkage was also measured. To evaluate the possible influence of the relative air tightness of the homes, fan depressurization tests were run using a door blower unit. The field and laboratory test results indicating the lack of a moisture damage problem in existing homes with wood siding in climates similar to that of western Oregon are described along with results of a statistical analysis of the data. Related problems of interest to homeowners and insulation installers are noted. The standard operating procedures used throughout the study are discussed, including the home selection process, quantitative and qualitative techniques used to identify wall locations with the highest moisture content, wall opening and data/sample collection methodology, laboratory analysis of samples, data processing and analysis, and applicability of the results. Recommendations for furutre tests are made. Finally, the potential and desirability for future retrofitting of wall insulation is explored.

Tsongas, G.A.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Early-age concrete temperature and moisture relative to curing effectiveness and projected effects on selected aspects of slab behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concrete curing has long been realized to be important to produce durable concrete. Curing compound is widely used to cure concrete in the field. The current curing membrane evaluation method ASTM C 156, however, is incapable of distinguishing the curing compound quality and guiding the curing practice in the field. A new laboratory curing membrane evaluation protocol is developed in this study. It has the ability to rank the quality of curing compound and guide curing practice in the field according to the field ambient weather conditions and the type of curing compound. A series of field tests were conducted to investigate the key factors that affect the curing effectiveness in the field conditions. A finite element program, temperature and moisture analysis for curing concrete (TMAC2), is updated to solve the coupled and nonlinear heat transfer and moisture transport problems in early-age concrete. Moisture capacity is induced into the TMAC2, which makes it unique to characterize the self-desiccation. A full scale concrete pavement test study was conducted at the FAA National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) near Atlantic City, New Jersey. In this study, the material properties, i.e. thermal conductivity and moisture diffusivity, were backcalculated from field data. Thereafter, backcalculated material properties were used to forward-calculate the temperature and moisture histories of all other sections. High order shear deformable theory is used to model the concrete slab curling and warping behavior because of highly nonlinear temperature and moisture gradients. The maximum shear strain is obtained a couple of inches below the concrete slab. This might account for the occurrence of delamination.

Ye, Dan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Investigation of moisture effects on interfacial properties of an epoxy matrix composite by dynamic mechanical analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The interfacial properties of polymer matrix composites are critical to the retention of the mechanical properties of the composites in a wet environment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of moisture on the interfacial properties of glass bead-epoxy composites by measuring mechanical properties obtained through dynamic mechanical testing. The viscoelastic material properties of glass bead-composites, including glassy and rubbery moduli and the loss tangent (tanb) were measured. In order to characterize the relationship between dynamic mechanical properties and interfacial structure, composites with different interfacial structures were tested and the results were compared. The different interfacial structures are created by treating or not treating the glass beads with a silane coupling agent before the production of the composites. The plain epoxy matrix was also tested. The sorption behavior of the specimens was monitored by recording the percent weight gain of the water uptake periodically. In general, the measured properties reflect the effect of moisture on the properties of matrix, composites, and interphase. For the plain matrix, moisture reduces Tg, by about 15,,C, and reduces tans at Tg. These are all characteristic of plasticization of the matrix. The effects of water on composites strongly depend on the interfacial structure of the composites. The interphase with silane coupling agent provides better interfacial adhesion, thus improving stress transfer between matrix and reinforcement. The silane also reduces the mobility of the epoxy network near the glass surface. This hypothesis was supported by the greater E', higher Ea. and smaller tans at Tg for silane-treated composite compared to corresponding properties for the untreated composite. Water seems to weaken the interfacial strength of composites since water reduces the rubbery modulus of the composites but not of the plain matrix. Water reduces the interfacial bond strength less for silane-treated composites than for untreated composites. In addition, composites with poorer interfacial bond strength showed larger "additional" tan8 peaks next to the (X-transition. If we assume that poor interfacial bond strength leads to more interfacial cracks or voids, then the tans spectrum may be useful for characterizing the extent of cracking.

Wang, Jo-Yu

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Hygric Redistribution in Insulated Assemblies: Retrofitting Residential Envelopes Without Creating Moisture Issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Building America program has recognized that most of the current housing stock is in need of energy related retrofits. One of the best ways of reducing the space conditioning energy consumption is to improve the thermal performance of the enclosure by adding exterior board foam insulation. This report quantifies the amount of water that can become trapped in the drainage cavity of typical wall systems, and measures the effect of water trapped in the drainage cavity on the moisture content of the sheathing. This study also attempts to explain the discrepancy between hygrothermal simulations and field performance of low permeance, low R-value exterior insulation (e.g. 3/4-in. foil faced polyisocyanurate) in cold climates.

Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Test Plan to Evaluate the Relationship Among IAQ, Comfort, Moisture, and Ventilation in Humid Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This experimental plan describes research being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in coordinatation with Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Florida HERO, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to evaluate the impact of ventilation rate on interior moisture levels, temperature distributions, and indoor air contaminant concentrations. Specifically, the research team will measure concentrations of indoor air contaminants, ventilation system flow rates, energy consumption, and temperature and relative humidity in ten homes in Gainesville, FL to characterize indoor pollutant levels and energy consumption associated with the observed ventilation rates. PNNL and FSEC have collaboratively prepared this experimental test plan, which describes background and context for the proposed study; the experimental design; specific monitoring points, including monitoring equipment, and sampling frequency; key research questions and the associated data analysis approach; experimental logistics, including schedule, milestones, and team member contact information; and clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities of each team in support of project objectives.

Widder, Sarah H.; Martin, Eric

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

453

The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Investigation of the Large-Scale Atmospheric Moisture Field over the Midwestern United States in Relation to Summer Precipitation. Part II: Recycling of Local Evapotranspiration and Association with Soil Moisture and Crop Yields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative contributions of locally evapotranspired (i.e., recycled) moisture versus externally advected water vapor for the growing-season precipitation of the U.S. Corn Belt and surrounding areas (1.23 × 106 km2) are estimated in this paper. ...

Abraham Zangvil; Diane H. Portis; Peter J. Lamb

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Mapping in-field cotton fiber quality and relating it to soil moisture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The overarching goal of this dissertation project was to address several fundamental aspects of applying site-specific crop management for fiber quality in cotton production. A two-year (2005 and 2006) field study was conducted at the IMPACT Center, a portion of the Texas A&M Research farm near College Station, Texas, to explore the spatial variability of cotton fiber quality and quantify its relationship with in-season soil moisture content. Cotton samples and in-situ soil moisture measurements were taken from the sampling locations in both irrigated and dry areas. It was found that generally low variability (CV wireless- and GPS-based system was fabricated and developed for automated module-level fiber quality mapping. The system is composed of several subsystems distributed among harvest vehicles, and the main components of the system include a GPS receiver, wireless transceivers, and microcontrollers. Software was developed in C language to achieve GPS signal receiving, wireless communication, and other auxiliary functions. The system was capable of delineating the geographic boundary of each harvested basket and tracking it from the harvester basket to the boll buggy and the module builder. When fiber quality data are available at gins or classing offices, they can be associated with those geographic boundaries to realize fiber quality mapping. Field tests indicated that the prototype system performed as designed. The resultant fiber quality maps can be used to readily differentiate some HVI fiber parameters (micronaire, color, and loan value) at the module level, indicating the competence of the system for fiber quality mapping and its potential for site-specific fiber quality management. Future improvements needed to make system suitable for a full-scale farming operation are suggested.

Ge, Yufeng

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Analysis of Model-Calculated Soil Moisture over the United States (1931–1993) and Applications to Long-Range Temperature Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A long time series of monthly soil moisture data during the period of 1931–1993 over the entire U.S. continent has been created with a one-layer soil moisture model. The model is based on the water budget in the soil and uses monthly temperature ...

Jin Huang; Huug M. van den Dool; Konstantine P. Georgarakos

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Effects of Varying the Shape of the Convective Heating Profile on Convectively Coupled Gravity Waves and Moisture Modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analytical model of convectively coupled gravity waves and moisture modes of Raymond and Fuchs is extended to the case of top-heavy and bottom-heavy convective heating profiles. Top-heavy heating profiles favor gravity waves, while bottom-...

Željka Fuchs; Saska Gjorgjievska; David J. Raymond

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

CO2 Isotherms Measured on Moisture-Equilbrated Argonne Premium Coals at 550C and 15 Mpa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sorption isotherms, which describe the coal’s gas storage capacity, are important for estimating the carbon sequestration potential of coal seams. The DOE-NETL initiated a second inter-laboratory isotherm comparison of coals where CO2 sorption isotherms were collected on moisture-equilibrated coals at temperatures and pressures relevant to CO2 sequestration. Each laboratory used the same coal samples and followed the same general procedure; however, each laboratory used their own apparatus and isotherm measurement technique. This study investigated the inter-laboratory reproducibility of carbon dioxide isotherm measurements on moisture-equilibrated Argonne premium coal samples (Pocahontas #3, Illinois #6, and Beulah Zap). Six independent laboratories provided isotherm data on the three moisture-equilibrated coal samples at 55oC and pressures up to 15 MPa. Agreement among the laboratories was good up to 8 MPa. At the higher pressures, the data among the laboratories diverged significantly for two of the laboratories and coincided reasonably well for four of the laboratories. This work provides guidance for estimating the reproducibility that might be expected when comparing published sorption isotherms on moisture-equilibrated coals from different laboratories.

Goodman, A.L.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Atmospheric Heat Sources and Moisture Sinks as Determined from NCEP–NCAR Reanalysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the National Centers for Environmental Predictions (NCEP)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis, distributions of the heat source Q1 and moisture sink Q2 between 50°N and 50°S are determined for a 15-yr period from 1980 ...

Michio Yanai; Tomohiko Tomita

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Seasonal Contrasting Features of Heat and Moisture Budgets between the Eastern and Western Tibetan Plateau during the GAME IOP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) four-dimensional data assimilation (4DDA) upper-air data, the large-scale heat source (Q1) and moisture sink (Q2) over the western and eastern Tibetan ...

Hiroaki Ueda; Hirotaka Kamahori; Nobuo Yamazaki

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "inherent moisture consists" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Investigations of Possible Low-Level Temperature and Moisture Anomalies During the AMIE Field Campaign on Manus Island  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses results stemming from the investigation of near-surface temperature and moisture “oddities” that were brought to light as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment (AMIE), Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO), and Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns.

Long, CN; Holdridge, DJ

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

462

Kinematic and Moisture Characteristics of a Nonprecipitating Cold Front Observed during IHOP. Part I: Across-Front Structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A wide array of ground-based and airborne instrumentation is used to examine the kinematic and moisture characteristics of a nonprecipitating cold front observed in west-central Kansas on 10 June 2002 during the International H2O Project (IHOP). ...

Katja Friedrich; David E. Kingsmill; Cyrille Flamant; Hanne V. Murphey; Roger M. Wakimoto

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Convergence and Disposal of Energy and Moisture on the Antarctic Polar Cap from ECMWF Reanalyses and Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diagnostics of energy and moisture transport and disposal over the Antarctic polar cap (70°S to the pole) and ice sheet are extracted from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis archive over the 1979–93 period. ...

Christophe Genthon; Gerhard Krinner

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Heating, Moisture, and Water Budgets of Tropical and Midlatitude Squall Lines: Comparisons and Sensitivity to Longwave Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-dimensional, time-dependent, and nonhydrostatic numerical cloud model is used to estimate the heating (Q1, moisture (Q2), and water budgets in the convective and stratiform regions for a tropical and a midlatitude squall line (EMEX and PRE-...

W. -K. Tao; J. Simpson; C. H. Sui; B. Ferrier; S. Lang; J. Scala; M. D. Chou; K. Pickering

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Engineering study - alternatives for SHMS high temperature/moisture gas sample conditioners for the aging waste facility  

SciTech Connect

The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems have been experiencing high temperature/moisture problems with gas samples from the Aging Waste Tanks. These moist hot gas samples have stopped the operation of the SHMS units on tanks AZ-101, AZ-102, and AY-102. This study looks at alternatives for gas sample conditioners for the Aging Waste Facility.

THOMPSON, J.F.

1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

466

Attribution of Projected Changes in Atmospheric Moisture Transport in the Arctic: A Self-Organizing Map Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meridonal moisture transport into the Arctic derived from one simulation of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (CCSM3), spanning the periods of 1960–99, 2010–30, and 2070–89, is analyzed. The twenty-first-...

Natasa Skific; Jennifer A. Francis; John J. Cassano

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Predictability of Soil Moisture and Near-Surface Temperature in Hindcasts of the NCEP Seasonal Forecast Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the NCEP–DOE reanalysis (R-2) soil wetness and the NCEP Seasonal Forecast System, seasonal predictability of the soil moisture and near-surface temperature, and the role of land surface initial conditions are examined. Two sets of forecasts ...

Masao Kanamitsu; Cheng-Hsuan Lu; Jae Schemm; Wesley Ebisuzaki

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

A Pacific Moisture Conveyor Belt and Its Relationship to a Significant Precipitation Event in the Semiarid Southwestern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the term moisture conveyor belt (MCB) is defined as an elongated band of enhanced poleward water vapor fluxes (WVFs) above the PBL that is rooted in the Tropics. This new terminology is illustrated through an exemplary detailed case ...

Peter Knippertz; Jonathan E. Martin

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Simulating Field-Scale Moisture Flow Using a Combined Power-Averaging and Tensorial Connectivity-Tortuosity Approach  

SciTech Connect

Various stochastic methods have been developed over the past two decades to estimate effective unsaturated hydraulic properties. We develop in this paper an alternative practical approach to estimate three-dimensional effective unsaturated hydraulic conductivity via a combined power-averaging and tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (PA-TCT) model. An application of the new approach to data collected at a field injection site suggests that the PA-TCT model provides 1) a reasonable framework for upscaling core-scale measurements and 2) an accurate simulation of moisture flow in a heterogeneous vadose zone. The heterogeneous media at the injection site is composed of multiple geologic units, each of which is represented by an anisotropic equivalent homogeneous medium (EHM). The directional effective hydraulic conductivity for each anisotropic EHM was determined by upscaling the laboratory-measured hydraulic properties with the combined PA-TCT approach. A larger difference between the power values in the horizontal and vertical directions indicates a larger macroscopic anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. A moment analysis was used to quantify the center of mass and the spread of the moisture content difference. Numerical simulations showed that, if the flow domain were treated as being isotropic, the vertical migration was significantly overestimated while the lateral movement was underestimated when compared to observations. To the contrary, if the media was treated as perfectly stratified, the lateral moisture movement was considerably overestimated while the vertical movement was underestimated. However, when the flow domain was modeled as being mildly anisotropic with the PA-TCT based parameters, the model can successfully predict the moisture flow and the simulated plume matched the observed moisture plume the best.

Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

2010-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

470

Robust and efficient photo-consistency estimation for volumetric 3d reconstruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Estimating photo-consistency is one of the most important ingredients for any 3D stereo reconstruction technique that is based on a volumetric scene representation. This paper presents a new, illumination invariant photo-consistency measure for high ...

Alexander Hornung; Leif Kobbelt

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials  

SciTech Connect

This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more difficult for lower purity materials and for fuel-type uranium-plutonium oxides. However, even in these cases testing may show that bias effects are manageable.

Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

472

Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels  

SciTech Connect

Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

On a time consistency concept in risk averse multi-stage stochastic ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

others do not this requirement. It should be mentioned that if the time consistency property does not hold, it does not mean that the corresponding policies are ...

474

INHERENTLY SAFE IN SITU URANIUM RE OVERY  

Nuclear power and waste opportunities contact us at Mining operations Increased safety of uranium removal Environmentally friendly process

475

Warm conveyor belts in the ERA-Interim data set (1979-2010). Part II: Moisture origin and relevance for precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of moisture for extratropical atmospheric dynamics is particularly pronounced within warm conveyor belts (WCBs), which are characterized by intense latent heat release and precipitation formation. Based on the WCB climatology for the ...

Stephan Pfahl; Erica Madonna; Maxi Boettcher; Hanna Joos; Heini Wernli

476

The Sensitivity of Springtime Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus Clouds to Surface Layer and Cloud-Top Inversion Layer Moisture Sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study a series of idealized large eddy simulations is used to understand the relative impact of cloud top and subcloud layer sources of moisture on the microphysical-radiative-dynamical feedbacks in an Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus (...

Amy Solomon; Matthew D. Shupe; Ola Persson; Hugh Morrison; Takanobu Yamaguchi; Peter M. Caldwell; Gijs de Boer

477

The Influence of Soil Moisture on the Planetary Boundary Layer and on Cumulus Convection over an Isolated Mountain. Part I: Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data collected around the Santa Catalina Mountains in Arizona as part of the Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ and Doppler Observations (CuPIDO) experiment during the 2006 summer monsoon season are used to investigate the effect of soil moisture on ...

Xin Zhou; Bart Geerts

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

The Moisture Budget of the Central United States in Spring as Evaluated in the NCEP/NCAR and the NASA/DAO Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moisture budget of the central United States during May is examined using multiyear (1985–89) assimilated datasets recently produced by NASA/DAO and NCEP/NCAR. Intercomparisons and comparisons with station observations are used to evaluate ...

R. W. Higgins; K. C. Mo; S. D. Schubert

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Sensitivity of a Cloud-Resolving Simulation of the Genesis of a Mesoscale Convective System to Horizontal Heterogeneities in Soil Moisture Initialization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study examines the sensitivity of varying the horizontal heterogeneities of the soil moisture initialization (SMI) in the cloud-resolving grid of a real-data simulation of a midlatitude mesoscale convective system (MCS) during its genesis ...

William Y. Y. Cheng; William R. Cotton

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Assessment of the NCEP–DOE Reanalysis-2 and TOVS Pathfinder A Moisture Fields and Their Use in Antarctic Net Precipitation Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moisture fields from the NCEP–DOE reanalysis-2 (R-2) and Television Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder A are validated using the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) retrievals over the ...

Cheng-Zhi Zou; Michael L. Van Woert; Chuanyu Xu; Kamran Syed

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Diagnostic computation of moisture budgets in the ERA-Interim Reanalysis with reference to analysis of CMIP-archived atmospheric model data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diagnostic evaluation of moisture budgets in archived atmosphere model data is examined. Sources of error in diagnostic computation can arise from the use of numerical methods different to those used in the atmosphere model, the time and ...

Richard Seager; Naomi Henderson

482

Effects of Surface Heat and Moisture Exchange on ARW-WRF Warm-Season Precipitation Forecasts over the Central United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evolution of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) and its association with warm-season precipitation is strongly impacted by land–atmosphere heat and moisture exchange (hereafter surface exchange). However, substantial uncertainty ...

S. B. Trier; M. A. LeMone; F. Chen; K. W. Manning

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Convection Produced by Interacting Thunderstorm Outflows. Part I: Control Simulation and Low-Level Moisture Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Klemp–Wilhelmson three-dimensional numerical cloud model is used to investigate cloud development along intersecting thunderstorm outflow boundaries. The model initial environment is characterized by a temperature and moisture profile ...

Kelvin K. Droegemeier; Robert B. Wilhelmson

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Effects of Downdrafts and Mesoscale Convective Organization on the Heat and Moisture Budgets of Tropical Cloud Clusters. Part III: Effects of Mesoscale Convective Organization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of mesoscale convective organization on the large-scale heat and moisture budgets of tropical cloud clusters are studied using the GATE Phase III data. Two basic questions concerning the mesoscale effects are addressed: 1) the ...

Ming-Dean Cheng; Michio Yanai

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Effects of Downdrafts and Mesoscale Convective Organization on the Heat and Moisture Budgets of Tropical Cloud Clusters. Part I: A Diagnostic Cumulus Ensemble Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic cumulus ensemble model is developed to study the effects of convective-scale downdrafts and mesoscale convective organization on the heat and moisture budgets of tropical cloud clusters. The model adopts the spectral representation ...

Ming-Dean Cheng

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Diagnostic Computation of Moisture Budgets in the ERA-Interim Reanalysis with Reference to Analysis of CMIP-Archived Atmospheric Model Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diagnostic evaluation of moisture budgets in archived atmosphere model data is examined. Sources of error in diagnostic computation can arise from the use of numerical methods different from those used in the atmosphere model, the time and ...

Richard Seager; Naomi Henderson

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

A Numerical Sensitivity Study on the Impact of Soil Moisture on Convection-Related Parameters and Convective Precipitation over Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of soil moisture on convection-related parameters and convective precipitation over complex terrain is studied by numerical experiments using the nonhydrostatic Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (COSMO) model. For 1 day of the ...

Christian Barthlott; Norbert Kalthoff

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Interactions between Boreal Summer Intraseasonal Oscillations and Synoptic-Scale Disturbances over the Western North Pacific. Part II: Apparent Heat and Moisture Sources and Eddy Momentum Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interactions between the boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) and synoptic-scale variability (SSV) are investigated by diagnosing the atmospheric apparent heat source (Q1), apparent moisture sink (Q2), and eddy momentum transport. It ...

Pang-Chi Hsu; Tim Li

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Investigation of Large-Scale Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Land Surface Interactions over U.S. Southern Great Plains including for CLASIC (June 2007)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The atmospheric moisture budget and surface interactions for the southern Great Plains are evaluated for contrasting May–June periods (1998, 2002, 2006, and 2007) as background for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) of (wet) ...

Peter J. Lamb; Diane H. Portis; Abraham Zangvil

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

The Moisture Mode in the Quasi-Equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model. Part I: Analysis Based on the Weak Temperature Gradient Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The moisture mode in a simplified version of the quasi-equilibrium tropical circulation model (QTCM) of Neelin and Zeng is analyzed. Perturbation expansion based on the ratio of temperature tendency to adiabatic cooling simplifies the system and ...

Masahiro Sugiyama

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

An Analysis of Simulated Long-Term Soil Moisture Data for Three Land Uses under Contrasting Hydroclimatic Conditions in the Northern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil moisture (SM) plays an important role in land surface and atmosphere interactions. It modifies energy balance near the surface and the rate of water cycling between land and atmosphere. The lack of observed SM data prohibits understanding of ...

Rezaul Mahmood; Kenneth G. Hubbard

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

The Role of Local Moisture Recycling Evaluated Using Stable Isotope Data from over the Middle of the Tibetan Plateau during the Monsoon Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both meteorological data and stable isotope data were used to investigate the role that local moisture recycling plays in maintaining moist land surface conditions over the middle of the Tibetan Plateau during the summer monsoon season. Past ...

Naoyuki Kurita; Hiroyuki Yamada

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Linear Response Functions of a Cumulus Ensemble to Temperature and Moisture Perturbations and Implications for the Dynamics of Convectively Coupled Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach is presented for the construction of linear response functions of a cumulus ensemble to large-scale temperature and moisture perturbations using a cloud system–resolving model (CSRM). A set of time-invariant, horizontally homogeneous, ...

Zhiming Kuang

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

The Role of Averaging for Improving Sea Surface Salinity Retrieval from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Satellite and Impact of Auxiliary Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) was chosen as the European Space Agency’s second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. One of the objectives is to retrieve sea surface salinity (SSS) from measured brightness temperatures (TBs) at L band ...

Sabine Philipps; Christine Boone; Estelle Obligis

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

The Synergistic Relationship between Soil Moisture and the Low-Level Jet and Its Role on the Prestorm Environment in the Southern Great Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Changes in low-level moisture alter the convective parameters [e.g., convective available potential energy (CAPE), lifted index (LI), and convective inhibition (CIN)] as a result of alterations in the latent and sensible heat energy exchange. Two ...

John D. Frye; Thomas L. Mote

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Impact of Initial Soil Moisture Anomalies on Subsequent Precipitation over North America in the Coupled Land–Atmosphere Model CAM3–CLM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the impact of anomalous soil moisture conditions on subsequent precipitation over North America, a series of numerical experiments is performed using a modified version of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 and the Community ...

Yeonjoo Kim; Guiling Wang

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Water and nitrogen uptake patterns following moisture pulses in a cold desert community  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variation in the ability to utilize pulses of both water and nitrogen (N) is one possible mechanism allowing the coexistence of species in the cold desert community on the Colorado Plateau. The authors simulated 25-mm precipitation events and used stable isotope tracers ({sup 2}H and {sup 15}N) to follow water and N uptake patterns in six dominant perennials (Artemisia filifolia, Coleogyne ramosissima, Cryptantha flava, Ephedra viridis, Quercus havardii, and Vanclevea stylosa) at different times of the growing season. Water pulse utilization varied on a seasonal basis and was to some extent different among species during the summer. Carbon isotope discrimination was negatively related to both plant use of moisture in upper soil layers and foliar N concentration. Species that were similar in water pulse utilization patterns differed in the natural abundance of {sup 15}N, suggesting partitioning in N sources. All species were able to utilize N pulses after rain events, but there were temporal differences in the response among species. The authors also found that water and N uptake in shallow roots do not necessarily occur simultaneously. Artemisia, Cryptantha, and Quercus showed significant uptake of both water and N from the upper soil layers. In contrast, Coleogyne and Ephedra showed the capacity to utilize the water pulse, but not the N pulse. Vanclevea only took up N. The results indicate that different parts of the root system may be responsible for the acquisition of water and N. Their results also suggest that N and water partitioning could contribute to the coexistence of species in highly variable environments such as the Colorado Plateau desert system.

Gebauer, R.L.E.; Ehleringer, J.R.

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Expensive Moisture/Insulation System Problems at Several Central Florida and South Texas Nursing Homes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

These nursing homes were designed and built in the 80's and 90's. They experienced similar design and construction deficiencies and expensive repairs. Some of the issues to be discussed in this paper are the interactions of architectural and HVAC shortcomings that result in a synergistic increase in mold, mildew, corrosion and rot. ASHRAE 62 requires 24 hour per day toilet exhaust and fresh air. What do you do to control humidity when the A/C duty cycles when the thermostat is satisfied? There needs to be humidity control designed into the HVAC system. Architects and contractors frequently take a "head in the sand" approach to wall and attic vapor barriers. This needs to be looked at realistically. We have seen several nursing homes whose moisture/sheet rock damage was severe due to design defects that allowed free interchange of hot humid air between the attic and the space inside interior partitions. Allowing air interchange between the attic and outdoors: can cause overheating of water in pipes in attics where temperaturs reach 150° F. increases condensation due to inadequate details in mechanical insulation on ducts and pipes Vinyl wall covering is well known to be a disaster in this climate but interior decorators continue to specify it on various walls. HVAC balance needs to be considered. Frequently the kitchen exhaust design is not coordinated with the HVAC engineer. There needs to be a reasonable balance between air in and air out of the building. When air is allowed to flow through the insulation system R value is reduced to near 0. In order to prevent mold and mildew and expensive failures, along with even more expensive lawsuits, the HVAC system design and the insulation system design must be integrated.

Lotz, W. A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

A methodology for specifying and analyzing consistency of object-oriented behavioral models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Object-oriented modeling favors the modeling of object behavior from different viewpoints and the successive refinement of behavioral models in the development process. This gives rise to consistency problems of behavioral models. The absence of a formal ... Keywords: CSP, UML, behavioral consistency, object-oriented modeling

Gregor Engels; Jochem M. Küster; Reiko Heckel; Luuk Groenewegen

2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

A second order self-consistent IMEX method for radiation hydrodynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a second order self-consistent implicit/explicit (methods that use the combination of implicit and explicit discretizations are often referred to as IMEX (implicit/explicit) methods [2,1,3]) time integration technique for solving radiation ... Keywords: Radiation hydrodynamics, Self-consistent IMEX method

Samet Y. Kadioglu; Dana A. Knoll; Robert B. Lowrie; Rick M. Rauenzahn

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z