National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ing shell hvac

  1. HVAC Packages for SMSCB

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Packages for SMSCB* 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review * Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings Russell D. Taylor, TaylorRD@utrc.utc.com CBEI - United ...

  2. HVAC Performance Maps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... models for building energy simulation tools (mathematical framework - what are the right ... integrated HPWHs were performance mapped in NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. ...

  3. HVAC Installed Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question HVAC proper installation energy savings: over-promising or under-delivering?"

  4. Alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor Alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor The document outlines alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor. PDF icon HVAC Credentialing Alternate HVAC Systems Bulletin 07012015.pdf More Documents & Publications ENERGY STAR Certified Homes, Version 3 (Rev. 07) Inspection Checklists for National Program Requirements DOE Zero Energy

  5. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  6. ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 Peer Review ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Jeffrey Munk, ORNL View the Presentation PDF icon ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 ...

  7. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational profile of an integrated whole house performance contracting company and identify the most significant challenges facing a traditional HVAC contractor looking to transition to a whole house performance contractor. To facilitate the discussion, IBACOS divided the business operations profile of a typical integrated whole house performance contracting company (one that performs both HVAC and shell repair/upgrade work) into seven Operational Areas with more detailed Business Functions and Work Activities falling under each high-level Operational Area. The expert panel was asked to review the operational profile or 'map' of the Business Functions. The specific Work Activities within the Business Functions identified as potential transition barriers were rated by the group relative to the value in IBACOS creating guidance ensuring a successful transition and the relative difficulty in executing.

  8. Pedernales Electric Cooperative- HVAC Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pedernales Electric Cooperative offers equipment rebates to its members who install energy efficient HVAC equipment. Eligible equipment includes:

  9. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Business Model | Department of Energy HVAC Contractor Business Model Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model. PDF icon HVAC Contractor Business Model More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models

  10. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. February 2012 This report received minimal editorial review at NREL NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  11. Ing Arvid Nesheim | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Ing Arvid Nesheim Address: Hoymyrmarka 123A Place: Vollen Zip: 1391 Region: Norway Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone Number: 47 951 08 439 Website: www.anwsite.com...

  12. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the ...

  13. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--HVAC Conservation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Those commercial buildings that used HVAC conservation features...

  14. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major ...

  15. Columbia Water & Light- Residential HVAC Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) provides residential customers with rebates on energy efficient HVAC equipment. Customers should submit the mechanical permit from a Protective Inspection, a copy...

  16. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Cost-Effective Advanced HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC energy reduction versus state-of- the-art building automation systems. This technology targets building automation systems for medium-size buildings with central HVAC systems. ...

  17. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance ... Office's Emerging Technologies: HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance subprogram. ...

  18. Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201) Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201) Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call...

  19. 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and ...

  20. HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation While HVAC installers have improved their ...

  1. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building ...

  2. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. ... HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy ...

  3. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Antonio M. Bouza, U.S. Department ...

  4. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy View the Presentation PDF icon HVAC, Water Heating, and ...

  5. Chapter 5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Linear fluorescent lamps are classified by tube diameter, ... Proper light- ing levels lead to less energy-intensive ... and Plumbing A rainwater harvesting system on the Chesapeake ...

  6. HVAC Efficiency Controls Could Mean Significant Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to a new report from Pacific Northwest National Lab, commercial building owners could save an average 38 percent on their heating and cooling bills just by installing a few new controls onto their HVAC systems.

  7. BTO Workshop on Advanced HVAC Research Effort

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC research effort in the area of low global warming potential and non-vapor compression technologies. To support this...

  8. A PDI for your HVAC System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "HVAC proper installation energy savings: over-promising or under-deliverying?"

  9. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

  10. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion, Summary of HVAC Contractor Insights.

  11. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a ...

  12. EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History November 2, 2010 - 5:37pm Addthis A new heating and cooling system...

  13. HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation While HVAC installers have improved their air sealing practices to reduce the amount of air leaking at ducts and duct boots, testing showed that distribution systems still leaked at air handlers and furnace HVAC Air Leakage Fig 1 Air handler furnace cabinet with pressure taps.jpg cabinets. This has hampered the ability of HVAC

  14. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emerging Technologies » HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances About the Portfolio The HVAC/Water Heating/Appliance subprogram develops cost effective, energy efficient technologies with national labs and industry partners. Technical analysis has shown that heat pumps have the technical potential to save up to 50% of the energy used by conventional HVAC technologies in residential buildings. Our focus is on the introduction of new heat pumping technologies, heat

  15. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy View the Presentation PDF icon HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review More Documents & Publications HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Research & Development Roadmap:

  16. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging HVAC Technologies | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy HVAC Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging HVAC Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Technologies provides recommendations to the Building Technologies Office (BTO) on R&D activities to pursue that will aid in achieving BTO's energy savings goals. For HVAC, BTO targets 12% and 24% primary energy savings by 2020 and 2030, respectively. The recommended initiatives in the report

  17. Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201), November 18, 2015.

  18. Biography U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Dsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study:...

  19. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications | Department of Energy HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications November 16, 2015 Speakers Andrew Poerschke,

  20. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella; Martini, Fabrizio; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  1. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows framed walls and HVAC distribution systems. This Top Innovation profile describes work by Building America research team IBACOS who field tested simplified duct designs in hundreds of homes, confirming the performance of

  2. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Whole House Performance Contractors | Department of Energy Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the

  3. HVAC upgrade saving money, protecting history | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8 PDF icon webinar_hvac_calculatingloads_20110428.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-08-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for

  4. enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction Credit: Enverid Systems Credit: Enverid Systems Lead Performer: enVerid Systems Inc. - Houston, TX DOE Funding: $2,400,000 Cost Share: $2,400,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2017 Funding Opportunity: DE-FOA-0001084 PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective is to install and operate modular HVAC Load Reduction (HLR) retrofits in multiple and diverse buildings, monitor their performance, analyze the energy savings

  5. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling...

  6. Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices Discusses progress on thermal comfort modeling and detailed design, ...

  7. Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork, Roseville, California...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork Roseville, California PROJECT INFORMATION ... bathrooms constructed in Roseville, California, for one year as an occupied test home. ...

  8. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method (top left) Building America teams evaluated several testing methods to identify a robust, repeatable test to recommend for air leakage ...

  9. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Cost-Effective Advanced HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimal control coordination of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment can reduce energy by more than 20% over current building automation systems (BASs) but ...

  10. Research & Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report identifies and characterizes R&D opportunities with HVAC&R joining technologies for the Building Technologies Office (BTO) to pursue.

  11. Issue #3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A PDI for your HVAC System Guidelines on Airflow and Refrigerant Charge Verification and Diagnostics Building America Expert Meeting: Summary for Diagnostic and Performance ...

  12. Columbia Water & Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  13. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation PDF icon ...

  14. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  15. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Identify a technical and business approach to accelerate the deployment of light-duty automotive TE HVAC technology, maintain occupant comfort, and improve energy efficiency. PDF ...

  16. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on Joining Technologies in HVAC&R R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on ...

  17. Workshop 1: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort Workshop 1: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC&R research effort in ...

  18. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications ...

  19. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  20. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Introduction.

  1. The Impact of Uncertain Physical Parameters on HVAC Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yannan; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-03-01

    HVAC units are currently one of the major resources providing demand response (DR) in residential buildings. Models of HVAC with DR function can improve understanding of its impact on power system operations and facilitate the deployment of DR technologies. This paper investigates the importance of various physical parameters and their distributions to the HVAC response to DR signals, which is a key step to the construction of HVAC models for a population of units with insufficient data. These parameters include the size of floors, insulation efficiency, the amount of solid mass in the house, and efficiency of the HVAC units. These parameters are usually assumed to follow Gaussian or Uniform distributions. We study the effect of uncertainty in the chosen parameter distributions on the aggregate HVAC response to DR signals, during transient phase and in steady state. We use a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method with linear regression and Prony analysis to evaluate sensitivity of DR output to the uncertainty in the distribution parameters. The significance ranking on the uncertainty sources is given for future guidance in the modeling of HVAC demand response.

  2. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  3. Heat recovery and the economizer for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anantapantula, V.S. . Alco Controls Div.); Sauer, H.J. Jr. )

    1994-11-01

    This articles examines why a combined heat reclaim/economizer system with priority to heat reclaim operation is most likely to result in the least annual total HVAC energy. PC-based, hour-by-hour simulation programs evaluate annual HVAC energy requirements when using combined operation of heat reclaim and economizer cycle, while giving priority to operation of either one. These simulation programs also enable the design engineer to select the most viable heat reclaim and/or economizer system for any given type of HVAC system serving the building internal load level, building geographical location and other building/system variables.

  4. Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

  5. STEM-ing the Tide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STEM-ing the Tide STEM-ing the Tide September 29, 2010 - 4:29pm Addthis Ali Zaidi Special Assistant to the Secretary of Energy Yesterday, the MacArthur Foundation rolled out its latest class of "geniuses" - 23 Americans who stand out because of their creativity and enterprise. Each recipient of the honor (and the $500,000 prize) has made an extraordinary contribution. One of those recipients is Amir Abo-Shaeer, an engineer in the aerospace and telecommunications industries who decided

  6. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads During this webinar, Building America Research Team IBACOS highlighted the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. Current industry rules of thumb, perceptions and barriers to right-sizing HVAC were also discussed. File webinar_hvac_calculatingloads_20110428.wmv More Documents & Publications HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1:

  7. Two Alabama Elementary Schools Get Cool with New HVAC Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addison Elementary School and Double Springs Elementary School in northwestern Alabama were warm. Some classrooms just didn’t cool fast enough. The buildings, which were built almost 20 years ago, were in need of new HVAC units.

  8. EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With financial support from a $250,000 PA Conservation Works! grant – funded through the federal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program and the Recovery Act – CCHS purchased a new Desert-Aire HVAC system. Learn more.

  9. Strategy Guideline: Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  10. Strategy Guideline. Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  11. BTO Workshop on Advanced HVAC Research Effort | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC research effort in the area of low global warming potential and non-vapor compression technologies. To support this endeavor,...

  12. ETs HVAC, WH and Appliance R&D

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... CRADAs can act as a catalyst in the process. HVAC, Water Heating and Appliance R&D 7 Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) Technologies Integrated Approach * Energy cascading is the process ...

  13. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNLs planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  14. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building low-load homes creates a new set of challenges for HVAC designers and installers. Right-sizing equipment, managing ventilation, and controlling interior moisture levels are critical if you...

  15. Chapter 5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing Chapter 5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing Chapter 5 of the LANL Sustainable Design Guide with guidelines for developing sustainable, healthy, energy-efficient buildings on the Los Alamos National Laboratory campus. PDF icon sustainable_guide_ch5.pdf More Documents & Publications IES version 2012 IES <Virtual Environment> version 6.3 IES version 2013

  16. HVAC R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D HVAC R&D Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN FY16 DOE Funding: $2,688,000 Project Term: Ongoing Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding PROJECT OBJECTIVE Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the largest energy end use in both residential and commercial buildings, at 38% and 31% respectively. ORNL's research and development efforts aim to create next-generation, cost-effective, energy-efficient technologies that will enable energy savings

  17. Building America Best Practices Series Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners | Department of Energy Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC: A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners Building America Best Practices Series Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC: A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE's Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their

  18. Building America Envelope and Advanced HVAC Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Envelope and Advanced HVAC Research Building America Envelope and Advanced HVAC Research Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN Project Term: FY 2016 - FY 2018 Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding PROJECT OBJECTIVE ORNL's work in roof and attic research will address the industry need for clear guidance on unvented attics. The wall assemblies research involves a comprehensive evaluation of high-R assemblies. This research supports the Lab and Field Moisture Risk

  19. HVAC Performance Maps - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Performance Maps - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC Performance Maps - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Dane Christensen, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Through laboratory evaluation, this project will develop detailed data sets, termed "performance maps," of certain types of heat pumps. In fiscal year 2014, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will develop performance maps of residential variable speed heat pumps. The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program

  20. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications October 15, 2015 Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners This publication is a final report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants project. October 9, 2015 Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and

  1. Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED and HVAC Units |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED and HVAC Units Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED and HVAC Units PDF icon eere_nationwide_public_interest_waiver More Documents & Publications Nationwide Nonavailability Waiver: February 11, 2010 (Please note, the waiver for LED traffic signals has been withdrawn effective December 1, 2010) Nationwide Nonavailability Waiver: November 5, 2010 Amended Nationwide Nonavailability Waiver: November 5, 2010

  2. Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants | Department of Energy Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating, Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating, Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants December 18, 2014 - 4:50pm Addthis The Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants provides recommendations on R&D activities that will help accelerate the transition to low-GWP

  3. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joining Technologies in HVAC&R | Department of Energy R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on Joining Technologies in HVAC&R R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on Joining Technologies in HVAC&R Presenter: William Goetzler, Navigant Consulting On June 14, 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy organized a workshop "Joining Technologies in HVAC&R." The purpose of the meeting was for the

  4. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  5. DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort January 15, 2016 - 11:27am Addthis ...

  6. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  7. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder In this ...

  8. Critical Question #4: What are the Best Off-the-Shelf HVAC Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High-Performance Homes and Apartments? Critical Question 4: What are the Best Off-the-Shelf HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High-Performance Homes ...

  9. Issue #7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes? Issue 7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes? What components and ...

  10. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This ...

  11. DOE and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort DOE and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort January 15, 2016 - 11:27am Addthis...

  12. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A57. Energy Conservation Features, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor All Buildings Any Conser- vation Features Build- ing Shell HVAC Light- ing Other All Buildings Any Conser- vation Features Build- ing Shell HVAC Light- ing Other 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.7 All Buildings ................................... 4,806 4,357 4,223 2,604 1,178 264

  13. Issue #3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Under-Delivering? | Department of Energy 3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising or Under-Delivering? Issue #3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising or Under-Delivering? What energy savings are realistically achievable by following quality installation standards for installation, operation, and maintenance of residential HVAC? PDF icon issue3_airflow_charge.pdf PDF icon issue3_hvac_installed.pdf PDF icon issue3_pdi_hvacsys.pdf More Documents &

  14. DOE Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products DOE Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products This document is the convening report on the feasibility of a negotiated rulemaking to revise the certification program for commercial HVAC and CRE products published on October 2, 2012. PDF icon convening_report_hvac_cre_1.pdf More Documents & Publications Lochinvar Preliminary Plan Comments Comment On: DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001

  15. HVAC component data modeling using industry foundation classes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir; Forester, James; Haves, Philip; Sucic, Darko; Xu, Peng

    2002-07-01

    The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) object data model of buildings is being developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI). The aim is to support data sharing and exchange in the building and construction industry across the life-cycle of a building. This paper describes a number of aspects of a major extension of the HVAC part of the IFC data model. First is the introduction of a more generic approach for handling HVAC components. This includes type information, which corresponds to catalog data, occurrence information, which defines item-specific attributes such as location and connectivity, and performance history information, which documents the actual performance of the component instance over time. Other IFC model enhancements include an extension of the connectivity model used to specify how components forming a system can be traversed and the introduction of time-based data streams. This paper includes examples of models of particular types of HVAC components, such as boilers and actuators, with all attributes included in the definitions. The paper concludes by describing the on-going process of model testing, implementation and integration into the complete IFC model and how the model can be used by software developers to support interoperability between HVAC-oriented design and analysis tools.

  16. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    market entry & acceptance of technologies & products Competitive & shared R&D funding focused on tech. performance by researchers in lab / field facilities Technology pathway & research reports Improve performance & cost of heat pump & water heating technologies Researchers equipped with validated solutions to develop or improve components & optimize tech. systems at reduced cost High-efficiency HVAC, water heating & appliance technologies & products are

  17. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  18. Research and Development Roadmap for Emerging HVAC Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development Roadmap for Emerging HVAC Technologies W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, and J. Young October 2014 Prepared by Navigant Consulting, Inc. (This page intentionally left blank) NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied,

  19. HVAC, Water Heating and Appliances Sub-Program Logic Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    market entry & acceptance of technologies & products Competitive & shared R&D funding focused on tech. performance by researchers in lab / field facilities Technology pathway & research reports Improve performance & cost of heat pump & water heating technologies Researchers equipped with validated solutions to develop or improve components & optimize tech. systems at reduced cost High-efficiency HVAC, water heating & appliance technologies & products are

  20. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review | Department of Energy HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications CBEI: FDD for Advanced RTUs - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Lessons Learned from

  1. 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule | Department of Energy 28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding the certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration (CRE) equipment, as issued by

  2. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a Hot-Humid Production Builder | Department of Energy HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder In this project, BSC worked with the builder to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space and increase the energy performance of future production houses in anticipation of 2015 IECC codes. PDF icon HVAC Design Strategy for a

  3. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Low Load High Efficiency HVAC Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014.

  4. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC and Zero Energy Ready Homes | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    long-term structure durability. In this webinar you will learn key HVAC design techniques and critical pitfalls to avoid when building highly energy efficient homes....

  5. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Test and Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review ...

  6. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stakeholder Discussion Forum R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R ... Project Summary and Introductions Purpose The DOE aims to: Facilitate R&D on ...

  7. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC&R More Documents & Publications Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Advanced Rotating Heat Exchangers Working Fluids Low...

  8. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes (Text Version) ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes, presented in January 2016. Watch the presentation. Lindsay Parker: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home technical training webinar series. We're very excited that you can join us today for this session on low-load HVAC for Zero

  9. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Identify a technical and business approach to accelerate the deployment of light-duty automotive TE HVAC technology, maintain occupant comfort, and improve energy efficiency.

  10. Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications Anthony Grisolia Managing Director Innovation Programs Andrew Poerschke Specialist Innovation Programs CONFIDENTIAL Agenda Basis for Thermal Comfort Comparative Modeling Newtown Townhouse Case Study Plug and Play System Future Work How IBACOS Thinks About Comfort Risks Home 24 Home 25 Home 26 Same Plan Same Street Same Orientation Different Occupants 0.5 CLO 1.0 MET ASHRAE 55 Comfort Aggregate of 36 Homes 0.5 CLO 1.0 MET 47% of data

  11. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace047_maranville_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  13. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    research team IBACOS worked with S&A Homes to design a compact HVAC layout with all ducts in conditioned space in several homes in Pittsburgh. Poor-quality HVAC design and installation can reduce the overall HVAC system energy efficiency up to 30%. HVAC quality installation practices are essential to realizing the promise of high-performance homes. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.1 Building Science Solutions

  14. Fouling of HVAC fin and tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Carey, Van P.

    2001-07-01

    Fin and tube heat exchangers are used widely in residential, commercial and industrial HVAC applications. Invariably, indoor and outdoor air contaminants foul these heat exchangers. This fouling can cause decreased capacity and efficiency of the HVAC equipment as well as indoor air quality problems related to microbiological growth. This paper describes laboratory studies to investigate the mechanisms that cause fouling. The laboratory experiments involve subjecting a 4.7 fins/cm (12 fins/inch) fin and tube heat exchanger to an air stream that contains monodisperse particles. Air velocities ranging from 1.5-5.2 m/s (295 ft/min-1024 ft/min) and particle sizes from 1--8.6 {micro}m are used. The measured fraction of particles that deposit as well as information about the location of the deposited material indicate that particles greater than about 1 {micro}m contribute to fouling. These experimental results are used to validate a scaling analysis that describes the relative importance of several deposition mechanisms including impaction, Brownian diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The analysis is extended to apply to different fin spacings and particle sizes typical of those found in indoor air.

  15. MVC Shell

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-06-03

    Provides the shell of a plugin based application environment that builds on MVC Framework to allow one to rapidly construct an application by using a collection of plugins. The MVC Shell is implemented in C# as a .NET 2.0 application that can then be used as a shell for building a plugin based application. The infrastructure allows for dynamically processing a specified collection of plugins in order to determine the functionality of the application, wheremore » all plugins operate within the context of the underlying MVC Framework environment.« less

  16. Workshop 2: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort Workshop 2: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC&R research effort in the area of low global warming potential and non-vapor compression technologies. To support this endeavor, BTO convened two workshops to exchange ideas on the technical focus and overall structure and approach for the effort. The second workshop was held at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and

  17. DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014. Watch the presentation. GoToWebinar voice: The broadcast is now starting. All attendees are in listen-only mode. Lindsay Parker: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home Technical Training Webinar Series. We're really

  18. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This presentation at the 2014 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office's HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D activities. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs. View the Presentation PDF icon HVAC, Water Heater and

  19. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Building Technologies Office report assesses heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development.

  20. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    icon vss075lustbader2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Test and Evaluation CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development Vehicle Technologies ...

  1. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview — 2016 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation at the 2016 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office’s Emerging Technologies: HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance subprogram. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs.

  2. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CoolCab Test and Evaluation & CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development Presenter and P.I.: Jason A. ... idling * Develop analytical models and test methods to reduce uncertainties and ...

  3. Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems Lower-Cost, Variable-Speed ... DynaMotors Inc., with the aid of a grant from DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, ...

  4. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  5. What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes?"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  6. CBEI: Pre-commercial demonstration of cost-effective advanced HVAC controls

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and diagnostics for medium-sized buildings - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Pre-commercial demonstration of cost-effective advanced HVAC controls and diagnostics for medium-sized buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Pre-commercial demonstration of cost-effective advanced HVAC controls and diagnostics for medium-sized buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Draguna Vrabie, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Pre-commercial demonstration of

  7. HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8 PDF icon webinar_hvac_calculatingloads_20110428.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-08-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Packaged

  8. International HVAC&R R&D Collaboration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International HVAC&R R&D Collaboration International HVAC&R R&D Collaboration Tony Bouza, chair of the International Organizing Committee for the 11th IEA Heat Pump Conference, delivers the welcoming address in Montreal. (2014) Tony Bouza, chair of the International Organizing Committee for the 11th IEA Heat Pump Conference, delivers the welcoming address in Montreal. (2014) Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: -- International Energy Agency -

  9. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  10. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liping; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of the total energy used in the U.S. buildings is consumed by heating, ventilation and air conditionings (HVAC) according to EIA statistics. Among various driving factors to energy performance of building, operations and maintenance play a significant role. Many researches have been done to look at design efficiencies and operational controls for improving energy performance of buildings, but very few study the impacts of HVAC systems maintenance. Different practices of HVAC system maintenance can result in substantial differences in building energy use. If a piece of HVAC equipment is not well maintained, its performance will degrade. If sensors used for control purpose are not calibrated, not only building energy usage could be dramatically increased, but also mechanical systems may not be able to satisfy indoor thermal comfort. Properly maintained HVAC systems can operate efficiently, improve occupant comfort, and prolong equipment service life. In the paper, maintenance practices for HVAC systems are presented based on literature reviews and discussions with HVAC engineers, building operators, facility managers, and commissioning agents. We categorize the maintenance practices into three levels depending on the maintenance effort and coverage: 1) proactive, performance-monitored maintenance; 2) preventive, scheduled maintenance; and 3) reactive, unplanned or no maintenance. A sampled list of maintenance issues, including cooling tower fouling, boiler/chiller fouling, refrigerant over or under charge, temperature sensor offset, outdoor air damper leakage, outdoor air screen blockage, outdoor air damper stuck at fully open position, and dirty filters are investigated in this study using field survey data and detailed simulation models. The energy impacts of both individual maintenance issue and combined scenarios for an office building with central VAV systems and central plant were evaluated by EnergyPlus simulations using three approaches: 1) direct modeling with EnergyPlus, 2) using the energy management system feature of EnergyPlus, and 3) modifying EnergyPlus source code. The results demonstrated the importance of maintenance for HVAC systems on energy performance of buildings. The research is intended to provide a guideline to help practitioners and building operators to gain the knowledge of maintaining HVAC systems in efficient operations, and prioritize HVAC maintenance work plan. The paper also discusses challenges of modeling building maintenance issues using energy simulation programs.

  12. Packaged HVAC Unit Diagnostician version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-09

    The PHD automatically detects and diagnoses faults with respect to four major aspects of packaged heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) unit operation: 1) air handling in which return-air and outdoor-air are mixed, then conditioned to appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, 2) vapor-compression refrigerant loop operation, 3) overall unit efficiency and its potential degradation over time, and 4) operation scheduling. When faults are detected, the software provides alarm codes corresponding to the detected problem(s). Thesemore » alarms map into explanations of the faults, possible causes for them, and suggested actions to remedy the faults. For air handling, the software also estimates energy and cost impacts of faults. The software is intended for implementation on a hardware systems that includes sensors, sensor signal processing, micro-processor unit for running this software, and communication to a web server. Results are made available to users via the world wide web using a computer with Web browser and Internet connection for access. The graphical web-based interface must be provided by an application service provider (not part of this software).« less

  13. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

    2001-09-01

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

  14. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summarizes results from a study to identify and demonstrate technical and commercial approaches necessary to accelerate the deployment of zonal TE HVAC systems in light-duty vehicles

  15. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  16. Energy Renovations: Volume 14: HVAC - A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-29

    This report was prepared by PNNL for DOE's Building America program and is intended as a guide that energy performance contractors can share with homeowners to describe various energy-efficient options for heating, cooling, and ventilating existing homes. The report provides descriptions of many common and not-so-common HVAC systems, including their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency ranges and characteristics of high-performance models, typical costs, and climate considerations. The report also provides decision trees and tables of useful information for homeowners who are making decisions about adding, replacing, or upgrading existing HVAC equipment in their homes. Information regarding home energy performance assessments (audits) and combustion safety issues when replacing HVAC equipment are also provided.

  17. DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort January 15, 2016 - 11:27am Addthis The planned research effort would support the U.S. hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phasedown proposal, which targets an 85% reduction by 2035 compared to a 2014-2016 average baseline. Image credit: Navigant Consulting. The planned research effort would support the U.S. hydrofluorocarbon

  18. Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal HVAC System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Presents development of a thermoelectric device using liquid working fluid on the wasteŽ side and air as working fluid on the mainŽ side to enable zonal or distributed heating/cooling systems within a vehicle PDF icon barnhart.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling Improving efficiency of a

  19. Biography U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U. Düsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology. Chair: chair for waste disposal technologies and geomechanics. 1982- 1988 field of study: mining engineer 1989- 1993 PhD work - geomechanical investigations on the stability of salt caverns for waste disposal. 2009 Habilitation - proof of stability and integrity of underground excavations in saliniferous formations with special regard to lab tests. 1989 - 2012 chief engineer at Clausthal University of

  20. Energy Department Invests Nearly $8 Million to Develop Next-Generation HVAC Systems for Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced nearly $8 million to advance research and development of next-generation heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies, supporting the Administration's goal of saving money by saving energy, and phasing down the use of chemicals that have a devastating effect on the global climate.

  1. IFC HVAC interface to EnergyPlus - A case of expanded interoperability for energy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir; Maile, Tobias

    2004-03-29

    Tedious manual input of data that define a building, its systems and its expected pattern of use and operating schedules for building energy performance simulation has in the past diverted time and resources from productive simulation runs. In addition to its previously released IFCtoIDF utility that semiautomates the import of building geometry, the new IFC HVAC interface to EnergyPlus (released at the end of 2003) makes it possible to import and export most of the data that define HVAC equipment and systems in a building directly from and to other IFC compatible software tools. This reduces the manual input of other data needed for successful simulation with EnergyPlus to a minimum. The main purpose of this new interface is to enable import of HVAC equipment and systems definitions, generated by other IFC compatible software tools (such as HVAC systems design tools) and data bases, into EnergyPlus, and to write such definitions contained in EnergyPlus input files to the original IFC files from which building geometry was extracted for the particular EnergyPlus input. In addition, this interface sets an example for developers of other software tools how to import and/or export data other than building geometry from and/or into EnergyPlus. This paper describes the necessary simplifications and shortcuts incorporated in this interface, its operating environment, interface architecture, and the basic conditions and methodology for its use with EnergyPlus.

  2. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Cost-Effective Advanced HVAC Controls- 2014 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Hayden Reeve, United Technologies Research Center Optimal control coordination of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment can reduce energy by more than 20% over current building automation systems (BASs) but is not widely deployed due to challenges with complexity, scalability, and deployment.

  3. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 14 - HVAC. A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-01

    This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE’s Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their homes by upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

  4. HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes (NZEH) -A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2005-11-01

    Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. This report describes results of a scoping assessment of HVAC system options for NZEH homes. ORNL has completed a preliminary adaptation, for consideration by The U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office, Building Technologies (BT) Program, of Cooper's (2001) stage and gate planning process to the HVAC and Water Heating element of BT's multi-year plan, as illustrated in Figure 1. In order to adapt to R&D the Cooper process, which is focused on product development, and to keep the technology development process consistent with an appropriate role for the federal government, the number and content of the stages and gates needed to be modified. The potential federal role in technology development involves 6 stages and 7 gates, but depending on the nature and status of the concept, some or all of the responsibilities can flow to the private sector for product development beginning as early as Gate 3. In the proposed new technology development stage and gate sequence, the Stage 2 'Scoping Assessment' provides the deliverable leading into the Gate 3 'Scoping Assessment Screen'. This report is an example of a Stage 2 deliverable written to document the screening of options against the Gate 3 criteria and to support DOE decision making and option prioritization. The objective of this scoping assessment was to perform a transparent evaluation of the HVAC system options for NZEH based on the applying the Gate 3 criteria uniformly to all options.

  5. Comparisons of HVAC Simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Sartor, Dale; Mathew, Paul; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2008-08-13

    This paper compares HVAC simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for data centers. The HVAC systems studied in the paper are packaged direct expansion air-cooled single zone systems with and without air economizer. Four climate zones are chosen for the study - San Francisco, Miami, Chicago, and Phoenix. EnergyPlus version 2.1 and DOE-2.2 version 45 are used in the annual energy simulations. The annual cooling electric consumption calculated by EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 are reasonablely matched within a range of -0.4percent to 8.6percent. The paper also discusses sources of differences beween EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 runs including cooling coil algorithm, performance curves, and important energy model inputs.

  6. Opportunities for Building America Research to Address Energy Upgrade Technical Challenges: HVAC, Envelope & IAQ (301)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Peer Exchange Call Series: Opportunities for Building America Research to Address Energy Upgrade Technical Challenges: HVAC, Envelope & IAQ (301) July 21, 2015 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Opening Polls  Residential Network and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Introduction to Building America Technology to Market Roadmaps  Eric Werling, Building America Program Director, DOE Building Technologies Office  Questions, Discussion, and

  7. DOE and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) recently convened two workshops to discuss the potential launch of a major research effort for advanced HVAC&R technologies. DOEs goal is to develop next-generation heating and cooling technologies that leapfrog the existing vapor compression solutions and result in dramatically improved efficiency while utilizing near-zero global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants or non-vapor compression approaches.

  8. Research & Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, J. Young October 2015 (This page intentionally left blank) NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the

  9. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  10. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. October 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  11. HSI Shell Script

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shell Script HSI Shell Script This example shows a script containing HSI actions. Note that in this case a single-line command is used so no "here-doc" is needed. This simplifies...

  12. PFTP Shell Script

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PFTP Shell Script PFTP Shell Script This example shows a batch script with pftp actions in it. The use of both single and multiple-file movement commands as well as directory...

  13. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance. Architects, professional engineers, and commercial real estate developers will benefit from the availability of information that quantifies energy savings, first cost construction differences, and additional operating costs created when office space must be reconfigured to accommodate new tenants.

  14. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  16. Combined solar and internal load effects on selection of heat reclaim-economizer HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, H.J. Jr.; Howell, R.H.; Wang, Z. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    The concern for energy conservation has led to the development and use of heat recovery systems which reclaim the building internal heat before it is discarded in the exhaust air. On the other hand, economizer cycles have been widely used for many years in a variety of types of HVAC systems. Economizer cycles are widely accepted as a means to reduce operating time for chilling equipment when cool outside air is available. It has been suggested that heat reclaim systems should not be used in conjunction with an HVAC system which incorporates an economizer cycle because the economizer operation would result in heat being exhausted which might have been recovered. Others suggest that the economizer cycle can be used economically in a heat recovery system if properly controlled to maintain an overall building heat balance. This study looks at potential energy savings of such combined systems with particular emphasis on the effects of the solar load (amount of glass) and the internal load level (lights, people, appliances, etc.). For systems without thermal storage, annual energy savings of up to 60 percent are predicted with the use of heat reclaim systems in conjunction with economizers when the heat reclaim has priority. These results demonstrate the necessity of complete engineering evaluations if proper selection and operation of combined heat recovery and economizer cycles are to be obtained. This paper includes the basic methodology for making such evaluations.

  17. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  18. HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder, Houston, Texas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  19. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option (Baxter 2007). In addition it reports some corrections made subsequent to release of the first two reports to correct some errors in the TRNSYS building model for Atlanta and in the refrigerant pressure drop calculation in the water-to-refrigerant evaporator module of the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) used for the IHP analyses. These changes resulted in some minor differences between IHP performance as reported in Baxter (2006a, b) and in this report.

  20. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-10-11

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions.

  1. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMART® smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  2. HVAC Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Energy efficient Heating Ventilation and...

  3. Shell Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Solar Place: The Hague, Netherlands Zip: 2501 AN Sector: Solar Product: Shell Solar is developing non-crystalline PV technology,...

  4. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  5. Fabrication of metal shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Holleran, T.P.; Henderson, T.M.; Downs, R.L.; Nolen, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Small hollow metal spheres are needed as targets for particle-beam fusion experiments and as the inner fuel container for multi-shell targets. For the multishell application, shells fabricated of materials with high atomic numbers, e.g., gold, are of particular interest because they may effectively reduce preheating of the fuel. Because the shells must also contain the fuel mixture (deuterium and tritium) at high pressures, high strength materials, e.g., iron, are also of considerable interest. With the objective of proof of principle we have investigated several techniques of fabricating shells of metal or materials containing large fractions of high atomic number elements. These techniques, our experimental results and their evaluation are presented.

  6. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, T.P.

    1991-11-26

    A process is disclosed for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry. 3 figures.

  7. Hollow spherical shell manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Holleran, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A process for making a hollow spherical shell of silicate glass composition in which an aqueous suspension of silicate glass particles and an immiscible liquid blowing agent is placed within the hollow spherical cavity of a porous mold. The mold is spun to reduce effective gravity to zero and to center the blowing agent, while being heated so as to vaporize the immiscible liquid and urge the water carrier of the aqueous suspension to migrate into the body of the mold, leaving a green shell compact deposited around the mold cavity. The green shell compact is then removed from the cavity, and is sintered for a time and a temperature sufficient to form a silicate glass shell of substantially homogeneous composition and uniform geometry.

  8. Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork, Roseville, California (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork Roseville, California PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Long-Term Monitoring of Occupied Test House Location: Roseville, CA Partners: K. Hovnanian® Homes®, www.khov.com IBACOS www.ibacos.com Building Component: Envelope, structural, HVAC ducts Construction: New Application: New; single and/or multifamily Year Tested: 2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Hot-dry climate PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index: 52 Projected Energy Savings: 11 million Btu/year heating

  9. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  10. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2006-11-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment,' ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations.

  11. NREL Delivers In-Home HVAC Efficiency Testing Solutions (Fact Sheet), Building America: Technical Highlight, Building Technologies Program (BTP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delivers In-Home HVAC Efficiency Testing Solutions Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have recently developed two simple in-home efficiency test methods that can be used by technicians, researchers, or interested homeowners to verify the correct opera- tion and energy efficiency of a home's air conditioning and heating equipment. An efficiency validation method for mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs)-highly efficient refrigerant-based air conditioning and heating systems

  12. AgrometShell | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.hoefsloot.comagrometshell.htm Cost: Free AgrometShell Screenshot References: AgrometShell1 Logo: AgrometShell "Software for...

  13. Promoting high efficiency residential HVAC equipment: Lessons learned from leading utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neme, C.; Peters, J.; Rouleau, D.

    1998-07-01

    The Consortium for Energy Efficiency recently sponsored a study of leading electric utility efforts to promote high efficiency residential HVAC equipment. Given growing concerns from some utilities about the level of expenditures associated with rebate programs, special emphasis was placed on assessing the success of financing and other non-rebate options for promoting efficiency. Emphasis was also placed on review of efforts--rebate or otherwise--to push the market to very high levels of efficiency (i.e., SEER 13). This paper presents the results of the study. It includes discussion of key lessons from the utility programs analyzed. It also examines program participation rates and other potential indicators of market impacts. One notable conclusion is that several utility programs have pushed market shares for SEER 12 equipment to about 50% (the national average is less than 20%). At least one utility program has achieved a 50% market share for SEER 13 equipment (the national average is less than 3%). In general, financing does not appear to have as broad an appeal as consumer rebates. However, one unique utility program which combines the other of customer financing with modest incentives to contractors--in the form of frequent seller points that can be redeemed for advertising, technician training, travel and other merchandise--offers some promise that high participation rates can be achieved without customer rebates.

  14. An implementation of co-simulation for performance prediction of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trcka, Marija; Wetter, Michael; Hensen, Jan L.M.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help reducing energy consumption and increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever-increasing complexity and rapid innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation. The co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and exchange data that couples these equations during the time integration. This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation prototype. The prototype is verified and validated against the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a case study for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper concludes by defining requirements and recommendations for generic cosimulation implementations.

  15. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowas HVAC SAVE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, S.; Baker, J.; Brand, L.; Wells, J.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  16. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  17. Mollusk Shell Nacre Ultrastructure Correlates with Environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mollusk Shell Nacre Ultrastructure Correlates with Environmental Temperature and Pressure Mollusk Shell Nacre Ultrastructure Correlates with Environmental Temperature and Pressure...

  18. Screening analysis for EPACT-covered commercial HVAC and water-heating equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S Somasundaram; PR Armstrong; DB Belzer; SC Gaines; DL Hadley; S Katipumula; DL Smith; DW Winiarski

    2000-05-25

    EPCA requirements state that if the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) amends efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90.1-1989, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in amended Standard 90.1. However, DOE can establish higher efficiency levels if it can show through clear and convincing evidence that a higher efficiency level, that is technologically feasible and economically justified, would produce significant additional energy savings. On October 29, 1999, ASHRAE approved the amended Standard 90.1, which increases the minimum efficiency levels for some of the commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment covered by EPCA 92. DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential of the efficiency levels listed in Standard 90.1-1999. The analysis estimates the annual national energy consumption and the potential for energy savings that would result if the EPACT-covered products were required to meet these efficiency levels. The analysis also estimates additional energy-savings potential for the EPACT-covered products if they were to exceed the efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90-1-1999. In addition, a simple life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was performed for some alternative efficiency levels. This paper will describe the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis. The magnitude of HVAC and SWH loads imposed on equipment depends on the building's physical and operational characteristics and prevailing climatic conditions. To address this variation in energy use, coil loads for 7 representative building types at 11 climate locations were estimated based on a whole-building simulation.

  19. Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

  20. An evaluation of three commercially available technologies forreal-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-28

    During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurements technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of three commercially available measurement technologies are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The three commercially available measurement technologies should provide reasonably, e.g., 20%, accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.

  1. An evaluation of technologies for real-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-09-01

    During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurement technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of four commercially available measurement technologies and one prototype based on a new design are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The series of tests identified three commercially available measurement technologies that should provide reasonably accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. The errors in OA flow rates measured with the fourth commercially available measurement technology were 20% to 30% with horizontal probes but much larger with vertical probes. The new prototype measurement technology was the only one that appears suitable for measuring OA flow rates over their full range from 20% OA to 100% OA without using two separate OA dampers. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.

  2. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  3. Shell Solar India | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    India Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Solar India Place: India Sector: Solar Product: Shell Solar India was created as Shell's solar energy business in India, but has been...

  4. Cosan Shell JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Cosan & Shell JV Place: Brazil Product: Brazil-based bioethanol manufacturing joint venture. References: Cosan & Shell JV1 This article is a stub. You can...

  5. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M.; Rymkevich, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  6. Optimum rotationally symmetric shells for flywheel rotors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, Henry W.

    2000-01-01

    A flywheel rim support formed from two shell halves. Each of the shell halves has a disc connected to the central shaft. A first shell element connects to the disc at an interface. A second shell element connects to the first shell element. The second shell element has a plurality of meridional slits. A cylindrical shell element connects to the second shell element. The cylindrical shell element connects to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim support having a disc connected an outer diameter of a shaft. Two optimally shaped shell elements connect to the optimally shaped disc at an interface. The interface defines a discontinuity in a meridional slope of said support. A cylindrical shell element connects to the two shell elements. The cylindrical shell element has an outer surface for connecting to the inner surface of the flywheel rim. A flywheel rim casing includes an annular shell connected to the central shaft. The annular shell connects to the flywheel rim. A composite shell surrounds the shaft, annular shell and flywheel rim.

  7. Energy Management in Small Commercial Buildings: A Look at How HVAC Contractors Can Deliver Energy Efficiency to this Segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hult, Erin; Granderson, Jessica; Mathew, Paul

    2014-07-01

    While buildings smaller than 50,000 sq ft account for nearly half of the energy used in US commercial buildings, energy efficiency programs to-date have primarily focused on larger buildings. Interviews with stakeholders and a review of the literature indicate interest in energy efficiency from the small commercial building sector, provided solutions are simple and low-cost. An approach to deliver energy management to small commercial buildings via HVAC contractors and preliminary demonstration findings are presented. The energy management package (EMP) developed includes five technical elements: benchmarking and analysis of monthly energy use; analysis of interval electricity data (if available), a one-hour onsite walkthrough, communication with the building owner, and checking of results. This data-driven approach tracks performance and identifies low-cost opportunities, using guidelines and worksheets for each element to streamline the delivery process and minimize the formal training required. This energy management approach is unique from, but often complementary to conventional quality maintenance or retrofit-focused programs targeting the small commercial segment. Because HVAC contractors already serve these clients, the transaction cost to market and deliver energy management services can be reduced to the order of hundreds of dollars per year. This business model, outlined briefly in this report, enables the offering to benefit the contractor and client even at the modest expected energy savings in small buildings. Results from a small-scale pilot of this approach validated that the EMP could be delivered by contractors in 4-8 hours per building per year, and that energy savings of 3-5percent are feasible through this approach.

  8. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, P.A.; Anderson, A.T.; Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-20

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dielectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections is disclosed. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections. 4 figs.

  9. Insulative laser shell coupler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Phillip A.; Anderson, Andrew T.; Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A segmented coaxial laser shell assembly having at least two water jacket sections, two pairs of interconnection half rings, a dialectric break ring, and a pair of threaded ring sections. Each water jacket section with an inner tubular section that defines an inner laser cavity with water paths adjacent to at least a portion of the exterior of the inner tubular section, and mating faces at the end of the water jacket section through which the inner laser cavity opens and which defines at least one water port therethrough in communication with the water jackets. The water paths also define in their external surface a circumferential notch set back from and in close proximity to the mating face. The dielectric break ring has selected thickness and is placed between, and in coaxial alignment with, the mating faces of two of the adjacent water jacket sections. The break ring also defines an inner laser cavity of the same size and shape as the inner laser cavity of the water jacket sections and at least one water passage through the break ring to communicate with at least one water port through the mating faces of the water jacket sections.

  10. Shell Solar GmbH formerly Siemens und Shell Solar GmbH | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH formerly Siemens und Shell Solar GmbH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Solar GmbH (formerly Siemens und Shell Solar GmbH) Place: Munich, Bavaria, Germany Zip: 80807...

  11. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures: September 2011 … December 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures Created as part of subcontract with period of performance September 2011 - December 2014 Jeff Romberger SBW Consulting, Inc. Bellevue, Washington NREL Technical Monitor: Charles Kurnik Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A40-63167 November 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable

  12. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Shell and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Practices > Building Shell & Lighting Conservation Features Building Shell and Lighting Conservation Features The 1999 CBECS collected information on two types of building shell...

  13. Rigorous HDD Emissions Capabilities of Shell GTL Fuel | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel An Evaluation of Shell GTL ...

  14. Turbine blade with spar and shell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Daniel O.; Peterson, Ross H.

    2012-04-24

    A turbine blade with a spar and shell construction in which the spar and the shell are both secured within two platform halves. The spar and the shell each include outward extending ledges on the bottom ends that fit within grooves formed on the inner sides of the platform halves to secure the spar and the shell against radial movement when the two platform halves are joined. The shell is also secured to the spar by hooks extending from the shell that slide into grooves formed on the outer surface of the spar. The hooks form a serpentine flow cooling passage between the shell and the spar. The spar includes cooling holes on the lower end in the leading edge region to discharge cooling air supplied through the platform root and into the leading edge cooling channel.

  15. Application of real time transient temperature (RT{sup 3}) program on nuclear power plant HVAC analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Y.; Tomlins, V.A.; Haskell, N.L.; Giffels, F.W.

    1996-08-01

    A database oriented technical analysis program (RT) utilizing a lumped parameter model combined with a finite difference method was developed to concurrently simulate transient temperatures in single or multiple room(s)/area(s). Analyses can be seen for postulated design basis events, such as, 10CFR50 Appendix-R, Loss of Coolant Accident concurrent with Loss of Offsite Power (LOCA/LOOP), Station BlackOut (SBO), and normal station operating conditions. The rate of change of the air temperatures is calculated by explicitly solving a series of energy balance equations with heat sources and sinks that have been described. For building elements with heat absorbing capacity, an explicit Forward Time Central Space (FTCS) model of one dimensional transient heat conduction in a plane element is used to describe the element temperature profile. Heat migration among the rooms/areas is considered not only by means of conduction but also by means of natural convection induced by temperature differences through openings between rooms/areas. The program also provides a means to evaluate existing plant HVAC system performance. The performance and temperature control of local coolers/heaters can be also simulated. The program was used to calculate transient temperature profiles for several buildings and rooms housing safety-related electrical components in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants. Results for a turbine building and reactor building in a BWR nuclear power plant are provided here. Specific calculational areas were defined on the basis of elevation, physical barriers and components/systems. Transient temperature profiles were then determined for the bounding design basis events with winter and summer outdoor air temperatures.

  16. 2014-12-22 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, refrigeration, and water heating equipment , as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 22, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  17. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  18. Single-Shell Tank Evaluations - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Single-Shell Tank Evaluations Documents Documents Hanford Site Cleanup Completion Framework Tri-Party Agreement Freedom of Information and Privacy Act Hanford Site Budget Hanford Site Safety Standards DOE - ORP Contracts/Procurements DOE - RL Contracts/Procurements Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan Single-Shell Tank Evaluations Deep Vadose Zone 100-F RI/FS Sitewide Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis Environmental Single-Shell Tank Evaluations Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text

  19. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity With Data for September 2015 | Release ... Containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. ...

  20. Material with core-shell structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia; Richard, Monique N.; Dehne, Aaron; Phillips, Jonathan; Stamm, Kimber L.; Fanson, Paul T.

    2011-11-15

    Disclosed is a material having a composite particle, the composite particle including an outer shell and a core. The core is made from a lithium alloying material and the outer shell has an inner volume that is greater in size than the core of the lithium alloying material. In some instances, the outer mean diameter of the outer shell is less than 500 nanometers and the core occupies between 5 and 99% of the inner volume. In addition, the outer shell can have an average wall thickness of less than 100 nanometers.

  1. Shell India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services, Solar Product: Delhi-based subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell having interests in natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), lubricants and bitumen. The firm also...

  2. Shell appraising deepwater discovery off Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, M. ); Lambers, E.J.T.; Steffens, G.S. )

    1993-05-10

    Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd. negotiated a farmout in 1990 from Occidental International Exploration and Production Co. for Block SC-38 in the South China Sea off Palawan, Philippines, following Oxy's discovery of gas in 1989 in a Miocene Nido limestone buildup. Under the terms of the farmout agreement, Shell became operator with a 50% share. Following the disappointing well North Iloc 1, Shell was successful in finding oil and gas in Malampaya 1. Water 700-1,000 m deep, remoteness, and adverse weather conditions have imposed major challenges for offshore operations. The paper describes the tectonic setting; the Nido limestone play; the Malampaya discovery; and Shell's appraisal studies.

  3. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  4. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick O'Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests. This proved to be a major challenge for the project and was ultimately abandoned in favor of a directly wired solution for collecting sensor data at the building. The primary reason for this was the relatively short ranges at which we were able to effectively place the sensor nodes from the central receiving unit. Several different mesh technologies were attempted with similar results. Two hardware devices were created during the original performance period of the project. The first device, the WEB-MC, is a master control unit that has two radios, a CPU, memory, and serves as the central communications device for the WEB-MC System (Currently called the 'BEST Wireless HVAC Maintenance System' as a tentative commercial product name). The WEB-MC communicates with the local mesh network system via one of its antennas. Communication with the mesh network enables the WEB-MC to configure the network, send/receive data from individual motes, and serves as the primary mechanism for collecting sensor data at remote locations. The second antenna enables the WEB-MC to connect to a cellular network ('Long-Haul Communications') to transfer data to and from the NorthWrite Network Operations Center (NOC). A third 'all-in-one' hardware solution was created after the project was extended (Phase 2) and additional resources were provided. The project team leveraged a project funded by the State of Washington to develop a hardware solution that integrated the functionality of the original two devices. The primary reason for this approach was to eliminate the mesh network technical difficulties that severely limited the functionality of the original hardware approach. There were five separate software developments required to deliver the functionality needed for this project. These include the Data Server (or Network Operations Center), Web Application, Diagnostic Software, WEB-MC Embedded Software, Mote Embedded Software. Each of these developments was necessarily dependent on the others. This resulted in a challenging management task - requiring high bandwidth communications among all the team members. Fortunately, the project team performed exceptionally well together and was able to work through the various challenges that this presented - for example, when one software tool required a detailed description of the output of a second tool, before that tool had been fully designed.

  5. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  6. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: QM Power, Inc. – Lee’s Summit, MOPartners: United Technologies Research Center – East Hartford, CT

  7. HVAC Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: As of January 1, 2016, rebates for unitary air conditioning and split systems and integrated dual enthalpy economizer controls are no longer available.

  8. An Evaluation of Shell GTL Diesel | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Evaluation of Shell GTL Diesel An Evaluation of Shell GTL Diesel PDF icon 2002deerclark.pdf More Documents & Publications Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel ...

  9. Assessment of Environmental Impacts of Shell GTL Fuel | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy cherrillo.pdf More Documents & Publications An Evaluation of Shell GTL Diesel Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Verification of Shell GTL Fuel as CARB Alternative Diesel

  10. Chapter 4, Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol David Jacobson, Jacobson Energy Research Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 4 - 1 Chapter 4 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application

  11. Impact of External Heat-shielding Techniques on Shell Surface...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    External Heat-shielding Techniques on Shell Surface Temperatures and Dynamic Shell Thermal Deformation of Diesel Engine Emission Control Systems Impact of External Heat-shielding ...

  12. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort considerations and limitation of growth rates for dust mites and many bacteria. In addition it reports some corrections made to the simulation models used in order to correct some errors in the TRNSYS building model for Atlanta and in the refrigerant pressure drop calculation in the water-to-refrigerant evaporator module of the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) used for the IHP analyses. These changes resulted in some minor differences between IHP performance as reported in Baxter (2006) and in this report.

  13. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Shell

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-04-20

    SUNS (Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Shell) is a 32-bit application that runs under Windows 95/98 and Windows NT. It is designed to aid in statistical analyses for a broad range of applications. The class of problems for which SUNS is suitable is generally defined by two requirements: 1. A computer code is developed or acquired that models some processes for which input is uncertain and the user is interested in statistical analysis of the outputmore » of that code. 2. The statistical analysis of interest can be accomplished using the Monte Carlo analysis. The implementation then requires that the user identify which input to the process model is to be manipulated for statistical analysis. With this information, the changes required to loosely couple SUNS with the process model can be completed. SUNS is then used to generate the required statistical sample and the user-supplied process model analyses the sample. The SUNS post processor displays statistical results from any existing file that contains sampled input and output values.« less

  14. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Snchez-Dehesa, Jos

    2014-06-15

    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  15. Double shell tank waste analysis plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulkey, C.H.; Jones, J.M.

    1994-12-15

    Waste analysis plan for the double shell tanks. SD-WM-EV-053 is Superseding SD-WM-EV-057.This document provides the plan for obtaining information needed for the safe waste handling and storage of waste in the Double Shell Tank Systems. In Particular it addresses analysis necessary to manage waste according to Washington Administrative Code 173-303 and Title 40, parts 264 and 265 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

  16. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity November 2015 With Data as of September 30, 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity as of September 30, 2015 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  17. Elastoplastic shell analysis in DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    Computer simulation of the elastoplastic behavior of thin shell structures under transient dynamic loads play an important role in many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, Calif. Often the loads are severe and the structure undergoes plastic (or permanent) deformation. These simulations are effectively performed using DYNA3D, an explicit nonlinear finite element code developed at LLNL for simulating and analyzing the large-deformation dynamic response of solids and structures. It is generally applicable to problems where the loading and response are of short duration and contain significant high-frequency components. Typical problems of this type include the contact of two impacting bodies and the resulting elastoplastic structural behavior. The objective of this investigation was to examine and improve upon the elastoplastic shell modeling capability in DYNA3D. This article summarizes the development of a new four-node quadrilateral finite element shell formulation, the YASE shell, and compares two basic methods (the stress-resultant and the thickness-resultant methods) employed in elastoplastic constitutive algorithms for shell structure modeling.

  18. Removable inner turbine shell with bucket tip clearance control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sexton, Brendan F.; Knuijt, Hans M.; Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Myers, Albert; Coneybeer, Kyle E.; Johnson, David Martin; Kellock, Iain R.

    2000-01-01

    A turbine includes a plurality of inner shell sections mounting first and second stage nozzle and shroud portions. The inner shell sections are pinned to an outer containment shell formed of sections to preclude circumferential movement of the inner shell relative to the outer shell and enable thermal expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. Positive bucket tip clearance control is afforded by passing a thermal medium about the inner shell in heat transfer relation with the shrouds about the first and second stage bucket tips, the thermal medium being provided from a source of heating/cooling fluid independent of the turbine. Access is provided to the rotor and turbine buckets by removing the outer and inner shell sections.

  19. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leach, David (Niskayuna, NY); Bergendahl, Peter Allen (Scotia, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  20. Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems. Volume 1: Description of technical effort and results; Final technical report, March 1995--April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.; Pandy, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this program was to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to determine lubricant circulation characteristics of new HFC/POE pairs and HFC/mineral oil pairs in a representative central residential HVAC system and to compare their behavior with the traditional HCFC-22/mineral oil (refrigerant/lubricant) pair. A dynamic test facility was designed and built to conduct the experimental efforts. This facility provided a unique capability to visually and physically measure oil circulation rates, on-line, in operating systems. A unique on-line ultraviolet-based measurement device was used to obtain detailed data on the rate and level of lubricant oil circulated within the operating heat pump system. The experimental and analytical data developed during the program are presented as a function of vapor velocity, refrigerant/lubricant viscosity, system features and equipment. Both visual observations and instrumentation were used to understand ``worst case`` oil circulation situations. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 contains a complete description of the program scope, objective, test results summary, conclusions, description of test facility and recommendations for future effort. Volume 2 contains all of the program test data essentially as taken from the laboratory dynamic test facility during the sequence of runs.

  1. SPR Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading SPR Awards Exchange Contract to Shell Trading May 10, 2007 - 12:55pm Addthis Deliveries to Begin in August WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. ...

  2. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific ...

  3. Shell Future Fuels and CO2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name: Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Place: Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip: G1 9BG Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product:...

  4. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SENSITIVITY OF DOUBLE SHELL ... the definition of the design ground motion or in the properties of the tank-waste system. ...

  5. Shell seeks modifications to Mosconi sale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chynoweth, E.

    1993-01-06

    Privatization of Argentina's Petroquimica General Mosconi (PGM; Buenos Aires) got under way at the end of last years with three companies submitting technical bids. The interested parties are Shell Compania Argentina de Petroleo SA, Diamond Shamrock, and Panam - a group of local companies including Perez Companc, Laboratorios Phoenix, and Quitral. The technical bids include terms of reference and plans for PGM. Shell has sent a letter to the minister in charge of privatization saying it would not present its economic bid, due January 28, unless changes are made in the sale concerning feedstock supply contracts with state oil group YPF. Shell is concerned about the impact of YPF, which supplies PGM most feedstocks. Tender conditions state YPF will retain 30% of PGM, which will be renamed Petroquimica Platense, and will be the exclusive supplier of feestocks and one of the main buyers of product. Government authorities say no decision has been taken relating to Shell's request to change the contract, but they are reviewing the situation. Other bidders made no objections about the proposed conditions. The government is selling 64% of PGM, YPF will retain 30%, and the remainder will go to the workforce.

  6. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Large, uniform hollow spherical shells are produced by forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, evaporating the drops to form dried particles, coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material, and heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble which expands the outer layer. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the hollow shells, spherical shells with uniform walls are produced.

  7. EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    -A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Order authorizing Shell Energy to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-339-A Shell ...

  8. Pseudo-Symmetry and Majorana Operators in pf-Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valencia, J. P.; Wu, H. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Majorana operator of the pseudo ds-shell preserves the SU-tilde(4) symmetry, and in a unified manner it reproduces reasonably well the ground state energies of the nine nuclei in this shell. The study of {beta} decay in the same shell provides further support for the SU-tilde(4) symmetry.

  9. Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pump-Intensity- and Shell-Thickness-Dependent Evolution of Photoluminescence Blinking in Individual Core/Shell CdSe/CdS Nanocrystals Authors: Malko, Anton V. ; Park, Young-Shin ; Sampat,

  10. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M. (Ann Arbor, MI); Kool, Lawrence B. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  11. Jess, the Java expert system shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman-Hill, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    This report describes Jess, a clone of the popular CLIPS expert system shell written entirely in Java. Jess supports the development of rule-based expert systems which can be tightly coupled to code written in the powerful, portable Java language. The syntax of the Jess language is discussed, and a comprehensive list of supported functions is presented. A guide to extending Jess by writing Java code is also included.

  12. Oxide Shell Reduction and Magnetic Property Changes in Core-Shell Fe Nanoclusters under Ion Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Jiang, Weilin; McCloy, John S.; Qiang, You

    2014-02-12

    Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe3O4/FeO. These NC films were were deposited on Si substrates to thickness of ~0.5 micrometers using a NC deposition system. The films were irradiated at room temperature with 5.5 MeV Si2+ ions to ion fluences of 1015 and 1016 ions/cm2. It is found that the irradiation induces grain growth, Fe valence reduction in the shell, and crystallization of Fe3N. The nature and mechanism of oxide shell reduction and composition dependence after irradiation were studied by synthesizing additional NC films of Fe3O4 and FeO+Fe3N and irradiating them under the same conditions. The presence of nanocrystalline Fe is found to be a major factor for the oxide shell reduction. The surface morphologies of these films show dramatic changes in the microstructures due to cluster growth and agglomeration as a result of ion irradiation.

  13. Oxide shell reduction and magnetic property changes in core-shell Fe nanoclusters under ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You, E-mail: youqiang@uidaho.edu [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Jiang, Weilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); McCloy, John S. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Ion irradiation effects are studied on the Fe-based core-shell nanocluster (NC) films with core as Fe and shell as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe{sub 3}N. These NC films were deposited on Si substrates to thickness of ?0.5 ?m using a NC deposition system. The films were irradiated at room temperature with 5.5?MeV Si{sup 2+} ions to ion fluences of 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}. It is found that the irradiation induces grain growth, Fe valence reduction in the shell, and crystallization or growth of Fe{sub 3}N. The film retained its Fe-core and its ferromagnetic properties after irradiation. The nature and mechanism of oxide shell reduction and composition dependence after irradiation were studied by synthesizing additional NC films of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeO?+?Fe{sub 3}N and irradiating them under the same conditions. The presence of nanocrystalline Fe is found to be a major factor for the oxide shell reduction. The surface morphologies of these films show dramatic changes in the microstructures due to cluster growth and agglomeration as a result of ion irradiation.

  14. 2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  15. HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder, Houston, Texas (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder Houston, Texas PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New Home Type: Single-family, production builder Builder: David Weekley Homes - Houston www.davidweekleyhomes.com/ new-homes/tx/houston Size: 1,757 ft 2 to 4,169 ft 2 Price Range: about $260,000 to $450,000 Date Completed: 2013 Climate Zone: Hot-humid PERFORMANCE DATA HERS index: Builder standard practice = 66; case study 1,757-ft 2 house = 54 Projected annual energy cost savings: $375

  16. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes -- Update to Include Analyses of an Economizer Option and Alternative Winter Water Heating Control Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2006-12-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of an integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006). The present report is an update to that document. Its primary purpose is to summarize results of an analysis of the potential of adding an outdoor air economizer operating mode to the IHPs to take advantage of free cooling (using outdoor air to cool the house) whenever possible. In addition it provides some additional detail for an alternative winter water heating/space heating (WH/SH) control strategy briefly described in the original report and corrects some minor errors.

  17. Gravitationally collapsing shells in (2+1) dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Robert B.; Oh, John J.

    2006-12-15

    We study gravitationally collapsing models of pressureless dust, fluids with pressure, and the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) shell in (2+1)-dimensional spacetimes. Various collapse scenarios are investigated under a variety of the background configurations such as anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole, de Sitter (dS) space, flat and AdS space with a conical deficit. As with the case of a disk of dust, we find that the collapse of a dust shell coincides with the Oppenheimer-Snyder type collapse to a black hole provided the initial density is sufficiently large. We also find - for all types of shell - that collapse to a naked singularity is possible under a broad variety of initial conditions. For shells with pressure this singularity can occur for a finite radius of the shell. We also find that GCG shells exhibit diverse collapse scenarios, which can be easily demonstrated by an effective potential analysis.

  18. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  19. Experimental Confirmation of CH Mandrel Removal from Be Shells (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Experimental Confirmation of CH Mandrel Removal from Be Shells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental Confirmation of CH Mandrel Removal from Be Shells Sputtered Be shells are made by sputter deposition of Be, with a radially graded Cu dopant as necessary, onto plastic mandrels supplied by General Atomics. Although the plastic mandrel may not be a design issue, it is a fielding issue because at cryo temperatures the plastic shrinks more than the Be

  20. Shell trajectory measurements from direct-drive implosion experiments

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Shell trajectory measurements from direct-drive implosion experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shell trajectory measurements from direct-drive implosion experiments A technique to measure the shell trajectory in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions is presented. The x-ray self emission of the target is measured with an x-ray framing camera. Optimized filtering limits the x-ray emission from the corona plasma, isolating a

  1. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  2. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  3. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Available Shell Storage Capacity of Terminals and Tank Farms as of September 30, 2015 (Thousand Barrels, Except Where Noted) Commodity 2 3 4 5 U.S. Total Crude Oil (Excluding SPR) Capacity In Operation 6,686 150,637 260,493 20,397 34,423 472,636 Percent Exclusive Use 2 79% 39% 66% 89% 76% 59% Percent Leased to Others 21% 61% 34% 11% 24% 41% Cushing, Oklahoma Capacity In Operation -- 87,685 -- -- -- 87,685 Percent Exclusive Use 2 -- 17% -- -- -- 17% Percent Leased to Others -- 83% -- -- --

  4. Method and Apparatus for Pasteurizing Shell Eggs Using Radio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Method and Apparatus for Pasteurizing Shell Eggs Using Radio Frequency Heating" Inventors..--.. Christopher D. Brunkhorst, David J. Geveke, Andrew B. W. Bigley. This disclosure is...

  5. Retrieval of Ninth Single-Shell Tank Complete | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    the retrieval of radioactive and chemical waste from single-shell tank (SST) ... This past spring, crews began a chemical soak process by adding sodium hydroxide to the ...

  6. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS ... The analysis must account for the variation in design details and operating conditions ...

  7. Written Statement of Peggy Montana, Shell Downstream Quadrennial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 11. 2014 Good Morning. I am Peggy Montana, Executive Vice President, Pipelines and Special Projects, for Shell Downstream Inc. My previous role was EVP Supply...

  8. Offshore UK; Shell starts Galleon field pre-drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Shell), acting as operator for a consortium of companies, has described plans for the two-phase development of Galleon gas field, located 50 miles from the Shell/Esso gas processing plant at Bacton, Norfolk, in 82 ft of water. The field has estimated reserves of 1.4 Tcf. Phase 1 development will cost [Brit pounds]300 million ($500 million); and first production is expected in late 1994. British Gas has agreed to purchase at least Phase 1 gas. Shell will be the operator for the development. A preliminary costsharing arrangement has been agreed to by the co-venturers to bridge the period until equities are determined. The consortium comprises Shell and Esso, with 40% each, and Conoco (U.K.) Ltd. and Oryx U.K. Energy Co., each with 10%. The field is located in Shell/Esso Blocks 48/14, 19a and 20a, and Conoco/Oryx Block 48/15a. Galleon will be the sixth gas field to be developed in the Southern North Sea by Shell, the operator for Shell and Esso. It will be the third field in the Sole Pit area, where total reserves found by Shell/Esso are about 3.0 Tcf.

  9. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlled Release from Core-S...

  10. Shell trajectory measurements from direct-drive implosion experiments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A technique to measure the shell trajectory in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion ... Subject: 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ABLATION; EMISSION; ...

  11. Core-Shell Fuel Cell Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Core-Shell Fuel Cell Electrodes Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Artists rendition of the arrangement of platinum atoms in common use (left) and in ...

  12. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  13. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides overview of DOE-supported projects in automotive thermoelectric generators and heaters/air conditioners

  14. Webinar: Low Load HVAC Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) Program represents a whole new level of home performance, with rigorous requirements that ensure outstanding levels of energy savings,...

  15. Advanced HVAC Development and Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Timeline: Start date: 1012015 Planned end date: 9302016 Key Milestones 1. Cold Climate Heat Pump Case Study; 6302016 2. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Case Study; 9302016 ...

  16. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Shell model description of band structure in 48Cr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Velazquez, Victor M.

    2007-02-12

    The band structure for normal and abnormal parity bands in 48Cr are described using the m-scheme shell model. In addition to full fp-shell, two particles in the 1d3/2 orbital are allowed in order to describe intruder states. The interaction includes fp-, sd- and mixed matrix elements.

  18. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  19. Hard or Soft Shell? It's Not Just a Taco Question | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hard or Soft Shell? It's Not Just a Taco Question Swapping out hard-shelled nanoparticle models for the soft-shelled variety has led to theoretical results in tune with...

  20. EA-339 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-339 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Order authorizing Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. to export electric energy to Canada PDF ...

  1. EA-338-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-338-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Order authorizing Shell Energy to export electric energy to Mexico. PDF icon EA-338-A Shell Energy (MX).pdf More Documents & ...

  2. EA-338 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EA-338 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Order authorizing Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. to export electric energy to Mexico PDF icon EA-338 Shell Energy North America ...

  3. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  4. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  5. Naked shell singularities on the brane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2005-04-15

    By utilizing nonstandard slicings of 5-dimensional Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-AdS manifolds based on isotropic coordinates, we generate static and spherically-symmetric braneworld spacetimes containing shell-like naked null singularities. For planar slicings, we find that the brane-matter sourcing the solution is a perfect fluid with an exotic equation of state and a pressure singularity where the brane crosses the bulk horizon. From a relativistic point of view, such a singularity is required to maintain matter infinitesimally above the surface of a black hole. From the point of view of the AdS/CFT conjecture, the singular horizon can be seen as one possible quantum correction to a classical black hole geometry. Various generalizations of planar slicings are also considered for a Ricci-flat bulk, and we find that singular horizons and exotic matter distributions are common features.

  6. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Net Available Shell Storage Capacity by PAD District as of September 30, 2015 (Thousand Barrels) Commodity In Operation Idle 1 In Operation Idle 1 In Operation Idle 1 In Operation Idle 1 In Operation Idle 1 In Operation Idle 1 Refineries Crude Oil 16,853 981 24,677 733 91,650 2,192 4,748 137 40,924 2,201 178,852 6,244 Fuel Ethanol 174 - 171 - 309 - 144 6 77 9 875 15 Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases 2 1,328 21 12,256 270 31,315 92 608 1 2,470 - 47,977 384 Propane/Propylene

  7. Tuning g factors of core-shell nanoparticles by controlled positioning...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tuning g factors of core-shell nanoparticles by controlled positioning of magnetic ... 22, 2017 Prev Next Title: Tuning g factors of core-shell nanoparticles by ...

  8. Microwave Synthesis of Au?Rh Core?Shell Nanoparticles and Implications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Synthesis of Au?Rh Core?Shell Nanoparticles and Implications of the Shell Thickness in Hydrogenation Catalysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microwave ...

  9. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function of the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.

  10. Dynamics of a suspension of interacting yolk-shell particles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sánchez Díaz, L. E.; Cortes-Morales, E. C.; Li, X.; Chen, Wei-Ren; Medina-Noyola, M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the self-diusion properties of a liquid of hollow spherical particles (shells) bearing a smaller solid sphere in their interior (yolks). We model this system using purely repulsive hard-body interactions between all (shell and yolk) particles, but assume the presence of a background ideal solvent such that all the particles execute free Brownian motion between collisions, characterized by short-time self-diusion coecients D0 s for the shells and D0 y for the yolks. Using a softened version of these interparticle potentials we perform Brownian dynamics simulations to determine the mean squared displacement and intermediate scattering function ofmore » the yolk-shell complex. These results can be understood in terms of a set of eective Langevin equations for the N interacting shell particles, pre-averaged over the yolks' degrees of freedom, from which an approximate self-consistent description of the simulated self-diusion properties can be derived. Here we compare the theoretical and simulated results between them, and with the results for the same system in the absence of yolks. We nd that the yolks, which have no eect on the shell-shell static structure, in uence the dynamic properties in a predictable manner, fully captured by the theory.« less

  11. The H? profiles of Be shell stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silaj, J.; Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Tycner, C.

    2014-11-01

    A new set of theoretical H? emission line profiles of Be stars has been computed using the code BERAY, which solves the transfer equation along a series of rays passing through the star+disk system, representing an improved treatment over earlier work done by the authors. The new profiles were compared with the previous work, and general trends (such as line profile shapes and correlations between line equivalent widths as a function of initial density ?{sub 0} and power law index n) were recovered. Additionally, BERAY was employed to model the spectra of eight well-known Be shell stars. Some degeneracy was found in the choice of model parameters, highlighting the need to employ alternate observables to constrain the models. However, the inclination angle of the model seemed relatively insensitive to the choices of other parameters, and we show that, with our models, only a very small range of inclination angles can adequately reproduce the observations. Five of our eight targets were found to have inclination angles of 70 or higher, and two more were found to have inclination angles of 67 and 65. The observation of one target4 Aquilaecould only be reproduced by models created at an inclination angle of approximately 45.

  12. Shell effects in fusion of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1997-12-31

    The spontaneous-fission properties of Fm isotopes undergo dramatic changes between {sup 256}Fm and {sup 258} Fm. The fission fragments of the former isotope are mass asymmetric with kinetic energies of about 200 MeV, whereas the fission fragments of the latter isotope are symmetric with kinetic energies of about 235 MeV. This rapid change occurs because the division into nearly doubly magic fragments near {sup 132}Sn becomes possible and opens up new valleys in the fission potential-energy surface. In the cold-fusion reactions leading to the heaviest elements, the nearly doubly magic targets and/or projectiles may give rise to important features associated with this magicity. Cold fusion is thought to favor heavy-element formation because it leads to low excitation energies of the compound nuclei. We investigate how near-magic targets and projectiles may lead to persistent survivability of the shells in the fusion valley as the ions merge, in addition to their effect on the compound-nucleus excitation energy.

  13. Statistical techniques for characterizing residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    A primary objective of the Hanford Tank Initiative (HTI) project is to develop methods to estimate the inventory of residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks. A second objective is to develop methods to determine the boundaries of waste that may be in the waste plume in the vadose zone. This document presents statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of analytes within the residual waste within a tank. Sampling plans for estimating the inventory of analytes within the waste plume in the vadose zone are also presented. Inventory estimates can be used to classify the residual waste with respect to chemical and radiological hazards. Based on these estimates, it will be possible to make decisions regarding the final disposition of the residual waste. Four sampling plans for the residual waste in a tank are presented. The first plan is based on the assumption that, based on some physical characteristic, the residual waste can be divided into disjoint strata, and waste samples obtained from randomly selected locations within each stratum. The second plan is that waste samples are obtained from randomly selected locations within the waste. The third and fourth plans are similar to the first two, except that composite samples are formed from multiple samples. Common to the four plans is that, in the laboratory, replicate analytical measurements are obtained from homogenized waste samples. The statistical sampling plans for the residual waste are similar to the statistical sampling plans developed for the tank waste characterization program. In that program, the statistical sampling plans required multiple core samples of waste, and replicate analytical measurements from homogenized core segments. A statistical analysis of the analytical data, obtained from use of the statistical sampling plans developed for the characterization program or from the HTI project, provide estimates of mean analyte concentrations and confidence intervals on the mean. In addition, the statistical analysis provides estimates of spatial and measurement variabilities. The magnitude of these sources of variability are used to determine how well the inventory of the analytes in the waste have been estimated. This document provides statistical sampling plans that can be used to estimate the inventory of the analytes in the residual waste in single-shell and double-shell tanks and in the waste plume in the vadose zone.

  14. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SHELL CORRECTIONS (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SHELL CORRECTIONS Authors: Fano, U. ; Turner, J. E. Publication Date: 1964-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 4887409 ...

  15. Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries By Sarah Schlieder * August 5, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine a cell a phone that charges in less than an hour and lasts...

  16. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-11-03

    This specification revises the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  17. Simple, Ethanol-Driven Synthesis of Core-Shell Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Simple, Ethanol-Driven Synthesis of Core-Shell ... This "green" synthesis method uses ethanol - a simple solvent for metal precursors "as the ...

  18. Maria Goeppert Mayer, the Nuclear Shell Structure, and Magic Numbers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Maria Goeppert-Mayer, the Nuclear Shell Model, and Magic Numbers Resources with Additional Information Maria Goeppert-Mayer Courtesy Argonne National Laboratory While working at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 1948, physicist Maria Goeppert-Mayer developed the explanation of how neutrons and protons within atomic nuclei are structured. Called the "nuclear shell model," her work explains why the nuclei of some atoms are more stable than others and why some elements have many

  19. Shell-Based Simulation of Filamentary Resistive Memory. (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Journal Article: Shell-Based Simulation of Filamentary Resistive Memory. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shell-Based Simulation of Filamentary Resistive Memory. Abstract not provided. Authors: Lohn, Andrew ; Mickel, Patrick R. ; Marinella, Matthew Publication Date: 2014-06-01 OSTI Identifier: 1183002 Report Number(s): SAND2014-15228J 534144 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nanotechnology Research

  20. Fabrication of precision glass shells by joining glass rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gac, Frank D.; Blake, Rodger D.; Day, Delbert E.; Haggerty, John S.

    1988-01-01

    A method for making uniform spherical shells. The present invention allows niform hollow spheres to be made by first making a void in a body of material. The material is heated so that the viscosity is sufficiently low so that the surface tension will transform the void into a bubble. The bubble is allowed to rise in the body until it is spherical. The excess material is removed from around the void to form a spherical shell with a uniform outside diameter.

  1. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys Cerium (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted

  2. Mg++ Solvation Shell in Electrolyte for Multivalent Batteries - Joint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Energy Storage Research April 14, 2014, Research Highlights Mg++ Solvation Shell in Electrolyte for Multivalent Batteries Complementary pair/radial distribution functions G(r) from x-ray scattering (top) and molecular dynamics (bottom) define the solvation structure of Mg++ in a Mg(TFSI)2/diglyme electrolyte (right). The presence of TFSI- in the first solvation shell indicates incomplete dissociation of the Mg(TFSI)2 salt and partial compensation of the Mg++ charge. Scientific

  3. Single-shell tank ventilation upgrades needs analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriskovich, J.R., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-03

    This report was written to comply with the objectives of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-43-03 Provide to the Washington State Department of Ecology and Department of Health the Results of the Single-Shell Tank Ventilation Upgrades Needs Analysis. The needs analysis consists of identifying the current type and status of each single-shell tank ventilation system, identifying current and projected authorization basis requirements, and identifying ventilation system compliance deficiencies.

  4. FABRICATION OF GAS-FILLED TUNGSTEN-COATED GLASS SHELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; BAUGH,W; STEINMAN,D.A

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 Deuterium (D{sub 2}) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. They report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of {approx} 0.15 {micro}m/hr coatings with {approx} 2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 {micro}m/hr, was considerably worse ({approx} 100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 C.

  5. Fabrication of Gas-Filled Tungsten-Coated Glass Shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikroo, A.; Baugh, W.; Steinman, D.A.

    2004-03-15

    Deuterium (D{sub 2}) filled glass shells coated with a high Z element are needed for high energy density (HED) experiments by researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We report here on our initial attempt to produce such shells. Glass shells made using the drop tower technique were coated with gold, palladium or tungsten, or a mixture of two of these elements. It was found that gold and palladium coatings did not stick well to the glass and resulted in poor or delaminated films. Tungsten coatings resulted in films suitable for these targets. Bouncing of shells during coating resulted in uniform tungsten coatings, but the surface of such coatings were filled with small nodules. Proper agitation of shells using a tapping technique resulted in smooth films with minimal particulate contamination. For coating rates of {approx}0.15 {mu}m/hr coatings with {approx}2 nm RMS surface finish could be deposited. The surface roughness of coatings at higher rates, 0.7 {mu}m/hr, was considerably worse ({approx}100 nm RMS). The columnar structure of the coatings allowed permeation filling of the tungsten coated glass shells with deuterium at 300 deg. C.

  6. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-338-A Shell Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    North America (US), L.P. | Department of Energy 8-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Docket No. EA-338-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Application from Shell Energy to export electric energy to Mexico. PDF icon EA-338-A Shell Energy (MX).pdf More Documents & Publications EA-338-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-338 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-339 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.

  7. Optimizing High-Z Coatings for Inertial Fusion Energy Shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Nikroo, Abbas; Goodin, Daniel T.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.

    2003-05-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors require shells with a high-Z coating that is both permeable, for timely filling with deuterium-tritium, and reflective, for survival in the chamber. Previously, gold was deposited on shells while they were agitated to obtain uniform, reproducible coatings. However, these coatings were rather impermeable, resulting in unacceptably long fill times. We report here on an initial study on Pd coatings on shells in the same manner. We have found that these palladium-coated shells are substantially more permeable than gold. Pd coatings on shells remained stable on exposure to deuterium. Pd coatings had lower reflectivity compared to gold that leads to a lower working temperature, and efficiency, of the proposed fusion reactor. Seeking to combine the permeability of Pd coatings and high reflectivity of gold, AuPd-alloy coatings were produced using a cosputtering technique. These alloys demonstrated higher permeability than Au and higher reflectivity than Pd. However, these coatings were still less reflective than the gold coatings. To improve the permeability of gold's coatings, permeation experiments were performed at higher temperatures. With the parameters of composition, thickness, and temperature, we have the ability to comply with a large target design window.

  8. Shell Element Verification & Regression Problems for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zywicz, E

    2008-02-01

    A series of quasi-static regression/verification problems were developed for the triangular and quadrilateral shell element formulations contained in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's explicit finite element program DYNA3D. Each regression problem imposes both displacement- and force-type boundary conditions to probe the five independent nodal degrees of freedom employed in the targeted formulation. When applicable, the finite element results are compared with small-strain linear-elastic closed-form reference solutions to verify select aspects of the formulations implementation. Although all problems in the suite depict the same geometry, material behavior, and loading conditions, each problem represents a unique combination of shell formulation, stabilization method, and integration rule. Collectively, the thirty-six new regression problems in the test suite cover nine different shell formulations, three hourglass stabilization methods, and three families of through-thickness integration rules.

  9. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Doc No. EA-339-A Shell Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    North America (US), L.P. | Department of Energy Doc No. EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Doc No. EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. Application from Shell Energy to export electric energy to Canada. PDF icon EA-339-A Shell Energy (CN).pdf More Documents & Publications EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-339 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P.

  10. Summary compilation of shell element performance versus formulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Hales, Jason Dean; Breivik, Nicole L.; Key, Samuel W.

    2011-07-01

    This document compares the finite element shell formulations in the Sierra Solid Mechanics code. These are finite elements either currently in the Sierra simulation codes Presto and Adagio, or expected to be added to them in time. The list of elements are divided into traditional two-dimensional, plane stress shell finite elements, and three-dimensional solid finite elements that contain either modifications or additional terms designed to represent the bending stiffness expected to be found in shell formulations. These particular finite elements are formulated for finite deformation and inelastic material response, and, as such, are not based on some of the elegant formulations that can be found in an elastic, infinitesimal finite element setting. Each shell element is subjected to a series of 12 verification and validation test problems. The underlying purpose of the tests here is to identify the quality of both the spatially discrete finite element gradient operator and the spatially discrete finite element divergence operator. If the derivation of the finite element is proper, the discrete divergence operator is the transpose of the discrete gradient operator. An overall summary is provided from which one can rank, at least in an average sense, how well the individual formulations can be expected to perform in applications encountered year in and year out. A letter grade has been assigned albeit sometimes subjectively for each shell element and each test problem result. The number of A's, B's, C's, et cetera assigned have been totaled, and a grade point average (GPA) has been computed, based on a 4.0-system. These grades, combined with a comparison between the test problems and the application problem, can be used to guide an analyst to select the element with the best shell formulation.

  11. Coulomb excitations for a short linear chain of metallic shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhemchuzhna, Liubov; Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Gao, Bo

    2015-03-15

    A self-consistent-field theory is given for the electronic collective modes of a chain containing a finite number, N, of Coulomb-coupled spherical two-dimensional electron gases arranged with their centers along a straight line, for simulating electromagnetic response of a narrow-ribbon of metallic shells. The separation between nearest-neighbor shells is arbitrary and because of the quantization of the electron energy levels due to their confinement to the spherical surface, all angular momenta L of the Coulomb excitations, as well as their projections M on the quantization axis, are coupled. However, for incoming light with a given polarization, only one angular momentum quantum number is usually required. Therefore, the electromagnetic response of the narrow-ribbon of metallic shells is expected to be controlled externally by selecting different polarizations for incident light. We show that, when N = 3, the next-nearest-neighbor Coulomb coupling is larger than its value if they are located at opposite ends of a right-angle triangle forming the triad. Additionally, the frequencies of the plasma excitations are found to depend on the orientation of the line joining them with respect to the axis of quantization since the magnetic field generated from the induced oscillating electric dipole moment on one sphere can couple to the induced magnetic dipole moment on another. Although the transverse inter-shell electromagnetic coupling can be modeled by an effective dynamic medium, the longitudinal inter-shell Coulomb coupling, on the other hand, can still significantly modify the electromagnetic property of this effective medium between shells.

  12. Em Response of a Conductive, Permeable Spherical Shell

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-24

    This code calculates the spectral response of conductive, permeable, shell in a conductive whole space using a closed form solution. The source is either a uniform field (approximately valid when the size of the sphere is small compared to the distance to the source) or the field of dipole (and by superposition, the field of a finite loop). The code is particularly useful in showing that the typical UXO (usually shells), the response is significantlymore » different at intermediate to late times compared to solids of the same materials.« less

  13. Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rast, Richard S.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.

    2013-11-14

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tanks, looking for cracks and other surface conditions that may indicate signs of structural distress. The condition of the concrete and rebar of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is currently being tested and planned for additional activities in the near future. Concrete and rebar removed from the dome of a 65 year old tank was tested for mechanics properties and condition. Results indicated stronger than designed concrete with additional Petrographic examination and rebar completed. Material properties determined from previous efforts combined with current testing and construction document review will help to generate a database that will provide indication of Hanford Single-Shell Tank structural integrity.

  14. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-08-11

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  15. Lithium Intercalation in Core-Shell Materials-Theoretical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Subramanian, VR

    2014-03-04

    Core-shell composite structures are potential candidates for Li-ion battery electrodes as they can take advantage of materials with higher energy density and materials with higher cyclability. This paper derives an analytical solution for isotropic 1-dimensional diffusion with galvanostatic boundary condition in composite slab, cylinder and sphere using separation of variables method. A general interfacial condition has been used to represent the dynamics at the interface of the composite material rendering the solution useful for wide variety of battery materials. Using the derived analytical solution for diffusion, intercalation induced stresses were estimated for spherical core-shell materials. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. A new elastoplastic shell element formulation for DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, B.E.; Whirley, R.G.

    1990-08-01

    The analysis of shell structures undergoing dynamic elastoplastic deformation is an important capability of DYNA3D. This paper presents an improved formulation for a 4-node quadrilateral shell element for explicit dynamic analysis. The proposed element is derived from a three-field weak form, and incorporates recently developed assumed strain methods for improved accuracy. In addition, the element is formulated in a large-displacement small-strain setting for minimum cost. Complex nonlinear constitutive models are easily incorporated into this formulation. Numerical examples illustrating the accuracy, robustness, and speed of the new element are shown. 13 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    M&D Professional Services, Inc. (M&D) is under subcontract to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform seismic analysis of the Hanford Site double-shell tanks (DSTs) in support of a project entitled ''Double-Shell Tank (DSV Integrity Project--DST Thermal and Seismic Analyses)''. The overall scope of the project is to complete an up-to-date comprehensive analysis of record of the DST system at Hanford in support of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-48-14, The work described herein was performed in support of the seismic analysis of the DSTs. The thermal and operating loads analysis of the DSTs is documented in Rinker et al. (2004). The work statement provided to M&D (PNNL 2003) required that the seismic analysis of the DSTs assess the impacts of potentially non-conservative assumptions in previous analyses and account for the additional soil mass due to the as-found soil density increase, the effects of material degradation, additional thermal profiles applied to the full structure including the soil-structure response with the footings, the non-rigid (low frequency) response of the tank roof, the asymmetric seismic-induced soil loading, the structural discontinuity between the concrete tank wall and the support footing and the sloshing of the tank waste. The seismic analysis considers the interaction of the tank with the surrounding soil and the effects of the primary tank contents. The DSTs and the surrounding soil are modeled as a system of finite elements. The depth and width of the soil incorporated into the analysis model are sufficient to obtain appropriately accurate analytical results. The analyses required to support the work statement differ from previous analysis of the DSTs in that the soil-structure interaction (SSI) model includes several (nonlinear) contact surfaces in the tank structure, and the contained waste must be modeled explicitly in order to capture the fluid-structure interaction behavior between the primary tank and contained waste.

  18. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Doc No. EA-339-A Shell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-339 Shell Energy North America (US), L.P. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P.

  19. Tss4U BV formerly Holecsol R S Renewable Energy Systems and Shell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tss4U BV formerly Holecsol R S Renewable Energy Systems and Shell Solar Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tss4U BV (formerly Holecsol, R&S Renewable Energy Systems and Shell...

  20. Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells You are accessing a document from the ...

  1. Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing Aspects Shell Gas to Liquids in the context of a Future Fuel Strategy - Technical Marketing ...

  2. Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal quantum dots toward tuned optical properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell ...

  3. Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With Continuum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With ...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    incentives for lighting equipment and controls, HVAC equipment and controls, building shell, and groceryrefrigeration equipment. This program is for Idaho Power commercial or...

  5. Idaho Power - New Building Efficiency Program | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for lighting controls, HVAC equipment and controls, building shell measures, and energy controlventilation equipment. Incentives are designed to average about half the...

  6. Mixer pump test plan for double shell tank AZ-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    1999-05-12

    Mixer pump systems have been chosen as the method for retrieval of tank wastes contained in double shell tanks at Hanford. This document describes the plan for testing and demonstrating the ability of two 300 hp mixer pumps to mobilize waste in tank AZ-101. The mixer pumps, equipment and instrumentation to monitor the test were installed by Project W-151.

  7. Single Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VLADIMIROFF, D.T.; BOYLES, V.C.

    2000-05-22

    This project plan establishes the management framework for the conduct of the CHG Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organization structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  8. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-05-11

    This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. This plan serves as the project executional baseline.

  9. Chaos vs thermalization in the nuclear shell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V.; Brown, B.A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States)] [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1321 (United States); [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 (United States); [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    1995-06-26

    Generic signatures of quantum chaos found in realistic shell model calculations are compared with thermal statistical equilibrium. We show the similarity of the informational entropy of individual eigenfunctions in the mean-field basis to the thermodynamical entropy found from the level density. Mean occupation numbers of single-particle orbitals agree with the Fermi-Dirac distribution despite the strong nucleon interaction.

  10. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2010-05-11

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  11. Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2012-10-02

    In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

  12. Double Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.

    2014-04-10

    PowerPoint. The objectives of this presentation are to: Describe Effort to Determine Whether Tank AY-102 Leaked; Review Probable Causes of the Tank AY-102 Leak; and, Discuss Influence of Leak on Hanfords Double-Shell Tank Integrity Program.

  13. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchena, Martin H.; Granada, Mara; Bordoni, Andrea V.; Joselevich, Maria; Troiani, Horacio; Williams, Federico J.; Wolosiuk, Alejandro

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  14. Industrial mixing techniques for Hanford double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daymo, E.A.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps are currently the baseline technology for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. Improvements to the baseline jet mixer pump technology are sought because jet mixer pumps have moving parts that may fail or require maintenance. Moreover, jet mixers are relatively expensive, they heat the waste, and, in some cases, may not mobilize enough of the sludge. This report documents a thorough literature search for commercially available applicable mixing technologies that could be used for double-shell tank sludge mobilization and mixing. Textbooks, research articles, conference proceedings, mixing experts, and the Thomas Register were consulted to identify applicable technologies. While there are many commercial methods that could be used to mobilize sludge or mix the contents of a one-million gallon tank, few will work given the geometrical constraints (e.g., the mixer must fit through a 1.07-m-diameter riser) or the tank waste properties (e.g., the sludge has such a high yield stress that it generally does not flow under its own weight). Pulsed fluid jets and submersible Flygt mixers have already been identified at Hanford and Savannah River Sites for double-shell tank mixing applications. While these mixing technologies may not be applicable for double-shell tanks that have a thick sludge layer at the bottom (since too many of these mixers would need to be installed to mobilize most of the sludge), they may have applications in tanks that do not have a settled solids layer. Retrieval projects at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy sites are currently evaluating the effectiveness of these mixing techniques for tank waste applications. The literature search did not reveal any previously unknown technologies that should be considered for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks.

  15. Shape transformation of bimetallic Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-11-05

    Transformation of metallic or bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) from one shape to another desired shape is of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology, where new morphologies of NPs lead to enhancement of their exploitable properties. In this report, we present the shape transformation of Au octahedral NPs to Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes, followed by their transformation to nanostars and finally to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets in the presence of T30 DNA. The weaker binding affinity of T30 DNA directs the growth to favor the formation of lower energy {111} facets, changing the morphology from nanocubes to nanostar. The nanostars, exhibiting unusualmore » intermediate morphologies, are comprised two sets of shell layers and have Au core, Pd intermediate shell, and Au outer shell. Similarly, the hexagonal platelets, which also have Au core and inner Pd shell, are encased in an external gold shell. As a result, the formation of multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets from Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes via the multilayered nanostars is monitored using scanning/transmission electron microscopy analysis.« less

  16. Shape transformation of bimetallic Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-11-05

    Transformation of metallic or bimetallic (BM) nanoparticles (NPs) from one shape to another desired shape is of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology, where new morphologies of NPs lead to enhancement of their exploitable properties. In this report, we present the shape transformation of Au octahedral NPs to Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes, followed by their transformation to nanostars and finally to multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets in the presence of T30 DNA. The weaker binding affinity of T30 DNA directs the growth to favor the formation of lower energy {111} facets, changing the morphology from nanocubes to nanostar. The nanostars, exhibiting unusual intermediate morphologies, are comprised two sets of shell layers and have Au core, Pd intermediate shell, and Au outer shell. Similarly, the hexagonal platelets, which also have Au core and inner Pd shell, are encased in an external gold shell. As a result, the formation of multilayered Au–Pd–Au core–shell hexagonal platelets from Au–Pd core–shell nanocubes via the multilayered nanostars is monitored using scanning/transmission electron microscopy analysis.

  17. AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL We are systematically surveying all known and suspected Z Cam-type dwarf novae for classical nova shells. This survey is motivated by the discovery of the largest known classical nova shell, which surrounds the archetypal dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis. The Z Cam shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have

  18. The adsorption of rare earth ions using carbonized polydopamine nano shells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Dai, Sheng; Liu, Rui; Hou, Xisen; Dai, Sheng

    2016-01-07

    Herein we report the structure effects of nano carbon shells prepared by carbonized polydopamine for rare earth elements (REEs) adsorption for the first time. The solid carbon sphere, 60 nm carbon shell and 500 nm carbon shell were prepared and investigated for adsorption and desorption of REEs. The adsorption of carbon shells for REEs was found to be better than the solid carbon sphere. The effect of acidities on the adsorption and desorption properties was discussed in this study. The good adsorption performance of carbon shells can be attributed to their porous structure, large specific surface area, amine group andmore » carbonyl group of dopamine.« less

  19. Polar-direct-drive experiments with contoured-shell targets on OMEGA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, F. J.; Radha, P. B.; Bonino, M. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Stoeckl, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Johnson, M. Gatu; et al

    2016-01-28

    Polar-driven direct-drive experiments recently performed on the OMEGA Laser System have demonstrated the efficacy of using a target with a contoured shell with varying thickness to improve the symmetry and fusion performance of the implosion. The polar-driven contoured-shell implosions have substantially reduced low mode perturbations compared to polar-driven spherical-shell implosions as diagnosed by x-ray radiographs up to shell stagnation. As a result, fusion yields were increased by more than a factor of ~2 without increasing the energy of the laser by the use of contoured shells.

  20. Open-Shell Singlet Character of Stable Derivatives of Nonacene, Hexacene and Teranthene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Xingfa; Jiang, Deen; Zhang, Prof. Shengbai; Chen, Zhongfang; Miller, Glen; Hodgson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The electronic ground states of the recently synthesized stable nonacene derivatives (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2010, 132, 1261) are open-shell singlets with a polyradical nature instead of closed-shell singlets as originally assumed, according to the unrestricted broken spin-symmetry density functional theory (UBS-DFT) computations (at B3LYP/6-31G*). It is the bulky protecting groups, not the transfer from the open-shell singlet to closed-shell singlet ground state, that stabilizes these longest characterized acenes. Similar analyses also confirmed the open-shell singlet character of the hexacene and teranthene derivatives.

  1. STAR FORMATION AROUND SUPERGIANT SHELLS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Book, Laura G.; Chu Youhua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2009-03-15

    We examine the recent star formation associated with four supergiant shells in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): LMC 1, 4, 5, and 6, which have been shown to have simple expanding-shell structures. H II regions and OB associations are used to infer star formation in the last few Myr, while massive young stellar objects reveal the current ongoing star formation. Distributions of ionized H I and molecular components of the interstellar gas are compared with the sites of recent and current star formation to determine whether triggering has taken place. We find that a great majority of the current star formation has occurred in gravitationally unstable regions, and that evidence of triggered star formation is prevalent at both large and local scales.

  2. Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, W.E.

    1998-03-27

    Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

  3. 241-AN Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-09-21

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AN double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.

  4. Tritium emissions from 200 East Area Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachand, D.D.

    1994-11-28

    This document evaluates the need for tritium sampling of the emissions from the 200 East Area Double Shell Tanks based on the requirements of {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants{close_quotes} (NESHAP). The NESHAP requirements are specified in 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR), Part 61, Subpart H; {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities{close_quotes}.

  5. 241-SY Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-09-21

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-SY double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.

  6. Suitable thin shell structural configurations for earth sheltered housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behr, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    An earth sheltered house is one whose building envelope is substantially in contact with soil, without necessarily being totally underground. Hence, it can provide the commonly sought attributes of a residence, including natural light, exterior views, and curb appeal. It also exhibits strong energy performance, lower maintenance, and good storm protection. Despite the longer-term life cycle cost advantages of earth sheltered buildings, a current hindrance to the mass market acceptance of earth sheltered housing is higher initial cost which is caused, in part, by the inability of conventional rectilinear structural systems to support economically the massive soil loads imposed on earth covered buildings. In deference to the premise that technical suitability is no guarantee of innovation acceptance in the housing industry, a survey of the nontechnical impediments to housing innovation was first undertaken. These impediment areas include: market inhibition; builder trepidations; industry constraints; and financing problems. As a result of an architectural design program written under contract for the Department of Energy, it was possible to include a rather extensive (but necessarily subjective) evaluation of the architectural potential for earth sheltered shell structures. Engineering suitability dimensions included structural effectiveness, constructability, and economy of construction for single- and double-curvature thin shell structures. Overall engineering suitability and architectural potential are deemed to be adequate, although non-engineering impediments to housing innovation appear to raise significant questions regarding the potential for mass market implementation of thin shell stuctures in earth sheltered housing.

  7. PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,DG; CASTILLO,ER; PONTELANDOLFO,JM

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 PRODUCTION OF HIGHER STRENGTH THIN WALLED GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER SHELLS FOR CRYOGENIC EXPERIMENTS AT OMEGA. Thin walled polymer shells are needed for OMEGA cryogenic laser experiments. These capsules need to be about 900 {micro}m in diameter and as thin as possible (approx 1-2 {micro}m), while having enough strength to be filled with DT as fast as possible to about 1000 atm. The authors have found that by optimizing the coating parameters in the glow discharge polymer (GDP) deposition system, traditionally used for making ICF targets, they can routinely make robust, {approx} 1.5 {micro}m thick, 900 {micro}m diameter GDP shells with buckle strengths of over 0.3 atm. This is twice the strength of shells made prior to the optimization and is comparable to values quoted for polyimide shells. In addition, these shells were found to be approximately three times more permeable and over 20% denser than previously made GDP shells. The combination of higher strength and permeability is ideal for direct drive cryogenic targets at OMEGA. Shells as thin as 0.5 {micro}m have been made. In this paper, the authors discuss the shell fabrication process, effects of modifying various GDP deposition parameters on shell properties and chemical composition.

  8. Axial strain in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich; Rieger, Torsten; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Ion Lepsa, Mihail; JARA-Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, 52425 Juelich ; Bussone, Genziana; ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex

    2013-01-28

    We study the axial strain relaxation in GaAs/InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Besides a gradual strain relaxation of the shell material, we find a significant strain in the GaAs core, increasing with shell thickness. This strain is explained by a saturation of the dislocation density at the core-shell interface. Independent measurements of core and shell lattice parameters by x-ray diffraction reveal a relaxation of 93% in a 35 nm thick InAs shell surrounding cores of 80 nm diameter. The compressive strain of -0.5% compared to bulk InAs is accompanied by a tensile strain up to 0.9% in the GaAs core.

  9. X-ray and Neutron Scattering Study of the Formation of Core–Shell-Type Polyoxometalates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yin, Panchao; Wu, Bin; Mamontov, Eugene; Daemen, Luke L.; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Tao; Seifert, Soenke; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keum, Jong Kahk; et al

    2016-02-05

    A typical type of core-shell polyoxometalates can be obtained through the Keggin-type polyoxometalate-templated growth of a layer of spherical shell structure of {Mo72Fe30}. Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the structural features and stability of the core-shell structures in aqueous solutions. Time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering is applied to monitor the synthetic reactions and a three-stage formation mechanism is proposed to describe the synthesis of the core-shell polyoxometalates based on the monitoring results. Quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering are used to probe the dynamics of water molecules in the core-shell structures and two different types of water molecules,more » the confined and structured water, are observed. These water molecules play an important role in bridging core and shell structures and stabilizing the cluster structures. A typical type of core shell polyoxometalates can be obtained through the Keggin-type polyoxometalate-templated growth of a layer of spherical shell structure of {Mo72Fe30}. Small-angle X-ray scattering is used to study the structural features and stability of the core shell structures in aqueous solutions. Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering is applied to monitor the synthetic reactions, and a three-stage formation mechanism is proposed to describe the synthesis of the core shell polyoxometalates based on the monitoring results. New protocols have been developed by fitting the X-ray data with custom physical models, which provide more convincing, objective, and completed data interpretation. Quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering are used to probe the dynamics of water molecules in the core shell structures, and two different types of water molecules, the confined and structured water, are observed. These water molecules play an important role in bridging core and shell structures and stabilizing the cluster structures.« less

  10. Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 18, 2016 Title: Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction Improving the activity and stability of Pt-based core-shell

  11. X-ray and Neutron Scattering Study of the Formation of Core-Shell Type Polyoxometalates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yin, Panchao; Wu, Bin; Mamontov, Eugene; Daemen, Luke L; Cheng, Yongqiang; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V; Keum, Jong Kahk; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal J

    2016-01-01

    A typical type of core-shell polyoxometalates can be obtained through the Keggin-type polyoxometalate-templated growth of a layer of spherical shell structure of {Mo72Fe30}. Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the structural features and stability of the core-shell structures in aqueous solutions. Time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering is applied to monitor the synthetic reactions and a three-stage formation mechanism is proposed to describe the synthesis of the core-shell polyoxometalates based on the monitoring results. Quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering are used to probe the dynamics of water molecules in the core-shell structures and two different types of water molecules,morethe confined and structured water, are observed. These water molecules play an important role in bridging core and shell structures and stabilizing the cluster structures.A typical type of core shell polyoxometalates can be obtained through the Keggin-type polyoxometalate-templated growth of a layer of spherical shell structure of {Mo72Fe30}. Small-angle X-ray scattering is used to study the structural features and stability of the core shell structures in aqueous solutions. Time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering is applied to monitor the synthetic reactions, and a three-stage formation mechanism is proposed to describe the synthesis of the core shell polyoxometalates based on the monitoring results. New protocols have been developed by fitting the X-ray data with custom physical models, which provide more convincing, objective, and completed data interpretation. Quasi-elastic and inelastic neutron scattering are used to probe the dynamics of water molecules in the core shell structures, and two different types of water molecules, the confined and structured water, are observed. These water molecules play an important role in bridging core and shell structures and stabilizing the cluster structures.less

  12. Introduction of biotin or folic acid into polypyrrole magnetite core-shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Turcu, Rodica; Liebscher, Jürgen

    2013-11-13

    In order to contribute to the trend in contemporary research to develop magnetic core shell nanoparticles with better properties (reduced toxicity, high colloidal and chemical stability, wide scope of application) in straightforward and reproducible methods new core shell magnetic nanoparticles were developed based on polypyrrole shells functionalized with biotin and folic acid. Magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by sebacic acid were used as magnetic cores. The morphology of magnetite was determined by transmission electron microscopy TEM, while the chemical structure investigated by FT-IR.

  13. Preparation of Core-Shell Coordination Molecular Assemblies via the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enrichment of Structure-Directing "Codes" of Bridging Ligands and Metathesis of Metal Units | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Preparation of Core-Shell Coordination Molecular Assemblies via the Enrichment of Structure-Directing "Codes" of Bridging Ligands and Metathesis of Metal Units Previous Next List Jinhee Park, Ying-Pin Chen, Zachary Perry, Jian-Rong Li, and Hong-Cai Zhou, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136, 16895-16901 (2014)

  14. Nitride Stabilized Core-Shell Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitride Stabilized Core-Shell Nanoparticles Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <br type="_moz" /> (A) Comparison of surface strain versus predicted binding energy of oxygen (BE-O) on the Pt<sub>2</sub>MLNi<sub>4</sub>N and Pt nanoparticle models with ~1.7 nm. (B) Pt specific activity against BE-O on PtNiN/C and Pt/C. (C) Schematic of the inner Pt diffusion process to the defective sites at the vertex during cycling in the

  15. FLAMMABLE GAS DIFFUSION THROUGH SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) DOMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2003-11-10

    This report quantified potential hydrogen diffusion through Hanford Site Single-Shell tank (SST) domes if the SSTs were hypothetically sealed airtight. Results showed that diffusion would keep headspace flammable gas concentrations below the lower flammability limit in the 241-AX and 241-SX SST. The purpose of this document is to quantify the amount of hydrogen that could diffuse through the domes of the SSTs if they were hypothetically sealed airtight. Diffusion is assumed to be the only mechanism available to reduce flammable gas concentrations. The scope of this report is limited to the 149 SSTs.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  17. Structural Basis for Near Unity Quantum Yield Core/Shell Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, James; Treadway, Joe; Pennycook, Stephen J; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Aberration-corrected Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy of core/shell nanocrystals shows clear correlations between structure and quantum efficiency. Uniform shell coverage is obtained only for a graded CdS/ZnS shell material and is found to be critical to achieving near 100% quantum yield. The sublattice sensitivity of the images confirms that preferential growth takes place on the anion-terminated surfaces. This explains the three-dimensional "nanobullet" shape observed in the case of core/shell nanorods.

  18. FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OF OER COATED RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE SHELLS FOR OMEGA EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; PAGUIO,R; GREENWOOD,A.L; TAKAGI,M

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 New high gain designs for direct drive ignition on NIF require foam shells. Scaled down versions of these designs are needed for near term experiments on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory Laser Energetics (LLE). These shells need to be about 1 mm in diameter and 50-100 {micro}m wall thickness and densities of 100-250 mg/cc. In addition, a full density permeation seal needs to be deposited for retention of the fill gas at room temperature or the ice at cryogenic temperatures. They have fabricated such shells using Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) as the selected foam material due to its transparency in the optical region. Extensive characterization of the wall uniformity of these shells has been performed. The foam shells have {approx} 5%-6% non-concentricities on the average. A full density permeation seal has been deposited on the R/F shells using two different techniques. In the first technique R/F shells are coated directly with plasma polymer to thicknesses of 3-4 {micro}m. In the second technique, R/F shells are coated with polyvinylphenol, using a chemical interfacial polymerization technique. Data on surface finish and gas retention for R/F shells coated by both methods are provided.

  19. TWC Committee: Draft Advice re: Double-Shell Tank AY-102, v.4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15/2013 TWC Committee: Draft Advice re: Double-Shell Tank AY-102, v.4 Dunning, Panesko, Holland, Cimon, Larsen Page 1 of 2 Draft Advice re: Double-Shell Tank AY-102 and Leaking Single-Shell Tanks Background: The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) announced at the Tank Waste Committee meeting on April 10, 2013 that the cause of the leak in the bottom of double- shell tank AY-102 was due to corrosive materials on the tank floor. This waste has now leaked into the

  20. Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With Continuum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio...

  1. Fifteenth international conference on X-ray and inner-shell processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document is composed of Abstracts from invited papers presented at X-90, the fifteenth annual international conference on x-ray and Inner-Shell Processes. (FSD)

  2. Quantitative EDS Analysis of Nanometer-Scale Core/Shell Pd/Rh...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nanometer-Scale CoreShell PdRh Structures. Authors: Sugar, Joshua Daniel ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel 1 ; Robinson, David ; Cappillino, Patrick + Show Author Affiliations (Sandia...

  3. Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal quantum dots toward tuned optical properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling ...

  4. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BX-112

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelman, W.D.

    1996-09-18

    This characterization report summarizes information on the historical uses, currant status, and sampling and analysis results of waste stored in single-shell tank 241-BX-112.

  5. Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinman, D.A.

    1980-05-30

    Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

  6. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes. Authors: Hollingsworth,

  7. Platinum-Coated Non-Noble Metal-Noble Metal Core-Shell Electrocatalyst...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of platinum. The nanoparticles have a core-shell structure and include palladium, gold, and their alloys with other transition metals. The platinum-coated composite can be...

  8. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition Citation Details ... Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; ...

  9. Experimental evidence for a shell structure of the proton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levintov, I.I.

    1983-11-01

    Spin effects in nucleon-nucleon scattering are explained by the interaction of Fock configurations of the type (qqQQ-barq), having the structure of p shells. The number of nucleon p shells is N = n/sub f/ -1 (n/sub f/ is the number of flavors). The strong spin effect in p/sub arrow-up/p/sub arrow-up/ scattering for p/sup 2//sub perpendicular/ > or approx. =4 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ (the Argonne effect) is explained by the presence of the configuration (qqcc-barq) in the proton. An analogous effect in the region p/sup 2//sub perpendicular/ > or approx. =100 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, due to the configuration (qqbb-barq), is predicted. In scattering of unpolarized hadrons by a polarized proton target for constant theta/sub cms/ and variation of s (i.e., p/sup 2//sub perpendicular/), it is predicted that there are structures in the asymmetry in the region p/sup 2//sub perpendicular/ approx.4m/sup 2//sub Q/ (Q = c, b, ...).

  10. Java Expert System Shell Version 6.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-06-18

    Java Expert Shell System - Jess - is a rule engine and scripting environment written entirely in Sun's Java language, Jess was orginially inspired by the CLIPS expert system shell, but has grown int a complete, distinct JAVA-influenced environment of its own. Using Jess, you can build Java applets and applications that have the capacity to "reason" using knowledge you supply in the form of declarative rules. Jess is surprisingly fast, and for some problemsmore » is faster than CLIPS, in that many Jess scripts are valid CLIPS scripts and vice-versa. Like CLIPS, Jess uses the Rete algorithm to process rules, a very efficient mechanism for solving the difficult many-to-many matching problem. Jess adds many features to CLIPS, including backwards chaining and the ability to manipulate and directly reason about Java objects. Jess is also a powerful Java scripting environment, from which you can create Java objects and call Java methods without compiling any Java Code.« less

  11. Solid State Vehicular Generators and HVAC Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  12. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  13. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  14. LDV HVAC Model Development and Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  15. Florida Public Utilities- Residential HVAC Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida Public Utilities offers rebates to electric residential customers who improve the efficiency of homes. Central air conditioners and heat pumps which meet program requirements are eligible...

  16. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  17. Enforcement Policy Statement: Commercial HVAC Equipment Issued...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... that conditions the equipment's supply air using energy transferred from an external source ... SteamHydronic Heat Options. A heat exchanger located inside the equipment that ...

  18. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  19. Advanced HVAC Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Right: CFD model of cubicle. Left: Radiant cubicle at Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur. Right: CFD model of cubicle. Left: Environmental chamber to evaluate ...

  20. Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

  1. CBERD: Advanced HVAC Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute - Troy, NY -- Centre for ... The U.S.-India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and ... Related Publications PDF icon 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

  2. Coreshell TiO? microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun

    2013-05-01

    Inorganic hollow coreshell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare corevoidshell anatase TiO? nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO? nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of coreshellshell anatase TiO? nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic corevoidshell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare unique corevoidshell anatase TiO? nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage. Highlights: TiO? mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. It is corevoidshell structure and the thickness of shell is estimated to 80 nm. It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage.

  3. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  4. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, R.R.; Sasaki, K.; Naohara, H.; Cai, Y.; Choi, Y.M.; Liu, P.; Vukmirovic, M.B.; Wang, J.X.

    2010-11-08

    More than skin deep: Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200?000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  5. Core-Protected Platinum Monolayer Shell High-Stability Electrocatalysts for Fuel-Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K Sasaki; H Naohara; Y Cai; Y Choi; P Liu; M Vukmirovic; J Wang; R Adzic

    2011-12-31

    Platinum monolayers can act as shells for palladium nanoparticles to lead to electrocatalysts with high activities and an ultralow platinum content, but high platinum utilization. The stability derives from the core protecting the shell from dissolution. In fuel-cell tests, no loss of platinum was observed in 200,000 potential cycles, whereas loss of palladium was significant.

  6. Mechanical Properties of Thin GDP Shells Used as Cryogenic Direct Drive Targets at OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikroo, A.; Czechowicz, D.G.; Chen, K.C.; Dicken, M.; Morris, C.; Andrews, R.; Greenwood, A.; Castillo, E.

    2004-03-15

    Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, we present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters ('standard GDP') using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters ('strong GDP') of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.

  7. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THIN GDP SHELLS USED AS CRYOGENIC DIRECT DRIVE TARGETS AT OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; CHEN,K.C; DICKEN,M; MORRIS,C; ANDREWS,R; GREENWOOD,A.L; CASTILLO,E

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 Thin glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells are currently used as the targets for cryogenic direct drive laser fusion experiments. These shells need to be filled with nearly 1000 atm of D{sub 2} and cooled to cryogenic temperatures without failing due to buckling and bursting pressures they experience in this process. Therefore, the mechanical and permeation properties of these shells are of utmost importance in successful and rapid filling with D{sub 2}. In this paper, they present an overview of buckle and burst pressures of several different types of GDP shells. These include those made using traditional GDP deposition parameters (standard GDP) using a high deposition pressure and using modified parameters (strong GDP) of low deposition pressure that leads to more robust shells.

  8. Particle decay studies at or near closed shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    We summarize briefly two sets of investigations. In the first one ..cap alpha..-decay rates of neutron-deficient even-even Pb isotopes were studied by using the UNISOR separator on-line at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. These data indicate that midway between N = 82 and N = 126, the Z = 82 shell gap may not exist. The second investigation, carried out at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron and SuperHILAC, has dealt with the delayed-proton decays of the N = 81 precursors /sup 147/Dy, /sup 149/Er, and /sup 151/Yb. All three proton spectra have sharp peaks and thus provide evidence for greatly reduced level densities in the N = 82 proton emitting nuclei /sup 147/Tb, /sup 149/Ho, and /sup 151/Tm. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Development of simulation tools for virus shell assembly. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berger, Bonnie

    2001-01-05

    Prof. Berger's major areas of research have been in applying computational and mathematical techniques to problems in biology, and more specifically to problems in protein folding and genomics. Significant progress has been made in the following areas relating to virus shell assembly: development has been progressing on a second-generation self-assembly simulator which provides a more versatile and physically realistic model of assembly; simulations are being developed and applied to a variety of problems in virus assembly; and collaborative efforts have continued with experimental biologists to verify and inspire the local rules theory and the simulator. The group has also worked on applications of the techniques developed here to other self-assembling structures in the material and biological sciences. Some of this work has been conducted in conjunction with Dr. Sorin Istrail when he was at Sandia National Labs.

  10. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-07-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  11. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell ...

  12. Shell stability and conditions analyzed using a new method of extracting shell areal density maps from spectrally resolved images of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johns, H. M.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T.; Mayes, D. C.; Tommasini, R.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Delettrez, J. A.

    2016-01-25

    In warm target direct-drive ICF implosion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility, plastic microballoons doped with a titanium tracer layer in the shell and filled with deuterium gas were imploded using a low-adiabat shaped laser pulse. Continuum radiation emitted in the core is transmitted through the tracer layer and the resulting spectrum recorded with a gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imager (MMI). Titanium K-shell line absorption spectra observed in the data are due to transitions in L-shell titanium ions driven by the backlighting continuum. The MMI data consist of an array of spectrally resolved images of the implosion. These 2-D space-resolvedmore » titanium spectral features constrain the plasma conditions and areal density of the titanium doped region of the shell. The MMI data were processed to obtain narrow-band images and space resolved spectra of titanium spectral features. Shell areal density maps, ρL(x,y), extracted using a new method using both narrow-band images and space resolved spectra are confirmed to be consistent within uncertainties. We report plasma conditions in the titanium-doped region of electron temperature (Te) = 400±28eV, electron number density (Ne) = 8.5x1024±2.5x1024 cm-3, and average areal density <ρR> = 86±7mg/cm2. Fourier analysis of areal density maps reveals shell modulations caused by hydrodynamic instability growth near the fuel-shell interface in the deceleration phase. We observe significant structure in modes l = 2-9, dominated by l = 2. We extract a target breakup fraction of 7.1±1.5% from our Fourier analysis. A new method for estimating mix width is evaluated against existing literature and our target breakup fraction. We estimate a mix width of 10.5±1μm.« less

  13. Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Suguru [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, Masatoshi [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan and Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

  14. Facile approach to prepare hollow coreshell NiO microspherers for supercapacitor electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Dandan; Xu, Pengcheng; Jing, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jun; Song, Dalei; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Milin

    2013-07-15

    A facile lamellar template method (see image) has been developed for the preparation of uniform hollow coreshell structure NiO (HCSNiO) with a nanoarchitectured wall structure. The prepared NiO was found to be highly crystalline in uniform microstructures with high specific surface area and pore volume. The results indicated that ethanol interacted with trisodium citrate played an important role for the formation of hollow coreshell spheres. On the basis of the analysis of the composition and the morphology, a possible formation mechanism was investigated. NiO microspheres with hollow coreshell showed excellent capacitive properties. The exceptional cyclic, structural and electrochemical stability with ?95% coulombic efficiency, and very low ESR value from impedance measurements promised good utility value of hollow coreshell NiO material in fabricating a wide range of high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors. - The hollow coreshell NiO was prepared with a facile lamellar template method. The prepared NiO show higher capacitance, lower ion diffusion resistance and better electroactive surface utilization for Faradaic reactions. - Highlights: Formation of hollow coreshell NiO via a novel and facile precipitation route. Exhibited uniform feature sizes and high surface area of hollow coreshell NiO. Synthesized NiO has high specific capacitance ( 448 F g{sup 1}) and very low ESR value. Increased 20% of long life cycles capability after 500 chargedischarge cycles.

  15. Carbon-Supported IrNi Core-Shell Nanoparticles: Synthesis Characterization and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K Sasaki; K Kuttiyiel; L Barrio; D Su; A Frenkel; N Marinkovic; D Mahajan; R Adzic

    2011-12-31

    We synthesized carbon-supported IrNi core-shell nanoparticles by chemical reduction and subsequent thermal annealing in H{sub 2}, and verified the formation of Ir shells on IrNi solid solution alloy cores by various experimental methods. The EXAFS analysis is consistent with the model wherein the IrNi nanoparticles are composed of two-layer Ir shells and IrNi alloy cores. In situ XAS revealed that the Ir shells completely protect Ni atoms in the cores from oxidation or dissolution in an acid electrolyte under elevated potentials. The formation of Ir shell during annealing due to thermal segregation is monitored by time-resolved synchrotron XRD measurements, coupled with Rietveld refinement analyses. The H{sub 2} oxidation activity of the IrNi nanoparticles was found to be higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. This is predominantly due to Ni-core-induced Ir shell contraction that makes the surface less reactive for IrOH formation, and the resulting more metallic Ir surface becomes more active for H{sub 2} oxidation. This new class of core-shell nanoparticles appears promising for application as hydrogen anode fuel cell electrocatalysts.

  16. Hanford Begins New Campaign to Remove Excess Water from Double-Shell Tanks

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Begins New Campaign to Remove Excess Water from Double-Shell Tanks Hanford Begins New Campaign to Remove Excess Water from Double-Shell Tanks September 30, 2014 - 12:00pm Addthis The 242-A Evaporator facility. The 242-A Evaporator facility. RICHLAND, Wash. - EM's Office of River Protection has begun operating its evaporator facility to remove about 800,000 gallons of excess water from Hanford's double-shell tanks of high-level radioactive and chemical waste. "In

  17. Performance requirements for the double-shell tank system: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1998-03-05

    This document establishes performance requirements for the double-shell tank system. These requirements, in turn, will be incorporated in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System (Grenard and Claghorn 1998). This version of the document establishes requirements that are applicable to the first phase (Phase 1) of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission described in the TWRS Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). It does not specify requirements for either the Phase 2 mission or the double-shell tank system closure period.

  18. The Impact of Ceramic Shell Strength on Hot Tearing during Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norouzi, Saeid [MAPNA GROUP Co (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farhangi, Hassan [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17

    The effect of ceramic shell strength on hot tearing susceptibility during solidification was inspected practicing investment casting of the cobalt-base superalloy samples with the same casting conditions, but different ceramic shell systems. Results showed that the lower the ceramic shell strength upon using polymer additives, the lower the hindered contraction rate, and the lower the hindered contraction rate, the smaller the hot tearing tendency. Optical microscopy and electron microscopy scanning revealed that the hot tear propagated along the last solidified interdendritic phase, and that the hot tear surface had two major modes: (1) the ductile region in the outer layer; and (2) the inner region of liquid embrittlement.

  19. Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Attempts to Produce D2-Gas-Filled Be Shells We have attempted to fabricate some 0.5 mm diameter D{sub 2}-gas-filled Be shells by coating gas-filled PVA-coated GDP mandrels with Cu-doped Be. We find that during the coating all (or most) of the gas leaks out. This is likely due to either small cracks or holes in the coating that are formed at the earliest points and are maintained during the

  20. Roles of Shell Effects in Fusion Process for Synthesis of Superheavy Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aritomo, Y.

    2007-05-22

    The effects of shell correction energy for fusion process are investigated on the basis of the fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In the superheavy mass region, shell correction energy plays a very important role and enhances the fusion probability when the colliding partner has a strong shell structure. By analyzing the trajectory in three-dimensional coordinate space with the Langevin equation, we reveal the mechanism of the enhancement of the fusion probability caused by 'cold fusion valleys' and the temporary pocket which appears in fusion process.

  1. Hamiltonian treatment of collapsing thin shells in Lanczos-Lovelock theories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crisostomo, Juan; Campo, Sergio del; Saavedra, Joel

    2004-09-15

    The Hamiltonian treatment for the collapse of thin shells for a family of Lanczos-Lovelock theories is studied. This formalism allows us to carry out a concise analysis of these theories. It is found that the black holes solution can be created by collapsing a thin shell. Naked singularities cannot be formed by this mechanism. Among the different Lanczos-Lovelock theories, the Chern-Simons theory corresponds to an exceptional case, because naked singularities can emerge from the collapse of a thin shell. This kind of theory does not possess a gravitational self-interaction analogous to the Newtonian case.

  2. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17

    This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

  3. OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

    2012-01-25

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and other surface conditions that may indicate signs of structural distress. The condition of the concrete and rebar of the Hanford SSTs is currently being tested and planned for additional activities in the near future. Concrete and rebar removed from the dome of a 65-year-old tank is being tested for mechanics properties and condition. Results indicated stronger than designed concrete with additional Petrographic examination and rebar testing ongoing. Material properties determined from previous efforts combined with current testing and construction document review will help to generate a database that will provide continuing indication of Hanford SST structural integrity.

  4. Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation study of 3-5 keV x-ray conversion efficiency from Ar K-shell vs. Ag L-shell targets on the National Ignition Facility laser Tailored, high-flux, multi-keV x-ray sources are desirable for

  5. Tunable synthesis of TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowire arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Jie; Gong, Yingpeng; Hong, Hanlie

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanowires with tunable SrO shell layer are easily fabricated. The core/shell structure can enhance the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} nanowires and restrict the recombination of the electrons/holes. Display Omitted Highlights: ? A facile method to fabricate TiO{sub 2}/SrO core-shell nanowire array is reported. ? The thickness of SrO shell layer can be tunable by adjusting the dipping time. ? TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowires shows enhanced photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: We report a simple method to fabricate well-aligned TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowire arrays. The core/shell structure is confirmed to have crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanowires core and amorphous SrO shell layer. The shell is composed of SrO with tunable thickness. Photocatalytic activity measurement shows that TiO{sub 2}/SrO core/shell nanowire arrays outperform uncovered TiO{sub 2} nanowires. Such core/shell nanowire arrays have potential applications for photovoltaic devices and as high performance photocatalyst.

  6. Octahedral core–shell cuprous oxide/carbon with enhanced electrochemical activity and stability as anode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Chen, Zhewei; Wang, Jianming

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Core–shell octahedral Cu{sub 2}O/C is prepared by a one-step method. • Carbon shell is amorphous and uniformly decorated at the Cu{sub 2}O octahedral core. • Core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C exhibits markedly enhanced capability and reversibility. • Carbon shell provides fast ion/electron transfer channel. • Core–shell structure is stable during cycling. - Abstract: Core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C octahedrons are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with the help of carbonization of glucose, which reduces Cu(II) to Cu(I) at low temperature and further forms carbon shell coating at high temperature. SEM and TEM images indicate that the carbon shell is amorphous with thickness of ∼20 nm wrapping the Cu{sub 2}O octahedral core perfectly. As anode of lithium ion batteries, the core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C composite exhibits high and stable columbic efficiency (98%) as well as a reversible capacity of 400 mAh g{sup −1} after 80 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the novel core–shell structure, in which the carbon shell reduces the electrode polarization and promotes the charge transfer at active material/electrolyte interface, and also acts as a stabilizer to keep the octahedral structure integrity during discharge–charge processes.

  7. Restoration of Secondary Containment in Double Shell Tank (DST) Pits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHEN, E.J.

    2000-10-05

    Cracks found in many of the double-shell tank (DST) pump and valve pits bring into question the ability of the pits to provide secondary containment and remain in compliance with State and Federal regulations. This study was commissioned to identify viable options for maintain/restoring secondary containment capability in these pits. The basis for this study is the decision analysis process which identifies the requirements to be met and the desired goals (decision criteria) that each option will be weighed against. A facilitated workshop was convened with individuals knowledgeable of Tank Farms Operations, engineering practices, and safety/environmental requirements. The outcome of this workshop was the validation or identification of the critical requirements, definition of the current problem, identification and weighting of the desired goals, baselining of the current repair methods, and identification of potential alternate solutions. The workshop was followed up with further investigations into the potential solutions that were identified in the workshop and through other efforts. These solutions are identified in the body of this report. Each of the potential solutions were screened against the list of requirements and only those meeting the requirements were considered viable options. To expand the field of viable options, hybrid concepts that combine the strongest features of different individual approaches were also examined. Several were identified. The decision analysis process then ranked each of the viable options against the weighted decision criteria, which resulted in a recommended solution. The recommended approach is based upon installing a sprayed on coating system.

  8. Suppression of auger recombination in ""giant"" core/shell nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia Santamaria, Florencio; Vela, Javier; Schaller, Richard D; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Klimov, Victor I; Chen, Yongfen

    2009-01-01

    Many potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals are hindered by nonradiative Auger recombination wherein the electron-hole (exciton) recombination energy is transferred to a third charge carrier. This process severely limits the lifetime and bandwidth of optical gain, leads to large nonradiative losses in light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, and is believed to be responsible for intermittency ('blinking') of emission from single nanocrystals. The development of nanostructures in which Auger recombination is suppressed has been a longstanding goal in colloidal nanocrystal research. Here, we demonstrate that such suppression is possible using so-called 'giant' nanocrystals that consist of a small CdSe core and a thick CdS shell. These nanostructures exhibit a very long biexciton lifetime ({approx}10 ns) that is likely dominated by radiative decay instead of non-radiative Auger recombination. As a result of suppressed Auger recombination, even high-order multiexcitons exhibit high emission efficiencies, which allows us to demonstrate optical amplification with an extraordinarily large bandwidth (>500 me V) and record low excitation thresholds.

  9. Evaluation of potential releases from single-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1992-03-01

    Potential toxic chemical concentrations in the air near vents of single-shell tanks have been evaluated using three scenarios. The first scenario duplicates the conditions existing the morning of January 28, 1992, when several workers reported exposure to toxic or irritating gases near the BX and BY tank farms in the 200-East Area at Hanford. The results of this scenario indicate that it is unlikely that a tank in either tank farm could have been the source of the gases associated with the incident. In the other two scenarios, maximum potential concentrations under worst-cast and bounding conditions were examined. The results of theses scenario show that air concentrations of all toxic gases reported to be in the tanks fall below their time-weighted average, threshold limiting values within 5 m of tank vents under worst-case conditions involving a restricted air flow to the tanks. When unrestricted air flow to the tanks and worst-case conditions are assumed, the maximum gas concentrations fall below time-weighted average, threshold limiting values within 15 m of vents.

  10. Recent Developments in No-Core Shell-Model Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navratil, P; Quaglioni, S; Stetcu, I; Barrett, B R

    2009-03-20

    We present an overview of recent results and developments of the no-core shell model (NCSM), an ab initio approach to the nuclear many-body problem for light nuclei. In this aproach, we start from realistic two-nucleon or two- plus three-nucleon interactions. Many-body calculations are performed using a finite harmonic-oscillator (HO) basis. To facilitate convergence for realistic inter-nucleon interactions that generate strong short-range correlations, we derive effective interactions by unitary transformations that are tailored to the HO basis truncation. For soft realistic interactions this might not be necessary. If that is the case, the NCSM calculations are variational. In either case, the ab initio NCSM preserves translational invariance of the nuclear many-body problem. In this review, we, in particular, highlight results obtained with the chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions. We discuss efforts to extend the applicability of the NCSM to heavier nuclei and larger model spaces using importance-truncation schemes and/or use of effective interactions with a core. We outline an extension of the ab initio NCSM to the description of nuclear reactions by the resonating group method technique. A future direction of the approach, the ab initio NCSM with continuum, which will provide a complete description of nuclei as open systems with coupling of bound and continuum states is given in the concluding part of the review.

  11. A pathway for the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Chen; Pennycook, Stephen J; Lupini, Andrew R

    2015-10-12

    In this study, the aging of both Pt-Pd nanoparticles and core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles has been reported to result in alloying of Pt with Pd. In comparison to monometallic Pt catalysts, the growth of Pd-Pt bimetallics is slower; however, the mechanism of growth of particles and the mechanism by which Pd improves the hydrothermal durability of bimetallic Pd-Pt particles remains uncertain. In our work on hydrothermal aging of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles, synthesized by solution methods, with varying Pd:Pt ratio of 1:4, 1:1, and 4:1, we compare the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles and find that particles grow by migrating and joining together. The unique feature of the observed growth is that Pd shells from both particles open up and join, allowing the cores to merge. At high temperatures, alloying occurs in good agreement with reports by other workers.

  12. Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K...

  13. Application to Export Electric Energy OE Doc No. EA-339-A Shell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    78, No. 45 - March 7, 2013 Application to Export Electric Energy OE Doc No. EA-339-A Shell Energy North America (US), L.P.: Federal Register Notice, Volume 78, No. 45 - March 7,...

  14. Efficiently recyclable magnetic core-shell photocatalyst for photocatalytic oxidation of chlorophenol in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Oh, Seung-Lim; Jung, Jong-Hyung; Jung, Jin-Seung

    2012-04-01

    Multifunctional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell submicron particles were fabricated by a simple surface modification process that induces the magnetic submicron particles to be coated with a TiO{sub 2} shell. As characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, (FESEM), the as-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} particles exhibit a narrow size distribution with a typical size of 248 {+-} 19 nm and 8 nm in shell thickness. Magnetic measurement indicates that the as-synthesized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} core-shell particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. Photocatalytic experiment is demonstrated by utilizing the oxidation reaction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) with the photofunctional magnetic nanoparticles.

  15. Retrieval of the Tenth Single-Shell Tank Complete at Hanford...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of radioactive and chemical waste from the third single-shell tank (SST) this year. ... this year, as crews began a two-step chemical soak process to dissolve the hardened ...

  16. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Antony, Jiji; Nutting, Joseph; Baer, Donald R.; Meyer, Daniel; Sharma, Amit; Qiang, You

    2006-01-01

    Nmore » anoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7 ∘ C . Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.« less

  17. Department of Energy, Shell Canada to Collaborate on CO2 Storage Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and Shell Canada announced today they intend to collaborate in field tests to validate advanced monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) technologies for underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2).

  18. Coiled tubing deployed ESP works well for Shell in North Sea field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, P.; Stewart, D.

    1996-06-01

    What is believed to be the world`s first offshore coiled tubing deployed ESP system was installed by Centrilift, a Division of Baker Hughes Ltd., on Shell Expro`s Auk field Alpha platform in March 1995. After one year, the system is working well and is now viewed as a major step forward in alternative deployment methods for ESPs. Basic features of the system and project background are overviewed here. Shell U.K. Exploration and Production (Expro) operates in the UK Sector of the North Sea on behalf of Shell and Esso. Centrilift worked closely with Shell on this high-profile project and is active on several others, all aimed at reducing the operator`s cost for installing ESPs by using alternative deployment methods.

  19. Some remarks on shell element analysis with DYNA3D and NIKE3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.; Maker, B.N.; Spelce, T.E.

    1992-03-24

    There has been some confusion in the user community recently regarding the various shell element formulations now available in DYNA3D (Whirley and Hadlquist, 1991) and NIKE3D (Maker, Ferencz, and Hallquist, 1991). In particular, questions have been raised about the behavior of these elements under large strain, and the display of meaningful results from such problems using TAURUS (Spelce and Hallquist, 1991). This brief report is intended to aid the DYNA/NIKE user community by elaborating on the formulation of the DYNA3D/NIKE3D shell elements and on the display of shell data using TAURUS. In the following discussion no attempt is made to give a complete description of the theoretical development or implementation of any of the elements. Readers interested in a more complete discussion of the shell elements in DYNA3D and NIKE3D are directed to the published papers cited in the code User Manuals.

  20. CONSTRUCTION METHOD STUDY FOR INSTALLATION OF A LARGE RISER IN A SINGLE-SHELL TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADKISSON DA

    2010-08-04

    This study evaluates and identifies a construction method for cutting a hole in a single-shell tank dome. This study also identifies and evaluates vendors for performing the cut.

  1. Evaporator Campaigns Create 300,000 Gallons of Double-Shell Tank Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Hanford’s 242-A Evaporator recently conducted back-to-back operating campaigns, creating approximately 300,000 gallons of double-shell tank waste storage space.

  2. CONSTRUCTION METHOD STUDY FOR INSTALLATION OF A LARGE RISER IN A SINGLE SHELL TANK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PICKETT W; ADKISSON DA

    2009-07-22

    This study evaluates and identifies a construction method for cutting a hole in a single-shell tank dome. This study also identifies and evaluates vendors for performing the cut.

  3. Measurement of an Explosively Driven Hemispherical Shell Using 96 Points of Optical Velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danielson, J. R.; Daykin, E P; Diaz, A. B.; Doty, D. L.; Frogget, B. C.; Furlanetto, M. R.; Gallegos, C. H.; Gibo, M; Garza, A; Holtkamp, D B; Hutchins, M S; Perez, C; Perez, C; Pena, M; Romero, V T; Shinas, M A; Teel, M G; Tabaka, L J

    2014-04-01

    We report the measurement of the surface motion of a hemispherical copper shell driven by high explosives. This measurement was made using three 32-channel multiplexed photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) systems, in combination with a novel compound optical probe. Clearly visible are detailed features of the motion of the shell over time, enhanced by spatial correlation. Significant non-normal motion is apparent, and challenges in measuring such a geometry are discussed.

  4. Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Continuum (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With Continuum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electric Dipole Transitions Within The Ab initio No-Core Shell Model With Continuum Authors: Quaglioni, S ; Baroni, S ; Navratil, P Publication Date: 2012-10-01 OSTI Identifier: 1053666 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR-588973 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org:

  5. Fabrication of two-dimensional Au at FePt core-shell nanoparticle arrays by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    photochemical metal deposition (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Fabrication of two-dimensional Au at FePt core-shell nanoparticle arrays by photochemical metal deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fabrication of two-dimensional Au at FePt core-shell nanoparticle arrays by photochemical metal deposition In this report, we experimentally demonstrate that single platinum nanoparticles exhibit the necessary catalytic activity

  6. Ab Initio Coupled-Cluster Effective Interactions for the Shell Model:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application to Neutron-Rich Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Coupled-Cluster Effective Interactions for the Shell Model: Application to Neutron-Rich Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ab Initio Coupled-Cluster Effective Interactions for the Shell Model: Application to Neutron-Rich Oxygen and Carbon Isotopes Authors: Jansen, G. R. ; Engel, J. ; Hagen, G. ; Navratil, P. ; Signoracci, A. Publication Date: 2014-10-03 OSTI

  7. Nonperturbative Shell-Model Interactions from the In-Medium Similarity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renormalization Group (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nonperturbative Shell-Model Interactions from the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonperturbative Shell-Model Interactions from the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group Authors: Bogner, S. K. ; Hergert, H. ; Holt, J. D. ; Schwenk, A. ; Binder, S. ; Calci, A. ; Langhammer, J. ; Roth, R. Publication Date: 2014-10-03 OSTI Identifier: 1181632 Grant/Contract Number: SC0008533;

  8. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing

  9. Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    quantum dots toward tuned optical properties (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal quantum dots toward tuned optical properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlling the electronic structure in II-VI core-shell nanocrystal quantum dots toward tuned optical properties Authors: Ghosh, Yagnaseni [1] ; Mangum, Benjamin D [1] ; Park, Young - Shin [1] ; Brovelli, Sergio [1] ; Casson, Joanna L [1] ; Htoon,

  10. Unique Challenges Accompany Thick-Shell CdSe/nCdS (n > 10) Nanocrystal Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y; Marchuk, K; Abraham, R; Sampat, S; Abraham, R.; Fang, N; Malko, AV; Vela, J

    2011-12-23

    Thick-shell CdSe/nCdS (n {ge} 10) nanocrystals were recently reported that show remarkably suppressed fluorescence intermittency or 'blinking' at the single-particle level as well as slow rates of Auger decay. Unfortunately, whereas CdSe/nCdS nanocrystal synthesis is well-developed up to n {le} 6 CdS monolayers (MLs), reproducible syntheses for n {ge} 10 MLs are less understood. Known procedures sometimes result in homogeneous CdS nucleation instead of heterogeneous, epitaxial CdS nucleation on CdSe, leading to broad and multimodal particle size distributions. Critically, obtained core/shell sizes are often below those desired. This article describes synthetic conditions specific to thick-shell growth (n {ge} 10 and n {ge} 20 MLs) on both small (sub2 nm) and large (>4.5 nm) CdSe cores. We find added secondary amine and low concentration of CdSe cores and molecular precursors give desired core/shell sizes. Amine-induced, partial etching of CdSe cores results in apparent shell-thicknesses slightly beyond those desired, especially for very-thick shells (n {ge} 20 MLs). Thermal ripening and fast precursor injection lead to undesired homogeneous CdS nucleation and incomplete shell growth. Core/shells derived from small CdSe (1.9 nm) have longer PL lifetimes and more pronounced blinking at single-particle level compared with those derived from large CdSe (4.7 nm). We expect our new synthetic approach will lead to a larger throughput of these materials, increasing their availability for fundamental studies and applications.

  11. Shell model nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms contributing to double beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, Mihai

    2013-12-30

    Recent progress in the shell model approach to the nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay process are presented. This includes nuclear matrix elements for competing mechanisms to neutrionless double beta decay, a comparison between closure and non-closure approximation for {sup 48}Ca, and an updated shell model analysis of nuclear matrix elements for the double beta decay of {sup 136}Xe.

  12. A Yolk-Shell Design for Stabilized and Scalable Li-Ion Battery Alloy Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Nian; Wu, Hui; Mcdowell, Matthew T.; Yao, Yan; Wang, Chong M.; Cui, Yi

    2012-05-02

    Silicon is regarded as one of the most promising anode materials for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For use in practical applications, a Si electrode must have high capacity, long cycle life, high efficiency, and the fabrication must be industrially scalable. Here, we design and fabricate a yolk-shell structure to meet all these needs. The fabrication is carried out without special equipment and mostly at room temperature. Commercially available Si nanoparticles are completely sealed inside conformal, thin, self-supporting carbon shells, with rationally designed void space in between the particles and the shell. The well-defined void space allows the Si particles to expand freely without breaking the outer carbon shell, therefore stabilizing the solid-electrolyte interphase on the shell surface. High capacity (?2800 mAh/g at C/10), long cycle life (1000 cycles with 74% capacity retention), and high Coulombic efficiency (99.84%) have been realized in this yolk-shell structured Si electrode.

  13. Energetics of the formation of Cu-Ag core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandross, Michael

    2014-10-06

    Our work presents molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations aimed at developing an understanding of the formation of core–shell Cu-Ag nanoparticles. The effects of surface and interfacial energies were considered and used to form a phenomenological model that calculates the energy gained upon the formation of a core–shell structure from two previously distinct, non-interacting nanoparticles. In most cases, the core–shell structure was found to be energetically favored. Specifically, the difference in energy as a function of the radii of the individual Cu and Ag particles was examined, with the assumption that a core–shell structure forms. In general, it was found that the energetic gain from forming such a structure increased with increasing size of the initial Ag particle. This result was interpreted as a result of the reduction in surface energy. Moreover, for two separate particles, both Cu and Ag contribute to the surface energy; however, for a core–shell structure, the only contribution to the surface energy is from the Ag shell and the Cu contribution is changed to a Cu–Ag interfacial energy, which is always smaller.

  14. Synthesis of zirconium tungstate-zirconia core-shell composite particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khazeni, Nasser; Mavis, Bora; Guenduez, Guengoer; Colak, Uner

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}-ZrO{sub 2} core-shell particles to offer solutions for sintering problems. {yields} Core synthesis by a precursor based on tungstic acid and zirconium acetate. {yields} Shell phase by urea hydrolysis in the presence of zirconium ions. {yields} [Urea]/[ZrOCl{sub 2}] ratio controls the rate of shell precursor precipitation. -- Abstract: In this work, ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}-ZrO{sub 2} core-shell composite particles were synthesized. ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} that was used in the core is a material with negative coefficient of thermal expansion, and it was synthesized from a high-pH precursor based on use of tungstic acid and zirconium acetate. Shell layer was composed of ZrO{sub 2} nanocrystallites and precipitated from an aqueous solution by urea hydrolysis. While volume of the shell was effectively controlled by the initial zirconium ion concentration in the solutions, the rate of precipitation was a function of the ratio of initial concentrations of urea to zirconium ions. It is hypothesized that isolation of the ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} within a layer of ZrO{sub 2}, will be a key element in solving problems associated with reactivity of ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} towards other components in sintering of ceramic-ceramic composites with tuned or zero thermal expansion coefficient.

  15. Role of angular momentum and cosmic censorship in (2+1)-dimensional rotating shell collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Robert B.; Oh, John J.; Park, Mu-In

    2009-03-15

    We study the gravitational collapse problem of rotating shells in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with and without a cosmological constant. Taking the exterior and interior metrics to be those of stationary metrics with asymptotically constant curvature, we solve the equations of motion for the shells from the Darmois-Israel junction conditions in the corotating frame. We study various collapse scenarios with arbitrary angular momentum for a variety of geometric configurations, including anti-de Sitter, de Sitter, and flat spaces. We find that the collapsing shells can form a BTZ black hole, a three-dimensional Kerr-dS spacetime, and an horizonless geometry of point masses under certain initial conditions. For pressureless dust shells, the curvature singularity is not formed due to the angular momentum barrier near the origin. However when the shell pressure is nonvanishing, we find that for all types of shells with polytropic-type equations of state (including the perfect fluid and the generalized Chaplygin gas), collapse to a naked singularity is possible under generic initial conditions. We conclude that in three dimensions angular momentum does not in general guard against violation of cosmic censorship.

  16. Platinum-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-04-14

    Core-shell particles encapsulated by a thin film of a catalytically active metal are described. The particles are preferably nanoparticles comprising a non-noble core with a noble metal shell which preferably do not include Pt. The non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles are encapsulated by a catalytically active metal which is preferably Pt. The core-shell nanoparticles are preferably formed by prolonged elevated-temperature annealing of nanoparticle alloys in an inert environment. This causes the noble metal component to surface segregate and form an atomically thin shell. The Pt overlayer is formed by a process involving the underpotential deposition of a monolayer of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a Pt salt. A thin Pt layer forms via the galvanic displacement of non-noble surface atoms by more noble Pt atoms in the salt. The overall process is a robust and cost-efficient method for forming Pt-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles.

  17. Energetics of the formation of Cu-Ag core–shell nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chandross, Michael

    2014-10-06

    Our work presents molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations aimed at developing an understanding of the formation of core–shell Cu-Ag nanoparticles. The effects of surface and interfacial energies were considered and used to form a phenomenological model that calculates the energy gained upon the formation of a core–shell structure from two previously distinct, non-interacting nanoparticles. In most cases, the core–shell structure was found to be energetically favored. Specifically, the difference in energy as a function of the radii of the individual Cu and Ag particles was examined, with the assumption that a core–shell structure forms. In general, it was foundmore » that the energetic gain from forming such a structure increased with increasing size of the initial Ag particle. This result was interpreted as a result of the reduction in surface energy. Moreover, for two separate particles, both Cu and Ag contribute to the surface energy; however, for a core–shell structure, the only contribution to the surface energy is from the Ag shell and the Cu contribution is changed to a Cu–Ag interfacial energy, which is always smaller.« less

  18. Energetics of the formation of CuAg coreshell nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chandross, Michael

    2014-10-06

    Our work presents molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations aimed at developing an understanding of the formation of coreshell CuAg nanoparticles. The effects of surface and interfacial energies were considered and used to form a phenomenological model that calculates the energy gained upon the formation of a coreshell structure from two previously distinct, non-interacting nanoparticles. In most cases, the coreshell structure was found to be energetically favored. Specifically, the difference in energy as a function of the radii of the individual Cu and Ag particles was examined, with the assumption that a coreshell structure forms. In general, it was foundmorethat the energetic gain from forming such a structure increased with increasing size of the initial Ag particle. This result was interpreted as a result of the reduction in surface energy. Moreover, for two separate particles, both Cu and Ag contribute to the surface energy; however, for a coreshell structure, the only contribution to the surface energy is from the Ag shell and the Cu contribution is changed to a CuAg interfacial energy, which is always smaller.less

  19. Dual shell pressure balanced reactor vessel. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertus, R.J.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research (OER) has previously provided support for the development of several chemical processes, including supercritical water oxidation, liquefaction, and aqueous hazardous waste destruction, where chemical and phase transformations are conducted at high pressure and temperature. These and many other commercial processes require a pressure vessel capable of operating in a corrosive environment where safety and economy are important requirements. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) engineers have recently developed and patented (U.S. patent 5,167,930 December 1, 1992) a concept for a novel Dual Shell Pressure Balanced Vessel (DSPBV) which could solve a number of these problems. The technology could be immediately useful in continuing commercialization of an R&D 100 award-winning technology, Sludge-to-oil Reactor System (STORS), originally developed through funding by OER. Innotek Corporation is a small business that would be one logical end-user of the DSPBV reactor technology. Innotek is working with several major U.S. engineering firms to evaluate the potential of this technology in the disposal of wastes from sewage treatment plants. PNL entered into a CRADA with Innotek to build a bench-scale demonstration reactor and test the system to advance the economic feasibility of a variety of high pressure chemical processes. Hydrothermal processing of corrosive substances on a large scale can now be made significantly safer and more economical through use of the DSPBV. Hydrothermal chemical reactions such as wet-air oxidation and supercritical water oxidation occur in a highly corrosive environment inside a pressure vessel. Average corrosion rates from 23 to 80 miles per year have been reported by Rice (1994) and Latanision (1993).

  20. High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The presenters will also discuss results from a modeling exercise that identified the impact house design, system design, and control strategies on comfort and energy consumption. ...

  1. High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program hosted this no-cost webinar that will discuss the current research on comfort in residential buildings. Results will be presented from 37 new homes that were monitored...

  2. Controllable synthesis and characterization of novel copper-carbon core-shell structured nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Jing; Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, No. 15 Beisanhuan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029 ; Tao, Xia; Pu, Yuan; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We reported a facile, green and cheap hydrothermal method to obtain novel copper-carbon core-shell nanoparticles. {yields} The as-formed particles with controllable size and morphology are antioxidant. {yields} The particles with organic-group-loaded surfaces and protective shells are expected to be applied in fields of medicine, electronics, sensors and lubricant. -- Abstract: A facile hydrothermal method was developed for preparing copper-carbon core-shell structured particles through a reaction at 160 {sup o}C in which glucose, copper sulfate pentahydrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide were used as starting materials. The original copper-carbon core-shell structured particles obtained were sized of 100-250 nm. The thickness of carbonaceous shells was controlled ranging from 25 to 100 nm by adjusting the hydrothermal duration time and the concentrations of glucose in the process. Products were characterized with transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Since no toxic materials were involved in the preparation, particles with stable carbonaceous framework and reactive surface also showed promising applications in medicine, electronics, sensors, lubricant, etc.

  3. Facet-selective nucleation and conformal epitaxy of Ge shells on Si nanowires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nguyen, Binh -Minh; Swartzentruber, Brian; Ro, Yun Goo; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-10-08

    Knowledge of nanoscale heteroepitaxy is continually evolving as advances in material synthesis reveal new mechanisms that have not been theoretically predicted and are different than what is known about planar structures. In addition to a wide range of potential applications, core/shell nanowire structures offer a useful template to investigate heteroepitaxy at the atomistic scale. We show that the growth of a Ge shell on a Si core can be tuned from the theoretically predicted island growth mode to a conformal, crystalline, and smooth shell by careful adjustment of growth parameters in a narrow growth window that has not been exploredmore » before. In the latter growth mode, Ge adatoms preferentially nucleate islands on the {113} facets of the Si core, which outgrow over the {220} facets. Islands on the low-energy {111} facets appear to have a nucleation delay compared to the {113} islands; however, they eventually coalesce to form a crystalline conformal shell. As a result, synthesis of epitaxial and conformal Si/Ge/Si core/multishell structures enables us to fabricate unique cylindrical ring nanowire field-effect transistors, which we demonstrate to have steeper on/off characteristics than conventional core/shell nanowire transistors.« less

  4. The effect of mix on capsule yields as a function of shell thickness and gas fill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P. A.

    2014-06-15

    An investigation of direct drive capsules with different shell thicknesses and gas fills was conducted to examine the amount of shock induced (Richtmyer-Meshkov) mix versus Rayleigh-Taylor mix from deceleration of the implosion. The RAGE (Eulerian) code with a turbulent mix model was used to model these capsules for neutron yields along with time-dependent mix amounts. The amount of Richtmyer-Meshkov induced mix from the shock breaking out of the shell is about 0.1??g (0.15??m of shell material), while the Rayleigh-Taylor mix is of order 1??g and determines the mixed simulation yield. The simulations were able to calculate a yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) between 0.5 and 1.0 for capsules with shell thicknesses ranging from 7.5 to 20??m and with gas fills between 3.8 and 20?atm of D{sub 2} or DT. The simulated burn averaged T{sub ion} values typically lie with 0.5?keV of the data, which is within the measurement error. For capsules with shell thicknesses >25??m, the YOM values drop to 0.10??0.05, suggesting that some unmodeled effect needs to be accounted for in the thickest capsules.

  5. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CdS based bifunctional core–shell nanostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, Joshy; Nishad, K.K.; Sharma, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Singh, R.R.; Pandey, R.K.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► First report on a room temperature aqueous process for growth of a hybrid core shell nanostructure containing a magnetic core and a semiconducting shell. ► Formation of distinct core shell nanostructure revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. ► A bifunctional nature combining magnetic as well as photoresponce for the as synthesised core shell nanostructures demonstrated. ► A tendency towards self organisation of the core–shell nanostructure. ► Possible applications including purification and isolation of biological materials, drug delivery system, bio-labels, spintronics, etc. -- Abstract: A room temperature solution process for synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and their hybrid core shell nanostructures using CdS as the shell material has been described. The as grown particles have been characterised using XRD, Rietveld refinement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, optical absorbance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. A superparamagnetic response revealed from the magnetisation measurements of the as synthesised magnetite nanoparticles was retained even after the growth of the CdS shell. From luminescence and high resolution atomic force microscopy measurements, it is shown that the core–shell structures advantageously combine magnetic as well as fluorescence response with a tendency towards self-organization.

  6. RCRA Assessment Plan for Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Area A-AX at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narbutovskih, Susan M.; Chou, Charissa J.

    2006-03-03

    This document describes a groundwater assessment plan for the single-shell tank systems in Waste Management Area A-AX at the Hanford Site.

  7. First Observations of Nonhydrodynamic Mix at the Fuel-Shell Interface in Shock-Driven Inertial Confinement Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Amendt, P.; Delettrez, J.; Bellei, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Betti, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Landen, O.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Wilks, S.; Greenwood, A.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-04-01

    A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with 3He gas. These implosions were found to produce D3He-proton shock yields comparable to implosions of identical shells filled with a hydroequivalent 50:50 D3He gas mixture. Standard hydrodynamic mixing cannot explain this observation, as hydrodynamic modeling including mix predicts a yield an order of magnitude lower than was observed. Instead, these results can be attributed to ion diffusive mix at the fuel-shell interface.

  8. First Observations of Nonhydrodynamic Mix at the Fuel-Shell Interface in Shock-Driven Inertial Confinement Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Amendt, P.; Delettrez, J.; Bellei, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2014-04-01

    A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with 3He gas. These implosions were found to produce D3He-proton shock yields comparable to implosions of identical shells filled with a hydroequivalent 50:50 D3He gas mixture. Standard hydrodynamic mixing cannot explain this observation, as hydrodynamic modeling including mix predicts a yield an order of magnitude lower than was observed. Instead, these results can be attributed to ion diffusive mix at the fuel-shell interface.

  9. Exchange bias in Fe/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core-shell magnetic nanoparticles mediated by frozen interfacial spins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, Q. K.; Wei, A.; Lin, X.-M.; Center for Nanoscale Materials; Purdue Univ.

    2009-10-01

    The magnetization curves of monodisperse Fe/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core-shell and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow-shell nanoparticles reveal an unusual exchange-bias effect. Hysteresis measurements of core-shell particles at 5 K after field cooling exhibit a large loop shift associated with unidirectional anisotropy whereas Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow-shell nanoparticles support much smaller shifts. Both core-shell and hollow-shell particles exhibit sharp demagnetization jumps at low fields associated with a sudden switching of shell moments. Temperature-dependent magnetization of core-shell particles at high fields shows a deviation between field-cooled and zero-field-cooled curves below 30 K, suggesting the presence of frozen spins at the interface. These frozen interfacial spins play an important role in mediating the exchange coupling between the ferromagnetic core and ferrimagnetic shell.

  10. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 0} coreshell nanowalls and semipolar {101 1} coreshell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaN quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.

  11. Average M shell fluorescence yields for elements with 70?Z?92

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, V.; Aylikci, N. K.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    The theoretical, experimental and analytical methods for the calculation of average M-shell fluorescence yield (?{sup }{sub M}) of different elements are very important because of the large number of their applications in various areas of physical chemistry and medical research. In this paper, the bulk of the average M-shell fluorescence yield measurements reported in the literature, covering the period 1955 to 2005 are interpolated by using an analytical function to deduce the empirical average M-shell fluorescence yield in the atomic range of 70?Z?92. The results were compared with the theoretical and fitted values reported by other authors. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  12. Hanford Double-Shell Tank Inspection Annual Report Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petermann, Tasha M.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Washenfelder, D. J.

    2013-12-02

    The double-shell tanks (DSTs) were constructed between 1968 and 1986. They will have exceeded their design life before the waste can be removed and trasferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant for vitrification. The Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project has been established to evaluate tank aging, and ensure that each tank is structurally sound for continued use. This is the first issue of the Double-Shell Tank Inspection Annual Report. The purpose of this issue is to summarize the results of DST inspections conducted from the beginnng of the inspection program through the end of CY2012. Hereafter, the report will be updated annually with summaries of the past year's DST inspection activities.

  13. Challenges for a reliable shell model description of the neutrinoless double beta decay matrix elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horoi, Mihai [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2011-12-16

    Assuming that the neutrinos are Majorana particles and the neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay is observed, a reliable 0{nu}{beta}{beta} matrix element is necessary to decide the neutrino mass hierarchy and the minimum neutrino mass. Many nuclear structure techniques, including the shell model, are presently used to calculate these matrix elements. In the last few years one could see a slow convergence of these results, but not yet at a level of 20 several shell model effective interactions and varying other parameters, finding results in a range that spans about 20In this contribution we describe challenges for obtaining reliable shell model 0{nu}{beta}{beta} matrix elements, with emphasis to {sup 76}Ge and {sup 82}Se decays.

  14. Ab Initio Study of 40Ca with an Importance Truncated No-Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, R; Navratil, P

    2007-05-22

    We propose an importance truncation scheme for the no-core shell model, which enables converged calculations for nuclei well beyond the p-shell. It is based on an a priori measure for the importance of individual basis states constructed by means of many-body perturbation theory. Only the physically relevant states of the no-core model space are considered, which leads to a dramatic reduction of the basis dimension. We analyze the validity and efficiency of this truncation scheme using different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions and compare to conventional no-core shell model calculations for {sup 4}He and {sup 16}O. Then, we present the first converged calculations for the ground state of {sup 40}Ca within no-core model spaces including up to 16{h_bar}{Omega}-excitations using realistic low-momentum interactions. The scheme is universal and can be easily applied to other quantum many-body problems.

  15. A Survey of Vapors in the Headspaces of Single-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stock, Leon M.; Huckaby, James L.

    2000-10-31

    This report summarizes data on the organic vapors in the single-shell high level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford site to support a forthcoming toxicological study. All data were obtained from the Tank Characterization Database (PNNL 1999). The TCD contains virtually all the available tank headspace characterization data from 1992 to the present, and includes data for 109 different single-shell waste tanks. Each single-shell tank farm and all major waste types are represented. Descriptions of the sampling and analysis methods have been given elsewhere (Huckaby et al. 1995, Huckaby et al. 1996), and references for specific data are available in the TCD. This is a revision of a report with the same title issued on March 1, 2000 (Stock and Huckaby 2000).

  16. Controlled Growth of Ordered III-Nitride Core-Shell Nanostructure Arrays for Visible Optoelectronic Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rishinaramangalam, Ashwin K.; Mishkat Ul Masabih, Saadat; Fairchild, Michael N.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Shima, Darryl M.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R.J.; Feezell, Daniel F.

    2014-10-21

    In our paper, we demonstrate the growth of ordered arrays of nonpolar {101 ¯ 0} core–shell nanowalls and semipolar {101 ¯ 1} core–shell pyramidal nanostripes on c-plane (0001) sapphire substrates using selective-area epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure arrays are controllably patterned into LED mesa regions, demonstrating a technique to impart secondary lithography features into the arrays. Moreover, we study the dependence of the nanostructure cores on the epitaxial growth conditions and show that the geometry and morphology are strongly influenced by growth temperature, V/III ratio, and pulse interruption time. We also demonstrate the growth of InGaNmore » quantum well shells on the nanostructures and characterize the structures by using micro-photoluminescence and cross-section scanning tunneling electron microscopy.« less

  17. Preliminary design requirements document for the initial single-shell tank retrieval system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzel, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The scope of this Preliminary Design Requirements Document is to identify and define the functions, with associated requirements, which must be performed to demonstrate and accomplish the initial single-shell tank saltcake retrieval from selected tanks. This document sets forth functions, requirements, performance requirements and design constraints necessary to begin conceptual design for the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System. System and physical interfaces between the Initial Single-shell Tank Retrieval System project and the Tank Waste Remediation are identified. The constraints, performance requirements, and transfer of information and data across a technical interface will be documented in an Interface Control Document. The design requirements provided in this document will be augmented by additional detailed design to be documented by the project.

  18. Acid–base bifunctional shell cross-linked micelle nanoreactor for one-pot tandem reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Li -Chen; Lu, Jie; Weck, Marcus; Jones, Christopher W.

    2015-12-29

    Shell cross-linked micelles (SCMs) containing acid sites in the shell and base sites in the core are prepared from amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) triblock copolymers. The materials are utilized as two-chamber nanoreactors for a prototypical acid-base bifunctional tandem deacetalization-nitroaldol reaction. Furthermore, the acid and base sites are localized in different regions of the micelle, allowing the two steps in the reaction sequence to largely proceed in separate compartments, akin to the compartmentalization that occurs in biological systems.

  19. Workers Complete Retrieval of 11th Single-Shell Tank at EM's Hanford Site

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Complete Retrieval of 11th Single-Shell Tank at EM's Hanford Site Workers Complete Retrieval of 11th Single-Shell Tank at EM's Hanford Site November 26, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis A composite image comprised of dozens of photos taken inside C-110 provides a rare panoramic view of the tank interior. Portions of the tank floor and the FoldTrack waste-retrieval system are clearly visible. A composite image comprised of dozens of photos taken inside C-110 provides a rare

  20. An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Automated Implementation of On-shell Methods for One-Loop Amplitudes Authors: Berger, C.F. ; Bern, Z. ; Dixon, L.J. ; Febres Cordero, F. ; Forde, D. ; Ita, H. ; Kosower, D.A. ; Maitre, D. ; /MIT, LNS /Santa Barbara, KITP /SLAC /UCLA /Saclay Publication Date: 2008-04-11 OSTI Identifier: 927069 Report Number(s):

  1. No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei Authors: Quaglioni, S ; Navratil, P ; Hupin, G ; Langhammee, J ; Romero-Redondo, C ; Roth, R Publication Date: 2012-09-24 OSTI Identifier: 1053647 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-586292 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 20th International IUPAP Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics

  2. No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei (Conference) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei Citation Details In-Document Search Title: No-Core Shell Model Analysis Of Light Nuclei × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale

  3. Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ignition Facility (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Authors: May, M J ; Fournier, K B ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Dewald, E ; Hohenberger, M ; Moody, J ; Patterson, J R ; Schneider, M ; Widmann, K ; Regan, S P Publication Date: 2015-01-30 OSTI Identifier: 1234624

  4. Static internal pressure capacity of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julyk, L.J.

    1994-07-19

    Underground single-shell waste storage tanks located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, generate gaseous mixtures that could be ignited, challenging the structural integrity of the tanks. The structural capacity of the single-shell tanks to internal pressure is estimated through nonlinear finite-element structural analyses of the reinforced concrete tank. To determine their internal pressure capacity, designs for both the million-gallon and the half-million-gallon tank are evaluated on the basis of gross structural instability.

  5. ,"U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Total Shell Storage Capacity at Operable Refineries",28,"Annual",2015,"6/30/1982" ,"Release Date:","6/19/2015" ,"Next Release Date:","6/30/2016" ,"Excel File

  6. Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Authors: Deng, Z., Schulz, O., Lin, S., Ding, B., Liu, X., Wei, X., Ros, R., Liu, Y., Yan, H., and Francis, M. Title: Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Source: Journal of the American

  7. Projected shell model study of neutron-rich deformed isotopes of Sr and Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Sonia; Dar, Parvaiz Ahmad; Devi, Rani [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India)

    2008-02-15

    The projected shell model (PSM) study of {sup 98-102}Sr and {sup 100-104}Zr nuclei is carried out. The reliability of the ground-state wave function is checked by reproducing yrast spectra and electromagnetic properties. The mechanism for the onset of sudden and large deformation at N=60 is worked out. The present piece of research work has unified the two different, or conflicting, early explanations for the onset of deformation at N=60 by the spherical shell model and mean-field theory.

  8. Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Long-Range Validity of Threshold Laws in Inner-Shell Photodetachment Print Wednesday, 29 March 2006 00:00 A threshold law describes the dependence of a reaction yield near a reaction threshold. It is also a signature of the physical forces involved in the reaction, so the agreement of an observed threshold behavior with a threshold law or a departure from it can be a sensitive probe into how well the reaction physics is

  9. Fifth Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project Expert Panel Meeting August 28-29, 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Todd M.; Gunter, Jason R.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2015-01-07

    On August 28th and 29th, 2014 the Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) Expert Panel (Panel) convened in Richland, Washington. This was the Panel’s first meeting since 2011 and, as a result, was focused primarily on updating the Panel on progress in response to the past recommendations (Single-Shell Tank Integrity Expert Panel Report, RPP-RPT-45921, Rev 0, May 2010). This letter documents the Panel’s discussions and feedback on Phase I activities and results.

  10. Tunability of exchange bias in Ni@NiO core-shell nanoparticles obtained by sequential layer deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    D'Addato, Sergio; Spadaro, Maria Chiara; Luches, Paola; Valeri, Sergio; Grillo, Vincenzo; Rotunno, Enzo; Roldan Gutierrez, Manuel A.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Ferretti, Anna Maria; Capetti, Elena; et al

    2015-01-01

    Films of magnetic Ni@NiO core–shell nanoparticles (NPs, core diameter d ≅ 12 nm, nominal shell thickness variable between 0 and 6.5 nm) obtained with sequential layer deposition were investigated, to gain insight into the relationships between shell thickness/morphology, core-shell interface, and magnetic properties. Different values of NiO shell thickness ts could be obtained while keeping the Ni core size fixed, at variance with conventional oxidation procedures where the oxide shell is grown at the expense of the core. Chemical composition, morphology of the as-produced samples and structural features of the Ni/NiO interface were investigated with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopymore » (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy) techniques, and related with results from magnetic measurements obtained with a superconducting quantum interference device. The effect of the shell thickness on the magnetic properties could be studied. The exchange bias (EB) field Hbias is small and almost constant for ts up to 1.6 nm; then it rapidly grows, with no sign of saturation. This behavior is clearly related to the morphology of the top NiO layer, and is mostly due to the thickness dependence of the NiO anisotropy constant. The ability to tune the EB effect by varying the thickness of the last NiO layer represents a step towards the rational design and synthesis of core–shell NPs with desired magnetic properties.« less

  11. Synthesis and optical study of green light emitting polymer coated CdSe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, S.K.; Sharma, Mamta

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of Polymer coated core CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► From TEM image, the spherical nature of CdSe and CdSe/ZnSe is obtained. ► Exhibiting green band photoemission peak at 541 nm and 549 nm for CdSe core and CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. ► The shell thickness has been calculated by using superposition of quantum confinement energy model. - Abstract: CdSe/ZnSe Core/Shell NCs dispersed in PVA are synthesized by chemical method at room temperature. This is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV/Vis spectra and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). TEM image shows the spherical nature of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs. The red shift of absorption and emission peak of CdSe/ZnSe core/shell NCs as compared to CdSe core confirmed the formation of core/shell. The superposition of quantum confinement energy model is used for calculation of thickness of ZnSe shell.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Platinum Monolayer Oxygen-Reduction Electrocatalysts with Co-Pd Core-Shell Nanoparticle Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao,M.; Sasaki, K.; Marinkovic, N.; Zhang, L.; Adzic, R.

    2007-01-01

    We synthesized Pt monolayer electrocatalysts for oxygen-reduction using a new method to obtain the supporting core-shell nanoparticles. They consist of a Pt monolayer deposited on carbon-supported Co-Pd core-shell nanoparticles with the diameter of 3-4 nm. The nanoparticles were made using a redox-transmetalation (electroless deposition) method involving the oxidation of Co by Pd cations, yielding a Pd shell around the Co core. The quality of the thus-formed core-shell structure was verified using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, while cyclic voltammetry was employed to confirm the lack of Co oxidation (dissolution). A Pt monolayer was deposited on the Co-Pd core-shell nanoparticles by the galvanic displacement of a Cu monolayer obtained by underpotential deposition. The total noble metal mass-specific activity of this Pt monolayer electrocatalyst was ca. 3-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts.

  13. Tropical sea snail shells: Possible exotic sources for ceramic biomaterial synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oktar, F. N.; Kiyici, I. A.; Gke, H.; A?aogullar?, D.; Kayali, E. S.

    2013-12-16

    In this study, chemical and structural properties of sea snail shell based bioceramic materials (i.e. hydroxyapatite, whitlockite and other phases) are produced by using mechano-chemical (ultrasonic) conversion method. For this purpose, differential thermal and gravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), X-ray diffraction, infra-red (IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies are performed.

  14. SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wong, T.; Hughes, A.; Fukui, Y.; Kawamura, A.

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

  15. Geology Data Package for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2007-01-01

    This data package discusses the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms and the geologic history of the area. The focus of this report is to provide the most recent geologic information available for the SST farms. This report builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  16. ELECTROCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CARBON STEEL CORROSION IN HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, J.B.; WINDISCH, C.F.

    2006-10-13

    This paper reports on the electrochemical scans for the supernatant of Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-SY-102 and the electrochemical scans for the bottom saltcake layer for Hanford DST 241-AZ-102. It further reports on the development of electrochemical test cells adapted to both sample volume and hot cell constraints.

  17. Riser Difference Evaluation from Ultrasonic Wall Thickness Inspection of Thirteen Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weier, Dennis R.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2010-03-15

    PNNL has performed an analysis of ultrasonic thickness measurements taken on Hanford's double-shell tanks (DSTs) approximately eight years apart. The analysis was performed to determine whether significant differences exist between ultrasonic thickness measurements made in two opposite risers in Hanford DSTs that have been examined twice.

  18. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use of the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.

  19. Rapid disappearance of shell effects in the fission of transfermium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    In the last fifteen years we have learned that nuclear shells have a very broad and pervasive impact on the fission process. In the first few decades after the discovery of nuclear fission, the nucleus was treated as a drop of liquid with smoothly varying attractive and repulsive forces. Although this model still forms the underlying basis for fission, we also observe large effects from the superimposition of shell corrections derived from coupling the quantum states of individual nucleons. The consequences of single-particle coupling on the fission process can be striking and may often overshadow that originating from the intrinsic liquid-drop component. Here, we point out several major features attributable to shell effects in the spontaneous fission (SF) of the lighter actinides, the sudden transition to symmetric fission in the fermium isotopes, and finally new experimental information indicating another transition in the SF of transfermium nuclides due to the disappearance of shell perturbations. In each transition, the abruptness is surprising, and for the moment, such rapid changes in fission behavior lack a theoretical rationale.

  20. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  1. Suppression of alpha formation probability around the N = 126 shell closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Chong; Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R.; Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.

    2011-10-28

    {alpha} formation amplitudes extracted from experimental data are presented and an abrupt change around the N = 126 shell closure is noted. It is explained as a sudden hindrance of the clustering of nucleons. The clustering induced by the pairing mode acting upon the four nucleons is inhibited if the configuration space does not allow a proper manifestation of the pairing collectivity.

  2. On One Master Integral for Three-loop On-shell HQET Propagator Diagrams with Mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozin, A.G.; Huber, T.; Maitre, D.; /SLAC

    2007-06-26

    An exact expression for the master integral I{sub 2} [1] arising in three-loop on-shell HQET propagator diagrams with mass is derived and its analytical expansion in the dimensional regularization parameter {var_epsilon} is given.

  3. A pathway for the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Yang, Xiaofan; Li, Chen; Pennycook, Stephen J; Lupini, Andrew R

    2015-10-12

    In this study, the aging of both Pt-Pd nanoparticles and core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles has been reported to result in alloying of Pt with Pd. In comparison to monometallic Pt catalysts, the growth of Pd-Pt bimetallics is slower; however, the mechanism of growth of particles and the mechanism by which Pd improves the hydrothermal durability of bimetallic Pd-Pt particles remains uncertain. In our work on hydrothermal aging of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles, synthesized by solution methods, with varying Pd:Pt ratio of 1:4, 1:1, and 4:1, we compare the growth of core-shell Pt-Pd nanoparticles and find that particles grow by migrating and joiningmore » together. The unique feature of the observed growth is that Pd shells from both particles open up and join, allowing the cores to merge. At high temperatures, alloying occurs in good agreement with reports by other workers.« less

  4. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  5. Vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures on flexible pillar arrays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choi, Yoon-Young; Yun, Tae Gwang; Qaiser, Nadeem; Paik, Haemin; Roh, Hee Seok; Hong, Jongin; Hong, Seungbum; Han, Seung Min; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-06-04

    PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE) nano- and micro- structures are widely used due to their potential applications in several fields, including sensors, actuators, vital sign transducers, and energy harvesters. In this study, we developed vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures using high modulus polyurethane acrylate (PUA) pillars as the support structure to maintain the structural integrity. In addition, we were able to improve the piezoelectric effect by 1.85 times from 40 ± 2 to 74 ± 2 pm/V when compared to the thin film counterpart, which contributes to the more efficient current generation under a given stress, by making an effective use ofmore » the P(VDF-TrFE) thin top layer as well as the side walls. We attribute the enhancement of piezoelectric effects to the contributions from the shell component and the strain confinement effect, which was supported by our modeling results. We envision that these organic-based P(VDF-TrFE) core-shell structures will be used widely as 3D sensors and power generators because they are optimized for current generations by utilizing all surface areas, including the side walls of core-shell structures.« less

  6. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  7. ENERGISE-ing Solutions to Scale Up Distributed Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If a utility pole falls in a forest and no energy company employee is around to hear it, does it make a sound? Currently, the answer is no. The Energy Department’s SunShot Initiative is trying to fix this problem to alleviate issues for both utilities and their customers.

  8. Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    An, Wei; Liu, Ping

    2015-09-18

    Improving the activity and stability of Pt-based core–shell nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells while lowering Pt loading has been one of the big challenges in electrocatalysis. Here, using density functional theory, we report the effect of adding Au as the third element to enhance the durability and activity of Ni@Pt core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our results show that the durability and activity of a Ni@Pt NP can be finely tuned by controlling Au concentration and distribution. For a NiAu@Pt NP, the durability can be greatly promoted by thermodynamically favorable segregation of Au tomore » replace the Pt atoms at vertex, edge, and (100) facets on the shell, while still keeping the ORR activity on the active Pt(111) shell as high as that of Ni@Pt nanoparticles. Such behavior strongly depends on a direct interaction with the Ni interlayer. The results not only highlight the importance of interplay between surface strain on the shell and the interlayer–shell interaction in determining the durability and activity but also provide guidance on how to maximize the usage of Au to optimize the performance of core–shell (Pt) nanoparticles. As a result, such understanding has allowed us to discover a novel NiAu@Pt nanocatalyst for the ORR.« less

  9. Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Wei; Liu, Ping

    2015-09-18

    Improving the activity and stability of Pt-based coreshell nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells while lowering Pt loading has been one of the big challenges in electrocatalysis. Here, using density functional theory, we report the effect of adding Au as the third element to enhance the durability and activity of Ni@Pt coreshell nanoparticles (NPs) during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our results show that the durability and activity of a Ni@Pt NP can be finely tuned by controlling Au concentration and distribution. For a NiAu@Pt NP, the durability can be greatly promoted by thermodynamically favorable segregation of Au to replace the Pt atoms at vertex, edge, and (100) facets on the shell, while still keeping the ORR activity on the active Pt(111) shell as high as that of Ni@Pt nanoparticles. Such behavior strongly depends on a direct interaction with the Ni interlayer. The results not only highlight the importance of interplay between surface strain on the shell and the interlayershell interaction in determining the durability and activity but also provide guidance on how to maximize the usage of Au to optimize the performance of coreshell (Pt) nanoparticles. As a result, such understanding has allowed us to discover a novel NiAu@Pt nanocatalyst for the ORR.

  10. Wide emission-tunable CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots and their

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conjugation with E. coli O-157 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Wide emission-tunable CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots and their conjugation with E. coli O-157 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wide emission-tunable CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots and their conjugation with E. coli O-157 Highlights: * QDs with variety morphology were obtained via an injection controlled process. * 3-D PL spectra of core-shell QDs show different excitation wavelength dependence. *

  11. Calculation of K-shell fluorescence yields for low-Z elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nekkab, M.; Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Aylikci, N. Kp; Ayliki, V.

    2015-03-30

    The analytical methods based on X-ray fluorescence are advantageous for practical applications in a variety of fields including atomic physics, X-ray fluorescence surface chemical analysis and medical research and so the accurate fluorescence yields (?{sub K}) are required for these applications. In this contribution we report a new parameters for calculation of K-shell fluorescence yields (?{sub K}) of elements in the range of 11?Z?30. The experimental data are interpolated by using the famous analytical function (?{sub k}/(1??{sub k})){sup 1/q} (were q=3, 3.5 and 4) vs Z to deduce the empirical K-shell fluorescence yields. A comparison is made between the results of the procedures followed here and those theoretical and other semi-empirical fluorescence yield values. Reasonable agreement was typically obtained between our result and other works.

  12. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Liu, Nanguo; Xu, Huifang; Rathod, Shailendra; Shah, Pratik; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Ceriumore » m (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0 × 10 − 14  m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5 × 10 − 13  m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.« less

  13. TiN/VN composites with core/shell structure for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Shanmu; Chen, Xiao; Gu, Lin; Zhou, Xinhong; Wang, Haibo; Liu, Zhihong; Han, Pengxian; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Li; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan; Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Vanadium and titanium nitride nanocomposite with core-shell structure was prepared. {yields} TiN/VN composites with different V:Ti molar ratios were obtained. {yields} TiN/VN composites can provide promising electronic conductivity and favorable capacity storage. -- Abstract: TiN/VN core-shell composites are prepared by a two-step strategy involving coating of commercial TiN nanoparticles with V{sub 2}O{sub 5}.nH{sub 2}O sols followed by ammonia reduction. The highest specific capacitance of 170 F g{sup -1} is obtained when scanned at 2 mV s{sup -1} and a promising rate capacity performance is maintained at higher voltage sweep rates. These results indicate that these composites with good electronic conductivity can deliver a favorable capacity performance.

  14. Cross-shell excitations near the ''island of inversion'': Structure of {sup 30}Mg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deacon, A. N.; Freeman, S. J.; Steppenbeck, D.; Smith, J. F.; Hadinia, B.; O'Donnell, D.; Ollier, J.; Spohr, K.-M.; Wady, P. T.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Kay, B. P.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Hoffman, C. R.; Tabor, S. L.; Tripathi, V.; Otsuka, T.

    2010-09-15

    Excited states in {sup 30}Mg have been populated to {approx}6({h_bar}/2{pi}) and 5 MeV excitation energy with the {sup 14}C({sup 18}O,2p) reaction. Firm spin assignments for states with J>2({h_bar}/2{pi}) have been made in this nucleus. The level scheme is compared to shell-model calculations using the Universal sd effective interaction and the Monte Carlo shell model method. Calculations employing a full sd model space fail to reproduce the observed levels. The results indicate that excitations across the N=20 gap are required at relatively low excitation energy to achieve a description of the data. The incorporation of the f{sub 7/2} and p{sub 3/2} orbitals into the model space gives improved results but indicate the need for further refinement of the models to reproduce the observed spectra.

  15. Examination of Simulated Non-Compliant Waste from Hanford Single-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrwas, Richard; Page, J. S.; Venetz, T. J.; Cooke, G. A.

    2014-07-10

    This report summarizes the electrochemical testing results for the aggressive layers testing recommended by the single-shell tank integrity expert panel. From single-shell chemistry data, 39 layers were identified as possible aggressive waste layers and were grouped by aggressive ion and inhibitor ions. From those groups 18 segments were identified as representative segments and tested. The testing reported here showed pitting corrosion for six aggressive layers, and one layer showed a propensity for crevice corrosion. In these cases there was a lack of inhibitors, an abundance of aggressive ions, or both. A good prediction for pitting corrosion could be made by considering the pH value of the layer. When the pH was less than 12, there was a high probability for pitting to occur. However, the pH of the solution was not always an indicator, and the inhibitor ion and aggressive ion concentrations then needed to be considered.

  16. Progress of the Enhanced Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Integrity Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venetz, Theodore J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Castleberry, Jim L.

    2015-01-07

    To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. In late 2010, seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  17. (p,. cap alpha. ) reactions on 1p, 2s-1d shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, F.; Trivisonno, D.; Avon, S.; Bianchin, R.; Rui, R.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 12/C(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 9/B and /sup 32/S(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 29/P reactions have been studied at incident energies of 42.77 and 41.9 MeV, respectively. The experimental (p,..cap alpha..) relative cross sections are well reproduced by distorted wave direct pickup calculations with a semimicroscopic form factor and current shell model wave functions. A comparison between (p,..cap alpha..) and (/sup 3/He,d) spectra on 1p and 2s-1d shell nuclei, leading to the same final nucleus, shows a clear evidence of a dominant pickup process over the knockout mechanism in the dynamics of the (p,..cap alpha..) reaction.

  18. Nanoreactors comprising a nanoreactor shell enveloping a space, and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yin, Yadong; Rioux, Robert M.; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2011-01-25

    Described herein are nanoreactors having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The nanoreactors described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making and have a nanoparticle enclosed therein. The nanoreactors have catalytic activity and may be used to catalyze a variety of chemical reactions.

  19. Characterization of an aluminum alloy hemispherical shell fabricated via direct metal laser melting

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Holesinger, T. G.; Carpenter, J. S.; Lienert, T. J.; Patterson, B. M.; Papin, P. A.; Swenson, H.; Cordes, N. L.

    2016-01-11

    The ability of additive manufacturing to directly fabricate complex shapes provides characterization challenges for part qualification. The orientation of the microstructures produced by these processes will change relative to the surface normal of a complex part. In this work, the microscopy and x-ray tomography of an AlSi10Mg alloy hemispherical shell fabricated using powder bed metal additive manufacturing are used to illustrate some of these challenges. The shell was manufactured using an EOS M280 system in combination with EOS-specified powder and process parameters. The layer-by-layer process of building the shell with the powder bed additive manufacturing approach results in a position-dependentmore » microstructure that continuously changes its orientation relative to the shell surface normal. X-ray tomography was utilized to examine the position-dependent size and distribution of porosity and surface roughness in the 98.6% dense part. Optical and electron microscopy were used to identify global and local position-dependent structures, grain morphologies, chemistry, and precipitate sizes and distributions. The rapid solidification processes within the fusion zone (FZ) after the laser transit results in a small dendrite size. Cell spacings taken from the structure in the middle of the FZ were used with published relationships to estimate a cooling rate of ~9 × 105 K/s. Uniformly-distributed, nanoscale Si precipitates were found within the primary α-Al grains. A thin, distinct boundary layer containing larger α-Al grains and extended regions of the nanocrystalline divorced eutectic material surrounds the FZ. Moreover, subtle differences in the composition between the latter layer and the interior of the FZ were noted with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) spectral imaging.« less

  20. Shell model estimate of electric dipole moment in medium and heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Higashiyama, Koji

    2011-05-06

    The nuclear electric dipole moment (EDM) and the nuclear Schiff moment for the lowest 1/2{sup +} state of {sup 129}Xe are investigated in terms of the nuclear shell model. We estimate the upper limit for the EDM of neutral {sup 129}Xe atom using the Schiff moment. We also estimate the upper limit of the nuclear EDM, which may be directly measured through ionic atoms.

  1. PPPL and USDA engineers win patent for pasteurizing eggs in the shell |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL and USDA engineers win patent for pasteurizing eggs in the shell By John Greenwald December 16, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL engineer Chris Brunkhorst displays an egg while a computer image simulates the levels of RF power that different parts of an egg absorbed during an experiment. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) PPPL engineer Chris Brunkhorst displays an egg while a computer image simulates the levels of

  2. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MULKEY, C.H.

    2001-01-26

    This document describes the principal methods of managing Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Double Shell Tank (DST) system. This document also describes waste acceptance criteria to be used in evaluating the acceptability of waste containing PCBs. The main purpose behind the transfer controls and PCB waste acceptance criteria is to ensure that the waste can be adequately treated in the Waste Treatment (vitrification) Plant. These criteria are expected to change as additional information on the treatment plant's capability becomes available.

  3. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W.; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K.

    1996-12-31

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  4. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-11-14

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106.

  5. Material Balance Assessment for Double-Shell Tank Waste Pipeline Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Hartley, Stacey A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; White, Mike

    2002-10-30

    PNNL developed a material balance assessment methodology based on conservation of mass for detecting leaks and mis-routings in pipeline transfer of double-shell tank waste at Hanford. The main factors causing uncertainty in these transfers are variable property and tank conditions of density, existence of crust, and surface disturbance due to mixer pump operation during the waste transfer. The methodology was applied to three waste transfers from Tanks AN-105 and AZ-102.

  6. Spectroscopic studies of shell mix in directly driven implosion on SGIII prototype laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pu, Yudong; Huang, Tianxuan; Wei, Minxi; Tang, Qi; Song, Zifeng; Yang, Jiamin; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun

    2014-12-15

    We study shell mix during implosion using a capsule with a Cl-doped gas-shell interface that is also filled with Ar-doped deuterium gas. The Ar and Cl K-shell emissions are recorded with a flat crystal spectrometer. The He-β complex is analyzed to infer the electron temperature and density in the hotspot. Two regions of different hydrodynamic states are observed: a region of T{sub e} ∼ 1.2 ± 0.2 keV and n{sub e} ∼ (4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 23 }cm{sup −3} and another of T{sub e} ∼ 0.6 ± 0.2 keV and n{sub e} ∼ (4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 22 }cm{sup −3} probed by Ar and Cl ions, respectively. The neutron yield was also recorded and found to have reduced by a factor of ten for the Cl-doped capsule. By attributing the degradation of the neutron yield to the enhanced radiation loss due to the presence of mixed Cl ions and using the conservation of hotspot internal energy, the amount of mixed Cl ions is estimated to be ∼1.4 × 10{sup 14}, corresponding to a 0.1 μm thickness of the initial shell material and a mixing width of about 16 μm.

  7. Role of reactant transport in determining the properties of NIF shells made by interfacial polycondensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, K.E.; Letts, S.A.; Buckley, S.R.; Fearon, E.M.; Wilemski, G.; Cook, R.C.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1997-03-01

    Polymer shells up to 2 mm in diameter were prepared using an interfacial polycondensation / cross-linking reaction occurring at the surface of an oil drop. The oil phase is comprised of a solution (20 wt% or less) of isophthaloyl dichloride (IPC) dissolved in an organic solvent. An interfacial reaction is initiated when the IPC-loaded oil drop is submerged in an aqueous solution of poly(p-vinylphenol) (PVP), a poly(electrolyte) at elevated pH. Composition, structure, and surface finish for fully-formed dry shells were assessed using a number of techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC) mass spectroscopy (MS), microhardness measurements, gas permeability, and solvent permeability measurements. From deposition rate data, a reaction mechanism and key reaction parameters were identified. The deposition rate of shell membrane material was found to be a diffusion limited reaction of IPC through the forming membrane to the exterior shell interface (which is believed to be the reaction front). The final thickness of the film deposited at the interface and the rate of deposition were found to be strong functions of the IPC concentration and oil phase solvent. Films made with diethyl phthalate (DEP) were thinner and harder than films made using 1,6-dichlorohexane (DCH) as a solvent. Differences in solubility of the forming membrane in DCH and DEP appear to be able to account for the differences in deposition rate and the hardness (related to cross-linking density). The deposition can be thought of as a phase separation which is affected by both the poly(electrolyte) / ionomer transition and the amount of cross-linking. Finally, it was found that the choice of oil phase solvent profoundly affects the evolution of the outer surface roughness.

  8. Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    1999-06-04

    A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined.

  9. Shell structure in the density profiles for noninteracting fermions in anisotropic harmonic confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vignolo, Patrizia; Minguzzi, Anna

    2003-05-01

    We develop a Green's function method to evaluate the exact equilibrium particle-density profiles of noninteracting Fermi gases in external harmonic confinement in any spatial dimension and for arbitrary trap anisotropy. While in a spherically symmetric configuration the shell effects are negligible in the case of a large number of particles, we find that for very anisotropic traps the quantum effects due to single-level occupancy and the deviations from the Thomas-Fermi approximation are also visible for mesoscopic clouds.

  10. Origin of Macrostrains and Microstrains in Daimond-SiC Nanocomposites Based on the Core-shell Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palosz,B.; Stelmakh, S.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Nauyoks, S.; Zerda, T.; Palosz, W.

    2007-01-01

    SiC-diamond nanocomposites were synthesized from nanodiamond and nanosilicon powders. A core-shell model of the composite nanocrystals was examined assuming that interatomic distances in the grain interior, the core, and at the surface shell (grain boundaries in nanocrystalline solids) are different. The samples were investigated by x-ray diffraction using synchrotron source. The powder diffractograms were elaborated based on the apparent lattice parameter methodology. The structure of the composites and its dependence on the sintering conditions is discussed. It is shown that as the sintering temperature increases the interatomic distances in the grain cores decrease, while the opposite occurs in the grain shells (forming the grain boundaries). Under some sintering temperature the interatomic distances in the core and in the shell get equal. However, for diamond this happens under different temperature than for SiC, thus internal strains in the composites are unavoidable.

  11. Wide emission-tunable CdTeSe/ZnSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Wide emission-tunable CdTeSeZnSeZnS core-shell quantum dots and their conjugation with E. coli O-157 Highlights: * QDs with variety morphology were obtained via an ...

  12. Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Demonstration of a 13 keV Kr K-shell X-Ray Source at the National Ignition Facility Authors: Fournier, K B ; May, M J ; Colvin, J D ; Barrios, M A ; Patterson, J R ; Regan, ...

  13. Genomics on the Half Shell: So, What do Oysters Have to do with Energy? (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hedgecock, Dennis

    2011-04-26

    Dennis Hedgecock from the University of Southern California answers the question, "Genomics on the Half Shell: So, What Do Oysters Have to Do with Energy?" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  14. Corrections to the Neutrinoless Double-Beta-Decay Operator in the Shell Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, Jonathan [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Hagen, Gaute [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We use diagrammatic perturbation theory to construct an effective shell-model operator for the neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{82}Se. The starting point is the same Bonn-C nucleon-nucleon interaction that is used to generate the Hamiltonian in state-of-the-art shell-model calculations. After first summing high-energy ladder diagrams that account for short-range correlations and then adding diagrams of low order in the G matrix to account for longer-range correlations, we fold the two-body matrix elements of the resulting effective operator with transition densities from an existing shell-model calculation to obtain the overall nuclear matrix element that governs the decay. Although the high-energy ladder diagrams suppress this matrix element at very short distances as expected, they enhance it at distances between one and two fermis, so that their overall effect is small. The corrections due to longer-range physics are large, but cancel one another so that the fully corrected matrix element is comparable to that produced by the bare operator. This cancellation between large and physically distinct low-order terms indicates the importance of a reliable nonperturbative calculation.

  15. Corrections to the neutrinoless double-{beta}-decay operator in the shell model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engel, Jonathan; Hagen, Gaute [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27516-3255 (United States); Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    We use diagrammatic perturbation theory to construct an effective shell-model operator for the neutrinoless double-{beta} decay of {sup 82}Se. The starting point is the same Bonn-C nucleon-nucleon interaction that is used to generate the Hamiltonian for recent shell-model calculations of double-{beta} decay. After first summing high-energy ladder diagrams that account for short-range correlations and then adding diagrams of low order in the G matrix to account for longer-range correlations, we fold the two-body matrix elements of the resulting effective operator with transition densities from the recent shell-model calculation to obtain the overall nuclear matrix element that governs the decay. Although the high-energy ladder diagrams suppress this matrix element at very short distances as expected, they enhance it at distances between one and two fermis, so that their overall effect is small. The corrections due to longer-range physics are large, but cancel one another so that the fully corrected matrix element is comparable to that produced by the bare operator. This cancellation between large and physically distinct low-order terms indicates the importance of a reliable nonperturbative calculation.

  16. Quantum superposition principle and gravitational collapse: Scattering times for spherical shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrus, M.; Hajicek, P.

    2005-09-15

    A quantum theory of spherically symmetric thin shells of null dust and their gravitational field is studied. In Nucl. Phys. B603, 555 (2001), it has been shown how superpositions of quantum states with different geometries can lead to a solution of the singularity problem and black hole information paradox: the shells bounce and re-expand and the evolution is unitary. The corresponding scattering times will be defined in the present paper. To this aim, a spherical mirror of radius R{sub m} is introduced. The classical formula for scattering times of the shell reflected from the mirror is extended to quantum theory. The scattering times and their spreads are calculated. They have a regular limit for R{sub m}{yields}0 and they reveal a resonance at E{sub m}=c{sup 4}R{sub m}/2G. Except for the resonance, they are roughly of the order of the time the light needs to cross the flat space distance between the observer and the mirror. Some ideas are discussed of how the construction of the quantum theory could be changed so that the scattering times become considerably longer.

  17. Engineering Basis Document Review for Waste Feed Delivery from Single Shell Tanks (SST)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH, D.F.

    1999-10-07

    This report provides the results of a review conducted on existing operating specifications and safety requirements and provides a summary of applicable design constraints on the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The SST System is required to transition from the current waste storage mission to support the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) waste retrieval mission described in the Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). The SST System is also required to support the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) portions of the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. In Phase 1 the SST System will be required to retrieve waste from selected SSTs (tanks 241-C-102 and 241-C-104) for transfer to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (tanks 241-AZ-101,241-AY-102). The SST System will include all the systems, structures and components required to safely store, retrieve, and transfer waste in support of the TWRS mission. Operational Specification Documents (OSDs) govern operation of the existing SST System components. However, the system will be highly modified to support the TWRS mission. Therefore OSD requirements may not apply to the new system's design. This document describes the review of existing SST OSDs and provides the rationale for selecting or rejecting requirements as constraints on the SST System design. The selected requirements (or design constraints) will be included in System Specification for the Single-Shell Tank System, HNF-3912(Conrads 1999).

  18. Decamethylytterbocene complexes of bipyridines and diazabutadines: multiconfigurational ground states and open-shell singlet formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Eric D; Booth, C H; Walter, M D; Kazhdan, D; Hu, Y - J; Lukens, Wayne; Maron, Laurent; Eisentein, Odile; Anderson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Partial ytterbium f-orbital occupancy (i.e. intermediate valence) and open-shell singlet Draft 12/formation are established for a variety of bipyridine and diazabutadiene adducts to decamethylytterbocene, (C{sub 5}Me{sub 5}){sub 2}Yb or Cp*{sub 2}Yb. Data used to support this claim includes ytterbium valence measurements using Yb Lm-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility and Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) multi configurational calculations, as well as structural measurements compared to density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The CASSCF calculations indicate that the intermediate valence is the result of a multiconfigurational ground state wave function that has both an open-shell singlet f{sup 13} and a closed-shell singlet f{sup 14} component. A number of other competing theories for the unusual magnetism in these materials are ruled out by the presence of intermediate valence and its lack of any significant temperature dependence. These results have implications for understanding chemical bonding not only in organolanthanide complexes, but also for organometallic chemistry in general, as well as understanding magnetic interactions in nanopartic1es and devices.

  19. Thermally Stable Nanocatalyst for High Temperature Reactions: Pt-Mesoporous Silica Core-Shell Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, J.Y.; Tsung, C.-K.; Yamada, Y.; Yang, P.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-10-25

    Recent advances in colloidal synthesis enabled the precise control of size, shape and composition of catalytic metal nanoparticles, allowing their use as model catalysts for systematic investigations of the atomic-scale properties affecting catalytic activity and selectivity. The organic capping agents stabilizing colloidal nanoparticles, however, often limit their application in high-temperature catalytic reactions. Here we report the design of a high-temperature stable model catalytic system that consists of Pt metal core coated with a mesoporous silica shell (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}). While inorganic silica shells encaged the Pt cores up to 750 C in air, the mesopores directly accessible to Pt cores made the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as catalytically active as bare Pt metal for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation. The high thermal stability of Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles permitted high-temperature CO oxidation studies, including ignition behavior, which was not possible for bare Pt nanoparticles because of their deformation or aggregation. The results suggest that the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are excellent nanocatalytic systems for high-temperature catalytic reactions or surface chemical processes, and the design concept employed in the Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} core-shell catalyst can be extended to other metal-metal oxide compositions.

  20. Copper K-shell emission cross sections for lasersolid experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davies, J. R.; Betti, R.; Nilson, P. M.; Solodov, A. A.

    2013-08-15

    Published measurements and models of the cross section for electrons causing K-shell emission from copper are reviewed to find a suitable expression to use when analyzing K{sub ?}-emission measurements in lasersolid experiments at peak intensities above 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Few measurements exist in the 0.1- to 10-MeV electron energy range currently of interest, leaving a number of possible suitable models that are summarized here with a number of typing errors corrected. Two different limiting forms for the cross section at relativistic energies are used, and existing measurements do not give a clear indication as to which is correct. Comparison with the limiting form of electron stopping power indicates an alternative relativistic form and also that the density-effect correction will be important in copper above 10 MeV. For data analysis relying on relative K{sub ?} emission caused by electrons with energy much greater than the K-shell binding energy, the existing uncertainty in cross sections is unimportant, but it will be a source of uncertainty when using absolute values and for electron energies up to ?6 the binding energy. K-shell emission caused by photons and protons is also briefly reviewed.