Sample records for infrared spectral radiance

  1. Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    metrologia Measuring absolute infrared spectral radiance with correlated photons: new arrangements must be created in pairs, the VIS channel is also stimulated. In this Metrologia, 1998, 35, 295-300 295

  2. Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin [Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Zhengqiang [Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d'Ascq 59655 (France) and State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.

  3. SPECTRAL MEASUREMENTS OF INFRARED SKY RADIANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    displace conventional air conditioning. In order to computeduring periods of high air conditioning load. SAMPLES OF THE

  4. The impact of explicit cloud boundary information on ice cloud microphysical property retrievals from infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    from infrared radiances Steven J. Cooper, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, and Graeme L. Stephens Department inclusion of explicit cloud boundary information from complementary sensors as well as providing a suite of diagnostic tools for evaluating the dominant sources of uncertainty in all retrieved quantities. Errors

  5. Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances Petr microwave methods. The method should be useful for long-term monitoring of the melt area of the Greenland of MODIS retrievals of the western portion of the Greenland ice sheet over the period 2000 to 2006

  6. Process of preparing metal parts to be heated by means of infrared radiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Howard Robinson (Cincinnati, OH); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing metal for heating by infrared radiance to enable uniform and consistent heating. The surface of one or more metal parts, such as aluminum or aluminum alloy parts, is treated to alter the surface finish to affect the reflectivity of the surface. The surface reflectivity is evaluated, such as by taking measurements at one or more points on the surface, to determine if a desired reflectivity has been achieved. The treating and measuring are performed until the measuring indicates that the desired reflectivity has been achieved. Once the treating has altered the surface finish to achieve the desired reflectivity, the metal part may then be exposed to infrared radiance to heat the metal part to a desired temperature, and that heating will be substantially consistent throughout by virtue of the desired reflectivity.

  7. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  8. Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the June

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the June 2012 Venus transit A. Hauchecorne1 , M. Meftah1 , A. Irbah1 , S of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing

  9. Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging F Jamme1, 2 coupled to an infrared microscope allows imaging at the so-called diffraction limit. Thus, numerous infrared beamlines around the world have been developed for infrared chemical imaging. Infrared microscopes

  10. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  11. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  12. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

  13. A Cloud Detection Algorithm using the Downwelling Infrared Radiance Measured by an Infrared Pyrometer of the Ground-based Microwave Radiometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M. H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, Victor R.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperature and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of the clear sky condition. It is designated as cloud free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm a cloud free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully screened out by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are screened out by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for 6 months, from January 2013 to June 2013. The overall proportion correct is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8 %, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of failures occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not detect, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.

  14. A cloud detection algorithm using the downwelling infrared radiance measured by an infrared pyrometer of the ground-based microwave radiometer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ahn, M.-H.; Han, D.; Won, H. Y.; Morris, V.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For better utilization of the ground-based microwave radiometer, it is important to detect the cloud presence in the measured data. Here, we introduce a simple and fast cloud detection algorithm by using the optical characteristics of the clouds in the infrared atmospheric window region. The new algorithm utilizes the brightness temperature (Tb) measured by an infrared radiometer installed on top of a microwave radiometer. The two-step algorithm consists of a spectral test followed by a temporal test. The measured Tb is first compared with a predicted clear-sky Tb obtained by an empirical formula as a function of surface air temperaturemore »and water vapor pressure. For the temporal test, the temporal variability of the measured Tb during one minute compares with a dynamic threshold value, representing the variability of clear-sky conditions. It is designated as cloud-free data only when both the spectral and temporal tests confirm cloud-free data. Overall, most of the thick and uniform clouds are successfully detected by the spectral test, while the broken and fast-varying clouds are detected by the temporal test. The algorithm is validated by comparison with the collocated ceilometer data for six months, from January to June 2013. The overall proportion of correctness is about 88.3% and the probability of detection is 90.8%, which are comparable with or better than those of previous similar approaches. Two thirds of discrepancies occur when the new algorithm detects clouds while the ceilometer does not, resulting in different values of the probability of detection with different cloud-base altitude, 93.8, 90.3, and 82.8% for low, mid, and high clouds, respectively. Finally, due to the characteristics of the spectral range, the new algorithm is found to be insensitive to the presence of inversion layers.« less

  15. Monolithically integrated near-infrared and mid-infrared detector array for spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    detector test results ensure the high quality of material suitable for near-infrared/QWIP dual-band focal. A CTIS records spatial and spectral information by imaging a scene through an optical relay system

  16. MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL VARIABILITY ATLAS OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kospal, A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Abraham, P.; Kun, M.; Moor, A. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Acosta-Pulido, J. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Dullemond, C. P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Henning, Th.; Leinert, Ch. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Turner, N. J., E-mail: akospal@rssd.esa.int [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical and near-infrared variability is a well-known property of young stellar objects. However, a growing number of recent studies claim that a considerable fraction of them also exhibit mid-infrared flux changes. With the aim of studying and interpreting variability on a decadal timescale, here we present a mid-infrared spectral atlas containing observations of 68 low- and intermediate-mass young stellar objects. The atlas consists of 2.5-11.6 {mu}m low-resolution spectra obtained with the ISOPHOT-S instrument on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) between 1996 and 1998, as well as 5.2-14.5 {mu}m low-resolution spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph instrument on board the Spitzer Space Telescope between 2004 and 2007. The observations were retrieved from the ISO and Spitzer archives and were post-processed interactively by our own routines. For those 47 objects where multi-epoch spectra were available, we analyze mid-infrared spectral variability on annual and/or decadal timescales. We identify 37 variable candidate sources. Many stars show wavelength-independent flux changes, possibly due to variable accretion rates. In several systems, all exhibiting 10 {mu}m silicate emission, the variability of the 6-8 {mu}m continuum, and the silicate feature exhibit different amplitudes. A possible explanation is variable shadowing of the silicate-emitting region by an inner disk structure of changing height or extra silicate emission from dust clouds in the disk atmosphere. Our results suggest that mid-infrared variability, in particular, the wavelength-dependent changes, is more ubiquitous than was known before. Interpreting this variability is a new possibility for exploring the structure of the disk and its dynamical processes.

  17. Near-infrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels Jason W. Barnes,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perfect, Ed

    Near-infrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels Jason W. Barnes,1,2 Jani Radebaugh ranges on Titan using data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) obtained during bright spectral units based on our findings. Citation: Barnes, J. W., et al. (2007), Near-infrared

  18. Spectral calibration in the mid-infrared: Challenges and solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, G. C. [Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Houck, J. R. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Burgdorf, M., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 ?m increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (B–V){sub 0} colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from neither optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwarfs were located in parts of the sky continuously observable from Spitzer, and with previous means of estimating the true spectra of K giants ruled out, it was necessary to use models of A dwarfs to calibrate spectra of K giants from observed spectral ratios of the two groups and then use the calibrated K giants as standards for the full database of infrared spectra from Spitzer. We also describe a lingering artifact that affects the spectra of faint blue sources at 24 ?m.

  19. MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF POST-STARBURST QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Peng; Shang Zhaohui [Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Brotherton, Michael S.; Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Hines, Dean C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ganguly, Rajib [Department of Computer Science, Engineering, and Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, MI 48502 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela, E-mail: zshang@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph low-resolution spectra of 16 spectroscopically selected post-starburst quasars (PSQs) at z {approx} 0.3. The optical spectra of these broad-lined active galactic nuclei (AGNs) simultaneously show spectral signatures of massive intermediate-aged stellar populations making them good candidates for studying the connections between AGNs and their hosts. The resulting spectra show relatively strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features at 6.2 and 11.3 {mu}m and a very weak silicate feature, indicative of ongoing star formation and low dust obscuration levels for the AGNs. We find that the mid-infrared composite spectrum of PSQs has spectral properties between ULIRGs and QSOs, suggesting that PSQs are hybrid AGN and starburst systems as also seen in their optical spectra. We also find that PSQs in early-type host galaxies tend to have relatively strong AGN activities, while those in spiral hosts have stronger PAH emission, indicating more star formation.

  20. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browsespectral

  1. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave spectral radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarizationupwellingdiffuse

  2. INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF NEARBY GALAXIES D. A. Dale,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Robert D.

    INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF NEARBY GALAXIES D. A. Dale,1 G. J. Bendo,2 C. W ABSTRACT The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) is carrying out a comprehensive) are presented using broad- band imaging data from Spitzer, 2MASS, ISO, IRAS, and SCUBA. The infrared colors

  3. MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NUCLEAR AND EXTRANUCLEAR REGIONS IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, Bruce T.

    MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL DIAGNOSTICS OF NUCLEAR AND EXTRANUCLEAR REGIONS IN NEARBY GALAXIES D. A. Dale,13 and F. Walter5 Received 2006 February 24; accepted 2006 March 31 ABSTRACT Mid-infrared diagnostics are presented for a large portion of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample plus archival

  4. Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance Mava Doron a,b,c,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Spectral variations in the near-infrared ocean reflectance Maéva Doron a,b,c, , Simon Bélanger d Available online 5 April 2011 Keywords: Ocean color Near-infrared Reflectance Satellite data In situ data range, in the near-infrared (NIR, 700­900 nm), have received little attention because they are often

  5. Radiance | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    retrofit of the New York Times offices in New York.
    Image credit: Andrew McNeil, LBNL. Radiance rendering of daylighting and electric lighting for the retrofit of the New...

  6. Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: Single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    , a parameterization of the bulk scattering properties is developed. The radiative properties of ice cloudsSpectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: Single-scattering calculations the spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared (far-IR) spectral region from 100 to 667 cmÃ?1 (15

  7. Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation dynamics and saturation behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Time-resolved spectroscopy on epitaxial graphene in the infrared spectral range: relaxation graphene samples performed in a wide spectral range, namely from the near signatures of the highly doped graphene layers at the interface to Si

  8. Use of the ARM Measurement of Spectral Zenith Radiance For Better Understanding Of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Jui-Yuan Chiu

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Our proposal focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general 3D cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. We also focus on zenith radiance measurements, both active and passive. The proposal has three main parts. Part One exploits the �¢����solar-background�¢��� mode of ARM lidars to allow them to retrieve cloud optical depth not just for thin clouds but for all clouds. This also enables the study of aerosol cloud interactions with a single instrument. Part Two exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by ARM�¢����s zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), especially during CLASIC, to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also propose to take advantage of the SWS�¢���� 1 Hz sampling to study the �¢����twilight zone�¢��� around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part Three involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM�¢����s 2NFOV instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the AMF-COPS/CLOWD deployment, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM�¢����s operational data processing.

  9. Feedback-Driven Evolution of the Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti; T. J. Cox; Lars Hernquist; Philip F. Hopkins; Brant Robertson; Tiziana Di Matteo

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from simulations of major galaxy mergers and study the effect of AGN and starburst driven feedback on the evolution of the SED as a function of time. We use a self-consistent three-dimensional radiative equilibrium code to calculate the emergent SEDs and to make images. To facilitate a simple description of our findings, we describe our results in reference to an approximate analytic solution for the far-IR SED. We focus mainly on the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phases of evolution. We contrast the SEDs of simulations performed with AGN feedback to simulations performed with starburst driven wind feedback. We find that the feedback processes critically determine the evolution of the SED. Changing the source of illumination (whether stellar or AGN) has virtually no impact on the reprocessed far-infrared SED. We find that AGN feedback is particularly effective at dispersing gas and rapidly injecting energy into the ISM. The observational signature of such powerful feedback is a warm SED. In general, simulations performed with starburst driven winds have colder spectra and reprocess more of their emission into the infrared, resulting in higher infrared to bolometric luminosities compared to (otherwise equivalent) simulations performed with AGN feedback. We depict our results in IRAS bands, as well as in Spitzer's MIPS bands, and in Herschel's PACS bands.

  10. Results from Infrared Spectral Observation of 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Hui Li and Jianqi You

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hui

    et al. 1992; Deming et al. 1992; Sime and Streete 1993). The solar eclipse observation team of ChinaResults from Infrared Spectral Observation of 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Hui Li and Jianqi You Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China Abstract. We describe in this paper the data

  11. A Medium-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectral Library of Late Type Stars: I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentin D. Ivanov; Marcia J. Rieke; Charles W. Engelbracht; Almudena Alonso-Herrero; George H. Rieke; Kevin L. Luhman

    2003-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an empirical infrared spectral library of medium resolution (R~2000-3000) H (1.6 micron) and K (2.2 micron) band spectra of 218 red stars, spanning a range of [Fe/H] from ~-2.2 to ~+0.3. The sample includes Galactic disk stars, bulge stars from Baade's window, and red giants from Galactic globular clusters. We report the values of 19 indices covering 12 spectral features measured from the spectra in the library. Finally, we derive calibrations to estimate the effective temperature, and diagnostic relationships to determine the luminosity classes of individual stars from near-infrared spectra. This paper is part of a larger effort aimed at building a near-IR spectral library to be incorporated in population synthesis models, as well as, at testing synthetic stellar spectra.

  12. Estimation of the leaf area index of rice by spectral reflectance analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Robert David

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of these varieties. Spectral radiance data in the visible, near-infrared (near- IR), and middle-infrared (middle-IR) wavelengths were collected from seven varieties of rice with a portable, eight-band radiometer. Mea- surements of leaf area index, dry biomass... and increases in the near-IR wavebands as the proportion of soil exposed to the sensor decreases. Kriebel ( l978) reported that changes in the solar zenith angle by one degree could change the radiance from a scene an average of +1. 5%, depending...

  13. INFRARED SPECTRAL OBSERVATION OF EIGHT BL LAC OBJECTS FROM THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution spectra for eight BL Lac objects are presented in this paper. It can be seen that the infrared spectrum of S5 0716+714 shows in the IRS region many emission features that would be from a nearby galaxy. It is also shown that, except for the silicate absorptions around 10 {mu}m for some sources, emission lines in the infrared spectra for the other seven BL Lac objects are indeed very weak or absent. In addition, ignoring the silicate feature, all spectra can be well fitted by a power-law distribution indicative of the emission mechanism of the synchrotron radiation for these BL Lac objects in the IRS region.

  14. The Spectra of T Dwarfs I: Near-Infrared Data and Spectral Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam J. Burgasser; J. Davy Kirkpatrick; Michael E. Brown; I. Neill Reid; Adam Burrows; James Liebert; Keith Matthews; John E. Gizis; Conard C. Dahn; David G. Monet; Roc M. Cutri; Michael F. Skrutskie

    2001-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near-infrared spectra for a sample of T dwarfs, including eleven new discoveries made using the Two Micron All Sky Survey. These objects are distinguished from warmer (L-type) brown dwarfs by the presence of methane absorption bands in the 1--2.5 $\\micron$ spectral region. A first attempt at a near-infrared classification scheme for T dwarfs is made, based on the strengths of CH$_4$ and H$_2$O bands and the shapes of the 1.25, 1.6, and 2.1 $\\micron$ flux peaks. Subtypes T1 V through T8 V are defined, and spectral indices useful for classification are presented. The subclasses appear to follow a decreasing T$_{eff}$ scale, based on the evolution of CH$_4$ and H$_2$O bands and the properties of L and T dwarfs with known distances. However, we speculate that this scale is not linear with spectral type for cool dwarfs, due to the settling of dust layers below the photosphere and subsequent rapid evolution of spectral morphology around T$_{eff}$ $\\sim$ 1300--1500 K. Similarities in near-infrared colors and continuity of spectral features suggest that the gap between the latest L dwarfs and earliest T dwarfs has been nearly bridged. This argument is strengthened by the possible role of CH$_4$ as a minor absorber shaping the K-band spectra of the latest L dwarfs. Finally, we discuss one peculiar T dwarf, 2MASS 0937+2931, which has very blue near-infrared colors (J-K$_s$ = $-0.89\\pm$0.24) due to suppression of the 2.1 $\\micron$ peak. The feature is likely caused by enhanced collision-induced H$_2$ absorption in a high pressure or low metallicity photosphere.

  15. High Spectral Resolution Infrared and Raman Lidar Observations for the ARM Program: Clear and Cloudy Sky Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry Revercomb, David Tobin, Robert Knuteson, Lori Borg, Leslie Moy

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant began with the development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) for ARM. The AERI has provided highly accurate and reliable observations of downwelling spectral radiance (Knuteson et al. 2004a, 2004b) for application to radiative transfer, remote sensing of boundary layer temperature and water vapor, and cloud characterization. One of the major contributions of the ARM program has been its success in improving radiation calculation capabilities for models and remote sensing that evolved from the multi-year, clear-sky spectral radiance comparisons between AERI radiances and line-by-line calculations (Turner et al. 2004). This effort also spurred us to play a central role in improving the accuracy of water vapor measurements, again helping ARM lead the way in the community (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003). In order to add high-altitude downlooking AERI-like observations over the ARM sites, we began the development of an airborne AERI instrument that has become known as the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (Scanning-HIS). This instrument has become an integral part of the ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle (ARM-UAV) program. It provides both a cross-track mapping view of the earth and an uplooking view from the 12-15 km altitude of the Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft when flown over the ARM sites for IOPs. It has successfully participated in the first two legs of the “grand tour” of the ARM sites (SGP and NSA), resulting in a very good comparison with AIRS observations in 2002 and in an especially interesting data set from the arctic during the Mixed-Phase Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) in 2004. More specifically, our major achievements for ARM include 1. Development of the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) to function like a satellite on the ground for ARM, providing a steady stream of accurately calibrated spectral radiances for Science Team clear sky and cloud applications (Knuteson et al. 2004a), 2. Detailed radiometric calibration and characterization of AERI radiances, with uncertainty estimates established from complete error analyses and proven by inter-comparison tests (Knuteson et al. 2004b), 3. AERI data quality assessment and maintenance over the extended time frames needed to support ARM (Dedecker et al., 2005) 4. Key role in the radiative transfer model improvements from the AERI/LBLRTM QME (Turner et al. 2004) and AERI-ER especially from the SHEBA experiment (Tobin et al. 1999), 5. Contributed scientific and programmatic leadership leading to significant water vapor accuracy improvements and uncertainty assessments for the low to mid troposphere (Turner et al. 2003a, Revercomb et al. 2003), 6. Leadership of the ARM assessment of the accuracy of water vapor observations from radiosondes, Raman Lidar and in situ aircraft observations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (Tobin et al. 2002, Ferrare et al. 2004), 7. New techniques for characterizing clouds from AERI (DeSlover et al. 1999, Turner 2003b, Turner et al. 2003b), 8. Initial design and development of the Scanning-HIS aircraft instrument and application to ARM UAV Program missions (Revercomb et al. 2005), and 9. Coordinated efforts leading to the use of ARM observations as a key validation tool for the high resolution Atmospheric IR Sounder on the NASA Aqua platform (Tobin et al. 2005a) 10. Performed ARM site and global clear sky radiative closure studies that shows closure of top-of-atmosphere flux at the level of ~1 W/m2 (Moy et al 2008 and Section 3 of this appendix) 11. Performed studies to characterize SGP site cirrus cloud property retrievals and assess impacts on computed fluxes and heating rate profiles (Borg et al. 2008 and Section 2 of this appendix).

  16. A Near-Infrared Stellar Spectral Library: II. K-Band Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arvind C. Ranade; Harinder P. Singh; Ranjan Gupta; N. M. Ashok

    2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the second in the series of papers on near-infrared (NIR) stellar spectral library produced by reducing the observations carried out with 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, India using a NICMOS3 HgCdTe 256 X 256 NIR array based spectrometer. In paper I (Ranade et al. 2004), H-band spectra of 135 stars at a resolution of ~16 Ang were presented. The K-band library being released now consists of 114 stars covering spectral types O7--M7 and luminosity classes I--V. The spectra have a moderate resolution of ~22 Ang in the K band and have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effective temperatures. We hope to release the remaining J-band spectra soon. The complete H and K-Band library is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/~voi/NIR_Header.html

  17. The Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution of Normal Star-Forming Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel A. Dale; George Helou; Alessandra Contursi; Nancy A. Silbermann; Sonali Kolhatkar

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new phenomenological model for the spectral energy distribution of normal star-forming galaxies between 3 and 1100 microns. A sequence of realistic galaxy spectra are constructed from a family of dust emission curves assuming a power law distribution of dust mass over a wide range of interstellar radiation fields. For each interstellar radiation field heating intensity we combine emission curves for large and very small grains and aromatic feature carriers. The model is constrained by IRAS and ISOCAM broadband photometric and ISOPHOT spectrophotometric observations for our sample of 69 normal galaxies; the model reproduces well the empirical spectra and infrared color trends. These model spectra allow us to determine the infrared energy budget for normal galaxies, and in particular to translate far-infrared fluxes into total (bolometric) infrared fluxes. The 20 to 42 micron range appears to show the most significant growth in relative terms as the activity level increases, suggesting that the 20-42 micron continuum may be the best dust emission tracer of current star formation in galaxies. The redshift dependence of infrared color-color diagrams and the far-infrared to radio correlation for galaxies are also explored.

  18. The Northwest Infrared (NWIR) gas-phase spectral database of industrial and environmental chemicals: Recent updates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauer, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Blake, Thomas A.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Sams, Robert L.; Tonkyn, Russell G.

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    With continuing improvements in both standoff- and point-sensing techniques, there is an ongoing need for high-quality infrared spectral databases. The Northwest Infrared Database (NWIR) contains quantitative, gas-phase infrared spectra of nearly 500 pure chemical species that can be used for a variety of applications such as atmospheric monitoring, biomass burning studies, etc. The data, recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, are pressure broadened to one atmosphere (N2) in order to mimic atmospheric conditions. Each spectrum is a composite composed of multiple individual measurements. Recent updates to the database include over 60 molecules that are known or suspected biomass-burning effluents. Examples from this set of measurements will be presented and experimental details will be discussed in the context of the utility of NWIR for environmental applications.

  19. A Near-Infrared Stellar Spectral Library: III. J-Band Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arvind C. Ranade; N. M. Ashok; Harinder P. Singh; Ranjan Gupta

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the third in the series of papers published on near-infrared (NIR) stellar spectral library by Ranade et al. (2004 & 2007). The observations were carried out with 1.2 meter Gurushikhar Infrared Telescope (GIRT), at Mt. Abu, India using a NICMOS3 HgCdTe $256 \\times 256$ NIR array based spectrometer. In paper I (Ranade et al. 2004), H-band spectra of 135 stars at a resolution of $\\sim 16$\\AA & paper II (Ranade et al. 2007), K band spectra of 114 stars at a resolution of $\\sim 22$\\AA were presented. The J-band library being released now consists of 126 stars covering spectral types O5--M8 and luminosity classes I--V. The spectra have a moderate resolution of $\\sim 12.5$\\AA in the J band and have been continuum shape corrected to their respective effective temperatures. The complete set of library in near-infrared (NIR) will serve as a good database for researchers working in the field of stellar population synthesis. The complete library in J, H & K is available online at: http://vo.iucaa.ernet.in/$\\sim$voi/NIR\\_Header.html

  20. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE CARINA NEBULA FROM FAR-INFRARED TO RADIO WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salatino, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Masi, S. [Physics Department, Sapienza Universita di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Polenta, G., E-mail: maria.salatino@roma1.infn.it [ASI Science Data Center, ESRIN, via G. Galilei, I-00044, Frascati (Italy)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-wavelength observations are necessary for understanding the physical properties of astrophysical sources. In this paper, we use observations in the far-infrared to radio range to derive the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the Carina nebula. To do this, we carefully subtract the irregularly varying diffuse emission from the Galactic plane, which can be of the order of 10% of the nebula flux at these wavelengths. We find that the far-infrared SED can be modeled as emission from a dust population with a single temperature T{sub d} = (34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8}) K and with a spectral index of emissivity {alpha} = -1.37{sup +0.09}{sub -0.08}. We also find a total infrared luminosity of the nebula of (7.4{sup +2.5}{sub -1.4}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} L{sub Sun} and, assuming a single temperature of the dust, a mass of the dust of (9500{sup +4600}{sub -3500}) M{sub Sun }.

  1. Composition, Mineralogy, and Porosity of Multiple Asteroid Systems from Visible and Near-infrared Spectral Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, Sean S; Emery, Joshua P; Enriquez, J Emilio; Assafin, Marcelo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a taxonomic and compositional characterization of Multiple Asteroid Systems (MASs) located in the main belt (MB) using visible and near-infrared (0.45-2.5 um) spectral data of 42 MB MASs. The mineralogical analysis is applied to determine meteorite analogs for the MASs, which, in turn, are applied to the MAS density measurements of Marchis et al. (2012) to estimate the system porosity. The macroporosities are used to evaluate the primary MAS formation hypotheses. The visible observing campaign includes 25 MASs obtained using the SOAR telescope with the Goodman High Throughput Spectrometer. The infrared observing campaign includes 34 MASs obtained using the NASA IRTF with the SpeX spectragraph. The MASs are classified using the Bus-DeMeo taxonomic system. We perform a NIR spectral band parameter analysis using a new analysis routine, the Spectral Analysis Routine for Asteroids (SARA). The SARA routine determines band centers, areas, and depths by utilizing the diagnostic absorption features near 1- ...

  2. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Archived Data at the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AERI instrument is an advanced version of the high spectral resolution interferometer sounder (HIS) designed and fabricated at the University of Wisconsin (Revercomb et al. 1988) to measure upwelling infrared radiances from an aircraft. The AERI is a fully automated ground-based passive infrared interferometer that measures downwelling atmospheric radiance from 3.3 - 18.2 mm (550 - 3000 cm-1) at less than 10-minute temporal resolution with a spectral resolution of one wavenumber. It has been used in DOEÆs Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Much of the data available here at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS), an institute within the University of Wisconsin’s Space Science and Engineering Center, may also be available in the ARM Archive. On this website, data and images from six different field experiments are available, along with AERIPLUS realtime data for the Madison, Wisconsin location. Realtime data includes temperature and water vapor time-height cross sections, SKEWT diagrams, convective stability indices, and displays from a rooftop Lidar instrument. The field experiments took place in Oaklahoma and Wisconsin with the AERI prototype.

  3. Spectral response of localized surface plasmon in resonance with mid-infrared light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusa, Fumiya [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ashihara, Satoshi, E-mail: ashihara@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spectral responses of localized surface plasmons (LSPs) in gold nanorods, which resonate at mid-infrared frequencies, by transmission spectroscopy and electromagnetic field analyses. The resonance linewidth is found to be linearly proportional to the resonance frequency, indicating that the dephasing due to Drude relaxation is suppressed and that the overall dephasing is dominated by radiative damping. Owing to the reduced radiative/non-radiative damping and large geometrical length of the nanorod, near-field intensity enhancement exceeds several hundred times. Nonetheless the resonance linewidth is comparable with or larger than the bandwidth of a 100-fs pulse, and therefore the enhanced near-field as short as 100-fs can be created upon pulsed excitation. The large enhancements with appropriate bandwidths make LSPs promising for enhanced nonlinear spectroscopies, coherent controls, and strong-field light-matter interactions in the mid-infrared range.

  4. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  5. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "Â?no-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  6. ISO continuum observations of quasars at z=1-4 I.Spectral energy distributions of quasars from the UV to far-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Oyabu; K. Kawara; Y. Tsuzuki; Y. Sofue; Y. Sato; H. Okuda; Y. Taniguchi; H. Shibai; C. Gabriel; T. Hasegawa; E. Nishihara

    2000-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Eight luminous quasars with $ -30 ISO. All the quasars have been detected in the mid-infrared bands of ISOCAM, while no far-infrared detections have been made with ISOPHOT. Supplementing ISO observations with photometry in the optical and near-infrared made from the ground mostly within 17 months after the ISO observations, SEDs (Spectral Energy Distributions) from the UV to far-infrared have been obtained. SEDs (Spectral Energy Distributions) from the UV to far-infrared have been obtained while supplementing ISO observations with photometry in the optical and near-infrared made from the ground within 17 months. The SEDs are compared with the MED (Mean spectral Energy Distributions) of low-redshift quasars with $-27 < M_B < -22$. It is shown that our far-infrared observations were limited by confusion noise due to crowded sources.

  7. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levels for objects seen in the CRT. (Radiance levels refer to the amount of infrared energy produced by an object.) The conversion of these radiance compari sons to temperatures and heat flows will be discussed below. Infrared images may be recorded... radiance level comparisons since colors may be associated with particular temperature ranges. Black and white images may be colorized during the inspection process. Alternatively, the black and white images may be stored on magnetic tape and color...

  8. The Mid-Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution, Surface Brightness and Color Profiles in Elliptical Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquale Temi; Fabrizio Brighenti; William G. Mathews

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe photometry at mid-infrared passbands (1.2 - 24 microns) for a sample of 18 elliptical galaxies. All surface brightness distributions resemble de Vaucouleurs profiles, indicating that most of the emission arises from the photospheres or circumstellar regions of red giant stars. The spectral energy distribution peaks near 1.6 microns, but the half-light or effective radius has a pronounced minimum near the K band (2.15 microns). Apart from the 24 micron passband, all sample-averaged radial color profiles have measurable slopes within about twice the (K band) effective radius. Evidently this variation arises because of an increase in stellar metallicity toward the galactic cores. For example, the sampled-averaged color profile (K - 5.8 microns) has a positive slope although no obvious absorption feature is observed in spectra of elliptical galaxies near 5.8 microns. This, and the minimum in the effective radius, suggests that the K band may be anomalously luminous in metal-rich stars in galaxy cores. Unusual radial color profiles involving the 24 micron passband may suggest that some 24 micron emission comes from interstellar not circumstellar dust grains.

  9. The far-infrared--submm spectral energy distribution of high-redshift quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert S. Priddey; Richard G. McMahon

    2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine submm photometric data of z>4 quasars, to obtain a mean far-infrared (FIR) (rest-frame) spectral energy distribution (SED) of thermal emission from dust, parameterised by a single temperature (T) and power-law emissivity index (beta). Best-fit values are T=41+/-5K, beta=1.95+/-0.3. The redshift spread of this set of quasars is exploited to allow us to sample the SED at a greater number of rest wavelengths than is possible for a single object. This parameterisation is of use to any study that extrapolates from a flux at a single submm wavelength, for example to infer dust masses and FIR luminosities. We then interpret the submm component as arising from dust heated by star-formation in the quasar's host galaxy, and investigate a simple scheme of AGN--host coevolution, in which the timescale for formation of the host galaxy is c.0.5-1.0Gyr, with star formation proceeding at a constant rate c.1000Msol/yr. The luminous quasar phase occurs towards the end of the star-forming period, just before the galaxy's reservoir of cold gas is depleted. Given the youth of the Universe at z=4 (1.6Gyr), the coexistence of a massive black hole and a luminous starburst can be a powerful constraint on models of quasar host-galaxy formation.

  10. Method And Apparatus For Examining A Tissue Using The Spectral Wing Emission Therefrom Induced By Visible To Infrared Photoexcitation.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alfano, Robert R. (3777 Independence Ave., Bronx, NY 10463); Demos, Stavros G. (3550 Pacific Ave., Apt. 304, Livermore, CA 94550); Zhang, Gang (3 Rieder Rd., Edison, NJ 08817)

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and an apparatus for examining a tissue using the spectral wing emission therefrom induced by visible to infrared photoexcitation. In one aspect, the method is used to characterize the condition of a tissue sample and comprises the steps of (a) photoexciting the tissue sample with substantially monochromatic light having a wavelength of at least 600 nm; and (b) using the resultant far red and near infrared spectral wing emission (SW) emitted from the tissue sample to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In one embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a continuous beam of light, and the resultant steady-state far red and near infrared SW emission from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a light pulse, and the resultant time-resolved far red and near infrared SW emission emitted from the tissue sample is used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample. In still another embodiment, the substantially monochromatic photoexciting light is a polarized light pulse, and the parallel and perpendicular components of the resultant polarized time-resolved SW emission emitted from the tissue sample are used to characterize the condition of the tissue sample.

  11. The Radiance Process: Water and Chemical Free Cleaning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robison, J. H.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiance Services Company manages a new technology called the Radiance Process®, a dry non-toxic technology for surface cleaning. The Radiance Process received the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable's 1997 Most Valuable Pollution Prevention...

  12. Accepted Applied Optics, May 2001 Thermal Infrared Spectral Band Detection Limits for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkland, Laurel

    for in the remotely sensed spectral data base. Second, since the spectral shape varies with particle size, weathering kirkland@lpi.usra.edu. K. Herr is with The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California, 90009. J; revised manuscript received 3 April 2001. examined detection limits based on spectral signature mapping

  13. Modeling Wildland Fire Radiance in Synthetic Remote Sensing B.S. Beijing Institute of Technology, 1996

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    efforts in phenomenology studies, algorithm development, and sensor evaluation. Synthetic scenes are also and op- tical properties of wildfire and burn area in an infrared remote sensing system will assist look like as seen by the airborne sensor. Radiance scene rendering of the 3D flame iv #12;v includes 2D

  14. Continuous time-varying biasing approach for spectrally tunable infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA this capability, an algorithm is developed for designing the time- varying bias for an arbitrary spectral-sensing window of interest. Since continuous-time biasing can be implemented within the readout circuit

  15. Modelling TOVS radiances of synoptic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coe, Thomas Eddy

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODELLING TOVS RADIANCES OF SYNOPTIC SYSTEMS A Thesis THOMAS EDDY COE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of TBxBs AFxM Unlvezs&ty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major... Subject: Meteorology MODELLING TOVS RADIANCES OF SYNOPTIC SYSTEMS THOMAS EDDY COE Approved as to style and content by: James P. McGairk (Chair of Committee) gW('. Denrus M. Driscoll (~) J B. Valdes ~) ~ J. Zi (Head of Deparbrent) Decemter 1992...

  16. A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2 slicing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    A comparison of cloud top heights computed from airborne lidar and MAS radiance data using CO2 in assessing the accuracy of the CO2-slicing cloud height algorithm. Infrared measurements of upwelling which included various single- layer and multilayer cloud conditions. Overall, the CO2-slicing method

  17. A Gentle Introduction to Precomputed Radiance Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliveira, Manuel M.

    in computer graphics, and many algorithms have been developed to try to reproduce the visual complexity with the support of modern graphics hardware. Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) is a new graphics technique of the rendering equation to a subset of the light transport paths that handle only energy exchange among diffuse

  18. Circuit model optimization of a nano split ring resonator dimer antenna operating in infrared spectral range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gneiding, N., E-mail: Natalia.Gneiding@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies (SAOT), University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Zhuromskyy, O.; Peschel, U. [Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Shamonina, E. [Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PJ Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Metamaterials are comprised of metallic structures with a strong response to incident electromagnetic radiation, like, for example, split ring resonators. The interaction of resonator ensembles with electromagnetic waves can be simulated with finite difference or finite elements algorithms, however, above a certain ensemble size simulations become inadmissibly time or memory consuming. Alternatively a circuit description of metamaterials, a well developed modelling tool at radio and microwave frequencies, allows to significantly increase the simulated ensemble size. This approach can be extended to the IR spectral range with an appropriate set of circuit element parameters accounting for physical effects such as electron inertia and finite conductivity. The model is verified by comparing the coupling coefficients with the ones obtained from the full wave numerical simulations, and used to optimize the nano-antenna design with improved radiation characteristics.

  19. Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echániz, T. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Pérez-Sáez, R. B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es; Tello, M. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Instituto de Síntesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ?{sub peak} at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ?{sub peak} increases with the emission angle but its position, ?{sub peak}, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p?=?1.

  20. ETA CARINAE ACROSS THE 2003.5 MINIMUM: ANALYSIS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. Vieira [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J. [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Gull, T. R. [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stahl, O. [ZAH, Landessternwarte Heidelberg-Koenigstuhl, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: krister.nielsen@nasa.gov

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the visible through near-infrared spectrum of Eta Carinae ({eta} Car) and its ejecta obtained during the '{eta} Car Campaign with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT)'. This is a part of larger effort to present a complete {eta} Car spectrum, and extends the previously presented analyses with the Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) in the UV (1240-3159 A) to 10,430 A. The spectrum in the mid- and near-UV is characterized by the ejecta absorption. At longer wavelengths, stellar wind features from the central source and narrow-emission lines from the Weigelt condensations dominate the spectrum. However, narrow absorption lines from the circumstellar shells are present. This paper provides a description of the spectrum between 3060 and 10,430 A, including line identifications of the ejecta absorption spectrum, the emission spectrum from the Weigelt condensations and the P Cygni stellar wind features. The high spectral resolving power of VLT/UVES enables equivalent width measurements of atomic and molecular absorption lines for elements with no transitions at the shorter wavelengths. However, the ground-based seeing and contributions of nebular-scattered radiation prevent direct comparison of measured equivalent widths in the VLT/UVES and HST/STIS spectra. Fortunately, HST/STIS and VLT/UVES have a small overlap in wavelength coverage which allows us to compare and adjust for the difference in scattered radiation entering the instruments' apertures. This paper provides a complete online VLT/UVES spectrum with line identifications and a spectral comparison between HST/STIS and VLT/UVES between 3060 and 3160 A.

  1. Posters Residual Analysis of Surface Spectral Radiances Between Instrument Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal observations719711 Posters

  2. SPECTRAL TYPING OF LATE-TYPE STELLAR COMPANIONS TO YOUNG STARS FROM LOW-DISPERSION NEAR-INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD UNIT DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Lewis C.; Beichman, Charles A.; Burruss, Rick; Ligon, E. Robert; Lockhart, Thomas G.; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Shao, Michael [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rice, Emily L.; Brenner, Douglas; Oppenheimer, Ben R. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Crepp, Justin R.; Dekany, Richard G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hinkley, Sasha [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); King, David; Parry, Ian R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Metchev, Stanimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pueyo, Laurent; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi, E-mail: lewis.c.roberts@jpl.nasa.gov [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We used the Project 1640 near-infrared coronagraph and integral field spectrograph to observe 19 young solar-type stars. Five of these stars are known binary stars and we detected the late-type secondaries and were able to measure their JH spectra with a resolution of R {approx} 30. The reduced, extracted, and calibrated spectra were compared to template spectra from the IRTF spectral library. With this comparison, we test the accuracy and consistency of spectral-type determination with the low-resolution near-infrared spectra from P1640. Additionally, we determine effective temperature and surface gravity of the companions by fitting synthetic spectra calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. We also present several new epochs of astrometry of each of the systems. Together, these data increase our knowledge and understanding of the stellar make up of these systems. In addition to the astronomical results, the analysis presented helps validate the Project 1640 data reduction and spectral extraction processes and the utility of low-resolution, near-infrared spectra for characterizing late-type companions in multiple systems.

  3. Measurement of pressure-displacement kinetics of hemoglobin in normal breast tissue with near-infrared spectral imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Laughney, Ashley M.; Kogel, Christine A.; Paulsen, Keith D

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying localized external displacement to the breast surface can change the interstitial fluid pressure such that regional transient microvascular changes occur in oxygenation and vascular volume. Imaging these dynamic responses over time, while different pressures are applied, could provide selective temporal contrast for cancer relative to the surrounding normal breast. In order to investigate this possibility in normal breast tissue, a near-infrared spectral tomography system was developed that can simultaneously acquire data at three wavelengths with a 15 s time resolution per scan. The system was tested first with heterogeneous blood phantoms. Changes in regional blood concentrations were found to be linearly related to recovered mean hemoglobin concentration (HbT) values (R{sup 2}=0.9). In a series of volunteer breast imaging exams, data from 17 asymptomatic subjects were acquired under increasing and decreasing breast compression. Calculations show that a 10 mm displacement applied to the breast results in surface pressures in the range of 0-55 kPa depending on breast density. The recovered human data indicate that HbT was reduced under compression and the normalized change was significantly correlated to the applied pressure with a p value of 0.005. The maximum HbT decreases in breast tissue were associated with body mass index (BMI), which is a surrogate indicator of breast density. No statistically valid correlations were found between the applied pressure and the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) or water percentage (H2O) across the range of BMI values studied.

  4. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6461E Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex

  5. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 141, 22D524 (2014) Infrared spectral marker bands characterizing a transient water wire inside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerwert, Klaus

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    molecules distributed at inactive positions in a polar environment in the ground state. The movement properties. These band shifts are identified by time-resolved Fourier Transform Infrared difference surface to the proteins' active sites, or through the protein core across a membrane, in di- rectional

  6. The Evolving Interstellar Medium of Star Forming Galaxies Since z=2 as Probed by Their Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdis, Georgios E; Bethermin, M; Sargent, M; Elbaz, D; Pannella, M; Dickinson, M; Dannerbauer, H; Da Cunha, E; Walter, F; Rigopoulou, D; Charmandaris, V; Hwang, H -S; Kartaltepe, J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using data from the mid-infrared to millimeter wavelengths for individual galaxies and for stacked ensembles at 0.5, which is proportional to the dust mass weighted luminosity (LIR/Mdust), and the primary parameter defining the shape of the SED, is equivalent to SFE/Z. For MS galaxies we measure this quantity, , showing that it does not depend significantly on either the stellar mass or the sSFR. This is explained as a simple consequence of the existing correlations between SFR-M*, M*-Z and Mgas-SFR. Instead, we show that (or LIR/Mdust) does evolve, with MS galaxies having harder radiation fields and thus warmer temperatures as redshift increases from z=0 to 2, a trend which can also be understood based on the redshift evolution of the M*-Z and SFR-M* relations. These results motivate the construction of a universal set of SED templates for MS galaxies which vary as a function of redshift with only one parameter, .

  7. Triggered or Self-Regulated Star Formation within Intermediate Redshift Luminous Infrared Galaxies (I). Morphologies and Spatially Resolved Spectral Energy Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Melbourne; M. Ammons; S. A. Wright; A. Metevier; E. Steinbring; C. Max; D. C. Koo; J. E. Larkin; M. Barczys

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We imaged a set of 15 intermediate redshift (z~0.8) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with the Keck Laser Guide Star (LGS) AO facility. These galaxies were selected from the GOODS-S field, allowing us to combine the high spatial resolution HST optical (B, V, i, and z-bands) images with our near-infrared (K'-band) images to study the LIRG morphologies and spatially resolved spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Two thirds of the LIRGs are disk galaxies, with only one third showing some evidence for interactions, minor, or major mergers. In contrast with local LIRG disks (which are primarily barred systems), only 10% of the LIRG disks in our sample contain a prominent bar. While the optical bands tend to show significant point-like substructure, indicating distributed star formation, the AO K-band images tend to be smooth. The SEDs of the LIRGs are consistent with distributed dusty star formation, as exhibited by optical to IR colors redder than allowed by old stellar populations alone. This effect is most pronounced in the galaxy cores, possibly indicating central star formation. We also observed a set of 11 intermediate redshift comparison galaxies, selected to be non-ellipticals with apparent K-band magnitudes comparable to the LIRGs. The "normal" (non-LIRG) systems tended to have lower optical luminosity, lower stellar mass, and more irregular morphology than the LIRGs. Half of the "normal" galaxies have SEDs consistent with intermediate aged stellar populations and minimal dust. The other half show evidence for some dusty star formation, usually concentrated in their cores. Our work suggests that the LIRG disk galaxies are similar to large disk systems today, undergoing self regulated star formation, only at 10 - 20 times higher rates. (Abridged)

  8. A SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE FAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL ATLAS OF COMPACT SOURCES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. I. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Loon, Jacco Th.; Oliveira, Joana M. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Shiao, Bernie; Boyer, Martha L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kemper, F.; Woods, Paul M. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Marengo, Massimo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Indebetouw, Remy; Chen, C.-H. Rosie [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: jacco@astro.keele.ac.uk

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present far-infrared spectra, {lambda} = 52-93 {mu}m, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope in the spectral energy distribution mode of its MIPS instrument, of a representative sample of the most luminous compact far-infrared sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). These include carbon stars, OH/IR asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB objects and planetary nebulae, the R CrB-type star HV 2671, the OH/IR red supergiants (RSGs) WOH G064 and IRAS 05280 - 6910, the three B[e] stars IRAS 04530 - 6916, R 66 and R 126, the Wolf-Rayet star Brey 3a, the luminous blue variable (LBV) R 71, the supernova remnant N 49, a large number of young stellar objects (YSOs), compact H II regions and molecular cores, and a background galaxy at a redshift z {approx_equal} 0.175. We use the spectra to constrain the presence and temperature of cold dust and the excitation conditions and shocks within the neutral and ionized gas, in the circumstellar environments and interfaces with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). First, we introduce a spectral classification scheme. Then, we measure line strengths, dust temperatures, and IR luminosities. Objects associated with star formation are readily distinguished from evolved stars by their cold dust and/or fine-structure lines. Evolved stars, including the LBV R 71, lack cold dust except in some cases where we argue that this is swept-up ISM. This leads to an estimate of the duration of the prolific dust-producing phase ('superwind') of several thousand years for both RSGs and massive AGB stars, with a similar fractional mass loss experienced despite the different masses. We tentatively detect line emission from neutral oxygen in the extreme RSG WOH G064, which suggests a large dust-free cavity with implications for wind driving. In N 49, the shock between the supernova ejecta and ISM is revealed in spectacular fashion by its strong [O I] {lambda}63 {mu}m emission and possibly water vapor; we estimate that 0.2 M {sub sun} of ISM dust was swept up. On the other hand, some of the compact H II regions display pronounced [O III] {lambda}88 {mu}m emission. The efficiency of photoelectric heating in the interfaces of ionized gas and molecular clouds is estimated at 0.1%-0.3%. We confirm earlier indications of a low nitrogen content in the LMC. Evidence for solid state emission features is found in both young and evolved objects, but the carriers of these features remain elusive; some of the YSOs are found to contain crystalline water ice. The spectra constitute a valuable resource for the planning and interpretation of observations with the Herschel Space Observatory and the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy.

  9. Analytical Green's function of the radiative transfer radiance for the infinite medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liemert, Andre; Kienle, Alwin [Institut fuer Lasertechnologien in der Medizin und Messtechnik, Helmholtzstrasse12, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytical solution of the radiative transfer equation for the radiance caused by an isotropic source which is located in an infinitely extended medium was derived using the P{sub N} method. The results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations and excellent agreement was found. In addition, the radiance of the SP{sub N} approximation for the same geometry was derived. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulations showed that the SP{sub N} radiance, although being more exact than the radiance derived from diffusion theory, has relatively large errors in many relevant cases.

  10. Infrared retina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay (Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tyo, J. Scott (Tucson, AZ); Jang, Woo-Yong (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  11. YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamura, Issei

    1 YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA I the near- and mid-infrared low resolu- tion spectral catalogues of point sources, and image maps in #12;ve wavelength bands in the far-infrared. The point source catalogues contains over 14 000 (near-infrared

  12. Matching of Infrared Emitters with Textiles For Improved Energy Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, W. W.; Williamson, V. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Do, B. T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful utilization of infrared radiation is dependent on the spectral characteristics of the material being processed and on how well the spectral output of the infrared source matches those of the material being heated. Very little bas been...

  13. Matching of Infrared Emitters with Textiles For Improved Energy Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, W. W.; Williamson, V. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Do, B. T.

    The successful utilization of infrared radiation is dependent on the spectral characteristics of the material being processed and on how well the spectral output of the infrared source matches those of the material being heated. Very little bas been...

  14. Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Rendering in Dynamic, Low-Frequency Lighting Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Precomputed Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Rendering in Dynamic, Low-Frequency Lighting a new, real-time method for rendering diffuse and glossy objects in low-frequency lighting environments-frequency incident lighting into transferred radiance which includes global effects like shadows and interreflections

  15. A comparison of model-generated and satellite-observed radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Donna Ellen Woolley

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    periods in January: Every 12 hours between 21 January at 12 GMT and 29 January at 00 GMT. 2. Ten time periods in May: Every 12 hours between 12 May at 12 GMT and 17 May at 00 GMT, B. TIROS-N HIRS/MSU Radiances Channel radiances used as ground truth... are discussed in Chapter IV. Detailed information is described by Smith et al. (1979). Satellite radiances are not observed synoptically at 00 GMT and 12 GMT. Therefore, measurements made during satellite passes within three hours of Sponsored...

  16. YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamura, Issei

    1 YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA I from 1.4 to 700 µm. Presently the archive includes the near- and mid-infrared low resolu- tion spectral catalogues of point sources, and image maps in five wavelength bands in the far-infrared. The point source

  17. Comparison of Long-Wave Infrared Imaging and Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging of Vegetation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Comparison of Long-Wave Infrared Imaging and Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging of Vegetation using spectral imaging. This has been accom- plished with both visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) sunlight reflection and long-wave infrared (LWIR) thermal emission. During a 4-week period in summer 2011

  18. Objective Assessment of the Information Content of Visible and Infrared Radiance Measurements for Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth's surface and the amount that is radiated back to space and, therefore, represent a critical factor governing global energy balance Liou (1986). Furthermore, clouds play

  19. Mesoscale Spectra of Mars's Atmosphere Derived from MGS TES Infrared Radiances TAKESHI IMAMURA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa FUKUHARA Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara potential energy by differential solar heating. This is converted to eddy available potential energy

  20. Radiative and microphysical properties of Arctic stratus clouds from multiangle downwelling infrared radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    climate is strongly influenced by an extensive and persistent pattern of cloud cover [Francis, 1997 properties can have significant effects on long- wave radiation, which dominates the radiation energy budgetRadiative and microphysical properties of Arctic stratus clouds from multiangle downwelling

  1. GROUND-BASED CLOUD IMAGES AND SKY RADIANCES IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED REGION FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shields, Janet

    the atmospheric heating rates as well as the amount of solar radiation including biologically effective UV preliminary comparisons with model calculations and cloud cover data both from another type of sky imager data are of specific importance to study the role of clouds on the radiation balance of the earth

  2. Posters Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal observations7197

  3. Session Papers Preliminary Analysis of Ground-Based Microwave and Infrared Radiance Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 September 2009Energy,ServicesServicesSession Papers

  4. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SEMIANALYTIC MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE A Thesis by JOHN RUSSELL MOFFITT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Physics SEMIANALYTIC MONTE CARLO CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE A Thesis by JOHN RUSSELL MOFFITT Approved as to style and content by: (Cha...

  5. Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters David Doxaran* , Marcel Babin extend over the near-infrared spectral region to up to 870 nm. The measurements were conducted in three in the near-infrared very closely matched a - spectral dependence, which is expected when the particle size

  6. DESCRIPTION OF A SPECTRAL ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spectral atmospheric radiation data. The large cylindricalexisting integrated net radiation data is of impor- tance,infrared radiation intensities. The data is permanently

  7. Method to analyze remotely sensed spectral data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stork, Christopher L. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Benthem, Mark H. (Middletown, DE)

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast and rigorous multivariate curve resolution (MCR) algorithm is applied to remotely sensed spectral data. The algorithm is applicable in the solar-reflective spectral region, comprising the visible to the shortwave infrared (ranging from approximately 0.4 to 2.5 .mu.m), midwave infrared, and thermal emission spectral region, comprising the thermal infrared (ranging from approximately 8 to 15 .mu.m). For example, employing minimal a priori knowledge, notably non-negativity constraints on the extracted endmember profiles and a constant abundance constraint for the atmospheric upwelling component, MCR can be used to successfully compensate thermal infrared hyperspectral images for atmospheric upwelling and, thereby, transmittance effects. Further, MCR can accurately estimate the relative spectral absorption coefficients and thermal contrast distribution of a gas plume component near the minimum detectable quantity.

  8. Detection of illegal drugs using passive infrared sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.

    1996-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes results on experiments testing the feasibility of detecting illegal drugs using passive infrared spectroscopy in the 8-13 micrometer spectral band.

  9. Horizon brightness revisited: measurements and a model of clear-sky radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Raymond L.

    from solar energy engineering2 ,3 to atmospheric optics4'5 have repeatedly measured and modeled. Second, before the advent of narrow field-of-view (FOV) radiometers8 and photographic analysis tech explanation of the phenomenon. High-Resolution Measurements of Clear-Sky Radiances We beginby electronically

  10. Solar Energy, 2006, 80, 3, 361-367 SIMULATING METEOSAT-7 BROADBAND RADIANCES USING TWO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solar Energy, 2006, 80, 3, 361-367 SIMULATING METEOSAT-7 BROADBAND RADIANCES USING TWO VISIBLE-00361360,version1-13Feb2009 Author manuscript, published in "Solar Energy 80, 3 (2006) 361-367" DOI : 10.1016/j.solener.2005.01.012 #12;Solar Energy, 2006, 80, 3, 361-367 · Imet-7 the maximum irradiance

  11. The Five-Phase Method for Simulating Complex Fenestration with Radiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    series of illuminance or luminance result V = View matrix, relating outgoing directions on window the sun luminance (no sky luminance) Ssun = Direct sun matrix containing the radiance and position of the luminance contributions that are used in the five-phase for a space with clear glazing. E3ph - Eds-3ph + Eds

  12. POC algorithms based on spectral remote sensing data and its temporal and spatial variability in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Young Baek

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    and POC with synchronous remote sensing data. The purpose of the second study is to develop POC algorithms in the Gulf of Mexico based on satellite data using numerical methods and to compare POC estimates with spectral radiance. The purpose of the third...

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VISUALIZATION & COMPUTER GRAPHICS 1 Radiance Transfer Biclustering for Real-time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Kun

    --We present a real-time algorithm to render all-frequency radiance transfer at both macro-scale and meso-scale. At a meso-scale, the shading is computed on a per-pixel basis by integrating the product of the local inci in a meso-scale, densely sampled at each pixel and mapped over the object. The bi-scale transfer

  14. Extracting High Temperature Event radiance from satellite images and correcting for saturation using Independent Component Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnie, Talfan; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiance from other sources, such as reflected sunlight and thermal emission from ground, clouds and atmo- sphere as well as instrument response effects such as stray light image pixel size and irregular acquisition intervals which make analysing data from... sources are strongly non-Gaussian and will tend to give more Gaussian signals when mixed with radiative signals from other environmental processes (the diurnal cycle, cloud cover, etc.). Given volcanic thermal signals tend to be isolated discrete events...

  15. Numerical calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere by doubling very thin layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entrekin, Robert David

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE BY DOUBLING VERY THIN LAYERS A Thesis by ROBERT DAVID ENTREKIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Physics NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF REFLECTED AND TRANSMITTED RADIANCE IN A PLANE PARALLEL ATMOSPHERE BY DOUBLING VERY THIN LAYERS A Thesis by ROBERT DAVID ENTREKIN Approved...

  16. A validation of the Radiance three-phase simulation method for modeling annual daylight performance of optically-complex fenestration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. , 2011. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complexof dynamic RADIANCE-based daylight simulations for a testS.E. , 1998. Energy and Daylight Performance of Angular

  17. The design and construction of an infrared detector for use with a highway traffic survey system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mundkowsky, William Fredrick

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during daylight hours. The noise level did not increase. This indicates that the preamplifier's noise is so large that the background noise could not be distinguished. Using the detector's maximus responsivity, the background spectral radiance, and... reduced by approximately one- half during driving conditions as compared to the exhaust temperature when the autanoblle was parked. with the motor running. Exhaust Gas 500 400 Muffler Exhaust Pipe 300 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Speed (miles/hour...

  18. Acceleration of Radiance for Lighting Simulation by Using Parallel Computing with OpenCL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the acceleration of annual daylighting simulations for fenestration systems in the Radiance ray-tracing program. The algorithm was optimized to reduce both the redundant data input/output operations and the floating-point operations. To further accelerate the simulation speed, the calculation for matrix multiplications was implemented using parallel computing on a graphics processing unit. We used OpenCL, which is a cross-platform parallel programming language. Numerical experiments show that the combination of the above measures can speed up the annual daylighting simulations 101.7 times or 28.6 times when the sky vector has 146 or 2306 elements, respectively.

  19. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  20. Semianalytic Monte Carlo calculation of reflected and transmitted radiance in a plane parallel atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffitt, John Russell

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thickness. Both Rayleigh and isotropic scattering are considered and examples are included for r = 1, m = 1, n = -1, m ' o ' 1 and A = 0. The method is also extended to include non-zero ground albedos and an example is included. A method... scattering for = 1 m = 1 n = -1 and A = 0. The continuous m o 1 10 curve is Matrix Operator Theory result 27 INTROBNCTION 1. Current and Past Methods for Calculating Reflected and Trans- mitted Radiance Early work in calculating the reflected...

  1. Remotely Controlled, Continuous Observations of Infrared Radiance with the CSIRO/ARM Mark II Radiometer at the SGP CART Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 c/) ReleaseRemoteRemotely Controlled,

  2. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Miami; Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  3. A model for the directional distribution of the diffuse sky radiance with an application to a CPC collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siala, F.M.F. (Center for Solar Energy Studies, Tripoli (Libya)); Hooper, F.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a new, semi-empirical model for the directional distribution of the diffuse radiance is reported. The proposed regression-type model, with the form of its base functions obtained from physical principles, is based on a combination of the purely physical reasoning approach and the purely empirical approach. Direct multiple-scattering calculations are circumvented through the use of the method of successive orders of scattering. The model is calibrated for the mean diffuse radiance estimated under all sky conditions reported in a large and comprehensive diffuse radiance data set. It is found that only a small increase in accuracy is gained by including higher orders of scattering, and this increase does not justify the complexity of the resulting model. Therefore, the single scattering approximation is recommended. The use of the model is illustrated in a typical application, in which the fraction of diffuse radiation intercepted by the receive of a compound parabolic concentrator is computed.

  4. Hawking-Unruh Thermal Radiance as Relativistic Exponential Scaling of Quantum Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. Hu

    1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hawking-Unruh effect of thermal radiance from a black hole or observed by an accelerated detector is usually viewed as a geometric effect related to the existence of an event horizon. Here we propose a new viewpoint, that the detection of thermal radiance in these systems is a local, kinematic effect arising from the vacuum being subjected to a relativistic exponential scale transformation. This kinematic effect alters the relative weight of quantum versus thermal fluctuations (noise) between the two vacua. This approach can treat conditions which the geometric approach cannot, such as systems which do not even have an event horizon. An example is the case of an observer whose acceleration is nonuniform or only asymptotically uniform. Since this approach is based on concepts and techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, it is more adept to dynamical problems, such as the dissipation, fluctuation, and entropy aspects of particle creation and phase transitions in black hole collapse and in the early universe.

  5. area spectral surveys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A Revolutionary TEchnique for Mid-Infrared Surveys Idea: Spectral chopping enables large-area line-surveys from Biology and...

  6. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  7. To appear in the ACM SIGGRAPH conference proceedings Precomputed Local Radiance Transfer for Real-Time Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Henrik Wann

    -Time Lighting Design Anders Wang Kristensen UCSD Tomas Akenine-M¨oller Lund University Henrik Wann Jensen UCSD Abstract This paper introduces a new method for real-time relight- ing of scenes illuminated by local light sources. We extend previous work on precomputed radiance transfer for distant lighting to local lighting

  8. Engineering adenylate cyclases regulated by near-infrared window light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Min-Hyung

    Bacteriophytochromes sense light in the near-infrared window, the spectral region where absorption by mammalian tissues is minimal, and their chromophore, biliverdin IX?, is naturally present in animal cells. These properties ...

  9. A nanoflare model for active region radiance: application of artificial neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bazarghan; H. Safari; D. E. Innes; E. Karami; S. K. Solanki

    2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Nanoflares are small impulsive bursts of energy that blend with and possibly make up much of the solar background emission. Determining their frequency and energy input is central to understanding the heating of the solar corona. One method is to extrapolate the energy frequency distribution of larger individually observed flares to lower energies. Only if the power law exponent is greater than 2, is it considered possible that nanoflares contribute significantly to the energy input. Aims. Time sequences of ultraviolet line radiances observed in the corona of an active region are modelled with the aim of determining the power law exponent of the nanoflare energy distribution. Methods. A simple nanoflare model based on three key parameters (the flare rate, the flare duration time, and the power law exponent of the flare energy frequency distribution) is used to simulate emission line radiances from the ions Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si iii, observed by SUMER in the corona of an active region as it rotates around the east limb of the Sun. Light curve pattern recognition by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) scheme is used to determine the values. Results. The power law exponents, alpha 2.8, 2.8, and 2.6 for Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si iii respectively. Conclusions. The light curve simulations imply a power law exponent greater than the critical value of 2 for all ion species. This implies that if the energy of flare-like events is extrapolated to low energies, nanoflares could provide a significant contribution to the heating of active region coronae.

  10. Infrared floodlight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Robert E. (S. Hamilton, MA); English, George J. (Reading, MA)

    1986-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  11. Infrared Properties of Nearby Interacting Galaxies: from Spirals to ULIRGs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Charmandaris

    2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I present a brief review of some of the mid-infrared properties of interacting galaxies as these were revealed using observations from the Infrared Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope over the last decade. The variation of the infrared spectral energy distribution in interacting galaxies can be used as an extinction free tracer not only of the location of the star formation activity but also of the physical mechanism dominating their energy production.

  12. A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection , U Willer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Mid-infrared QEPAS sensor device for TATP detection C Bauer1 , U Willer1 , R Lewicki2 applications in laser spectroscopy of trace gas species in the mid-infrared spectral region. We report for the detection of the explosive TATP which is a mid infrared broad band absorber. The detection limit of our

  13. Radiance in the ocean: effects of wave slope and raman scattering near the surface and at depths through the asymptotic region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slanker, Julie Marie

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three investigations were conducted on the nature of the radiance field in clear ocean water. It is important to understand the sunlight intensity below the sea surface because this leads to an understanding of how ocean creatures navigate...

  14. Microwave emissivity of fresh water ice--Lake ice and Antarctic ice pack--Radiative transfer simulations versus satellite radiances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microwave emissivity models of sea ice are poorly validated empirically. Typical validation studies involve using averaged or stereotyped profiles of ice parameters against averaged radiance measurements. Measurement sites are rarely matched and even less often point-by-point. Because of saline content, complex permittivity of sea ice is highly variable and difficult to predict. Therefore, to check the validity of a typical, plane-parallel, radiative-transfer-based ice emissivity model, we apply it to fresh water ice instead of salt-water ice. Radiance simulations for lake ice are compared with measurements over Lake Superior from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E). AMSR-E measurements are also collected over Antarctic icepack. For each pixel, a thermodynamic model is driven by four years of European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis data and the resulting temperature profiles used to drive the emissivity model. The results suggest that the relatively simple ...

  15. Mid-Infrared Optical Frequency Combs based on Crystalline Microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, C Y; Del'Haye, P; Schliesser, A; Hofer, J; Holzwarth, R; Hänsch, T W; Picqué, N; Kippenberg, T J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared spectral range (\\lambda ~ 2 \\mu m to 20 \\mu m) is known as the "molecular fingerprint" region as many molecules have their highly characteristic, fundamental ro-vibrational bands in this part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy therefore constitutes a powerful and ubiquitous tool for optical analysis of chemical components that is used in biochemistry, astronomy, pharmaceutical monitoring and material science. Optical frequency combs, i.e. broad spectral bandwidth coherent light sources consisting of equally spaced sharp lines, have revolutionized optical frequency metrology one decade ago. They now demonstrate dramatically improved acquisition rates, resolution and sensitivity for molecular spectroscopy mostly in the visible and near-infrared ranges. Mid-infrared frequency combs have therefore become highly desirable and recent progress in generating such combs by nonlinear frequency conversion has opened access to this spectral region. Here we report on a pr...

  16. Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry: Components, Calibration, and Application #12;CIP-DATA KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK, DEN HAAG Boer, Johannes Henricus Wilhelmus Gerardus den Spectroscopic Infrared in Dutch. ISBN 90 386 0017 8 Subject headings: spectroscopy ellipsometry infrared. #12;Spectroscopic

  17. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  18. Quantification of Impurities in Prairie Snowpacks and Evaluation and Assessment of Measuring Snow Parameters from MODIS Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Jennifer Nicole

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    of the sample sites that included: temperature, density, depth, and grain size. At some locations snow reflectance and snow radiance was collected with an Analytical Spectral Device visible/near infra-red spectroradiometer (350 – 1500 nm). Snow impurity... of an ADEOS-II snow product algorithm that compares simulated radiances to measured sensor radiances for retrieval of snow grain size and mass fraction of soot in snow was attempted using satellite images acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  19. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimonishi, Takashi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kaneda, Hidehiro, E-mail: shimonishi@penguin.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of {approx}10 deg{sup 2} of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R {approx} 20) spectra in 2-5 {mu}m for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 {mu}m, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 {mu}m. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 {mu}m can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared. A large number of near-infrared spectral data provided by the survey possess scientific potential that can be applied to various studies. In this paper, we present the details of the spectroscopic survey and the catalog, and discuss its scientific applications.

  20. Mid-infrared Observations of IC133 HODARI-SADIKI JAMES*, EMILY WORINKENG and DR. TRACY HODGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    LOGOLOGO Mid-infrared Observations of IC133 HODARI-SADIKI JAMES*, EMILY WORINKENG and DR. TRACY to earth with an abundance of giant HII Region (GRH's). We have examined infrared spectral images ratio of the different emission lines found within the mid-infrared. The figures needed to construct

  1. Analyzing Black Hole super-radiance Emission of Particles/Energy from a Black Hole as a Gedankenexperiment to get bounds on the mass of a Graviton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Beckwith

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of super-radiance in BH physics, so dE/dt past the planet Mercury.The present document makes a given differentiation between super-radiance in the case of conventional BHs and Braneworld BH super-radiance, which may delineate if Braneworlds contribute to an admissible massive graviton in terms of removing the usual problem of the 3/4th the bending of light past the planet Mercury which is normally associated with massive gravitons. This leads to a fork in the road, between two alternatives with the possibility of needing a multiverse containment of BH structure, or embracing what Hawkings wrote up recently, namely a re do of the Event Horizon hypothesis as we know it.

  2. Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Sco McWilliams U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consor;um (PVMC) Infrared Thermography Infrared Thermography (IRT) has been demonstrated...

  3. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  4. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25?m (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}?m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}?m{sub 25}?=??2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25?m, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  5. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding E. Smith

    2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  6. Visualizing KcsA Conformational Changes upon Ion Binding by Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomistic Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    The effect of ion binding in the selectivity filter of the potassium channel KcsA is investigated by combining amide I Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy with structure-based spectral modeling. Experimental difference ...

  7. Infrared Inspection Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  8. Infrared Inspection Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  9. Spectrally adaptive infrared photodetectors with bias-tunable quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayat, Majeed M.

    Tyo, and Majeed M. Hayat Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 Sunil Raghavan and Sanjay Krishna Center for High Technology Materials and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131

  10. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emissions. Regardless of the application or the specific instrumental configuration (Fourier transform, dispersive, laser based, …) a comprehensive reference library is...

  11. The Nuclear Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of Nearby Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, R E; Martins, L; Riffel, R; Martin, O Gonzalez; Almeida, C Ramos; Dutra, D Ruschel; Ho, L C; Thanjavur, K; Flohic, H; Alonso-Herrero, A; Lira, P; McDermid, R; Riffel, R A; Schiavon, R P; Winge, C; Hoenig, M D; Perlman, E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present spectra of the nuclear regions of 50 nearby (D = 1 - 92 Mpc, median = 20 Mpc) galaxies of morphological types E to Sm. The spectra, obtained with the Gemini Near-IR Spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope, cover a wavelength range of approximately 0.85-2.5 microns at R~1300--1800. There is evidence that most of the galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but the range of AGN luminosities (log (L2-10 keV [erg/s]) = 37.0-43.2) in the sample means that the spectra display a wide variety of features. Some nuclei, especially the Seyferts, exhibit a rich emission-line spectrum. Other objects, in particular the type 2 Low Ionisation Nuclear Emission Region galaxies, show just a few, weak emission lines, allowing a detailed view of the underlying stellar population. These spectra display numerous absorption features sensitive to the stellar initial mass function, as well as molecular bands arising in cool stars, and many other atomic absorption lines. We compare the spectra of subsets of galaxie...

  12. Spectral Operators of Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 10, 2014 ... a thorough study on a new class of matrix valued functions, coined as spectral operators of ..... not self-adjoint. ...... 9 (1981) 1135–1151.

  13. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  14. SERS-Coded Gold Nanorods as a Multifunctional Platform for Densely Multiplexed Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    photothermal tumor heating to ablative temperatures. In the future, the dense near-infrared spectralSERS-Coded Gold Nanorods as a Multifunctional Platform for Densely Multiplexed Near-Infrared Imaging and Photothermal Heating By Geoffrey von Maltzahn, Andrea Centrone, Ji-Ho Park, Renuka Ramanathan

  15. New rest wavelength determinations for 7 mid-infrared fine structure lines by ISO-SWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Feuchtgruber; D. Lutz; D. A. Beintema

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of the planetary nebulae NGC6302, NGC6543 and NGC7027 by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) have been used to determine rest wavelengths of spectral lines. We report on improved accuracies for wavelengths of 7 mid-infrared ionic fine structure lines.

  16. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Jui-Yuan Christine [University of Reading] [University of Reading

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on cloud-radiation processes in a general three-dimensional cloud situation, with particular emphasis on cloud optical depth and effective particle size. The proposal has two main parts. Part one exploits the large number of new wavelengths offered by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) zenith-pointing ShortWave Spectrometer (SWS), to develop better retrievals not only of cloud optical depth but also of cloud particle size. We also take advantage of the SWS’ high sampling resolution to study the “twilight zone” around clouds where strong aerosol-cloud interactions are taking place. Part two involves continuing our cloud optical depth and cloud fraction retrieval research with ARM’s 2-channel narrow vield-of-view radiometer and sunphotometer instrument by, first, analyzing its data from the ARM Mobile Facility deployments, and second, making our algorithms part of ARM’s operational data processing.

  17. Evaluating Water Vapor in the NCAR CAM3 Climate Model with RRTMG/McICA using Modeled and Observed AIRS Spectral Radiances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist. Category UC-l 1, 13Evacuation Emergency InformationtheEvaluating

  18. Infrared behaviour of the fermion propagator in unquenched QED$_3$ with finite threshold effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuichi Hoshino

    2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    To remove the linear infrared divergences in quenched approximation we include the massive fermion loop to the photon spectral function.Spectral function of fermion has no one particle singularity if we fix the anomalous dimension to be unity.In the case of $N$ flavour,$N$ dependence of order parameter is mild which may be due to screening effects.

  19. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  20. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kühne, P., E-mail: kuehne@huskers.unl.edu; Schubert, M., E-mail: schubert@engr.unl.edu; Hofmann, T., E-mail: thofmann@engr.unl.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Herzinger, C. M., E-mail: cherzinger@jawoollam.com; Woollam, J. A., E-mail: jwoollam@jawoollam.com [J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., 645 M Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508-2243 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup ?1} to 7000 cm{sup ?1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  1. The influence of the spectral emissivity of flat-plate calibrators on the calibration of IR thermometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E. [Centro Nacional de Metrología, CENAM Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cués, El Marqués, Querétaro, 76246 (Mexico)] [Centro Nacional de Metrología, CENAM Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cués, El Marqués, Querétaro, 76246 (Mexico)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Flat Calibrators (FC) are an option for calibration of infrared thermometers (IT) with a fixed large target. FCs are neither blackbodies, nor gray-bodies; their spectral emissivity is lower than one and depends on wavelength. Nevertheless they are used as gray-bodies with a nominal emissivity value. FCs can be calibrated radiometrically using as reference a calibrated IR thermometer (RT). If an FC will be used to calibrate ITs that work in the same spectral range as the RT then its calibration is straightforward: the actual FC spectral emissivity is not required. This result is valid for any given fixed emissivity assessed to the FC. On the other hand, when the RT working spectral range does not match with that of the ITs to be calibrated with the FC then it is required to know the FC spectral emissivity as part of the calibration process. For this purpose, at CENAM, we developed an experimental setup to measure spectral emissivity in the infrared spectral range, based on a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Not all laboratories have emissivity measurement capability in the appropriate wavelength and temperature ranges to obtain the spectral emissivity. Thus, we present an estimation of the error introduced when the spectral range of the RT used to calibrate an FC and the spectral ranges of the ITs to be calibrated with the FC do not match. Some examples are developed for the cases when RT and IT spectral ranges are [8,13] ?m and [8,14] ?m respectively.

  2. Literature Review on Spectral Clustering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Mengna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Guan & Kulis. Kernel k-means, Spectral Clustering andspectral clustering and k-means clustering and spectralRelationship with kernel K-means algorithm …………………………………………

  3. Thermophotovoltaic Spectral Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DM DePoy; PM Fourspring; PF Baldasaro; JF Beausang; EJ Brown; MW Dashiel; KD Rahner; TD Rahmlow; JE Lazo-Wasem; EJ Gratrix; B Wemsman

    2004-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral control is a key technology for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion systems because only a fraction (typically less than 25%) of the incident thermal radiation has energy exceeding the diode bandgap energy, E{sub g}, and can thus be converted to electricity. The goal for TPV spectral control in most applications is twofold: (1) Maximize TPV efficiency by minimizing transfer of low energy, below bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. (2) Maximize TPV surface power density by maximizing transfer of high energy, above bandgap photons from the radiator to the TPV diode. TPV spectral control options include: front surface filters (e.g. interference filters, plasma filters, interference/plasma tandem filters, and frequency selective surfaces), back surface reflectors, and wavelength selective radiators. System analysis shows that spectral performance dominates diode performance in any practical TPV system, and that low bandgap diodes enable both higher efficiency and power density when spectral control limitations are considered. Lockheed Martin has focused its efforts on front surface tandem filters which have achieved spectral efficiencies of {approx}83% for E{sub g} = 0.52 eV and {approx}76% for E{sub g} = 0.60 eV for a 950 C radiator temperature.

  4. Spectrally selective glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally selective glazing is window glass that permits some portions of the solar spectrum to enter a building while blocking others. This high-performance glazing admits as much daylight as possible while preventing transmission of as much solar heat as possible. By controlling solar heat gains in summer, preventing loss of interior heat in winter, and allowing occupants to reduce electric lighting use by making maximum use of daylight, spectrally selective glazing significantly reduces building energy consumption and peak demand. Because new spectrally selective glazings can have a virtually clear appearance, they admit more daylight and permit much brighter, more open views to the outside while still providing the solar control of the dark, reflective energy-efficient glass of the past. This Federal Technology Alert provides detailed information and procedures for Federal energy managers to consider spectrally selective glazings. The principle of spectrally selective glazings is explained. Benefits related to energy efficiency and other architectural criteria are delineated. Guidelines are provided for appropriate application of spectrally selective glazing, and step-by-step instructions are given for estimating energy savings. Case studies are also presented to illustrate actual costs and energy savings. Current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are included for users who have questions not fully addressed here.

  5. Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Janner, Davide; Etezadi, Dordaneh; de Abajo, F Javier García; Pruneri, Valerio; Altug, Hatice

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy is the technique of choice for chemical identification of biomolecules through their vibrational fingerprints. However, infrared light interacts poorly with nanometric size molecules. Here, we exploit the unique electro-optical properties of graphene to demonstrate a high-sensitivity tunable plasmonic biosensor for chemically-specific label-free detection of protein monolayers. The plasmon resonance of nanostructured graphene is dynamically tuned to selectively probe the protein at different frequencies and extract its complex refractive index. Additionally, the extreme spatial light confinement in graphene, up to two orders of magnitude higher than in metals, produces an unprecedentedly high overlap with nanometric biomolecules, enabling superior sensitivity in the detection of their refractive index and vibrational fingerprints. The combination of tunable spectral selectivity and enhanced sensitivity of graphene opens exciting prospects for biosensing.

  6. Direct and quantitative broadband absorptance spectroscopy on small objects using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and bilayer cantilever probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    A measurement platform is introduced that combines a bilayer cantilever probe with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure absolute spectral absorptance between wavelengths of 3??m and 18??m directly and ...

  7. UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

  8. Infrared Emission from AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Sanders

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared observations of complete samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have shown that a substantial fraction of their bolometric luminosity is emitted at wavelengths ~8-1000microns. In radio-loud and Blazar-like objects much of this emission appears to be direct non-thermal synchrotron radiation. However, in the much larger numbers of radio-quiet AGN it is now clear that thermal dust emission is responsible for the bulk of radiation from the near-infrared through submillimeter wavelengths. Luminous infrared-selected AGN are often surrounded by powerful nuclear starbursts, both of which appear to be fueled by enormous supplies of molecular gas and dust funneled into the nuclear region during the strong interaction/merger of gas rich disks. All-sky surveys in the infrared show that luminous infrared AGN are at least as numerous as optically-selected AGN of comparable bolometric luminosity, suggesting that AGN may spend a substantial fraction of their lifetime in a dust-enshrouded phase. The space density of luminous infrared AGN at high redshift may be sufficient to account for much of the X-Ray background, and for a substantial fraction of the far-infrared background as well. These objects plausibly represent a major epoch in the formation of spheroids and massive black holes (MBH).

  9. Theoretical performance of very long wavelength InAs/InxGa1 xSb superlattice based infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatte, Michael E.

    , and satellite-based surveillance. Present day infrared detection technology based on bulk Hg1 xCdxTe MCT alloys is facing significant challenges in this spectral region due to i a sensitive dependence of the energy gap tunneling currents. An alter- native infrared system, based on InAs/InxGa1 xSb superlat- tices SLs , shows

  10. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Following the validation of the measurement system, various gas mixtures were tested to study the effect of gas compositions have on burner performance. Results indicated that the emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. The maximum radiant efficiency of the burner was obtained close to air/fuel ratio of 1.

  11. Large Spectral Library Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chilton, Lawrence K.; Walsh, Stephen J.

    2008-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hyperspectral imaging produces a spectrum or vector at each image pixel. These spectra can be used to identify materials present in the image. In some cases, spectral libraries representing atmospheric chemicals or ground materials are available. The challenge is to determine if any of the library chemicals or materials exist in the hyperspectral image. The number of spectra in these libraries can be very large, far exceeding the number of spectral channels collected in the ¯eld. Suppose an image pixel contains a mixture of p spectra from the library. Is it possible to uniquely identify these p spectra? We address this question in this paper and refer to it as the Large Spectral Library (LSL) problem. We show how to determine if unique identi¯cation is possible for any given library. We also show that if p is small compared to the number of spectral channels, it is very likely that unique identi¯cation is possible. We show that unique identi¯cation becomes less likely as p increases.

  12. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of two luminous submillimeter galaxies at z~2.8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Lutz; E. Valiante; E. Sturm; R. Genzel; L. J Tacconi; M. D. Lehnert; A. Sternberg; A. J. Baker

    2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained rest frame mid-infrared spectroscopy of two bright submillimeter galaxies. SMMJ02399-0136 at z=2.81 shows a superposition of PAH emission features and a mid-infrared continuum, indicating significant and roughly equal contributions to its bolometric luminosity from star formation and from a Compton-thick AGN. We derive a new redshift of z=2.80 for MMJ154127+6616 from the IRS spectrum and find this object is dominated by starburst PAH emission. The rest frame mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distributions are consistent with these submillimeter galaxies being scaled up versions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The mid-infrared spectra support the scenario that submillimeter galaxies are sites of extreme star formation and represent a key phase in the formation of massive galaxies.

  13. Airborne infrared observations and analyses of a large forest fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearns, J.R.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E.; Sanford, B.P.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive IR spatial images and spectral signatures were gathered from an active large brush and forest fire by the Flying Infrared Signatures Technology Aircraft of the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Infrared images give the apparent temperatures of actively burning and burned over regions and aid in identifying the type and intensity of the fire. Spectral signatures of hot regions from interferometer and spatial data can also be used to determine apparent fire temperatures. Gasesous combustion products in the fire plume are quantitatively identified by the IR absorption spectra at 1-cm/sup -1/ resolution using the hot fire emission as the radiation source. Concentrations of CO were measured at 50 times higher than ambient levels. The applicability of these techniques to gathering data relevant to important environmental and military problems, including atmospheric pollution from fires and possible short-term climatic effects due to fires ignited in a nuclear exchange, is discussed.

  14. Exploring Infrared Properties of Giant Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nurur Rahman; Justin H. Howell; George Helou; Joseph M. Mazzarella; Brent Buckalew

    2007-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Abridged: We present analysis of Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the three low surface brightness (LSB) optical giant galaxies Malin 1, UGC 6614 and UGC 9024. Mid- and far-infrared morphology, spectral energy distributions, and integrated colors are used to derive the dust mass, dust-to-gas mass ratio, total infrared luminosity, and star formation rate (SFR). The 8 micron images indicate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules are present in the central regions of all three metal-poor LSB galaxies. The diffuse optical disks of Malin 1 and UGC 9024 remain undetected at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The dustiest of the three LSB galaxies, UGC 6614, has infrared morphology that varies significantly with wavelength. The 8 and 24 micron emission is co-spatial with H\\alpha emission previously observed in the outer ring of UGC 6614. The estimated dust-to-gas ratios, from less than 10^{-3} to 10^{-2}, support previous indications that the LSB galaxies are relatively dust poor compared to the HSB galaxies. The total infrared luminosities are approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the blue band luminosities, suggesting that old stellar populations are the primary source of dust heating in these LSB objects. The SFR estimated from the infrared data ranges ~0.01-0.88 M_sun yr^{-1}, consistent with results from optical studies.

  15. Spectral tailoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.; Carter, L.L.; Karnesky, R.A.

    1987-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectral tailoring device for altering the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in a fast reactor thereby selectively to enhance or inhibit the transmutation rate of a target metrical to form a product isotope. Neutron moderators, neutron filters, neutron absorbers and neutron reflectors may be used as spectral tailoring devices. Depending on the intended use for the device, a member from each of these four classes of materials could be used singularly, or in combination, to provide a preferred neutron energy spectra and flux of the neutrons in the region of the target material. In one embodiment of the invention, an assembly is provided for enhancing the production of isotopes, such as cobalt 60 and gadolinium 153. In another embodiment of the invention, a spectral tailoring device is disposed adjacent a target material which comprises long lived or volatile fission products and the device is used to shift the neutron energy spectra and flux of neutrons in the region of the fission products to preferentially transmute them to produce a less volatile fission product inventory. 6 figs.

  16. Variable waveband infrared imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  17. Meteorol. Atmos.Phys. 38, 131-139 (1988) Meteorologz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Yongkang

    .S.A. Exploration of the Remote Sounding of Infrared Cooling Rates Due to Water Vapor Kuo-Nan Liou and Yongkang Xue deriving atmospheric infrared cooling rates by direct inversion of radiances observed by satellitesfrom.Wedemonstrate that the vertical integral of the cooling rate in the spectral band, convolvedwith a kernel function associated

  18. Spitzer Detection of PAH and Silicate Dust Features in the Mid-Infrared Spectra of z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Yan; R. Chary; L. Armus; H. Teplitz; G. Helou; D. Frayer; D. Fadda; J. Surace; P. Choi

    2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the initial results from a Spitzer GO-1 program to obtain low resolution, mid-infrared spectra of infrared luminous galaxies at z~1-2. This paper presents the spectra of eight sources observed with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS). Of the eight spectra, six have mid-IR spectral features, either emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) or silicate absorption. Based on these mid-IR features, the inferred six redshifts are in the range of 1.8-2.6. The remaining two spectra detect only strong continua, thus do not yield redshift information. Strong, multiple PAH emission features are detected in two sources, and weak PAH emission in another two. These data provide direct evidence that PAH molecules are present and directly observable in ULIRGs at z~2. The six sources with measured redshifts are dusty, infrared luminous galaxies at z~2 with estimated $L_{bol} \\sim 10^{13}L_\\odot$. Of the eight sources, two appear starburst dominated; two with only power law continua are probably type I QSOs; and the remaining four are likely composite systems containing a buried AGN and a starburst component. Since half of our sample are optically faint sources with R>25.5mag (Vega), our results demonstrate the potential of using mid-infrared spectroscopy, especially the Aromatic and silicate features produced by dust grains to directly probe optically faint and infrared luminous populations at high redshift.

  19. The design and construction of an infrared detector for use with a highway traffic survey system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mundkowsky, William Fredrick

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to test the infrared detector system for parameter variations. The hot plate, which was used to simulate a mui'fler, had a surface area of nearly 30 sq. in. This radiating area could be Inzited to I sq. in. by placing a shield across the plate. Fig... The Optics Spectral Filtering Spatial Filtering Design Considerations Test Procedures and. Results 20 CONCLUSION APPENDIX I Basic infrared Radiation Laws APPENDIX II Baclqpound Rad. iation APPENDIX III Atmospheric Transmission...

  20. ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES IN THE WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Shanshan; Kong, Xu; Li, Jinrong [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fang, Guanwen, E-mail: sushan@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [Institute for Astronomy and History of Science and Technology, Dali University, Yunnan 671003 (China)

    2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a large catalog of 419 Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), carefully selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-infrared data and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey eighth data release, and classify them into three subsamples, based on their emission line properties: H II-like ULIRGs, Seyfert 2 ULIRGs, and composite ULIRGs. We apply our new efficient spectral synthesis technique, which is based on mean field approach to Bayesian independent component analysis (MF-ICA) method, to the galaxy integrated spectra. We also analyze the stellar population properties, including percentage contribution, stellar age, and stellar mass, for these three types of ULIRGs, and explore the evolution among them. We find no significant difference between the properties of stellar populations in ULIRGs with or without active galactic nucleus components. Our results suggest that there is no evolutionary link among these three type ULIRGs.

  1. Cloudy sounding and cloud-top height retrieval from AIRS alone single field-of-view radiance measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    to 15.4 mm). The spectral coverage includes strong CO2 absorption necessary for temperature profile and Ping Yang4 Received 3 April 2007; accepted 16 May 2007; published 20 June 2007. [1] High) Aqua satellite provide unique information about atmospheric state, surface and cloud properties

  2. Infrared Thermometer (IRT) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VR Morris

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Infrared Thermometer (IRT) is a ground-based radiation pyrometer that provides measurements of the equivalent blackbody brightness temperature of the scene in its field of view. The downwelling version has a narrow field of view for measuring sky temperature and for detecting clouds. The upwelling version has a wide field of view for measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface.

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

  4. Photon sorting in the near field using subwavelength cavity arrays in the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandel, Isroel M., E-mail: imandel@gc.cuny.edu; Lansey, Eli [Department of Physics, Graduate Center and City College of the City University of New York, New York 10016 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Graduate Center and City College of the City University of New York, New York 10016 (United States); Gollub, Jonah N.; Sarantos, Chris H.; Akhmechet, Roman [Phoebus Optoelectronics, New York, New York 10013 (United States)] [Phoebus Optoelectronics, New York, New York 10013 (United States); Golovin, Andrii B.; Crouse, David T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective metasurface capable of sorting photons in the near-infrared spectral range is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The metasurface, a periodic array of dielectric cylindrical cavities in a gold film, localizes and transmits light of two spectral frequency bands into spatially separated cavities, resulting in near-field light splitting. The design and fabrication methodologies of the metasurface are discussed. The transmittance and photon sorting properties of the designed structure is simulated numerically and the measured transmission is presented.

  5. Simulations of Spectral Profiles Observed in a C5.6 Limb Flare

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Hui

    , Nanjing 210008, China Abstract We obtained a complete set of H# , CaII 8542 Å¡ A and HeI 10830 Å¡ A spectra of the flare loop. Key words: limb flare, line profile, infrared PACS: 1 Introduction Solar flare spectra velocities, electron temperatures and densities [1--4]. Spectral lines are thought be wide in solar limb

  6. Method of multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R.; Kotula, Paul G.

    2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining the properties of a sample from measured spectral data collected from the sample by performing a multivariate spectral analysis. The method can include: generating a two-dimensional matrix A containing measured spectral data; providing a weighted spectral data matrix D by performing a weighting operation on matrix A; factoring D into the product of two matrices, C and S.sup.T, by performing a constrained alternating least-squares analysis of D=CS.sup.T, where C is a concentration intensity matrix and S is a spectral shapes matrix; unweighting C and S by applying the inverse of the weighting used previously; and determining the properties of the sample by inspecting C and S. This method can be used to analyze X-ray spectral data generated by operating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an attached Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS).

  7. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS THAT METHANOL MASER RINGS TRACE CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS: HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Buizer, James M. [Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian, E-mail: jdebuizer@sofia.usra.edu [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 11, 87-100 Torun (Poland)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Milliarcsecond very long baseline interferometry maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high-mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near- and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings. In the near-infrared we used the Gemini North adaptive optics system of ALTAIR/NIRI, while in the mid-infrared we used the combination of the Gemini South instrument T-ReCS and super-resolution techniques. Resultant images had a resolution of {approx}150 mas in both the near-infrared and mid-infrared. We discuss the expected distribution of circumstellar material around young and massive accreting (proto)stars and what infrared emission geometries would be expected for the different maser ring orientations under the assumption that the masers are coming from within circumstellar disks. Based upon the observed infrared emission geometries for the four targets in our sample and the results of spectral energy distribution modeling of the massive young stellar objects associated with the maser rings, we do not find compelling evidence in support of the hypothesis that methanol masers rings reside in circumstellar disks.

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF CO{sub 2} IN SATURN'S ATMOSPHERE FROM CASSINI/CIRS INFRARED OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, M. M.; LeClair, A. [NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Woodard, E.; Young, M.; Stanbro, M. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Flasar, F. M.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bjoraker, G.; Brasunas, J.; Jennings, D. E. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kunde, V. G., E-mail: Mian.M.Abbas@nasa.gov, E-mail: Andre.C.LeClair@nasa.gov, E-mail: eaw0009@uah.edu, E-mail: mcs0001@uah.edu, E-mail: youngmm@uah.edu, E-mail: f.m.flasar@nasa.gov, E-mail: virgil.g.kunde@gsfc.nasa.gov [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Collaboration: and the Cassini/CIRS team

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on the CO{sub 2} distribution in Saturn's atmosphere based on analysis of infrared spectral observations of Saturn made by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer aboard the Cassini spacecraft. The Cassini spacecraft was launched in 1997 October, inserted in Saturn's orbit in 2004 July, and has been successfully making infrared observations of Saturn, its rings, Titan, and other icy satellites during well-planned orbital tours. The infrared observations, made with a dual Fourier transform spectrometer in both nadir- and limb-viewing modes, cover spectral regions of 10-1400 cm{sup –1}, with the option of variable apodized spectral resolutions from 0.53 to 15 cm{sup –1}. An analysis of the observed spectra with well-developed radiative transfer models and spectral inversion techniques has the potential to provide knowledge of Saturn's thermal structure and composition with global distributions of a series of gases. In this paper, we present an analysis of a large observational data set for retrieval of Saturn's CO{sub 2} distribution utilizing spectral features of CO{sub 2} in the Q-branch of the ?{sub 2} band, and discuss its possible relationship to the influx of interstellar dust grains. With limited spectral regions available for analysis, due to low densities of CO{sub 2} and interference from other gases, the retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is obtained as a function of a model photochemical profile, with the retrieved values at atmospheric pressures in the region of ?1-10 mbar levels. The retrieved CO{sub 2} profile is found to be in good agreement with the model profile based on Infrared Space Observatory measurements with mixing ratios of ?4.9 × 10{sup –10} at atmospheric pressures of ?1 mbar.

  9. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  10. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  11. Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tereza Mendes; Attilio Cucchieri; Antonio Mihara

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.

  12. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at z~2 I: the Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Yan; Anna Sajina; Dario Fadda; Phil Choi; Lee Armus; George Helou; Harry Teplitz; David Frayer; Jason Surace

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) for a sample of 52 sources, selected as infrared luminous, z>1 candidates in the Extragalactic First Look Survey (XFLS). The sample selection criteria are f(24um) > 0.9mJy, nu fnu(24um)/nu fnu(8um) > 3.16 and nu fnu(24um)/nu fnu(0.7um) > 10. Of the 52 spectra, 47 (90%) produced measurable redshifts based solely on the mid-IR spectral features, with the majority (35/47=74%) at 1.5 1. Their $L_{1600\\AA}$ and $L_{\\rm IR}$ suggest that our sample is among the most luminous and most dust enshrouded systems of its epoch . Our study has revealed a significant population of dust enshrouded galaxies at z~2, whose enormous energy output, comparable to that of quasars, is generated by AGN as well as starburst. This IR luminous population has very little overlap with sub-mm and UV-selected populations (Abridged).

  13. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF RADIOXENON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Schrom, Brian T.

    2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Monitoring changes in atmospheric radioxenon concentrations is a major tool in the detection of an underground nuclear explosion. Ground based systems like the Automated Radioxenon Sampler /Analyzer (ARSA), the Swedish Unattended Noble gas Analyzer (SAUNA) and the Automatic portable radiometer of isotopes Xe (ARIX), can collect and detect several radioxenon isotopes by processing and transferring samples into a high efficiency beta-gamma coincidence detector. The high efficiency beta-gamma coincidence detector makes these systems highly sensitive to the radioxenon isotopes 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe and 135Xe. The standard analysis uses regions of interest (ROI) to determine the amount of a particular radioxenon isotope present. The ROI method relies on the peaks of interest falling within energy limits of the ROI. Some potential problems inherent in this method are the reliance on stable detector gains and a fixed resolution for each energy peak. In addition, when a high activity sample is measured there will be more interference among the ROI, in particular within the 133Xe, 133mXe, and 131mXe regions. A solution to some of these problems can be obtained through spectral fitting of the data. Spectral fitting is simply the fitting of the peaks using known functions to determine the number and relative peak positions and widths. By knowing this information it is possible to determine which isotopes are present. Area under each peak can then be used to determine an overall concentration for each isotope. Using the areas of the peaks several key detector characteristics can be determined: efficiency, energy calibration, energy resolution and ratios between interfering isotopes (Radon daughters).

  14. $\\alpha$ Centauri A in the far infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liseau, R; Olofsson, G; Bryden, G; Marshall, J P; Ardila, D; Aran, A Bayo; Danchi, W C; del Burgo, C; Eiroa, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M C W; Krivov, A V; Pilbratt, G L; Roberge, A; Thébault, P; Wiegert, J; White, G J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the energy transfer to these heated atmospheric layers requires direct access to the relevant empirical data. Study of these structures has, by and large, been limited to the Sun thus far. The region of the temperature reversal can be directly observed only in the far infrared and submm. We aim at the determination of the characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of the temperature minimum of the solar sister star alpha Cen A. For the nearby binary system alpha Centauri, stellar parameters are known with high accuracy from measurements. For the basic model parameters Teff, log g and [Fe/H], we interpolate in the grid of GAIA/PHOENIX stellar model atmospheres and compute the corresponding model for the G2 V star alpha Cen A. Comparison with photometric measurements shows excellent agreement between observed photospheric data in the optical and infrared. For longer wavelengths, the modelled spectral energy distribution is co...

  15. Chemometric calibration of infrared spectrometers: selection and validation of variables by non-linear models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verleysen, Michel

    regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR). Then, we will propose to incorporate non-linearChemometric calibration of infrared spectrometers: selection and validation of variables by non-linear (step by step) for the selection of spectral variables, using linear regression or neural networks

  16. DeMeo taxonomy : categorization of asteroids in the near-infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMeo, Francesca E

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the DeMeo taxonomy, an asteroid taxonomy with 24 classes based on Principal Component Analysis of spectral data over the visible and near-infrared wavelengths, specifically the 0.45 to 2.45 micron range. ...

  17. Investigation of infrared Fourier-Transform spectroscopy for oral cancer detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooney, Kevin Michael

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system was developed using a Fourier Transform-n spectrometer to investigate spectral differences between malignant, benign and healthy oral tissue in the near-infrared range (2.0-2.5 microns). A hamster model for oral squamous cell carcinoma...

  18. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  19. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  20. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee [Institute of Microelectronics (IME), 11 Science Park Road, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Lee, Chengkuo, E-mail: elelc@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300?nm, the spectral shift of 0.7??m in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1??m. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  1. The influence of stratus, stratocumulus, and altocumulus clouds on the spectral distribution of solar radiation over Antarctic waters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettett, James Eugene

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of local solar time. 14 Stratus extinction of solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local solar time. 15 Stratocumulus extinction of solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local... solar time . . . ~ . . . . . ~ . ~ . ~ 53 16 Altocumulus extinction of Solar radiation in the infrared band, 700-2, 800 nm, as a function of local solar time 55 LIST OP TABLES Tab le Page Per cent of daily total flux contained in three spectral...

  2. A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van-Charles A novel spectroscopic ellipsometer in the infrared / by Jean-Charles Cigal. ­ Eindhoven : Technische / infraroodspectroscopie / siliciumoxide / botweefsel Subject headings: ellipsometers / infrared spectroscopy / silicon

  3. The infrared behavior of lattice QCD Green's functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre Sternbeck

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate different aspects of lattice QCD in Landau gauge using Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we focus on the low momentum behavior of gluon and ghost propagators. The gauge group is SU(3). Different systematic effects on the gluon and ghost propagators are studied, e.g. the dependence on the choice of Gribov copies or the influence of dynamical Wilson fermions. We compare our data with results from studies of Dyson-Schwinger equations for the gluon and ghost propagators. We demonstrate that the infrared behavior of both propagators, as found in this thesis, is consistent with different criteria for confinement. However, the running coupling constant, given as a renormalization-group-invariant combination of the gluon and ghost dressing functions, does not expose a finite infrared fixed point. We also report on a first nonperturbative computation of the SU(3) ghost-gluon-vertex renormalization constant and on an investigation of the spectral properties of the Faddeev-Popov operator.

  4. Can infrared gravitons screen $?$?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume Garriga; Takahiro Tanaka

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that infrared gravitons in de Sitter space may lead to a secular screening of the effective cosmological constant. This seems to clash with the naive expectation that the curvature scalar should stay constant due to the Heisenberg equation of motion. Here, we show that the tadpole correction to the local expansion rate, which has been used in earlier analyses as an indicator of a decaying effective $\\Lambda$, is not gauge invariant. On the other hand, we construct a gauge invariant operator which measures the renormalized curvature scalar smeared over an arbitrary window function, and we find that there is no secular screening of this quantity (to any given order in perturbation theory).

  5. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  6. Asymptotics of the Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Crompton

    2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We follow recent formulations of dimensionally reduced loop operators for quantum field theories and exact representations of probabilistic lattice dynamics to identify a new scheme for the evaluation of partition function zeroes, allowing for the explicit analysis of quantum critical phenomena. This new approach gives partition function zeroes from a factored quantum loop operator basis and, as we show, constitutes an effective mapping of the renormalization group $\\beta$-function onto the noncommuting local operator basis of a countably finite Hilbert space. The Vafa-Witten theorem for CP-violation and related complex action problems of Euclidean Field theories are discussed, following recent treatments, and are shown to be natural consequences of the analyticity of the limiting distribution of these zeroes, and properties of vacuum regimes governed by a dominant quantum fluctuation in the vicinity of a renormalization group equation fixed point in the infrared.

  7. Spectral energy distributions of selfgravitating QSO discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwin Sirko; Jeremy Goodman

    2002-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of steady accretion discs at high accretion rates, as appropriate for bright QSOs, under the assumption that the outer parts are heated sufficiently to maintain marginal gravitational stability, presumably by massive stars formed within the disc. The SED is independent of the nature of these auxiliary sources if their inputs are completely thermalized. Standard assumptions are made for angular momentum transport, with an alpha parameter less than unity. With these prescriptions, the luminosity of the disc is sensitive to its opacity, in contrast to standard discs powered by release of orbital energy alone. Compared to the latter, our discs have a broader SED, with a second peak in the near-infrared that is energetically comparable to the blue bump. The energy in the second peak increases with the outer radius of the disc, provided that the accretion rate is constant with radius. By comparing our computed SEDs with observed ones, we limit the outer radius of the disc to be less than 10^5 Schwarzschild radii, or about one parsec, in a typical QSO. We also discuss some properties of our minimum-Q discs in the regions where auxiliary heating is dominant (10^3-10^5 Schwarzschild radii).

  8. A New Gas Cell for High-Precision Doppler Measurements in the Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valdivielso, L; Martín, E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the near-infrared could become the leading method for discovering extra-solar planets around very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. To help to achieve an accuracy of ~m/s, we are developing a gas cell which consists of a mixture of gases whose absorption spectral lines span all over the near-infrared region. We present the most promising mixture, made of acetylene, nitrous oxide, ammonia, chloromethans and hydrocarbons. The mixture is contained in a small size 13 cm long gas cell and covers most of the H and K-bands. It also shows small absorptions in the J-band but they are few and not sharp enough for near infrared wavelength calibration. We describe the working method and experiments and compare our results with the state of the art for near infrared gas cells.

  9. Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 A cold sulfur...

  10. Information content and reliability of TOVS estimates of precipitable water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Min

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of water vapor in the atmosphere has been accomplished by satellite sensors in both the infrared (IR) and microwave spectral regions. The radiance will be high if either the atmospheric temperature is high or the water vapor content is low. Among... hours apart. On board each satellite are channels of High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS2), Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU). Two infrared channels are essentially sensitive to water vapor. PW derived...

  11. Spectral selectivity of electrochromic windows with color state for all-sky conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soule, D.E. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States)] [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States); Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical performance of an electrochromic window is studied for the visible, ultraviolet, and near infrared spectral regions. The performance is found to deviate strongly with window color state and for clear or cloudy skies. A new spectral cloud model is applied to an electrochromic window recently developed at NREL. A spectral comparison is made between the electrochromic window and spectrally selective standard windows. Two series of double-glazed window sections, including the electrochromic window with color state and a series of low-E windows, were measured for transmittance and reflectance (300-2500nm), With these spectral data, a new near-infrared blocking (reflection + absorption) factor is developed for window application in warm climates for cooling load reduction. A chromaticity analysis is presented for both the daylight spectra and the transmitted electrochromic window spectra with color state, Computed daylight correlated color temperatures show a wide range, with values of 5660K for clear global irradiation, 6210K for clouds, and 13,250K for a zenith blue sky. Chromatic trajectories with color state for transmitted radiation extend further toward the blue to 8180K for the global and 28,990K for zenith sky irradiation.

  12. Room temperature infrared photoresponse of self assembled Ge/Si (001) quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singha, R. K.; Manna, S.; Das, S.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the observation of intraband near infrared (approx3.1 mum) and mid infrared (approx6.2 mum) photocurrent response at room temperature using Ge/Si self-assembled quantum dots grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Due to the bimodal size distribution and SiGe intermixing, distinguishable photoluminescence transitions are observed at 10 K, below and above the optical band gap of bulk Ge. The observed redshift in photocurrent with increasing temperature has been explained by the excitonic electric field originated due to infrared excitation at low temperatures. A good correlation between the spectral photocurrent response and photoluminescence of the quantum dots has been established.

  13. Spectral shift reactor control method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes the method of operating a pressurized-water fissile-material-fueled spectral-shift nuclear reactor in such manner that short-term reactivity requirement variations can be satisfied without making control rod or chemical shim changes. The reactor includes a pressure vessel enclosing a reactor core and having an inlet and an outlet for circulating a water coolant moderator in heat transfer relationship with the core. The core comprises fuel assemblies disposed therein for generating heat by nuclear fission. The reactor provided with neutron-absorbing control rods which are vertically movable into and out of the core so that movement of the control rods into the core will substantially decrease reactivity and withdrawal of the control rods from the core will substantially increase reactivity. The control rods when inserted into the core displace an equivalent volume of the water coolant moderator. The reactor also provides neutron-spectral-shift rods which have a lower absorptivity for neutrons than the control rods, the neutron-spectral shift rods when inserted into the core displacing an equaivalent volume of the water coolant moderator. The neutron-spectral-shift rods comprises two different types of rods, a first of the different types of the neutron-spectral-shift rods comprising displacer rods which have a low absorptivity for neutrons, the remainder of the neutron-spectral-shift rods comprising gray rods which have an absorption for neutrons which is intermediate the neutron absorption of the control rods and the low neutron absorption of the displacer rods. Each neutron-spectral-shift displacer rod comprises a hollow thin-walled Zircaloy member containing a filling of solid or annular zirconium- or aluminum-containing material for providing internal support and mass for the thin-walled tubular member.

  14. Far and mid infrared observations of two ultracompact H II regions and one compact CO clump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, R P; Mookerjea, B; Rengarajan, T N

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two ultracompact H II regions (IRAS 19181+1349 and 20178+4046) and one compact molecular clump (20286+4105) have been observed at far infrared wavelengths using the TIFR 1 m balloon-borne telescope and at mid infrared wavelengths using ISO. Far infrared observations have been made simultaneously in two bands with effective wavelengths of ~ 150 and ~ 210 micron, using liquid 3He cooled bolometer arrays. ISO observations have been made in seven spectral bands using the ISOCAM instrument; four of these bands cover the emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. In addition, IRAS survey data for these sources in the four IRAS bands have been processed using the HIRES routine. In the high resolution mid infrared maps as well as far infrared maps multiple embedded energy sources have been resolved. There are structural similarities between the images in the mid infrared and the large scale maps in the far infrared bands, despite very different angular resolutions of the two. Dust temperature and ...

  15. Industrial Use of Infrared Inspections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duch, A. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operating load. - Pinpointing of the exact location of the problems. - The inspections will locate problems which will, in most cases, go unnoticed using conventional techniques. An infrared inspection will locate problem areas in the plant electrica1...

  16. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    it will detect Type Ia supernovæ between z = 1 and 1.7 andphotometry for all supernovæ. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-Keywords: Cosmology, Supernovae, Dark Energy, Near Infrared,

  17. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device, producing less wastewater and preserving product quality. Infrared drypeeling is expected to reduce

  18. 2D radiative modelling of He I spectral lines formed in solar prominences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Leger; F. Paletou

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We present preliminary results of 2D radiative modelling of He I lines in solar prominences, using a new numerical code developed by us (Leger, Chevallier and Paletou 2007). It treats self-consistently the radiation transfer and the non-LTE statistical equilibrium of H and, in a second stage, the one of He using a detailed atomic model. Preliminary comparisons with new visible plus near-infrared observations made at high spectral resolution with THeMIS are very satisfactory.

  19. Voltage-tunable terahertz and infrared photodetectors based on double-graphene-layer structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryzhii, V., E-mail: v-ryzhii@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 111005 (Russian Federation); Otsuji, T. [Research Institute for Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dubinov, A. A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ryzhii, M. [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan); Mitin, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States); Shur, M. S. [Department of Electrical, Electronics, and System Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and theoretically substantiate the concept of terahertz and infrared photodetectors using the resonant radiative transitions between graphene layers (GLs) in double-GL structures. The calculated absorption spectrum and the spectral characteristics of the photodetector responsivity exhibit sharp resonant maxima at the photon energies in a wide range. The resonant maxima can be tuned by the applied voltage. We compare the photodetector responsivity with that of the GL p-i-n photodiodes and quantum-well infrared photodetectors. Weak temperature dependences of the photocurrent and dark current enable the effective operation of the proposed photodetector at room temperature.

  20. High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared Adrien Billat,1,* Steevy.billat@epfl.ch Abstract: We report the design of an all-fiber continuous wave Short-Wave Infrared source capable to output.4370) Nonlinear optics, fibers; (140.3070) Infrared and far-infrared lasers. References and links 1. M. N

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    infrared emission. This initially provoked heated debate between a ``starburst'' camp and an ``activeHIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1 J. Bernard, 10Y37 m spectra of 53 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), taken using the Infrared Spectrograph

  2. Method for determining and displaying the spacial distribution of a spectral pattern of received light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (10, 210) having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (12) providing a series of images (40) to a focal plane array camera (38). The focal plane array camera (38) is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror (18) of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (12) and as detected by a laser detector (50) such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera (38) corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (12). The images (40) are transmitted to a computer (45) for processing such that representations of the images (40) as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral "fingerprint" pattern can be displayed on a monitor (60) or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer (45).

  3. Method for determining and displaying the spacial distribution of a spectral pattern of received light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, C.L.

    1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging Fourier transform spectrometer is described having a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer providing a series of images to a focal plane array camera. The focal plane array camera is clocked to a multiple of zero crossing occurrences as caused by a moving mirror of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and as detected by a laser detector such that the frame capture rate of the focal plane array camera corresponds to a multiple of the zero crossing rate of the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The images are transmitted to a computer for processing such that representations of the images as viewed in the light of an arbitrary spectral ``fingerprint`` pattern can be displayed on a monitor or otherwise stored and manipulated by the computer. 2 figs.

  4. Far and mid infrared observations of two ultracompact H II regions and one compact CO clump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Verma; S. K. Ghosh; B. Mookerjea; T. N. Rengarajan

    2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Two ultracompact H II regions (IRAS 19181+1349 and 20178+4046) and one compact molecular clump (20286+4105) have been observed at far infrared wavelengths using the TIFR 1 m balloon-borne telescope and at mid infrared wavelengths using ISO. Far infrared observations have been made simultaneously in two bands with effective wavelengths of ~ 150 and ~ 210 micron, using liquid 3He cooled bolometer arrays. ISO observations have been made in seven spectral bands using the ISOCAM instrument; four of these bands cover the emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. In addition, IRAS survey data for these sources in the four IRAS bands have been processed using the HIRES routine. In the high resolution mid infrared maps as well as far infrared maps multiple embedded energy sources have been resolved. There are structural similarities between the images in the mid infrared and the large scale maps in the far infrared bands, despite very different angular resolutions of the two. Dust temperature and optical depth (tau_150 um) maps have also been generated using the data from balloon-borne observations. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these sources have been constructed by combining the data from all these observations. Radiation transfer calculations have been made to understand these SEDs. Parameters for the dust envelopes in these sources have been derived by fitting the observed SEDs. In particular, it has been found that radial density distribution for three sources is diffrent. Whereas in the case of IRAS 20178+4046, a steep distribution of the form r^-2 is favoured, for IRAS 20286+4105 it is r^-1 and for IRAS 19181+1349 it the uniform distribution (r^0). Line ratios for PAH bands have generally been found to be similar to those for other compact H II regions but different from general H II regions.

  5. Spectral Thompson Sampling Tomas Kocak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spectral Thompson Sampling Tom´as Koc´ak SequeL team INRIA Lille - Nord Europe France Michal Valko Thompson Sampling (TS) has surged a lot of interest due to its good empirical performance, in particular that our algorithm is com- petitive on both synthetic and real-world data. 1 Introduction Thompson Sampling

  6. Optical and Near-Infrared spectroscopy of Nova V1494 Aquilae 1999 #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamath, U S; Ashok, N M; Mayya, Y D; Sahu, D K

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the fast nova V1494 Aquilae 1999 #2 covering various phases -- early decline, transition and nebular -- during the first eighteen months of its post-outburst evolution are presented in this paper. During this period, the nova evolved in the P_fe P_fe^o C_o spectral sequence. The transition from an optically thick wind to a polar blob - equatorial ring geometry is seen in the evolution of the spectral line profiles. There is evidence of density and temperature stratification in the ejecta. Physical conditions in the ejecta have been estimated based on our observations.

  7. Optical and Near-Infrared spectroscopy of Nova V1494 Aquilae 1999 #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. S. Kamath; G. C. Anupama; N. M. Ashok; Y. D. Mayya; D. K. Sahu

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the fast nova V1494 Aquilae 1999 #2 covering various phases -- early decline, transition and nebular -- during the first eighteen months of its post-outburst evolution are presented in this paper. During this period, the nova evolved in the P_fe P_fe^o C_o spectral sequence. The transition from an optically thick wind to a polar blob - equatorial ring geometry is seen in the evolution of the spectral line profiles. There is evidence of density and temperature stratification in the ejecta. Physical conditions in the ejecta have been estimated based on our observations.

  8. Dusty Infrared Galaxies: Sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilaine Lagache; Jean-Loup Puget; Herve Dole

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in 1996, together with recent cosmological surveys from the mid-infrared to the millimeter have revolutionized our view of star formation at high redshifts. It has become clear, in the last decade, that a population of galaxies that radiate most of their power in the far-infrared (the so-called ``infrared galaxies'') contributes an important part of the whole galaxy build-up in the Universe. Since 1996, detailed (and often painful) investigations of the high-redshift infrared galaxies have resulted in the spectacular progress covered in this review. We outline the nature of the sources of the CIB including their star-formation rate, stellar and total mass, morphology, metallicity and clustering properties. We discuss their contribution to the stellar content of the Universe and their origin in the framework of the hierarchical growth of structures. We finally discuss open questions for a scenario of their evolution up to the present-day galaxies.

  9. Active infrared materials for beam steering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Gin, Aaron V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Miao, Xiaoyu; Barrick, Todd A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR, 3 {micro}m -12 {micro}m) is a highly desirable spectral range for imaging and environmental sensing. We propose to develop a new class of mid-IR devices, based on plasmonic and metamaterial concepts, that are dynamically controlled by tunable semiconductor plasma resonances. It is well known that any material resonance (phonons, excitons, electron plasma) impacts dielectric properties; our primary challenge is to implement the tuning of a semiconductor plasma resonance with a voltage bias. We have demonstrated passive tuning of both plasmonic and metamaterial structures in the mid-IR using semiconductors plasmas. In the mid-IR, semiconductor carrier densities on the order of 5E17cm{sup -3} to 2E18cm{sup -3} are desirable for tuning effects. Gate control of carrier densities at the high end of this range is at or near the limit of what has been demonstrated in literature for transistor style devices. Combined with the fact that we are exploiting the optical properties of the device layers, rather than electrical, we are entering into interesting territory that has not been significantly explored to date.

  10. The Unidentified InfraRed Features after ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Peeters; L. J. Allamandola; D. M. Hudgins; S. Hony; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2003-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) has provided the first complete mid-IR spectra for a wide range of objects. Almost all of these spectra are dominated by the well-known infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 $\\mu$m, the so-called Unidentified Infra-Red (UIR) features. Besides the major features, there is an array of minor features and broad plateaux stretching from 3 to 20 $\\mu$m which reveal subtle details of conditions in the emission zones and properties of the carriers. Generally attributed to the vibrational relaxation of UV-pumped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) containing some 50--100 C-atoms, these UIR spectra are a treasure trove of information. The ISO spectra have, for the first time, allowed a systematic analysis of the spectral characteristics of the UIR features in a wide variety of environments. The peak positions, profiles, and relative strengths of the major features vary from source to source and spatially within sources. These specific profiles are not unique to certain object types but can occur within each individual source. Here, we review ISO and recent ground-based observations and assess some of their implications.

  11. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  12. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  13. Infrared Emission of Normal Galaxies from 2.5 to 12 Microns: ISO Spectra, Near-Infrared Continuum and Mid-Infrared Emission Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanyao Lu; George Helou; Michael W. Werner; Harriet L. Dinerstein; Daniel A. Dale; Nancy A. Silbermann; Sangeeta Malhotra; Charles A. Beichman; Thomas H. Jarrett

    2003-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ISO-PHOT spectra of the regions 2.5-4.9um and 5.8-11.6um for a sample of 45 disk galaxies from the U.S. ISO Key Project on Normal Galaxies. The spectra can be decomposed into three spectral components: (1) continuum emission from stellar photospheres, which dominates the near-infrared (2.5- 4.9um; NIR) spectral region; (2) a weak NIR excess continuum, which has a color temperature of ~ 1000K, carries a luminosity of a few percent of the total far-infrared luminosity L(FIR), and most likely arises from the ISM; and (3) the well-known broad emission features at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6 and 11.3 um, which are generally attributed to aromatic carbon particles. These aromatic features in emission (AFEs) dominate the mid-infrared (5.8-11.6 um; MIR) part of the spectrum, and resemble the so-called Type-A spectra observed in many non-stellar sources and the diffuse ISM in our own Galaxy. The relative strengths of the AFEs vary by 15-25% among the galaxies. However, little correlation is seen between these variations and either IRAS 60um-to-100um flux density ratio R(60/100) or the FIR-to-blue luminosity ratio L(FIR)/L(B), suggesting that the observed variations are not a direct consequence of the radiation field differences among the galaxies. We demonstrate that the NIR excess continuum and AFE emission are correlated, suggesting that they are produced by similar mechanisms and similar (or the same) material. On the other hand, as the current star-formation activity increases, the overall strengths of the AFEs and the NIR excess continuum drop significantly with respect to that of the far-infrared emission from large dust grains. This is likely a consequence of the preferential destruction in intense radiation fields of the small carriers responsible for the NIR/AFE emission.

  14. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FLAME SPECTRAL ANALYSIS FOR BOILER CONTROL CHRISTOPHER I. METCALFE WILLIAM E. COLE SUSHIL K. BATRA Tecogen, Inc. ( A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation) Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT SPECTRAL FLAME ANALYSIS FOR BURNER CONTROL During...

  15. Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Furnstahl; G. Hagen; T. Papenbrock; K. A. Wendt

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.

  16. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that it does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.

  17. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  18. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Abstract: The high resolution infrared spectrum of...

  19. Spectral diagonal ensemble Kalman filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasanický, Ivan; Vejmelka, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of ensemble Kalman filter is developed, which is based on replacing the sample covariance in the analysis step by its diagonal in a spectral basis. It is proved that this technique improves the aproximation of the covariance when the covariance itself is diagonal in the spectral basis, as is the case, e.g., for a second-order stationary random field and the Fourier basis. The method is extended by wavelets to the case when the state variables are random fields, which are not spatially homogeneous. Efficient implementations by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) are presented for several types of observations, including high-dimensional data given on a part of the domain, such as radar and satellite images. Computational experiments confirm that the method performs well on the Lorenz 96 problem and the shallow water equations with very small ensembles and over multiple analysis cycles.

  20. Spectral Emission of Moving Atom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2008-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A renewed analysis of the H.E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell's experiment on moving hydrogen canal rays (J. Opt. Soc. Am., 1938, v.28, 215) concludes that the spectral emission of a moving atom exhibits always a redshift which informs not the direction of the atom's motion. The conclusion is also evident from a simple energy relation: atomic spectral radiation is emitted as an orbiting electron consumes a portion of its internal energy on transiting to a lower-energy state which however has in a moving atom an additional energy gain; this results in a redshift in the emission frequency. Based on auxiliary experimental information and a scheme for de Broglie particle formation, we give a vigorous elucidation of the mechanism for deceleration radiation of atomic electron; the corresponding prediction of the redshift is in complete agreement with the Ives and Stilwell's experimental formula.

  1. Emission Lines and the Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Wilkes; P. J. Green; S. Mathur; J. C. McDowell

    1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Many years of study have failed to conclusively establish relations between a quasar's spectral energy distribution (SED) and the emission lines it is thought to produce. This is at least partially due to the lack of well-observed SEDs. We present initial results from a line--SED study for a sample of 43 quasars and active galaxies for which we have optical and ultra-violet spectra and far-infrared--X-ray SEDs. We present the results of tests for correlations between line equivalent widths and SED luminosity and slope parameters and compare these results to those from earlier studies. We find that the Baldwin effect is weaker when the luminosity is defined close to the ionising continuum of that line and conclude that the detailed SED is likely to be important in making further progress.

  2. Spectral Energy Distributions for Disk and Halo M--Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. K. Leggett; F. Allard; Conard Dahn; P. H. Hauschildt; T. H. Kerr; J. Rayner

    2000-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have obtained infrared (1 to 2.5 micron) spectroscopy for 42 halo and disk dwarfs with spectral type M1 to M6.5. These data are compared to synthetic spectra generated by the latest model atmospheres of Allard & Hauschildt. Photospheric parameters metallicity, effective temperature and radius are determined for the sample. We find good agreement between observation and theory except for known problems due to incomplete molecular data for metal hydrides and water. The metal-poor M subdwarfs are well matched by the models as oxide opacity sources are less important in this case. The derived effective temperatures for the sample range from 3600K to 2600K; at these temperatures grain formation and extinction are not significant in the photosphere. The derived metallicities range from solar to one-tenth solar. The radii and effective temperatures derived agree well with recent models of low mass stars.

  3. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  4. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  5. NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-EXCESS STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT G54.1+0.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae-Sik, E-mail: hjkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: koo@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: moon@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of broadband near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the recently discovered mysterious stellar objects in the young supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. These objects, which show significant mid-infrared-excess emission, are embedded in a diffuse loop structure of {approx}1' in radius. Their near-infrared spectra reveal characteristics of late O- or early B-type stars with numerous H and He I absorption lines, and we classify their spectral types to be between O9 and B2 based on an empirical relation derived here between the equivalent widths of the H lines and stellar photospheric temperatures. The spectral types, combined with the results of spectral energy distribution fits, constrain the distance to the objects to be 6.0 {+-} 0.4 kpc. The photometric spectral types of the objects are consistent with those from the spectroscopic analyses, and the extinction distributions indicate a local enhancement of matter in the western part of the loop. If these objects originate via triggered formation by the progenitor star of G54.1+0.3, then their formations likely began during the later evolutionary stages of the progenitor, although a rather earlier formation may still be possible. If the objects and the progenitor belong to the same cluster of stars, then our results constrain the progenitor mass of G54.1+0.3 to be between 18 and {approx}35 M{sub Sun} and suggest that G54.1+0.3 was either a Type IIP supernova or, with a relatively lower possibility, Type Ib/c from a binary system.

  6. Quantitative nondestructive testing using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Arun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steady, and selective heating scenarios. Infrared Physics &heating thermography and lock-in ther- mography to quantitative nondestructive evaluations. Infraredheating is very difficult to achieve in a practical scenario. The Infrared

  7. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Dawson, L. Ralph (Albuquerque, NM); Howard, Arnold J. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  8. Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masao Hirokawa

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We mathematically study the infrared catastrophe for the Hamiltonian of Nelson's model when it has the external potential in a general class. For the model, we prove the pull-through formula on ground states in operator theory first. Based on this formula, we show both non-existence of any ground state and divergence of the total number of soft bosons.

  9. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  10. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  11. Using Infrared Sensors to Follow an Infrared Beam Scott Sobieski, Thomas Richards, David Peacock,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    Using Infrared Sensors to Follow an Infrared Beam Scott Sobieski, Thomas Richards, David Peacock, Computer Science Department The second robot follows the infrared beam from the first robot. These sensors infrared sensors produce a value between 0 and 255 depending on their distance from the emitting beam

  12. Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopgood, Adrian

    166 Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual Medical Images G. Schaefer Aston written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Medical infrared imaging captures the temperature a useful diagnostic visualisation for the clinician. #12;167 Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual

  13. Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Tec / Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft L. M. McMillin D. Q. Wark J. M. Siomkajlo P. G. Abel A. Werbowetzki. E. Bittner C. M. Hayden #12;UDC 551.507.362.2:551.508.2:551.501.7:535-1 Physics Infrared radiation

  14. Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model Masao Hirokawa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model Masao Hirokawa Department of Mathematics, Okayama University, 700­8530 Okayama, Japan Abstract We study the infrared catastrophe for Nelson's Hamiltonian general conditions. 1 Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the infrared catastrophe

  15. Highlights: Optical/NIR Spectroscopy of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Veilleux

    1999-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the results from recent optical and near-infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

  16. Optical properties of CdS-PbS films and the possibility of the photoeffect in the mid-infrared range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokakh, A. G., E-mail: rokakhag@mail.ru; Bilenko, D. I.; Shishkin, M. I.; Skaptsov, A. A.; Venig, S. B.; Matasov, M. D. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using the plasma resonance in semiconductors to excite exoelectron photoemission in the mid-infrared spectral range without special cooling is discussed. Optical reflection spectra in the mid-infrared range of vacuum-deposited radiation-resistant films of limited CdS-PbS solid solutions containing a minimum associated with the plasma resonance are presented. The plasma resonance of secondary-electron emission is compared with the secondary-ion photoeffect and a conclusion is made concerning the possibility of the influence of the plasma resonance in the mid-infrared range on the escape of electrons from the semiconductor photocathode at room temperature.

  17. Plasmonics in the near-infrared : spatial, spectral, and temporal studies of surface plasmon polaritons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tetz, Kevin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FIGURES Figure I.1: Di?erent plasmon resonance nanostructurearrays C. Dissertation outline . . . . . . surface plasmons,and plasmon po- Surface plasmon polaritons at the metal-

  18. INFRARED SPECTRAL MAPPING OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. I. N63A AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caulet, Adeline [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States); Williams, Rosa M., E-mail: adel-col@orange.fr [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, 701 Front Ave., Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the supernova remnant (SNR) N63A and its native H II region N63 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We measure nebular fine-structure lines, H{sub 2} lines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lines contribute half of the flux in the Spitzer 24 {mu}m image of N63A shocked lobes, but only {<=}10% elsewhere. The mid-IR flux is largely due to thermal continuum emission from dust in and around N63A plasma. Electron densities are low everywhere; the differences in mid-IR line ratios separate N63A plasma and its high-excitation surroundings from N63A low-excitation optical lobes. We compare the observed line fluxes and ratios within N63A's shocked lobes and plasma with the predictions from models for moderate and fast shocks to constrain pre-shock densities and shock velocities. N63A's photoionized lobe contains a warm photodissociation region in pressure equilibrium with optically ionized gas. We apply a physical dust model to our spectra supplemented by MIPS photometry. We derive the intensity of radiation heating the dust, the mass fraction due to PAHs, and the masses of dust within our sampled regions and of cooler grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. N63A's shocked lobes and plasma contain {approx}0.07 M{sub Sun} of hot grains, comparable to amounts in other SNRs. Within N63A there is {approx}0.7 M{sub Sun} of warm grains exposed to {>=}100 times the intensity of the local interstellar radiation field. Within the regions, 92% of the total dust mass resides in cool grains emitting {<=}27% of their mid-IR luminosity.

  19. Temperature dependence of infrared spectral properties of the dimerized quasi 1-d TCNQ salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . M. Yartsev and A. Graja (*) Faculty of Physics, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454136, U

  20. Realization of an infrared spectral radiant power response scale on a cryogenic bolometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Migdall, Alan

    by multiple ties to a primary standard, the NIST High Accuracy Cryogenic Radiometer (HACR). These transfers been determined by multiple ties to a primary standard, the NIST High Accuracy Cryogenic Radiometer by sensing energy deposited within its absorber, its relative response is just the product of the absorptance

  1. Fabrication and testing of an infrared spectral control component for thermophotovoltaic power conversion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis M. (Francis Martin), 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion is the direct conversion of thermal radiation to electricity. Conceptually, TPV power conversion is a very elegant means of energy conversion. A thermal source emits a radiative ...

  2. Plasmonics in the near-infrared : spatial, spectral, and temporal studies of surface plasmon polaritons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tetz, Kevin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of SPP pulse provides additional electromagnetic ?eldpulses using a time-resolved spatial heterodyne imaging technique to obtain spatial distributions of the electromagnetic ?pulses using a time-resolved spatial heterodyne imaging (TRSHI) technique to obtain spatial distributions of the electromagnetic ?

  3. A Statistics-Based Method For The Short-Wave Infrared Spectral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of alteration minerals, which classifies spectra according to their shape and absorption features, thus obtaining groups of spectra equivalent to mineral assemblages. It...

  4. A Statistics-Based Method For The Short-Wave Infrared Spectral Analysis Of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergy InformationOfand RangeOpenOf

  5. Modeling the Infrared Emission from the Epsilon Eridani Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, A; Bendo, G J; Li, Aigen

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We model the infrared (IR) emission from the ring-like dust disk around the main-sequence (MS) star Epsilon Eridani, a young analog to our solar system, in terms of a porous dust model previously developed for the extended wedge-shaped disk around the MS star $\\beta$ Pictoris and the sharply truncated ring-like disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars HR 4796A and HD 141569A. It is shown that the porous dust model with a porosity of $\\simali$90% is also successful in reproducing the IR to submillimeter dust emission spectral energy distribution as well as the 850$\\mum$ flux radial profile of the dust ring around the more evolved MS star Epsilon Eridani. Predictions are made for future {\\it SIRTF} observations which may allow a direct test of the porous dust model.

  6. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF TYPE 1 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanish, D. J.; Teplitz, H. I.; Capak, P.; Desai, V.; Armus, L.; Brinkworth, C.; Brooke, T.; Colbert, J.; Fadda, D.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Paladini, R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Huynh, M. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, M468, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Lacy, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Murphy, E. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Scarlata, C. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Shenoy, S., E-mail: hanish@ipac.caltech.edu [Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use the Spitzer Space Telescope Enhanced Imaging Products and the Spitzer Archival Far-InfraRed Extragalactic Survey to study the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of spectroscopically confirmed type 1 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By combining the Spitzer and SDSS data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey, we are able to construct a statistically robust rest-frame 0.1-100 {mu}m type 1 quasar template. We find that the quasar population is well-described by a single power-law SED at wavelengths less than 20 {mu}m, in good agreement with previous work. However, at longer wavelengths, we find a significant excess in infrared luminosity above an extrapolated power-law, along with significant object-to-object dispersion in the SED. The mean excess reaches a maximum of 0.8 dex at rest-frame wavelengths near 100 {mu}m.

  7. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lashley, Jason Charles (Sante Fe, NM); Opeil, Cyril P. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Smith, James Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  8. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, Michael A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC

  10. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave broadband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarization ARMdownwelling

  11. ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband radiance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwellingpolarizationupwelling irradiance

  12. Radiance Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:b <RGS Development BV JumpRTEVRadiance

  13. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The "hybrid" method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A "spectral shape" herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The "shape" can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

  14. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.

    2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following prediction or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The hybrid method herein means a combination of an initial calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A spectral shape herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The shape can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

  15. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  16. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  17. RADIO AND MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF COMPACT STARBURSTS: DISTANCING THEMSELVES FROM THE MAIN SEQUENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Stierwalt, S.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Condon, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Evans, A. S., E-mail: emurphy@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the relationship between 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures and 1.4 to 8.44 GHz radio spectral indices with 6.2 {mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption features for a sample of 36 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. We find that galaxies having small 6.2 {mu}m PAH equivalent widths (EQWs), which signal the presence of weak PAH emission and/or an excess of very hot dust, also have flat spectral indices. The three active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified through their excessively large 8.44 GHz brightness temperatures are also identified as AGN via their small 6.2 {mu}m PAH EQWs. We also find that the flattening of the radio spectrum increases with increasing silicate optical depth, 8.44 GHz brightness temperature, and decreasing size of the radio source even after removing potential AGN, supporting the idea that compact starbursts show spectral flattening as the result of increased free-free absorption. These correlations additionally suggest that the dust obscuration in these galaxies must largely be coming from the vicinity of the compact starburst itself, and is not distributed throughout the (foreground) disk of the galaxy. Finally, we investigate the location of these infrared-bright systems relative to the main sequence (star formation rate versus stellar mass) of star-forming galaxies in the local universe. We find that the radio spectral indices of galaxies flatten with increasing distance above the main sequence, or in other words, with increasing specific star formation rate. This indicates that galaxies located above the main sequence, having high specific star formation rates, are typically compact starbursts hosting deeply embedded star formation that becomes more optically thick in the radio and infrared with increased distance above the main sequence.

  18. Spectral Solar Radiation Data Base at NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    *In September 1991 the Solar Energy Research Institute became the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. [Description taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/spectral/

  19. Holographic Quenches and Fermionic Spectral Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Callebaut; B. Craps; F. Galli; D. C. Thompson; J. Vanhoof; J. Zaanen; Hongbao Zhang

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Using holographic methods we investigate the behaviour of fermionic spectral functions of strongly coupled 2+1 dimensional field theories as both temperature and chemical potential are quenched.

  20. Spectral shift reactor control method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impink, A.J. Jr.

    1987-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The method is described of closely controlling the reactor water coolant temperature of an operating spectral-shift nuclear reactor, the reactor comprising a core formed of fuel assemblies through which the reactor water coolant flows; different types of elongated elements operable to be controllably moved into and out of the core; one type of the elongated elements comprising control rods formed of neutron absorbing material and operable to decrease reactivity through neutron absorption when inserted into the core; another of the types of elongated elements comprising displacer rods formed of material which has a low absorption for neutrons and which have overall neutron-absorbing and moderating characteristics essentially not exceeding those of hollow tubular Zircaloy members with a filling zirconium oxide or aluminum oxide, the displacer rods operating to displace an equivalent volume of water coolant fluid from the core when inserted therein to decrease reactivity and to increase reactivity when moved from the core.

  1. Spectral Diagnostics of Active Prominences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Labrosse, N; Vial, J C; Labrosse, Nicolas; Gouttebroze, Pierre; Vial, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active prominences exhibit plasma motions, resulting in difficulties with the interpretation of spectroscopic observations. These solar features being strongly influenced by the radiation coming from the solar disk, Doppler dimming or brightening effects may arise, depending on which lines are observed and on the velocity of the plasma. Interlocking between the different atomic energy levels and non local thermodynamic equilibrium lead to non-trivial spectral line profiles, and this calls for complex numerical modelling of the radiative transfer in order to understand the observations. We present such a tool, which solves the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium for H, He I, He II, and Ca II, in moving prominences where radial plasma motions are taking place. It is found that for isothermal, isobaric prominence models, the He II resonance lines are very sensitive to the Doppler effect and show a strong Doppler dimming. The Ca II lines are not very sensitive to the Doppler effect for the prominence m...

  2. Infrared colour properties of nearby radio-luminous galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiao-hong; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining the data of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Akari satellite, we study the infrared colour properties of a sample of 2712 nearby radio-luminous galaxies (RLGs). These RLGs are divided into radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mainly occurring at redshifts of $0.05$ 3.0. We also analyse the MIR colours of RL AGNs divided into low- and high-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs and HERGs, respectively). The ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram clearly shows separate distributions of LERGs and HERGs and a region of overlap, which suggests that LERGs and HERGs have different MIR properties. LERGs are responsible for the double-core distribution of RL AGNs on the ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram. In addition, we also suggest 90$-$140$\\mu$m band spectral index $\\alpha(90,140)<-1.4$ as a criterion of selecting nearby active galaxies with non-thermal emissions at FIR wavelengths.

  3. Star-formation histories of local luminous infrared galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Cazzoli, Sara; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; López, Javier Piqueras

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of the integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared and H$\\alpha$ of a sample of 29 local systems and individual galaxies with infrared (IR) luminosities between 10^11 Lsun and 10^11.8 Lsun. We have combined new narrow-band H$\\alpha$+[NII] and broad-band g, r optical imaging taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), with archival GALEX, 2MASS, Spitzer, and Herschel data. The SEDs (photometry and integrated H$\\alpha$ flux) have been fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code using stellar population synthesis models for the UV-near-IR range and thermal emission models for the IR emission taking into account the energy balance between the absorbed and re-emitted radiation. From the SED fits we derive the star-formation histories (SFH) of these galaxies. For nearly half of them the star-formation rate appears to be approximately constant during the last few Gyrs. In the other half, the current star-formation rate seems to be enha...

  4. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  5. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  6. Spectral statistics for scaling quantum graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. Dabaghian

    2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The explicit solution to the spectral problem of quantum graphs is used to obtain the exact distributions of several spectral statistics, such as the oscillations of the quantum momentum eigenvalues around the average, $\\delta k_{n}=k_{n}-\\bar k_{n}$, and the nearest neighbor separations, $s_{n}=k_{n}-k_{n-1}$.

  7. Iterative Speech Enhancement With Spectral Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Dallas, University of

    Iterative Speech Enhancement With Spectral Constraints John H. Hansen and Mark A. Clements Georgia iterative speech enhancementtechnique based on spectral constraints is presented in this paper estimate of a speech waveform in additive white noise. Thenew approach applies inter- and intra

  8. Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey J. Handmer; Béla Szilágyi; Jeffrey Winicour

    2015-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present gauge invariant spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction. We compare gravitational waveforms extracted from a head-on black hole merger simulated in two different gauges by two different codes. We show rapid convergence, demonstrating both gauge invariance of the extraction algorithm and consistency between the legacy Pitt null code and the much faster Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC).

  9. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  10. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  11. Infrared regularization with vector mesons and baryons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. Bruns; Ulf-G. Meißner

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the method of infrared regularization to spin-1 fields coupled to baryons. As an application, we discuss the axial form factor of the nucleon.

  12. Method of photon spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gehrke, R.J.; Putnam, M.H.; Killian, E.W.; Helmer, R.G.; Kynaston, R.L.; Goodwin, S.G.; Johnson, L.O.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectroscopic method to rapidly measure the presence of plutonium in soils, filters, smears, and glass waste forms by measuring the uranium L-shell x-ray emissions associated with the decay of plutonium. In addition, the technique can simultaneously acquire spectra of samples and automatically analyze them for the amount of americium and [gamma]-ray emitting activation and fission products present. The samples are counted with a large area, thin-window, n-type germanium spectrometer which is equally efficient for the detection of low-energy x-rays (10-2,000 keV), as well as high-energy [gamma] rays (>1 MeV). A 8,192- or 16,384 channel analyzer is used to acquire the entire photon spectrum at one time. A dual-energy, time-tagged pulser, that is injected into the test input of the preamplifier to monitor the energy scale, and detector resolution. The L x-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a linear-least-squares spectral fitting technique. The [gamma]-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a standard Ge [gamma]-ray analysis program. This method can be applied to any analysis involving x- and [gamma]-ray analysis in one spectrum and is especially useful when interferences in the x-ray region can be identified from the [gamma]-ray analysis and accommodated during the x-ray analysis.

  13. Spectral Diagnostics of Active Prominences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Labrosse; Pierre Gouttebroze; Jean-Claude Vial

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Active prominences exhibit plasma motions, resulting in difficulties with the interpretation of spectroscopic observations. These solar features being strongly influenced by the radiation coming from the solar disk, Doppler dimming or brightening effects may arise, depending on which lines are observed and on the velocity of the plasma. Interlocking between the different atomic energy levels and non local thermodynamic equilibrium lead to non-trivial spectral line profiles, and this calls for complex numerical modelling of the radiative transfer in order to understand the observations. We present such a tool, which solves the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium for H, He I, He II, and Ca II, in moving prominences where radial plasma motions are taking place. It is found that for isothermal, isobaric prominence models, the He II resonance lines are very sensitive to the Doppler effect and show a strong Doppler dimming. The Ca II lines are not very sensitive to the Doppler effect for the prominence models considered here. We illustrate how the code makes it possible to retrieve the plasma thermodynamic parameters by comparing computed and observed line profiles of hydrogen and helium resonance lines in a quiescent prominence.

  14. Method of photon spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gehrke, Robert J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Putnam, Marie H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Killian, E. Wayne (Idaho Falls, ID); Helmer, Richard G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kynaston, Ronnie L. (Blackfoot, ID); Goodwin, Scott G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, Larry O. (Pocatello, ID)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spectroscopic method to rapidly measure the presence of plutonium in soils, filters, smears, and glass waste forms by measuring the uranium L-shell x-ray emissions associated with the decay of plutonium. In addition, the technique can simultaneously acquire spectra of samples and automatically analyze them for the amount of americium and .gamma.-ray emitting activation and fission products present. The samples are counted with a large area, thin-window, n-type germanium spectrometer which is equally efficient for the detection of low-energy x-rays (10-2000 keV), as well as high-energy .gamma. rays (>1 MeV). A 8192- or 16,384 channel analyzer is used to acquire the entire photon spectrum at one time. A dual-energy, time-tagged pulser, that is injected into the test input of the preamplifier to monitor the energy scale, and detector resolution. The L x-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a linear-least-squares spectral fitting technique. The .gamma.-ray portion of each spectrum is analyzed by a standard Ge .gamma.-ray analysis program. This method can be applied to any analysis involving x- and .gamma.-ray analysis in one spectrum and is especially useful when interferences in the x-ray region can be identified from the .gamma.-ray analysis and accommodated during the x-ray analysis.

  15. Compensated infrared absorption sensor for carbon dioxide and other infrared absorbing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor, whose chamber uses filters and choppers in either a semicircular geometry or annular geometry, and incorporates separate infrared radiation filters and optical choppers. This configuration facilitates the use of a single infrared radiation source and a single detector for infrared measurements at two wavelengths, such that measurement errors may be compensated.

  16. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  17. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  18. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  19. Apparatus and system for multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R. (Albuquerque, NM); Kotula, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and system for determining the properties of a sample from measured spectral data collected from the sample by performing a method of multivariate spectral analysis. The method can include: generating a two-dimensional matrix A containing measured spectral data; providing a weighted spectral data matrix D by performing a weighting operation on matrix A; factoring D into the product of two matrices, C and S.sup.T, by performing a constrained alternating least-squares analysis of D=CS.sup.T, where C is a concentration intensity matrix and S is a spectral shapes matrix; unweighting C and S by applying the inverse of the weighting used previously; and determining the properties of the sample by inspecting C and S. This method can be used by a spectrum analyzer to process X-ray spectral data generated by a spectral analysis system that can include a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an Energy Dispersive Detector and Pulse Height Analyzer.

  20. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at z~2 II: Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Sajina; Lin Yan; Lee Armus; Phil Choi; Dario Fadda; George Helou; Henrik Spoon

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-IR spectral decomposition of a sample of 48 Spitzer-selected ULIRGs spanning z~1-3 and likely L_IR~10^12-10^13Lsun. Our study aims at quantifying the star-formation and AGN processes in these sources which recent results suggest have evolved strongly between the observed epoch and today. To do this, we study the mid-IR contribution of PAH emission, continuum, and extinction. About 3/4 of our sample are continuum- (i.e. AGN) dominated sources, but ~60% of these show PAH emission, suggesting the presence of star-formation activity. These sources have redder mid-IR colors than typical optically-selected quasars. About 25% of our sample have strong PAH emission, but none are likely to be pure starbursts as reflected in their relatively high 5um hot dust continua. However, their steep 30um-to-14um slopes suggest that star-formation might dominate the total infrared luminosity. Six of our z~2 sources have EW6.2>~0.3um and L_14um>~10^12Lsun (implying L_IR>~10^13Lsun). At these luminosities, such high EW6.2 ULIRGs do not exist in the local Universe. We find a median optical depth at 9.7um of =1.4. This is consistent with local IRAS-selected ULIRGs, but differs from early results on SCUBA-selected z~2 ULIRGs. Similar to local ULIRGs about 25% of our sample show extreme obscuration (tau_9.7>~3) suggesting buried nuclei. In general, we find that our sources are similar to local ULIRGs, but are an order of magnitude more luminous. It is not clear whether our z~2 ULIRGs are simply scaled-up versions of local ULIRGs, or subject to fundamentally different physical processes.

  1. Infrared fixed point in quantum Einstein gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Nagy; J. Krizsan; K. Sailer

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed the renormalization group analysis of the quantum Einstein gravity in the deep infrared regime for different types of extensions of the model. It is shown that an attractive infrared point exists in the broken symmetric phase of the model. It is also shown that due to the Gaussian fixed point the IR critical exponent $\

  2. A CATALOG OF GALACTIC INFRARED CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. S. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, X. H., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: yangxh@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We collected almost all of the Galactic infrared carbon stars (IRCSs) from literature published up to the present to organize a catalog of 974 Galactic IRCSs in this paper. Some of their photometric properties in the near-, mid-, and far-infrared are discussed.

  3. Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington Ceramic & Materials Engineering Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 1. Introduction Infrared (IR) optical fibers may be defined as fiber optics IR fiber optics may logically be divided into three broad categories: glass, crystalline, and hollow

  4. Running spectral index from inflation with modulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: takeshi.kobayashi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: fuminobu.takahashi@ipmu.jp [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that a large negative running spectral index, if confirmed, might suggest that there are abundant structures in the inflaton potential, which result in a fairly large (both positive and negative) running of the spectral index at all scales. It is shown that the center value of the running spectral index suggested by the recent CMB data can be easily explained by an inflaton potential with superimposed periodic oscillations. In contrast to cases with constant running, the perturbation spectrum is enhanced at small scales, due to the repeated modulations. We mention that such features at small scales may be seen by 21 cm observations in the future.

  5. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  6. OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption on Far-Infrared Generation IV. V. Comparison withIII CHAPTER IV. PHASE MATCHED FAR-INFRARED GENERATION BY THE1970). CHAPTER IV. PHASE MATCHED FAR-INFRARED GENERATION BY

  7. The Use of Infrared Technology To Detect Heat Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, K.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared refers to electro magnetic energy with a wave length longer than those of visible light. Researchers developed methods to quantify, focus and form real-time images to infrared energy. This spawned the development of infrared Thenrography...

  8. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in response to heating cause by infrared light. In order to70 Heating and cooling of infrared source as measured withto detect the heating and cooling of the infrared source,

  9. Zachar and Naik Principles of Infrared Thermography and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Zachar and Naik 1 Principles of Infrared Thermography and Application for Assessment details the principles of infrared thermography from the underlying theoretical considerations to the physical constraints involved with performing the test. Infrared (IR) thermography testing may be conducted

  10. Interstellar Weather Vanes: GLIMPSE Mid-Infrared Stellar-Wind Bowshocks in M17 and RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew S. Povich; Robert A. Benjamin; Barbara A. Whitney; Brian L. Babler; Remy Indebetouw; Marilyn R. Meade; Ed Churchwell

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of six infrared stellar-wind bowshocks in the Galactic massive star formation regions M17 and RCW49 from Spitzer GLIMPSE (Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire) images. The InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope clearly resolves the arc-shaped emission produced by the bowshocks. We combine Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS observations to obtain the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the bowshocks and their individual driving stars. We use the stellar SEDs to estimate the spectral types of the three newly-identified O stars in RCW49 and one previously undiscovered O star in M17. One of the bowshocks in RCW49 reveals the presence of a large-scale flow of gas escaping the H II region at a few 10^2 km/s. Radiation-transfer modeling of the steep rise in the SED of this bowshock toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths indicates that the emission is coming principally from dust heated by the star driving the shock. The other 5 bowshocks occur where the stellar winds of O stars sweep up dust in the expanding H II regions.

  11. FY 2006 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics and optical fiber processing methods for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.

  14. Stabilized Semi-Implicit Spectral Deferred Correction Methods for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Key words and phrases. spectral defect correction, spectral-Galerkin method, method of lines, Allen-Cahn and ...... [21] Anita T. Layton and Michael L. Minion.

  15. autoregressive spectral estimation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Estimation: A Tunable High-Resolution Spectral Estimator CiteSeer Summary: Traditional maximum entropy spectral estimation determines a power spectrum from covariance estimates....

  16. anomalous gluon spectral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    non-perturbative gluon spectral functions at finite temperature in quenched QCD with the maximum entropy method. We also provide a closed loop equation for the spectral function...

  17. Spectral analysis of X-ray binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridriksson, Joel Karl

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I present work from three separate research projects associated with observations of X-ray binaries. Two of those revolve around spectral characteristics of neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs), ...

  18. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Abstract: A...

  19. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum and Assignment of Vibrational Fundamentals of Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  20. Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado...

  1. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  2. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  3. atmospheric infrared sounder: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 4 Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder:...

  4. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman...

  5. A Mid-Infrared Study of the Class 0 Cluster in LDN 1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. O'Linger; D. M. Cole; M. E. Ressler; G. A. Wolf-Chase

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ground-based mid-infrared observations of Class 0 protostars in LDN 1448. Of the five known protostars in this cloud, we detected two, L1448N:A and L1448C, at 12.5, 17.9, 20.8, and 24.5 microns, and a third, L1448 IRS 2, at 24.5 microns. We present high-resolution images of the detected sources, and photometry or upper limits for all five Class 0 sources in this cloud. With these data, we are able to augment existing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all five objects and place them on an evolutionary status diagram.

  6. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  7. Mid infrared optical properties of Ge/Si quantum dots with different doping level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofronov, A. N.; Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Shalygin, V. A.; Panevin, V. Yu.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, Polytechnicheskaya str. 29, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tonkikh, A. A. [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2 D-06120, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Danilov, S. N. [University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical characterization of the Ge/Si quantum dots using equilibrium and photo-induced absorption spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral range was performed in this work. Equilibrium absorption spectra were measured in structures with various doping levels for different light polarizations. Photo-induced absorption spectra measured in undoped structure under interband optical excitation of non-equilibrium charge carriers demonstrate the same features as doped sample in equilibrium conditions. Hole energy spectrum was determined from the analysis of experimental data.

  8. THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, Curtis [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sellgren, Kris [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bauer, Franz E., E-mail: curtis.n.dewitt@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a ? Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/? Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

  9. The Infrared Luminosity of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Giard; Ludovic Montier; Etienne Pointecouteau; Ellen Simmat

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study is to quantify the infrared luminosity of clusters as a function of redshift and compare this with the X-ray luminosity. This can potentially constrain the origin of the infrared emission to be intracluster dust and/or dust heated by star formation in the cluster galaxies. We perform a statistical analysis of a large sample of galaxy clusters selected from existing databases and catalogues.We coadd the infrared IRAS and X-ray RASS images in the direction of the selected clusters within successive redshift intervals up to z = 1. We find that the total infrared luminosity is very high and on average 20 times higher than the X-ray luminosity. If all the infrared luminosity is to be attributed to emission from diffuse intracluster dust, then the IR to X-ray ratio implies a dust-to-gas mass abundance of 5e-4. However, the infrared luminosity shows a strong enhancement for 0.1 infrared luminosity that we measure is generated by the ongoing star formation in the member galaxies. From theoretical predictions calibrated on extinction measurements (dust mass abundance equal to 1e-5), we expect only a minor contribution, of a few percent, from intracluster dust.

  10. ISO and the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herve Dole

    2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ISO observed, for the first time to such a high sensitivity level, the mid- and far-infrared universe. A Number of deep surveys were performed to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this review, I discuss and summarize results of mid-infrared ISOCAM and far-infrared ISOPHOT surveys, and show how our vision of the extragalactic infrared universe has become more accurate. In particular, ISO allowed us to resolve into sources a significant fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in the mid-infrared, and to probe a fainter population in the far-infrared with the detection of the CIB fluctuations. Together with other wavelength data sets, the nature of ISO galaxies is now in the process of being understood. I also show that the high quality of the ISO data put strong constraints on the scenarios of galaxy evolution. This induced a burst in the development of models, yielding to a more coherent picture of galaxy evolution. I finally emphasize the potential of the ISO data archive in the field of observational cosmology, and describe the next steps, in particular the forthcoming cosmological surveys to be carried out by SIRTF.

  11. Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristen Gillmon; J. Michael Shull

    2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000 M_sun in H2. Extrapolated over the inner Milky Way, the cirrus may contain 10^7 M_sun of H2 and 10^8 M_sun in total gas mass. If elevated to 100 pc, their gravitational potential energy is ~10^53 erg.

  12. A setup for simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and light scattering signals: Watching amyloid fibrils grow from intact proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Maurer, Jürgen; Roth, Andreas; Vogel, Vitali; Winter, Ernst; Mäntele, Werner, E-mail: maentele@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Max-von Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A setup for the simultaneous measurement of mid-infrared spectra and static light scattering is described that can be used for the analysis of the formation of nanoscale and microscopic aggregates from smaller molecules to biopolymers. It can be easily integrated into sample chambers of infrared spectrometers or combined with laser beams from tunable infrared lasers. Here, its use for the analysis of the formation of amyloid fibrils from intact proteins is demonstrated. The formation of amyloid fibrils or plaques from proteins is a widespread and pathogenetic relevant process, and a number of diseases are caused and correlated with the deposition of amyloid fibrils in cells and tissues. The molecular mechanisms of these transformations, however, are still unclear. We report here the simultaneous measurement of infrared spectra and static light scattering for the analysis of fibril formation from egg-white lysozyme. The transformation of the native form into non-native forms rich in ?-sheet structure is measured by analysis of the amide I spectral region in the infrared spectra, which is sensitive for local structures. At the same time, light scattering signals at forward direction as well as the forward/backward ratio, which are sensitive for the number of scattering centers and their approximate sizes, respectively, are collected for the analysis of fibril growth. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters as well as mechanistic information are deduced from the combination of the two complementary techniques.

  13. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Solobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

  14. Infrared Evolution Equations: Method and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. I. Ermolaev; M. Greco; S. I. Troyan

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a brief review on composing and solving Infrared Evolution Equations. They can be used in order to calculate amplitudes of high-energy reactions in different kinematic regions in the double-logarithmic approximation.

  15. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Herdegen

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  16. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  17. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  18. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  19. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  20. The near infrared 12 1 electronic transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    The near infrared 12 A00 2 X2 A0 1 electronic transition of B3 in a neon matrix Anton Batalov, Jan applying a double reflection technique. The light beam reflects from the metal surface of the substrate

  1. Applying near-infrared spectroscopy (nirs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wruck, Eric Michael

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated. A recently developed optical imaging technique called near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) shows promise for being an acceptable alternative to invasive imaging techniques. NIRS measures correlates of neural activity by assessing hemoglobin...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of infrared quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Daniel Kelly

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the development of synthetic methods to create application ready quantum dots (QDs) in the infrared for biological imaging and optoelectronic devices. I concentrated primarily on controlling the size ...

  3. Undecidability of the Spectral Gap (short version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubitt, Toby; Wolf, Michael M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral gap -- the difference in energy between the ground state and the first excited state -- is one of the most important properties of a quantum many-body system. Quantum phase transitions occur when the spectral gap vanishes and the system becomes critical. Much of physics is concerned with understanding the phase diagrams of quantum systems, and some of the most challenging and long-standing open problems in theoretical physics concern the spectral gap, such as the Haldane conjecture that the Heisenberg chain is gapped for integer spin, proving existence of a gapped topological spin liquid phase, or the Yang-Mills gap conjecture (one of the Millennium Prize problems). These problems are all particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: Given a quantum many-body Hamiltonian, is the system it describes gapped or gapless? Here we show that this problem is undecidable, in the same sense as the Halting Problem was proven to be undecidable by Turing. A consequence of this is that the spectral gap...

  4. Undecidability of the Spectral Gap (short version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toby Cubitt; David Perez-Garcia; Michael M. Wolf

    2015-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral gap -- the difference in energy between the ground state and the first excited state -- is one of the most important properties of a quantum many-body system. Quantum phase transitions occur when the spectral gap vanishes and the system becomes critical. Much of physics is concerned with understanding the phase diagrams of quantum systems, and some of the most challenging and long-standing open problems in theoretical physics concern the spectral gap, such as the Haldane conjecture that the Heisenberg chain is gapped for integer spin, proving existence of a gapped topological spin liquid phase, or the Yang-Mills gap conjecture (one of the Millennium Prize problems). These problems are all particular cases of the general spectral gap problem: Given a quantum many-body Hamiltonian, is the system it describes gapped or gapless? Here we show that this problem is undecidable, in the same sense as the Halting Problem was proven to be undecidable by Turing. A consequence of this is that the spectral gap of certain quantum many-body Hamiltonians is not determined by the axioms of mathematics, much as Goedels incompleteness theorem implies that certain theorems are mathematically unprovable. We extend these results to prove undecidability of other low temperature properties, such as correlation functions. The proof hinges on simple quantum many-body models that exhibit highly unusual physics in the thermodynamic limit.

  5. Information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Boye, Clinton A. (Albuquerque, NM); Grotbeck, Carter L. (Albuquerque, NM); Stallard, Brian R. (Albuquerque, NM); Descour, Michael R. (Tucson, AZ)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene. This system provides for a very efficient optical determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  6. PetrovGalerkin Spectral Elements 1 A PetrovGalerkin Spectral Element Technique for Heterogeneous Porous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in spirit to a mixed finite element method or a Petrov­Galerkin scheme. If the sequence of orthogonal commonly used for finite element approximations [14]. The technique proceeds by integrating against ``testPetrov­Galerkin Spectral Elements 1 A Petrov­Galerkin Spectral Element Technique for Heterogeneous

  7. DUST AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anibal Garcia-Hernandez, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Kameswara Rao, N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Lambert, David L., E-mail: agarcia@iac.es, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Spitzer/infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectra from 5 to 37 {mu}m for a complete sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are presented. These spectra are combined with optical and near-infrared photometry of each RCB at maximum light to compile a spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs are fitted with blackbody flux distributions and estimates are made of the ratio of the infrared flux from circumstellar dust to the flux emitted by the star. Comparisons for 29 of the 31 stars are made with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes from three decades earlier: Spitzer and IRAS fluxes at 12 {mu}m and 25 {mu}m are essentially equal for all but a minority of the sample. For this minority, the IRAS to Spitzer flux ratio exceeds a factor of three. The outliers are suggested to be stars where formation of a dust cloud or dust puff is a rare event. A single puff ejected prior to the IRAS observations may have been reobserved by Spitzer as a cooler puff at a greater distance from the RCB. RCBs which experience more frequent optical declines have, in general, a circumstellar environment containing puffs subtending a larger solid angle at the star and a quasi-constant infrared flux. Yet, the estimated subtended solid angles and the blackbody temperatures of the dust show a systematic evolution to lower solid angles and cooler temperatures in the interval between IRAS and Spitzer. Dust emission by these RCBs and those in the LMC is similar in terms of total 24 {mu}m luminosity and [8.0]-[24.0] color index.

  8. Infrared Issues in Graviton Higgs Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srijit Bhattacharjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the one-loop infrared behaviour of the effective potential in minimally coupled graviton Higgs theory in Minkowski background. The gravitational analogue of one loop Coleman Weinberg effective potential turns out to be complex, the imaginary part indicating an infrared instability. This instability is traced to a tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator for constant Higgs fields. Physical implications of this behaviour are studied. We also discuss physical differences between gauge theories coupled to Higgs fields and graviton Higgs theory.

  9. Infrared-laser spectroscopy, 1980-1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, R.S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The review article used as a text for the Short Course on Infrared Laser Spectroscopy was completed in January 1980 and included only a few references after that date. There has ensued three years of progress, during which spectroscopy using tunable infrared lasers has become an increasingly used tool both for basic research and for analytical and industrial applications. The present paper, which follows closely the outline of the earlier review, updates the latter to early 1983. 238 references.

  10. THE GALACTIC CENTER IN THE FAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etxaluze, M.; Smith, Howard A.; Tolls, V.; Stark, A. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gonzalez-Alfonso, E., E-mail: metxaluz@cfa.harvard.edu [CfA and Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares 28801 (Spain)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the far-infrared dust emission from the Galactic center region, including the circumnuclear disk (CND) and other structures, using Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric observations. These Herschel data are complemented by unpublished observations by the Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), which used parallel mode scans to obtain photometric images of the region with a larger beam than Herschel but with a complementary wavelength coverage and more frequent sampling with 10 detectors observing at 10 different wavelengths in the range from 46 {mu}m to 180 {mu}m, where the emission peaks. We also include data from the Midcourse Space Experiment at 21.3 {mu}m for completeness. We model the combined ISO-LWS continuum plus Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric data toward the central 2 pc in Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), a region that includes the CND. We find that the far-infrared spectral energy distribution is best represented by a continuum that is the sum of three gray body curves from dust at temperatures of 90, 44.5, and 23 K. We obtain temperature and molecular hydrogen column density maps of the region. We estimate the mass of the inner part of the CND to be {approx}5.0 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}, with luminosities: L{sub cavity} {approx} 2.2 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} and L{sub CND} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} in the central 2 pc radius around Sgr A*. We find from the Herschel and ISO data that the cold component of the dust dominates the total dust mass, with a contribution of {approx}3.2 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}; this important cold material had escaped the notice of earlier studies that relied on shorter wavelength observations. The hotter component disagrees with some earlier estimates, but is consistent with measured gas temperatures and with models that imply shock heating or turbulent effects are at work. We find that the dust grain sizes apparently change widely across the region, perhaps in response to the temperature variations, and we map that distribution.

  11. Infrared finite coupling in Sudakov resummation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georges Grunberg

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New arguments are presented to emphasize the interest of the infrared finite coupling approach to power corrections in the context of Sudakov resummation. The more regular infrared behavior of some peculiar combinations of Sudakov anomalous dimensions, free of Landau singularities at large Nf, is pointed out. A general conflict between the infrared finite coupling and infrared renormalon approaches to power corrections is explained, and a possible resolution is proposed, which makes use of the arbitrariness of the choice of exponentiated constant terms. A simple ansatz for a 'universal' non-perturbative Sudakov effective coupling at large Nf follows naturally from these considerations. In this last version, a new result is presented: the striking emergence of an infrared finite perturbative effective coupling in the Drell-Yan process at large Nf (at odds with the infrared renormalon argument) within the framework of Sudakov resummation for eikonal cross sections of Laenen, Sterman and Vogelsang. Some suggestions for phenomenology at finite Nf, alternative to the shape function approach, are given.

  12. Infrared spectroscopic diagnostics for Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi Spinoglio

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy in the mid- and far-infrared provides powerful diagnostics for studying the emission regions in active galaxies. The large variety of ionic fine structure lines can probe gas conditions in a variety of physical conditions, from highly ionized gas excited by photons originated by black hole accretion to gas photoionized by young stellar systems. The critical density and the ionization potential of these transitions allow to fully cover the density-ionization parameter space. Some examples of line ratios diagrams using both mid-infrared and far-infrared ionic fine structure lines are presented. The upcoming space observatory Herschel will be able to observe the far-infrared spectra of large samples of local active galaxies. Based on the observed near-to-far infrared emission line spectrum of the template galaxy NGC1068, are presented the predictions for the line fluxes expected for galaxies at high redshift. To observe spectroscopically large samples of distant galaxies, we will have to wait fot the future space missions, like SPICA and, ultimately, FIRI.

  13. Spitzer spectral line mapping of supernova remnants: I. Basic data and principal component analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neufeld, David A; Kaufman, Michael J; Snell, Ronald L; Melnick, Gary J; Bergin, Edwin A; Sonnentrucker, Paule

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward small (1 x 1 arcmin) regions within the supernova remnants W44, W28, IC443, and 3C391 using the Infrared Spectrograph of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations, covering the 5.2 - 37 micron spectral region, have led to the detection of a total of 15 fine structure transitions of Ne+, Ne++, Si+, P+, S, S++, Cl+, Fe+, and Fe++; the S(0) - S(7) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen; and the R(3) and R(4) transitions of hydrogen deuteride. In addition to these 25 spectral lines, the 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.6 micron PAH emission bands were also observed. Most of the detected line transitions have proven strong enough to map in several sources, providing a comprehensive picture of the relative distribution of the various line emissions observable in the Spitzer/IRS bandpass. A principal component analysis of the spectral line maps reveals that the observed emission lines fall into five distinct groups, each of which may...

  14. Far-infrared Point Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Guiderdoni

    1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the submm anisotropies that will be mapped by the forthcoming MAP and PLANCK satellites requires careful foreground subtraction before measuring CMB fluctuations. Among these, the foreground due to IR/submm thermal radiation from dusty sources was poorly known until recent observational breakthroughs began unveiling the properties of these objects. We hereafter briefly review the observational evidence for a strong evolution of IR/submm sources with respect to the local universe explored by IRAS. We present the basic principles of a new modeling effort where consistent spectral energy distributions of galaxies are implemented into the paradigm of hierarchical clustering with the fashionable semi-analytic approach. This model provides us with specific predictions in IR/submm wavebands, that seem to reproduce the current status of the observations and help assessing the capabilities of forthcoming instruments to pursue the exploration of the deep universe at IR/submm wavelengths. Finally, the ability of the PLANCK High Frequency Instrument all-sky survey to produce a catalogue of dusty sources at submm wavelengths is briefly described.

  15. Classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis method that adds spectral shapes describing non-calibrated components and system effects (other than baseline corrections) present in the analyzed mixture to the prediction phase of the method. These improvements decrease or eliminate many of the restrictions to the CLS-type methods and greatly extend their capabilities, accuracy, and precision. One new application of PACLS includes the ability to accurately predict unknown sample concentrations when new unmodeled spectral components are present in the unknown samples. Other applications of PACLS include the incorporation of spectrometer drift into the quantitative multivariate model and the maintenance of a calibration on a drifting spectrometer. Finally, the ability of PACLS to transfer a multivariate model between spectrometers is demonstrated.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarfs Discovered with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Adam C; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Gelino, Christopher R; Mace, Gregory N; Wright, Edward L; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Skrutskie, M F; Griffith, Roger L; Marsh, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the {\\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) for which we have obtained {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\it HST}) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (twenty-two in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10$-$1.70 $\\mu$m, while fifteen were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90$-$1.10 $\\mu$m. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to 1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.\\ ammonia bands) and 2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35$+$280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38$+$840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77$+$024015.0 (Y1) are the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first spec...

  17. Star Formation Activity in the Long, Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G53.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Davis, Christopher J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present star formation activity in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G53.2, a remarkable IRDC located at Galactic coordinates $(l,b)\\sim(53^{\\circ}.2,\\,0^{\\circ}.0)$ based on the census of young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRDC G53.2 was previously identified as several IRDCs in mid-IR images, but it is in fact a long ($\\gtrsim$45 pc) cloud, well consistent with a CO cloud at $v\\sim23$ \\kms\\ (or at $d\\sim$1.7 kpc). We present a point-source catalog of IRDC G53.2 that contains $\\sim$370 sources from our photometry of the {\\it Spitzer} MIPS 24 \\um\\ data and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Catalog. The classification of the identified sources based on their spectral index and control field analysis to remove field star contamination reveals that IRDC G53.2 is an active star-forming region with $\\sim$300 YSO candidates. We compare the YSO classification based on spectral index, mid-IR colors, and the wavelength range used, which results in consistent classification, except for flat-s...

  18. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; N. Kobayashi; Y. Tsuboi

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is found from a mid-infrared protostar L1448 IRS 3(A). The lack of detection of this source in our deep NIR images indicates that this source has a very steep spectral slope of > 3.2 in 2--10 micron.

  19. Near Infrared Observations of the novae V2491 Cygni and V597 Puppis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachindra Naik; D. P. K. Banerjee; N. M. Ashok

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results obtained from near-infrared JHK spectroscopic observations of novae V2491 Cyg and V597 Pup in the early declining phases of their 2007 and 2008 outbursts respectively. In both objects, the spectra displayed emission lines of HI, OI, HeI and NI. In V597 Pup, the HeI lines were found to strengthen rapidly with time. Based on the observed spectral characteristics, both objects are classified as He/N novae. We have investigated the possibility of V2491 Cyg being a recurrent nova as has been suggested. By studying the temporal evolution of the line widths in V2491 Cyg it appears unlikely that the binary companion is a giant star with heavy wind as in recurrent novae of the RS Oph type. Significant deviations from that of recombination case B conditions are observed in the strengths of the HI lines. This indicates that the HI lines, in both novae, are optically thick during the span of our observations. The slope of the continuum spectra in both cases was found to have a \\lambda^-(3-3.5) dependence which deviates from a Rayleigh-Jeans spectral distribution. Both novae were detected in the post-outburst super-soft X-ray phase; V2491 Cyg being very bright in X-rays has been the target of several observations. We discuss and correlate our infrared observations with the observed X-ray properties of these novae.

  20. Interaction of far-infrared and mid-infrared laser transitions in the ammonia laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.Y.; Buchwald, M.I.; Jones, C.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mid-infrared laser emission in ammonia is usually observed on a P(J + 2) transition when a CO/sub 2/ laser is used to optically pump a near resonant R(J) absorption feature. However, by generating simultaneous FIR ammonia laser emission in the same optical cavity, mid-infrared emission is obtained exclusively on the P(J) transition.

  1. Low-Cost Spectral Sensor Development Description.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel; Yellowhair, Julius

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar spectral data for all parts of the US is limited due in part to the high cost of commercial spectrometers. Solar spectral information is necessary for accurate photovoltaic (PV) performance forecasting, especially for large utility-scale PV installations. A low-cost solar spectral sensor would address the obstacles and needs. In this report, a novel low-cost, discrete- band sensor device, comprised of five narrow-band sensors, is described. The hardware is comprised of commercial-off-the-shelf components to keep the cost low. Data processing algorithms were developed and are being refined for robustness. PV module short-circuit current ( I sc ) prediction methods were developed based on interaction-terms regression methodology and spectrum reconstruction methodology for computing I sc . The results suggest the computed spectrum using the reconstruction method agreed well with the measured spectrum from the wide-band spectrometer (RMS error of 38.2 W/m 2 -nm). Further analysis of computed I sc found a close correspondence of 0.05 A RMS error. The goal is for ubiquitous adoption of the low-cost spectral sensor in solar PV and other applications such as weather forecasting.

  2. Staring 2-D hadamard transform spectral imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gentry, Stephen M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Christine M. (Albuquerque, NM); Wehlburg, Joseph C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A staring imaging system inputs a 2D spatial image containing multi-frequency spectral information. This image is encoded in one dimension of the image with a cyclic Hadamarid S-matrix. The resulting image is detecting with a spatial 2D detector; and a computer applies a Hadamard transform to recover the encoded image.

  3. The Blazar Spectral Sequence and GLAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Maraschi; G. Ghisellini; F. Tavecchio

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present status and understanding of the "spectral sequence" of blazars is discussed in the perspective of the upcoming GLAST launch. The vast improvement in sensitivity will allow to i) determine more objectively the "average" gamma-ray properties of classes objects ii) probe more deeply the ratio between accretion power and jet power in different systems.

  4. Conditionally Convergent Spectral Sequences Contents Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7 Half-plane spectral sequences with entering di erentials. 20 ... By popular demand, this paper presents material that has long circulated in. preprint ...... we de ne spectra Ys, uniquely up to homotopy, by the exact triangles. X. 1 s !X. sf. s !

  5. 2, 13171350, 2002 Influence of spectral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    effects and they are a key factor in bal- ancing global climate (e.g. Houghton et al., 1996 is the most important solar20 spectral radiation for the formation of newly formed aerosols. In the end we are amongst other constituents responsible for light scattering, cloud formation and heterogeneous chemical

  6. Radio--Far infrared correlation in "blue cloud" galaxies with 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Aritra; Beelen, Alexandre; Singh, Veeresh; Archana, K N; Sirothia, Sandeep; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the radio--far infrared (FIR) correlation in "blue cloud" galaxies chosen from the PRism MUltiobject Survey (PRIMUS) up to redshift ($z$) of 1.2 in the XMM-LSS field. We use rest-frame emission at 1.4 GHz in the radio and both monochromatic (at 70$\\mu$m) and bolometric (between $8-1000~\\mu$m) emission in the FIR. To probe the nature of the correlation up to $z\\sim1.2$, where direct detection of blue star-forming galaxies is impossible with current technology, we employ the technique of image stacking at 0.325 and 1.4 GHz in the radio and in six infrared bands, viz. 24, 70, 160, 250, 350 and $500~\\mu$m. For comparison, we also study the correlation for more luminous galaxies that are directly detected. The stacking analysis allows us to probe the radio--FIR correlation for galaxies that are up to 2 orders of magnitude fainter than the ones detected directly. The $k-$correction in the infrared wavebands is obtained by fitting the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) with a composite mid-IR power...

  7. HIGH-CONTRAST NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING POLARIMETRY OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND RY TAU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takami, Michihiro; Karr, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyosun; Chou, Mei-Yin [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica. P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hashimoto, Jun; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wisniewski, John [H. L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 West Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Henning, Thomas; Brandner, Wolfgang [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Grady, Carol A. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 96002 (United States); Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Itoh, Yoichi [Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory, Center for Astronomy, University of Hyogo, 407-2 Nishigaichi, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5313 (Japan); Momose, Munetake [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Mayama, Satoshi [The Center for the Promotion of Integrated Sciences, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan International Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Currie, Thayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Follette, Katherine B. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Abe, Lyu, E-mail: hiro@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, 28 Avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present near-infrared coronagraphic imaging polarimetry of RY Tau. The scattered light in the circumstellar environment was imaged at the H band at a high resolution ({approx}0.''05) for the first time, using Subaru/HiCIAO. The observed polarized intensity (PI) distribution shows a butterfly-like distribution of bright emission with an angular scale similar to the disk observed at millimeter wavelengths. This distribution is offset toward the blueshifted jet, indicating the presence of a geometrically thick disk or a remnant envelope, and therefore the earliest stage of the Class II evolutionary phase. We perform comparisons between the observed PI distribution and disk models with (1) full radiative transfer code, using the spectral energy distribution (SED) to constrain the disk parameters; and (2) monochromatic simulations of scattered light which explore a wide range of parameters space to constrain the disk and dust parameters. We show that these models cannot consistently explain the observed PI distribution, SED, and the viewing angle inferred by millimeter interferometry. We suggest that the scattered light in the near-infrared is associated with an optically thin and geometrically thick layer above the disk surface, with the surface responsible for the infrared SED. Half of the scattered light and thermal radiation in this layer illuminates the disk surface, and this process may significantly affect the thermal structure of the disk.

  8. Characterization of material degradation in ceramic matrix composites using infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, NonDestructive Evaluation Branch, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Scott, Benjamin J. [Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

  9. Herbig stars' near-infrared excess: An origin in the protostellar disk's magnetically supported atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, N. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Benisty, M.; Dullemond, C. P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hirose, S., E-mail: neal.turner@jpl.nasa.gov [Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001 (Japan)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Young stars with masses 2-8 times solar, the Herbig Ae and Be stars, often show a near-infrared excess too large to explain with a hydrostatically supported circumstellar disk of gas and dust. At the same time, the accretion flow carrying the circumstellar gas to the star is thought to be driven by magnetorotational turbulence, which, according to numerical MHD modeling, yields an extended low-density atmosphere supported by the magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the base of the atmosphere can be optically thick to the starlight and that the parts lying near 1 AU are tall enough to double the fraction of the stellar luminosity reprocessed into the near-infrared. We generate synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations with opacities for submicron silicate and carbonaceous grains. The synthetic SEDs closely follow the median Herbig SED constructed recently by Mulders and Dominik and, in particular, match the large near-infrared flux, provided the grains have a mass fraction close to interstellar near the disk's inner rim.

  10. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  11. Polylogarithmic representation of radiative and thermodynamic properties of thermal radiation in a given spectral range: II. Real-body radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisenko, Anatoliy I

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general analytical expressions for the thermal radiative and thermodynamic properties of a real-body are obtained in a finite range of frequencies at different temperatures. The frequency dependence of the spectral emissivity is represented as a power series. The Stefan-Boltzmann law, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, internal energy density, enthalpy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, pressure, and total emissivity are expressed in terms of the polylogarithm functions. The general expressions for the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions are applied for the study of thermal radiation of liquid and solid zirconium carbide. These functions are calculated using experimental data for the frequency dependence of the normal spectral emissivity in the visible-near infrared range at the melting (freezing) point. The gaps between the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions of liquid and solid zirconium carbide are observed. The g...

  12. A Digital Low Dispersion Spectral Library Covering the 3500-7500AA Region Using the SAAO Radcliffe 1.9m Telescope's Cassegrain Spectrograph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, David

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have created a digital spectral library, using low resolution optical spectra, of photometric and spectral standard stars. The data were acquired using the Cassegrain Spectrograph installed on the 1.9m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory. The library consists of optical wavelength (~ 3500-7500AA) spectra for main sequence and giant stars encompassing those most commonly observed in the Galaxy, namely the late-B, A-, F-, G-, K-, and early- to mid-M stars. We intend that our standard star spectra will be especially useful for spectral classification of stars in the field and Galactic clusters alike, and will have high pedagogic value when included into representative Introductory Astronomy or Stellar Astronomy curricula for undergraduate astronomy major and minor programs. We exploit the spectral library in order to derive spectral types for seventy-six optically and X-ray selected members of the young open cluster NGC 6475. Comparison of spectral-type, optical and infrared phot...

  13. Infrared instability from nonlinear QCD evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Enberg; R. Peschanski

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation as an explicit example, we show that nonlinear QCD evolution leads to an instability in the propagation toward the infrared of the gluon transverse momentum distribution, if one starts with a state with an infrared cut-off. This effect takes the mathematical form of rapidly moving traveling wave solutions of the BK equation, which we investigate by numerical simulations. These traveling wave solutions are different from those governing the transition to saturation, which propagate towards the ultraviolet. The infrared wave speed, formally infinite for the leading order QCD kernel, is determined by higher order corrections. This mechanism could play a role in the rapid decrease of the mean free path in the Color Glass Condensate scenario for heavy ion collisions.

  14. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  15. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of 70um-Selected Distant Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kate Brand; Dan W. Weedman; Vandana Desai; Emeric Le Floc'h; Lee Armus; Arjun Dey; Jim R. Houck; Buell T. Jannuzi; Howard A. Smith; B. T. Soifer

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a sample of 11 optically faint, infrared luminous galaxies selected from a Spitzer MIPS 70um imaging survey of the NDWFS Bootes field. These are the first Spitzer IRS spectra presented of distant 70um-selected sources. All the galaxies lie at redshifts 0.3infrared luminosities of L_IR~ 0.1-17 x 10^12 solar luminosities. Seven of the galaxies exhibit strong emission features attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average IRS spectrum of these sources is characteristic of classical starburst galaxies, but with much larger infrared luminosities. The PAH luminosities of L(7.7) ~ 0.4 - 7 x 10^11 solar luminosities imply star formation rates of ~ 40 - 720 solar masses per year. Four of the galaxies show deep 9.7um silicate absorption features and no significant PAH emission features (6.2um equivalent widths infrared luminosities and low f70/f24 flux density ratios suggests that these sources have AGN as the dominant origin of their large mid-infrared luminosities, although deeply embedded but luminous starbursts cannot be ruled out. If the absorbed sources are AGN-dominated, a significant fraction of all far-infrared bright, optically faint sources may be dominated by AGN.

  16. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  17. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluence ofQuickdegreeInfraredInfrared

  18. A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on a 38 kDa pre?HDL (Lp1-AI) particle . A complete backbone spectral assignment of human apolipoprotein AI on...

  19. Highly Sparse Reductions to Kernel Spectral Raghvendra Mall1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the traditional k-means techniques. A new spectral clus- tering algorithm based on weighted kernel principal in comparison to the data between clusters. Spectral clustering methods [1,2,3] are generally better than

  20. The Fourth Workshop on Recent Advances in Spectral Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Chuanju

    $C^0$ tensor product finite element systems ..................................................................................................... 14 Sobolev-orthogonal polynomial approximations and the fully diagonalized spectral A multistep Legendre-Gauss spectral collocation method for nonlinear Volterra integral equations with delays

  1. Apprentice Program Alternate Proof of the Spectral Theorem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    Math REU Apprentice Program Alternate Proof of the Spectral Theorem Julian Hartman September 17 in the apprentice class but not in this manner. Because the Spectral Theorem is such a fundamental theorem in linear

  2. Spectral functionals, nonholonomic Dirac operators, and noncommutative Ricci flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vacaru, Sergiu I. [Science Department, University 'Al. I. Cuza' Iasi, 54. Lascar Catargi street, Iasi, 700107 (Romania) and Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science, 222 College Street, 2nd Floor, Toronto M5T 3J1 (Canada)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate a noncommutative generalization of the Ricci flow theory in the framework of spectral action approach to noncommutative geometry. Grisha Perelman's functionals are generated as commutative versions of certain spectral functionals defined by nonholonomic Dirac operators and corresponding spectral triples. We derive the formulas for spectral averaged energy and entropy functionals and state the conditions when such values describe (non)holonomic Riemannian configurations.

  3. Construction of spectral functions for medium nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artur M. Ankowski; Jan T. Sobczyk

    2008-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is aimed at improving the description of lepton-nucleus interactions in the sub-GeV energy range. Approximate spectral functions for oxygen, calcium, and argon are constructed and used to obtain the electron cross sections in a given scattering angle. Comparison with a sample of available experimental data shows satisfactory agreement. Discrepancy between the presented model and the systematic computations available for oxygen [O. Benhar et al., Phys. Rev. D 72, 053005 (2005)] is also found to be very small. Analysis of appropriate kinematical regions leads to the conclusion that the obtained argon spectral function should describe well neutrino scattering in the 800-MeV energy region. Several approximations used in the model are critically reviewed. All the details needed to implement the presented approach in Monte Carlo simulations are given.

  4. Laser stabilization using spectral hole burning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Rippe; B. Julsgaard; A. Walther; S. Kröll

    2006-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have frequency stabilized a Coherent CR699-21 dye laser to a transient spectral hole on the 606 nm transition in Pr^{+3}:Y_2SiO_5. A frequency stability of 1 kHz has been obtained on the 10 microsecond timescale together with a long-term frequency drift below 1 kHz/s. RF magnetic fields are used to repopulate the hyperfine levels allowing us to control the dynamics of the spectral hole. A detailed theory of the atomic response to laser frequency errors has been developed which allows us to design and optimize the laser stabilization feedback loop, and specifically we give a stability criterion that must be fulfilled in order to obtain very low drift rates. The laser stability is sufficient for performing quantum gate experiments in Pr^{+3}:Y_2SiO_5.

  5. Generalized spectral decomposition for stochastic nonlinear problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nouy, Anthony [Research Institute in Civil Engineering and Mechanics (GeM), Nantes Atlantic University, Ecole Centrale Nantes, UMR CNRS 6183, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, B.P. 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: anthony.nouy@univ-nantes.fr; Le Maitre, Olivier P. [LIMSI-CNRS, BP133, F-91403 Orsay (France); DEN/DM2S/SFME, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)], E-mail: olm@limsi.fr

    2009-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extension of the generalized spectral decomposition method for the resolution of nonlinear stochastic problems. The method consists in the construction of a reduced basis approximation of the Galerkin solution and is independent of the stochastic discretization selected (polynomial chaos, stochastic multi-element or multi-wavelets). Two algorithms are proposed for the sequential construction of the successive generalized spectral modes. They involve decoupled resolutions of a series of deterministic and low-dimensional stochastic problems. Compared to the classical Galerkin method, the algorithms allow for significant computational savings and require minor adaptations of the deterministic codes. The methodology is detailed and tested on two model problems, the one-dimensional steady viscous Burgers equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear diffusion problem. These examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms which exhibit convergence rates with the number of modes essentially dependent on the spectrum of the stochastic solution but independent of the dimension of the stochastic approximation space.

  6. Spectral Representation and Dispersion Relations in Field Theory on Noncommutative Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Liao; Klaus Sibold

    2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spectral representation and dispersion relations that follow from some basic assumptions and the reduced spacetime symmetries on noncommutative (NC) space. Kinematic variables involving the NC parameter appear naturally as parametric variables in this analysis. When subtractions are necessary to remove ultraviolet divergences, they are always made at the fixed values of these NC variables. This point is also illustrated by a perturbative analysis of self-energies. Our analysis of the reduced spacetime symmetries suggests a weaker microcausality requirement. Starting from it, we make a first attempt at dispersion relations for forward scattering. It turns out that the attempt is hampered by a new unphysical region specified by a given motion in the NC plane which does not seem to be surmountable using the usual tricks. Implications for a possible subtraction and renormalization scheme for NC field theory in which the ultraviolet-infrared (UV/IR) mixing is removed are also briefly commented on.

  7. Spectral dependence of third-order nonlinear optical properties in InN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, H., E-mail: hyahn@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Lee, M.-T.; Chang, Y.-M. [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the nonlinear optical properties of InN measured in a wide near-infrared spectral range with the femtosecond Z-scan technique. The above-bandgap nonlinear absorption in InN is found to originate from the saturation of absorption by the band-state-filling and its cross-section increases drastically near the bandgap energy. With below-bandgap excitation, the nonlinear absorption undergoes a transition from saturation absorption (SA) to reverse-SA (RSA), attributed to the competition between SA of band-tail states and two-photon-related RSA. The measured large nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup ?10} cm{sup 2}/W indicates InN as a potential material for all-optical switching and related applications.

  8. Spectral statistics for weakly correlated random potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frédéric Klopp

    2012-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We study localization and derive stochastic estimates (in particular, Wegner and Minami estimates) for the eigenvalues of weakly correlated random discrete Schr\\"odinger operators in the localized phase. We apply these results to obtain spectral statistics for general discrete alloy type models where the single site perturbation is neither of finite rank nor of fixed sign. In particular, for the models under study, the random potential exhibits correlations at any range.

  9. Fiberoptic probe and system for spectral measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, S.; Young, J.P.

    1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fused fiberoptic probe, a system, method and embodiments thereof for conducting spectral measurements are disclosed. The fused fiberoptic probe comprises a probe tip having a specific geometrical configuration, an exciting optical fiber and at least one collection optical fiber fused within a housing, preferably silica. The specific geometrical configurations in which the probe tip can be shaped include a slanted probe tip with an angle greater than 0{degree}, an inverted cone-shaped probe tip, and a lens head. 12 figs.

  10. Discriminating trpzip2 and trpzip4 peptides’ folding landscape using the two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Zhuang, Wei, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Yang, Lijiang, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two ?-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GB{sup OBC} implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.

  11. Wavelet Packets for multi-and hyper-spectral imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehler, Martin

    Wavelet Packets for multi- and hyper-spectral imagery J. J. Benedetto, W. Czaja, M. Ehler, C. Flake spatial and spectral data distribution we combine the Wavelet Packet Transform with the linear dimension reduction method of Principal Component Analysis. Each spectral band is decomposed by means of the Wavelet

  12. Spectral Label Fusion Christian Wachinger1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golland, Polina

    off. The segmentation with spectral label fusion, which fuses image and label information, leadsSpectral Label Fusion Christian Wachinger1,2 and Polina Golland1 1 Computer Science and Artificial a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering

  13. Polarization- and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water on TiO2(110): Anisotropy and the Hydrogen-Bonding Network. Polarization- and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water on...

  14. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience, the paper introduces the key issues during the use of infrared thermography in building energy efficiency. In order to get a more useful thermal infrared spectrum, we must correct the operating apparatus and measure more...

  15. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  16. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience, the paper introduces the key issues during the use of infrared thermography in building energy efficiency. In order to get a more useful thermal infrared spectrum, we must correct the operating apparatus and measure more...

  17. Infrared Brightness Temperature of Mars, 1983-2103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Wright

    2007-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The predicted infrared brightness temperature of Mars using the 1976 model of Wright is tabulated here for the period 1983 to 2103. This model was developed for far-infrared calibration, and is still being used for JCMT calibration.

  18. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas...

  19. Infrared Scales and Factorization in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneesh V. Manohar

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective field theory methods are used to study factorization of the deep inelastic scattering cross-section. The cross-section is shown to factor in QCD, even though it does not factor in perturbation theory for some choices of the infrared regulator. Messenger modes are not required in soft-collinear effective theory for deep inelastic scattering as x -> 1.

  20. Infrared Quantum Dots** By Edward H. Sargent*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and treat disease, harness new forms of energy, and visualize threats to our safety and environment depend of the telecommunications wave- length band spans 1200±1700 nm.[1] It is of interest to unite, in a single monolithic±10 cm; solar and thermal photovoltaics for energy conversion; and infrared sensing and imaging based

  1. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  2. Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

  3. Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model J#19;ozsef L this Gaussian measure space. KEYWORDS: Nelson's scalar #12;eld model, infrared regular representation, ground] of a spinless electron coupled to a scalar massless Bose #12;eld is infrared divergent in 3 space dimensions

  4. Infrared Observations of Soft GammaRay Repeaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ian Andrew

    Infrared Observations of Soft Gamma­Ray Repeaters I. A. Smith Department of Space Physics been found for SGR 0525--66. This paper gives a brief overview of some recent and ongoing infrared observing programs. For a more detailed review article, see Smith (1997) [2]. INFRARED SPECTRA OF SGR 1806

  5. INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles Angela M. Monateri emitters, even thought they have no repairable fault. This study investigates the use of thermal infrared be differentiated from hot vehicles by infrared imaging, which can distinguish between: ·Hot and cold exhaust system

  6. Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD the barrier to linearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takeshi

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD 3 above the barrier to linearity BY JENNIFER L. GOTTFRIED, transitions of HC 3 above the barrier to linearity have been observed. A highly sensitive near-infrared-adiabatic and radiative corrections is revealed. Keywords: HD 3 ; near-infrared spectroscopy; barrier to linearity 1

  7. Infrared modulation spectroscopy of interfaces in amorphous silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    Infrared modulation spectroscopy of interfaces in amorphous silicon solar cells Kai Zhu a,1 , E Solar, Toano, VA 23168, USA Abstract We report infrared depletion modulation spectra for near an infrared modulation spectroscopy technique that probes the optical spectra of dopants and defects

  8. Infrared-Based Screening System Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared-Based Screening System (IBSS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC underperforming or overworking components are identified. These thermal-based systems integrate infrared (IR) sensors or cameras, video images, and vehicle position sensors, and are generically known as infrared

  9. Molecular basis of infrared detection by Elena O. Gracheva1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    , snakes detect infrared signals through a mechanism involving radiant heating of the pit organ, ratherARTICLES Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes Elena O. Gracheva1 *, Nicholas T. Ingolia2 system for detecting infrared radiation, enabling them to generate a `thermal image' of predators or prey

  10. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  11. Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina , Nelly M. Tsvetkovab of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Davis, USA Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one can now obtain diffraction-limited spot sizes with high signal intensity in an infrared microscope

  12. NDE of Concrete Structures Strengthened with FRP Using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    NDE of Concrete Structures Strengthened with FRP Using Infrared Thermography Monica A. STARNES the effectiveness of infrared thermography to estimate the width of subsurface flaws in fiber-reinforced polymer infrared thermography, i.e., not only detecting but also characterizing subsurface flaws. Finite element

  13. Quantum grid infrared photodetectors L. P. Rokhinson,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Quantum grid infrared photodetectors L. P. Rokhinson,a) C. J. Chen, and D. C. Tsui Department to as the quantum grid infrared photodetector QGIP . In an ideal structure, a grid pattern with very narrow to as the quantum grid infrared photodetector QGIP . This approach may produce a more uniform and optimized detector

  14. OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF NH{sub 3} AND NH{sub 3}:N{sub 2} AMORPHOUS ICES IN THE NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Gálvez, Óscar; Herrero, Víctor J.; Escribano, Rafael; Maté, Belén, E-mail: belen.mate@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia ice has been detected on different astrophysical media ranging from interstellar medium (ISM) particles to the surface of various icy bodies of our solar system, where nitrogen is also present. We have carried out a detailed study of amorphous NH{sub 3} ice and NH{sub 3}:N{sub 2} ice mixtures, based on infrared (IR) spectra in the mid-IR (MIR) and near-IR (NIR) regions, supported by theoretical quantum chemical calculations. Spectra of varying ice thicknesses were obtained and optical constants were calculated for amorphous NH{sub 3} at 15 K and 30 K and for a NH{sub 3}:N{sub 2} mixture at 15 K over a 500-7000 cm{sup –1} spectral range. These spectra have improved accuracy over previous data, where available. Moreover, we also obtained absolute values for the band strengths of the more prominent IR features in both spectral regions. Our results indicate that the estimated NH{sub 3} concentration in ISM ices should be scaled upward by ?30%.

  15. Semiclassical Analysis of Spectral Singularities and Their Applications in Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Mostafazadeh

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by possible applications of spectral singularities in optics, we develop a semiclassical method of computing spectral singularities. We use this method to examine the spectral singularities of a planar slab gain medium whose gain coefficient varies due to the exponential decay of the intensity of pumping beam inside the medium. For both singly- and doubly-pumped samples, we obtain universal upper bounds on the decay constant beyond which no lasing occurs. Furthermore, we show that the dependence of the wavelength of the spectral singularities on the value of the decay constant is extremely mild. This is an indication of the stability of optical spectral singularities.

  16. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Pop, “Infrared Microscopy of Joule Heating in Graphenenear infrared is attainable through gating and heating of

  17. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Arendt, R.G. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T. [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Raytheon STX, Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Reach, W.T. [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [California Institute of Technology, IPAC/JPL, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Pei, Y.C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)] [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lubin, P. [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A. [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)] [Code 685, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Smoot, G.F. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Department of Physics, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Weiss, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Room 20F-001, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wilkinson, D.T. [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Princeton University, Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Box 708, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wright, E.L. [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)] [UCLA, Astronomy Department, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1562 (United States)

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  18. Fully automated dual-frequency three-pulse-echo 2DIR spectrometer accessing spectral range from 800 to 4000 wavenumbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leger, Joel D.; Nyby, Clara M.; Varner, Clyde; Tang, Jianan; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Yue, Yuankai; Kireev, Victor V.; Burtsev, Viacheslav D.; Qasim, Layla N.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Grigory I. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared instrument is designed and built that permits three-pulse heterodyned echo measurements of any cross-peak within a spectral range from 800 to 4000 cm{sup ?1} to be performed in a fully automated fashion. The superior sensitivity of the instrument is achieved by a combination of spectral interferometry, phase cycling, and closed-loop phase stabilization accurate to ?70 as. The anharmonicity of smaller than 10{sup ?4} cm{sup ?1} was recorded for strong carbonyl stretching modes using 800 laser shot accumulations. The novel design of the phase stabilization scheme permits tuning polarizations of the mid-infrared (m-IR) pulses, thus supporting measurements of the angles between vibrational transition dipoles. The automatic frequency tuning is achieved by implementing beam direction stabilization schemes for each m-IR beam, providing better than 50 ?rad beam stability, and novel scheme for setting the phase-matching geometry for the m-IR beams at the sample. The errors in the cross-peak amplitudes associated with imperfect phase matching conditions and alignment are found to be at the level of 20%. The instrument can be used by non-specialists in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  19. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Askins, Steve, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  20. MID-INFRARED IRS SPECTROSCOPY OF NGC 7331: A FIRST LOOK AT THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY (SINGS) LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, Bruce T.

    MID-INFRARED IRS SPECTROSCOPY OF NGC 7331: A FIRST LOOK AT THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES to 38 m using all modules of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). A strong new dust emission feature with standard photodissociation region (PDR) models. Either additional PDR heating or shocks are required

  1. Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

  2. Spectral statistics of nearly unidirectional quantum graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maram Akila; Boris Gutkin

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy levels of a quantum graph with time reversal symmetry and unidirectional classical dynamics are doubly degenerate and obey the spectral statistics of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble. These degeneracies, however, are lifted when the unidirectionality is broken in one of the graph's vertices by a singular perturbation. Based on a Random Matrix model we derive an analytic expression for the nearest neighbour distribution between energy levels of such systems. As we demonstrate the result agrees excellently with the actual statistics for graphs with a uniform distribution of eigenfunctions. Yet, it exhibits quite substantial deviations for classes of graphs which show strong scarring.

  3. Theoretical aspects of relativistic spectral features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Karas

    2006-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The inner parts of black-hole accretion discs shine in X-rays which can be monitored and the observed spectra can be used to trace strong gravitational fields in the place of emission and along paths of light rays. This paper summarizes several aspects of how the spectral features are influenced by relativistic effects. We focus our attention onto variable and broad emission lines, origin of which can be attributed to the presence of orbiting patterns -- spots and spiral waves in the disc. We point out that the observed spectrum can determine parameters of the central black hole provided the intrinsic local emissivity is constrained by theoretical models.

  4. SPECTRAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE BRIGHTEST OBJECTS IN THE GALACTIC STAR-FORMING REGION W40

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuping, R. Y. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Vacca, William D. [Universities Space Research Association, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kassis, Marc [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Yu, Ka Chun, E-mail: rshuping@spacescience.org [Denver Museum of Nature and Science, 2001 Colorado, Denver, CO 80205-5798 (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high signal-to-noise, moderate resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 2000) near-infrared spectra, as well as 10 {mu}m imaging, for the brightest members of the central stellar cluster in the W40 H II region, obtained using the SpeX and MIRSI instruments at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility. Using these observations combined with archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we have determined the spectral classifications, extinction, distances, and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the brightest members of the cluster. Of the eight objects observed, we identify four main-sequence (MS) OB stars (one late-O, three early-B), two Herbig Ae/Be stars, and two low-mass young stellar objects (Class II). Strong He I absorption at 1.083 {mu}m in the MS star spectra strongly suggests that at least some of these sources are in fact close binaries. Two out of the four MS stars also show significant infrared excesses typical of circumstellar disks. Extinctions and distances were determined for each MS star by fitting model stellar atmospheres to the SEDs. We estimate a distance to the cluster of between 455 and 535 pc, which agrees well with earlier (but far less precise) distance estimates. We conclude that the late-O star we identify is the dominant source of Lyman continuum luminosity needed to power the W40 H II region and is the likely source of the stellar wind that has blown a large ( Almost-Equal-To 4 pc) pinched-waist bubble observed in wide-field mid-IR images. We also suggest that 3.6 cm radio emission observed from some of the sources in the cluster is likely not due to emission from ultracompact H II regions, as suggested in other work, due to size constraints based on our derived distance to the cluster. Finally, we also present a discussion of the curious source IRS 3A, which has a very strong mid-IR excess (despite its B3 MS classification) and appears to be embedded in a dusty envelope roughly 2700 AU in size.

  5. Spitzer spectral line mapping of supernova remnants: I. Basic data and principal component analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Neufeld; David J. Hollenbach; Michael J. Kaufman; Ronald L. Snell; Gary J. Melnick; Edwin A. Bergin; Paule Sonnentrucker

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward small (1 x 1 arcmin) regions within the supernova remnants W44, W28, IC443, and 3C391 using the Infrared Spectrograph of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations, covering the 5.2 - 37 micron spectral region, have led to the detection of a total of 15 fine structure transitions of Ne+, Ne++, Si+, P+, S, S++, Cl+, Fe+, and Fe++; the S(0) - S(7) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen; and the R(3) and R(4) transitions of hydrogen deuteride. In addition to these 25 spectral lines, the 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.6 micron PAH emission bands were also observed. Most of the detected line transitions have proven strong enough to map in several sources, providing a comprehensive picture of the relative distribution of the various line emissions observable in the Spitzer/IRS bandpass. A principal component analysis of the spectral line maps reveals that the observed emission lines fall into five distinct groups, each of which may exhibit a distinct spatial distribution: (1) lines of S and H2 (J > 2); (2) the H2 S(0) line; (3) lines of ions with appearance potentials less than 13.6 eV; (4) lines of ions with appearance potentials greater than 13.6 eV, not including S++; (5) lines of S++. Lines of group (1) likely originate in molecular material subject to a slow, nondissociative shock that is driven by the overpressure within the supernova remnant, and lines in groups (3) - (5) are associated primarily with dissociative shock fronts with a range of (larger) shock velocities. The H2 S(0) line shows a low-density diffuse emission component, and - in some sources - a shock-excited component.

  6. Spectral Energy Distributions of T Tauri and Herbig Ae Disks: Grain Mineralogy, Parameter Dependences, and Comparison with ISO LWS Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Chiang; M. K. Joung; M. J. Creech-Eakman; C. Qi; J. E. Kessler; G. A. Blake; E. F. van Dishoeck

    2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We improve upon the radiative, hydrostatic equilibrium models of passive circumstellar disks constructed by Chiang & Goldreich (1997). New features include (1) account for a range of particle sizes, (2) employment of laboratory-based optical constants of representative grain materials, and (3) numerical solution of the equations of radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium within the original 2-layer (disk surface + disk interior) approximation. We explore how the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a face-on disk depends on grain size distributions, disk geometries and surface densities, and stellar photospheric temperatures. Observed SEDs of 3 Herbig Ae and 2 T Tauri stars, including spectra from the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), are fitted with our models. Silicate emission bands from optically thin, superheated disk surface layers appear in nearly all systems. Water ice emission bands appear in LWS spectra of 2 of the coolest stars. Infrared excesses in several sources are consistent with vertical settling of photospheric grains. While this work furnishes further evidence that passive reprocessing of starlight by flared disks adequately explains the origin of infrared-to-millimeter wavelength excesses of young stars, we emphasize how the SED alone does not provide sufficient information to constrain particle sizes and disk masses uniquely.

  7. Near-infrared Hong-Ou-Mandel interference on a silicon quantum photonic circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xinan Xu; Zhenda Xie; Jiangjun Zheng; Junlin Liang; Tian Zhong; Mingbin Yu; Serdar Kocaman; Guo-Qiang Lo; Dim-Lee Kwong; Dirk R. Englund; Franco N. C. Wong; Chee Wei Wong

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum interference is observed in silicon nanophotonic directional couplers with raw visibilities on-chip at 90.5%. Spectrally-bright 1557-nm two-photon states are generated in a periodically-poled KTiOPO4 waveguide chip, serving as the entangled photon source and pumped with a self-injection locked laser, for the photon statistical measurements. Efficient four-port coupling in the communications C-band and in the high-index-contrast silicon photonics platform is demonstrated, with matching theoretical predictions of the quantum interference visibility. Constituents for the residual quantum visibility imperfection are examined, supported with theoretical analysis of the sequentially-triggered multipair biphoton contribution and techniques for visibility compensation, towards scalable high-bitrate quantum information processing and communications.

  8. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Schmalz, H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States) Thermal Surveys, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  9. A new method for infrared imaging of air currents in and around critical hazard fume hoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulac, W.A.; McCreary, J.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schmalz, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Thermal Surveys, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A real time method of measuring and recording the efficacy of vapor containment in and around critical hazard fume hoods is being developed. An infrared camera whose response is restricted to a spectral range that overlaps a strong absorption band in a non-toxic gas is used to render real-time video images of the presence and flow of the gas. The gas, nitrous oxide, is ejected in a continuous stream in and around fume hoods that are to be certified capable of containing hazardous fumes. The principle advantage is that various scenarios of air flow displacement in and outside the hood can be easily investigated; the principle limitation is the necessity of high tracer gas concentration to obtain strong visualizations. We hope that this technique can be found to be an effective and safe method to test hoods in locations that were built before present regulations were promulgated.

  10. CdS/PbSe heterojunction for high temperature mid-infrared photovoltaic detector applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weng, Binbin, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Zhao, Lihua; Chang, Caleb [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Shi, Zhisheng, E-mail: binbinweng@ou.edu, E-mail: shi@ou.edu [The School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Nanolight, Inc., Norman, Oklahoma 73069 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    n-CdS/p-PbSe heterojunction is investigated. A thin CdS film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on top of epitaxial PbSe film by molecular beam epitaxy on Silicon. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with rectifying ratio of ?178 and ideality factor of 1.79 at 300?K. Detectors made with such structure exhibit mid-infrared spectral photoresponse at room temperature. The peak responsivity R{sub ?} and specific detectivity D{sup *} are 0.055?A/W and 5.482?×?10{sup 8}?cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W at ??=?4.7??m under zero-bias photovoltaic mode. Temperature-dependent photoresponse measurements show abnormal intensity variation below ?200?K. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are also discussed.

  11. Mid-Infrared Single Photon Counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilherme Temporao; Sebastien Tanzilli; Hugo Zbinden; Nicolas Gisin; Thierry Aellen; Marcella Giovannini; Jerome Faist

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a procedure to detect mid-infrared single photons at 4.65 um via a two-stage scheme based on Sum Frequency Generation, using a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) nonlinear crystal and a Silicon Avalanche Photodiode. An experimental investigation shows that, in addition to a high timing resolution, this technique yields a detection sensitivity of 1.24 pW with 63mW of net pump power.

  12. Instanton effects and quantum spectral curves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan Kallen; Marcos Marino

    2014-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a spectral problem associated to the quantization of a spectral curve arising in local mirror symmetry. The perturbative WKB quantization condition is determined by the quantum periods, or equivalently by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili (NS) limit. We show that the information encoded in the quantum periods is radically insufficient to determine the spectrum: there is an infinite series of instanton corrections, which are non-perturbative in \\hbar, and lead to an exact WKB quantization condition. Moreover, we conjecture the precise form of the instanton corrections: they are determined by the standard or un-refined topological string free energy, and we test our conjecture successfully against numerical calculations of the spectrum. This suggests that the non-perturbative sector of the NS refined topological string contains information about the standard topological string. As an application of the WKB quantization condition, we explain some recent observations relating membrane instanton corrections in ABJM theory to the refined topological string.

  13. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  14. Broadband Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, C G; Cunningham, C T; Tringe, J W

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the most important results of our effort to develop a new class of infrared spectrometers based on a novel broadband heterodyne design. Our results indicate that this approach could lead to a near-room temperature operation with performance limited only by quantum noise carried by the incoming signal. Using a model quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), we demonstrated key performance features of our approach. For example, we directly measured the beat frequency signal generated by superimposing local oscillator (LO) light of one frequency and signal light of another through a spectrograph, by injecting the LO light at a laterally displaced input location. In parallel with the development of this novel spectrometer, we modeled a new approach to reducing detector volume though plasmonic resonance effects. Since dark current scales directly with detector volume, this ''photon compression'' can directly lead to lower currents. Our calculations indicate that dark current can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude in an optimized ''superlens'' structure. Taken together, our spectrometer and dark current reduction strategies provide a promising path toward room temperature operation of a mid-wave and possibly long-wave infrared spectrometer.

  15. HIGH-RESOLUTION, DIFFERENTIAL, NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF GJ 1214b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crossfield, I. J. M.; Hansen, Brad M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barman, Travis, E-mail: ianc@astro.ucla.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nearby star GJ 1214 hosts a planet intermediate in radius and mass between Earth and Neptune, resulting in some uncertainty as to its nature. We have observed this planet, GJ 1214b, during transit with the high-resolution, near-infrared NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II telescope, in order to characterize the planet's atmosphere. By cross-correlating the spectral changes through transit with a suite of theoretical atmosphere models, we search for variations associated with absorption in the planet atmosphere. Our observations are sufficient to rule out tested model atmospheres with wavelength-dependent transit depth variations {approx}> 5 x 10{sup -4} over the wavelength range 2.1-2.4 {mu}m. Our sensitivity is limited by variable slit loss and telluric transmission effects. We find no positive signatures but successfully rule out a number of plausible atmospheric models, including the default assumption of a gaseous, H-dominated atmosphere in chemical equilibrium. Such an atmosphere can be made consistent if the absorption due to methane is reduced. Clouds can also render such an atmosphere consistent with our observations, but only if they lie higher in the atmosphere than indicated by recent optical and infrared measurements. When taken in concert with other observational constraints, our results support a model in which the atmosphere of GJ 1214b contains significant H and He, but where CH{sub 4} is depleted. If this depletion is the result of photochemical processes, it may also produce a haze that suppresses spectral features in the optical.

  16. Periodic Schrödinger operators with local defects and spectral pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Cancès; Virginie Ehrlacher; Yvon Maday

    2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This article deals with the numerical calculation of eigenvalues of perturbed periodic Schr\\"odinger operators located in spectral gaps. Such operators are encountered in the modeling of the electronic structure of crystals with local defects, and of photonic crystals. The usual finite element Galerkin approximation is known to give rise to spectral pollution. In this article, we give a precise description of the corresponding spurious states. We then prove that the supercell model does not produce spectral pollution. Lastly, we extend results by Lewin and S\\'er\\'e on some no-pollution criteria. In particular, we prove that using approximate spectral projectors enables one to eliminate spectral pollution in a given spectral gap of the reference periodic Sch\\"odinger operator.

  17. Infrared radiation of SF sub 6 and its application to gas-filled double-pane windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reilly, S.; Rubin, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Tuntomo, A.; Tien, C.L. (California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in using sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) as a gas-fill in multipane windows has raised questions concerning the calculation of heat transfer rates through such windows. The infrared absorption characteristics of this gas make the heat transfer analysis much more complicated. In order to account for the absorption effect, the authors measured the spectral absorptivity of several infrared-active bands of sulfur hexafluroide at low resolution and a temperature of 298 K. The authors correlated the spectral absorption data with Edwards exponential wide-band model and with the Elasser narrow-band model, and incorporated, the wide-band model into a one-dimensional, finite-element heat transfer model. The finite-element heat transfer model considered combined conduction and radiation effects in a double-pane window, and was used to evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficients of double-pane windows filled with SF{sub 6}, CO{sub 2}, or air. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results.

  18. Shear viscosity and spectral function of the quark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masaharu Iwasaki; Hiromasa Ohnishi; Takahiko Fukutome

    2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the shear viscosity of the quark matter by using the Kubo-Mori formula. It is found that the shear viscosity is expressed in terms of the quark spectral function. If the spectral function is approximated by a modified Bright-Wigner type, the viscosity decreases as the width of the spectral function increases. We also discuss dependence of the shear viscosity on the temperature and the density.

  19. UNVEILING FAR-INFRARED COUNTERPARTS OF BRIGHT SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES USING PACS IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dannerbauer, H.; Daddi, E.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Horeau, B.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Le Pennec, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Morrison, G. E. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Berta, S.; Schreiber, N. Foerster; Genzel, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Bongiovanni, A.; Cava, A.; Cepa, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna (Spain); Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Dominguez, H.; Gruppioni, C., E-mail: helmut.dannerbauer@cea.f [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a search for Herschel-PACS counterparts of dust-obscured, high-redshift objects previously selected at submillimeter and millimeter wavelengths in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North field. We detect 22 of 56 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs, 39%) with a signal-to-noise ratio of {>=}3 at 100 {mu}m down to 3.0 mJy, and/or at 160 {mu}m down to 5.7 mJy. The fraction of SMGs seen at 160 {mu}m is higher than that at 100 {mu}m. About 50% of radio-identified SMGs are associated with PACS sources. We find a trend between the SCUBA/PACS flux ratio and redshift, suggesting that these flux ratios could be used as a coarse redshift indicator. PACS-undetected submillimeter/millimeter selected sources tend to lie at higher redshifts than the PACS-detected ones. A total of 12 sources (21% of our SMG sample) remain unidentified and the fact that they are blank fields at Herschel-PACS and the Very Large Array 20 cm wavelength may imply higher redshifts for them than for the average SMG population (e.g., z>3-4). The Herschel-PACS imaging of these dust-obscured starbursts at high redshifts suggests that their far-infrared spectral energy distributions have significantly different shapes than template libraries of local infrared galaxies.

  20. The European Large Area ISO Survey VI - Discovery of a new hyperluminous infrared galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Morel; A. Efstathiou; S. Serjeant; I. Marquez; J. Masegosa; P. Heraudeau; C. Surace; A. Verma; S. Oliver; M. Rowan-Robinson; I. Georgantopoulos; D. Farrah; D. M. Alexander; I. Perez-Fournon; C. J. Willott; F. Cabrera-Guerra; E. A. Gonzalez-Solares; A. Cabrera-Lavers; J. I. Gonzalez-Serrano; P. Ciliegi; F. Pozzi; I. Matute; H. Flores

    2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of the first hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HyLIG) in the course of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). This object has been detected by ISO at 6.7, 15, and 90 microns, and is found to be a broad-line, radio-quiet quasar at a redshift: z = 1.099. From a detailed multi-component model fit of the spectral energy distribution, we derive a total infrared luminosity: L_IR (1-1000 microns) ~ 1.0 x 10E13 h_65^-2 L_sun (q_0 = 0.5), and discuss the possible existence of a starburst contributing to the far-IR output. Observations to date present no evidence for lens magnification. This galaxy is one of the very few HyLIGs with an X-ray detection. On the basis of its soft X-ray properties, we suggest that this broad-line object may be the face-on analogue of narrow-line, Seyfert-like HyLIGs.

  1. Infrared absorption strengths of potential gaseous diffusion plant coolants and related reaction products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is scheduled for production curtailment within the next few years, a search for substitutes is underway, and apparently workable alternatives have been found and are under testing. The presently favored substitutes, FC-c3l8 and FC-3110, satisfy ozone depletion and operational chemical compatibility concerns, but will be long-lived greenhouse gases, and thus may be regulated on that basis in the future. A further search is therefore underway for compounds with shorter atmospheric lifetimes which could otherwise satisfy operational physical and chemical requirements. A number of such candidates are in the process of being screened for chemical compatibility in a fluorinating environment. This document presents infrared spectral data developed and used in that study for candidates recently examined, and also for many of their fluorination reaction products. The data include gas-phase infrared spectra, quantitative peak intensities as a function of partial pressure, and integrated absorbance strength in the IR-transparent atmospheric window of interest to global warming modeling. Combining this last property with literature or estimated atmospheric lifetimes, rough estimates of global warming potential for these compounds are also presented.

  2. A UNSTRUCTURED NODAL SPECTRAL-ELEMENT METHOD FOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    [19] S. J. Sherwin and G. E. Karniadakis. A triangular spectral element method; applications to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Comput. Methods ...

  3. Parallel spectral-element direction splitting method for ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 14, 2014 ... [10] George E. Karniadakis, Spencer J. Sherwin, Spectral/hp Element Methods for Computational Fluid Dynamics, Oxford University Press, ...

  4. On the application of the spectral projected gradient method in ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    On the application of the spectral projected gradient method in image segmentation. 7. (a) cameraman – 204 × 204. (b) carplate – 285 × 224. (c) granite – 225 × ...

  5. Applications and Efficient Computation of Spectral Coefficients for Digital Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, Mitchell

    75275 (214)768­2861 FAX:(214)768­3085 mitch@seas.smu.edu, nair@seas.smu.edu Abstract Spectral methods

  6. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Euntaek Lee, Ri-Liang Heng, and Laurent Pilon Mechanical andE. Lee, R. -L. Heng, and L. Pilon, 2013. “Spectral Optical

  7. Spectral Characteristic Evolution: A New Algorithm for Gravitational Wave Propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey J. Handmer; Béla Szilágyi

    2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a spectral algorithm for solving the full nonlinear vacuum Einstein field equations in the Bondi framework. Developed within the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), we demonstrate spectral characteristic evolution as a technical precursor to Cauchy Characteristic Extraction (CCE), a rigorous method for obtaining gauge-invariant gravitational waveforms from existing and future astrophysical simulations. We demonstrate the new algorithm's stability, convergence, and agreement with existing evolution methods. We explain how an innovative spectral approach enables a two orders of magnitude improvement in computational efficiency.

  8. atom spectral energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Y. Polatoglu 2008-04-01 3 Inhomogeneous spectral moment sum rules for the retarded Green function and self-energy of strongly correlated electrons or ultracold fermionic...

  9. A masked spectral bound for maximum-entropy sampling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurt Anstreicher

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Sep 16, 2003 ... Abstract: We introduce a new masked spectral bound for the maximum-entropy sampling problem. This bound is a continuous generalization of ...

  10. KINKS AND DENTS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY AS EVIDENCE FOR LARGE STRUCTURAL PERTURBATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flaherty, K. M.; Rieke, G. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Balog, Z. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Herbst, W. [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Megeath, S. T., E-mail: kflaherty@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on synoptic observations at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m of young stellar objects in IC 348 with 38 epochs covering 40 days. We find that among the detected cluster members, 338 at [3.6] and 269 at both [3.6] and [4.5], many are variable on daily to weekly timescales with typical fluctuations of {approx}0.1 mag. The fraction of variables ranges from 20% for the diskless pre-main sequence stars to 60% for the stars still surrounded by infalling envelopes. We also find that stars in the exposed cluster core are less variable than the stars in the dense, slightly younger, southwestern ridge. This trend persists even after accounting for the underlying correlation with infrared spectral energy distribution type, suggesting that the change in variable fraction is not simply a reflection of the change in relative fraction of class I versus class II sources across the cloud, but instead reflects a change in variability with age. We also see a strong correlation between infrared variability and X-ray luminosity among the class II sources. The observed variability most likely reflects large changes in the structure of the inner wall located at the dust sublimation radius. We explore the possibility that these structural perturbations could be caused by a hot spot on the star heating dust above the sublimation temperature, causing it to evaporate rapidly, and increasing the inner radius for a portion of the disk. Under a number of simplifying assumptions we show that this model can reproduce the size and timescale of the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m fluctuations. Regardless of its source, the infrared variability indicates that the inner disk is not a slowly evolving entity, but instead is a bubbling, warped, dented mass of gas and dust whose global size and shape fluctuate in a matter of days.

  11. High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of FUors and FUor-like stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Greene; Colin Aspin; Bo Reipurth

    2008-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new high resolution (R=18,000) near-infrared spectroscopic observations of a sample of classical FU Orionis stars (FUors) and other young stars with FUor characteristics that are sources of Herbig-Haro flows. Spectra are presented for the region 2.203 - 2.236 microns which is rich in absorption lines sensitive to both effective temperatures and surface gravities of stars. Both FUors and FUor-like stars show numerous broad and weak unidentified spectral features in this region. Spectra of the 2.280 - 2.300 micron region are also presented, with the 2.2935 micron v=2-0 CO absorption bandhead being clearly the strongest feature seen in the spectra all FUors and Fuor-like stars. A cross-correlation analysis shows that FUor and FUor-like spectra in the 2.203 - 2.236 micron region are not consistent with late-type dwarfs, giants, nor embedded protostars. The cross-correlations also show that the observed FUor-like Herbig-Haro energy sources have spectra that are substantively similar to those of FUors. Both object groups also have similar near-infrared colors. The large line widths and double-peaked nature of the spectra of the FUor-like stars are consistent with the established accretion disk model for FUors, also consistent with their near-infrared colors. It appears that young stars with FUor-like characteristics may be more common than projected from the relatively few known classical FUors.

  12. Spectral energy distribution for GJ406

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; Yu. Lyubchik; J. Tennyson; D. J. Pinfield

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of modelling the bulk of the spectral energy distribution (0.35 - 5 micron) for GJ406 (M6V). Synthetic spectra were calculated using the NextGen, Dusty and Cond model atmospheres and incorporate line lists for H2O, TiO, CrH, FeH, CO, MgH molecules as well as the VALD line list of atomic lines. A comparison of synthetic and observed spectra gives Tef = 2800 +/- 100 K. We determine M$_bol = 12.13 +/- 0.10 for which evolutionary models by Baraffe et al. (2003) suggest an age of around 0.1 -- 0.35 Gyr consistent with its high activity. The age and luminosity of GJ406 correspond to a wide range of plausible masses (0.07 -- 0.1 Msun).

  13. Consequences of Flooding on Spectral Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Rudolf; Normann Mertig; Steffen Löck; Arnd Bäcker

    2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study spectral statistics in systems with a mixed phase space, in which regions of regular and chaotic motion coexist. Increasing their density of states, we observe a transition of the level-spacing distribution P(s) from Berry-Robnik to Wigner statistics, although the underlying classical phase-space structure and the effective Planck constant remain unchanged. This transition is induced by flooding, i.e., the disappearance of regular states due to increasing regular-to-chaotic couplings. We account for this effect by a flooding-improved Berry-Robnik distribution, in which an effectively reduced size of the regular island enters. To additionally describe power-law level repulsion at small spacings, we extend this prediction by explicitly considering the tunneling couplings between regular and chaotic states. This results in a flooding- and tunneling-improved Berry-Robnik distribution which is in excellent agreement with numerical data.

  14. Topologically Universal Spectral Hierarchies of Quasiperiodic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhack Dana

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Topological properties of energy spectra of general one-dimensional quasiperiodic systems, describing also Bloch electrons in magnetic fields, are studied for an infinity of irrational modulation frequencies corresponding to irrational numbers of flux quanta per unit cell. These frequencies include well-known ones considered in works on Fibonacci quasicrystals. It is shown that the spectrum for any such frequency exhibits a self-similar hierarchy of clusters characterized by universal (system-independent) values of Chern topological integers which are exactly determined. The cluster hierarchy provides a simple and systematic organization of all the spectral gaps, labeled by universal topological numbers which are exactly determinable, thus avoiding their numerical evaluation using rational approximants of the irrational frequency. These numbers give both the quantum Hall conductance of the system and the winding number of the edge-state energy traversing a gap as a Bloch quasimomentum is varied.

  15. The Spectral Structure of Correlator Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam C. Lichtl

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In lattice QCD spectrum calculations, it is desirable to obtain multiple excited state energies in each symmetry channel. Typically, one constructs several interpolating operators for the symmetry channel of interest, forms the `correlator matrix' of all possible two-point functions, and uses the variational method to obtain as many energy levels as possible. We present a detailed look at this last step, starting from a discussion of the symmetry properties and spectral structure of the correlator matrix. We continue by motivating and describing the variational method, before discussing some conceptual and practical challenges concerning the light baryon sector. We conclude by mentioning some alternate spectrum extraction methods currently under study. Throughout, we attempt to quantify all approximations and assumptions, and we illustrate our points using a nucleon correlator matrix estimated on dynamical two-flavor lattice data.

  16. Model for spectral and chromatographic data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jarman, Kristin [Richland, WA; Willse, Alan [Richland, WA; Wahl, Karen [Richland, WA; Wahl, Jon [Richland, WA

    2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus using a spectral analysis technique are disclosed. In one form of the invention, probabilities are selected to characterize the presence (and in another form, also a quantification of a characteristic) of peaks in an indexed data set for samples that match a reference species, and other probabilities are selected for samples that do not match the reference species. An indexed data set is acquired for a sample, and a determination is made according to techniques exemplified herein as to whether the sample matches or does not match the reference species. When quantification of peak characteristics is undertaken, the model is appropriately expanded, and the analysis accounts for the characteristic model and data. Further techniques are provided to apply the methods and apparatuses to process control, cluster analysis, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, and other procedures involving multiple comparisons of indexed data.

  17. Infrared Spectroscopy of the Ultra Low Mass Binary Oph 162225-240515

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Brandeker; Ray Jayawardhana; Valentin D. Ivanov; Radostin Kurtev

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Binary properties are an important diagnostic of the star and brown dwarf formation processes. While wide binaries appear to be rare in the sub-stellar regime, recent observations have revealed Ophiuchus 162225-240515 (2MASS J16222521-2405139) as a likely young ultra-low-mass binary with an apparent separation of ~240 AU. Here, we present low-resolution near-infrared spectra of the pair from NTT/SOFI (R~600) and VLT/ISAAC (R~1400), covering the 1.0-2.5um spectral region. By comparing to model atmospheres from Chabrier & Baraffe and Burrows et al., we confirm the surface temperatures to be T_A = (2350+/-150) K and T_B = (2100+/-100) K for the two components of the binary, consistent with earlier estimates from optical spectra. Using gravity sensitive K I features, we find the surface gravity to be significantly lower than field dwarfs of the same spectral type, providing the best evidence so far that these objects are indeed young. However, we find that models are not sufficiently reliable to infer accurate ages/masses from surface gravity. Instead, we derive masses of M_A = 13 (+8/-4) M_J and M_B = 10 (+5/-4) M_J for the two objects using the well-constrained temperatures and assuming an age of 1-10 Myr, consistent with the full range of ages reported for the Oph region.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy for divertor plasma diagnosis and control in DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A., E-mail: vlad@llnl.gov; McLean, A. G.; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurements performed in the DIII-D tokamak divertor plasma suggest new viable diagnostic applications: divertor recycling and low-Z impurity flux measurements, a spectral survey for divertor Thomson scattering (DTS) diagnostic, and T{sub e} monitoring for divertor detachment control. A commercial 0.3 m spectrometer coupled to an imaging lens via optical fiber and a InGaAs 1024 pixel array detector enabled deuterium and impurity emission measurements in the range 800–2300 nm. The first full NIR survey identified D, He, B, Li, C, N, O, Ne lines and provided plasma T{sub e}, n{sub e} estimates from deuterium Paschen and Brackett series intensity and Stark line broadening analysis. The range 1.000–1.060 mm was surveyed in high-density and neon seeded divertor plasmas for spectral background emission studies for ? = 1.064??m laser-based DTS development. The ratio of adjacent deuterium Paschen-? and Brackett Br9 lines in recombining divertor plasmas is studied for divertor T{sub e} monitoring aimed at divertor detachment real-time feedback control.

  19. Infrared Safety in Factorized Hard Scattering Cross-Sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Hornig; Christopher Lee; Grigory Ovanesyan

    2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The rules of soft-collinear effective theory can be used naively to write hard scattering cross-sections as convolutions of separate hard, jet, and soft functions. One condition required to guarantee the validity of such a factorization is the infrared safety of these functions in perturbation theory. Using e+e- angularity distributions as an example, we propose and illustrate an intuitive method to test this infrared safety at one loop. We look for regions of integration in the sum of Feynman diagrams contributing to the jet and soft functions where the integrals become infrared divergent. Our analysis is independent of an explicit infrared regulator, clarifies how to distinguish infrared and ultraviolet singularities in pure dimensional regularization, and demonstrates the necessity of taking zero-bins into account to obtain infrared-safe jet functions.

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecular Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Infrared Space Observatory spectroscopy of sites in the supernova remnants W28, W44, and 3C391, where blast waves are impacting molecular clouds. Atomic fine-structure lines were detected from C, N, O, Si, P, and Fe. The S(3) and S(9) lines of H2 were detected for all three remnants. The observations require both shocks into gas with moderate (~ 100 /cm3) and high (~10,000 /cm3) pre-shock densities, with the moderate density shocks producing the ionic lines and the high density shock producing the molecular lines. No single shock model can account for all of the observed lines, even at the order of magnitude level. We find that the principal coolants of radiative supernova shocks in moderate-density gas are the far-infrared continuum from dust grains surviving the shock, followed by collisionally-excited [O I] 63.2 and [Si II] 34.8 micron lines. The principal coolant of the high-density shocks is collisionally-excited H2 rotational and ro-vibrational line emission. We systematically examine the ground-state fine structure of all cosmically abundant elements, to explain the presence or lack of all atomic fine lines in our spectra in terms of the atomic structure, interstellar abundances, and a moderate-density, partially-ionized plasma. The [P II] line at 60.6 microns is the first known astronomical detection. There is one bright unidentified line in our spectra, at 74.26 microns. The presence of bright [Si II] and [Fe II] lines requires partial destruction of the dust. The required gas-phase abundance of Fe suggests 15-30% of the Fe-bearing grains were destroyed. The infrared continuum brightness requires ~1 Msun of dust survives the shock, suggesting about 1/3 of the dust mass was destroyed, in agreement with the depletion estimate and with theoretical models for dust destruction.

  1. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R (Farragut, TN) [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  2. The nearby eclipsing stellar system delta Velorum - I. Origin of the infrared excess from VISIR and NACO imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Kervella; Frédéric Thévenin; Monika Petr-Gotzens

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    - Context: The triple stellar system delta Vel system presents a significant infrared excess, whose origin is still being debated. A large infrared bow shock has been discovered using Spitzer/MIPS observations. Although it appears as a significant contributor to the measured IR excess, the possibility exists that a circumstellar IR excess is present around the stars of the system. - Aims: The objective of the present VISIR and NACO observations is to identify whether one of the stars of the delta Vel system presents a circumstellar photometric excess in the thermal IR domain and to quantify it. - Methods: We observed delta Vel using the imaging modes of the ESO/VLT instruments VISIR (in BURST mode) and NACO to resolve the A-B system (0.6" separation) and obtain the photometry of each star. We also obtained one NACO photometry epoch precisely at the primary (annular) eclipse of delta Vel Aa by Ab. - Results: Our photometric measurements with NACO (2.17 mic), complemented by the existing visible photometry allowed us to reconstruct the spectral energy distribution of the three stars. We then compared the VISIR photometry (8.6-12.8 mic) to the expected photospheric emission from the three stars at the corresponding wavelengths. - Conclusions: We can exclude the presence of a circumstellar thermal infrared excess around delta Vel A or B down to a few percent level. This supports the conclusions of Gaspar et al. (2008) that the IR excess of delta Vel has an interstellar origin, although a cold circumstellar disk could still be present. In addition, we derive the spectral types of the three stars Aa, Ab, and B (respectively A2IV, A4V and F8V), and we estimate the age of the system around 400-500 Myr.

  3. Near-Infrared Adaptive Optics Imaging of the Central Regions of Nearby Sc Galaxies: I. M33

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Davidge

    1999-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared images obtained with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Adaptive Optics Bonnette (AOB) are used to investigate the stellar content within 18 arcsec of the center of the Local Group spiral galaxy M33. AGB stars with near-infrared spectral-energy distributions similar to those of giants in the solar neighborhood and Baade's Window are detected over most of the field. The bolometric luminosity function (LF) of these stars has a discontinuity near M_{bol} = -5.25, and comparisons with evolutionary tracks suggest that most of the AGB stars formed in a burst of star formation 1 - 3 Gyr in the past. The images are also used to investigate the integrated near-infrared photometric properties of the nucleus and the central light concentration. The nucleus is bluer than the central light concentration, in agreement with previous studies at visible wavelengths. The CO index of the central light concentration 0.5 arcsec from the galaxy center is 0.05, which corresponds to [Fe/H] = -1.2 for simple stellar systems. Hence, the central light concentration could not have formed from the chemically-enriched material that dominates the present-day inner disk of M33.

  4. Nonperturbative infrared fixed point in sextet QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Svetitsky; Yigal Shamir; Thomas DeGrand

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The SU(3) gauge theory with fermions in the sextet representation is one of several theories of interest for technicolor models. We have carried out a Schrodinger functional (SF) calculation for the lattice theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions. We find that the discrete beta function changes sign when the SF renormalized coupling is in the neighborhood of g^2 = 2.0, showing a breakdown of the perturbative picture even though the coupling is weak. The most straightforward interpretation is an infrared-stable fixed point.

  5. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFPTri-Party AgreementInfrared Mapping Helps

  6. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluence ofQuickdegreeInfrared

  7. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluenceInfrared Mapping Helps Optimize

  8. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluenceInfrared Mapping Helps

  9. Zenith Radiance Retrieval of Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhatY-12 recognizedThesisZero-KnowledgeStatus

  10. Radiance: Synthetic Imaging System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevada <RECServices,RYPOSRadiance:

  11. Use Remote Sensing Data (selected visible and infrared spectrums...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Use Remote Sensing Data (selected visible and infrared spectrums) to locate high temperature ground anomalies in Colorado. Confirm heat flow potential with on-site surveys to drill...

  12. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade...

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous Solid Water. Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Constants of Porous Amorphous Solid Water. Abstract: Reflection-absorption...

  14. Use Remote Sensing Data (selected visible and infrared spectrums...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    City - May 19, 2010 * Project Title - "Use Remote Sensing Data (selected visible and infrared spectrums) to locate high temperature ground anomalies in Colorado. Confirm heat flow...

  15. Thermal And-Or Near Infrared At Yellowstone Region (Hellman ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal And-Or Near Infrared Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Melanie J. Hellman,...

  16. aerial color infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Solar infrared colors provide powerful constraints on the stellar effective temperature scale, but to this purpose they must be measured with both accuracy and precision....

  17. algaas mid infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    populations of mid-infrared sources, probably reflecting differences in the intracluster media and recent dynamical evolution of these systems. J. E. Geach; Ian Smail; R. S....

  18. CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8:CHAPTER 8: Thermal InfraredThermal Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    measurable temperature variations of 1/10,000 °C.p · In World War I, S. O. Hoffman could detect men at 120 m remote sensor data were collected by the U. S. Television IR Operational Satellite (TIROS) launched a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) that included a thermal infrared sensor for monitoring sea

  19. Blind Spectral-GMM Estimation for Underdetermined Instantaneous Audio Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Blind Spectral-GMM Estimation for Underdetermined Instantaneous Audio Source Separation Simon.ozerov@telecom-paristech.fr Abstract. The underdetermined blind audio source separation prob- lem is often addressed in the time. Other approaches which are not blind assume a more structured model, like the Spectral Gaussian Mixture

  20. Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrafast pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    Information processing with longitudinal spectral decomposition of ultrafast pulses Robert E of waveforms depending on whether their frequency response is or is not known a priori. Ultrafast pulses prove synthesis and detection relying on longitudinal spectral decomposition of subpicosecond optical pulses

  1. On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1 , Olivier Rosec1 , Thierry.chonavel@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract This paper explores the benefits of transforming spectral peaks in voice conversion. First, in examining classic GMM- based transformation with cepstral coefficients, we show that the lack of transformed

  2. Spectral Cascade and Energy Dissipation in Kinetic Alfven Wave Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhihong

    Spectral Cascade and Energy Dissipation in Kinetic Alfv´en Wave Turbulence Xi Cheng, Zhihong Lin energy sources at large spatial scales. The energy of these non- linearly interacting Alfven waves. 2000). The wave-particle energy exchange rates of these channels depend on the spectral properties near

  3. Spectral Embedded Clustering Feiping Nie1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang Wai Hung "Ivor"

    , K-means and Discrimi- native K-means. The experiments on many real- world data sets show that SEC significantly out- performs the existing spectral clustering methods as well as K-means clustering related have been developed such as K-means clustering, mixture models [McLachlan and Peel, 2000], spectral

  4. Spectral Embedded Clustering Feiping Nie1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Dong

    methods, such as spectral clustering, Clustering with local and global regularization, K-means and Discrimi- native K-means. The experiments on many real- world data sets show that SEC significantly out- performs the existing spectral clustering methods as well as K-means clustering related methods. 1

  5. Hidden Markov model approach to spectral analysis for hyperspectral imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Jenny (Qian)

    divergence (HMMID), is derived to characterize spectral properties. To evaluate the performance of this new). The experimental results show that the HMMID per- forms better than the other three measures in characterizing characterization; spectral information divergence. Paper 990515 received Dec. 27, 1999; revised manuscript received

  6. Efficient spectral-Galerkin method III. polar and cylindrical geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    spectral-collocation or spectral-tau methods (see, for instance, [9], [5], [6], [10], and. [7]), but ..... The direct computation of elements of A, B, and C is very involved, but it can be ...... at infinity, or orthogonal rational functions introduced in [4]. ... will converge in a finite number of steps, independent of the discretization parame-.

  7. Custom Spectral Shaping for EMI Reduction in Electronic Ballasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waveforms, resulting in the elimination of power spectral density (PSD) distortion and reduced peak currents power and light color, increase lifetime and realize smaller and lighter ballasts. With such a source used extensively to reduce EMI in power supplies [1-10]. The power spectral density (PSD) is spread

  8. Faculty Database User Instructions Spectral Fusion Designs Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Xi

    Faculty Database User Instructions Spectral Fusion Designs Page 1 Faculty, Staff, and Student Instructions Introduction The Faculty Database is a tool created by Spectral Fusion Designs (SFD faculty, staff, or graduate students must be added to the Faculty Database by departmental administrators

  9. Investigation into Spectral Parameters as they Impact CPV Module Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Rodriguez, J.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CPV industry is well aware that performance of triple junction cells depends on spectral conditions but there is a lack of data quantifying this spectral dependence at the module level. This paper explores the impact of precipitable water vapor, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and optical air mass on multiple CPV module technologies on-sun in Golden, CO.

  10. Effective Spectral Function for Quasielastic Scattering on Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bodek; M. E. Christy; B. Coopersmith

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral functions that are used in neutrino event generators to model quasielastic (QE) scattering from nuclear targets include Fermi gas, Local Thomas Fermi gas (LTF), Bodek-Ritchie Fermi gas with high momentum tail, and the Benhar-Fantoni two dimensional spectral function. We find that the $\

  11. Infrared and ultraviolet problem for the Nelson model with variable coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared and ultraviolet problem for the Nelson model with variable coefficients C. G´erard,1 , F of the Hamiltonian in the presence of the infrared problem, i.e. assuming that the boson mass tends to 0 at infinity state one usually speaks of the infrared problem or infrared divergence. The infrared problem arises

  12. Areal-averaged and Spectrally-resolved Surface Albedo from Ground-based Transmission Data Alone: Toward an Operational Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Riihimaki, Laura D.; Michalsky, Joseph; Hodges, G. B.

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present here a simple retrieval of the areal-averaged and spectrally resolved surface albedo using only ground-based measurements of atmospheric transmission under fully overcast conditions. Our retrieval is based on a one-line equation and widely accepted assumptions regarding the weak spectral dependence of cloud optical properties in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The feasibility of our approach for the routine determinations of albedo is demonstrated for different landscapes with various degrees of heterogeneity using three sets of measurements:(1) spectrally resolved atmospheric transmission from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) at wavelength 415, 500, 615, 673, and 870 nm, (2) tower-based measurements of local surface albedo at the same wavelengths, and (3) areal-averaged surface albedo at four wavelengths (470, 560, 670 and 860 nm) from collocated and coincident Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. These integrated datasets cover both long (2008-2013) and short (April-May, 2010) periods at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the NOAA Table Mountain site, respectively. The calculated root mean square error (RMSE), which is defined here as the root mean squared difference between the MODIS-derived surface albedo and the retrieved area-averaged albedo, is quite small (RMSE?0.01) and comparable with that obtained previously by other investigators for the shortwave broadband albedo. Good agreement between the tower-based daily averages of surface albedo for the completely overcast and non-overcast conditions is also demonstrated. This agreement suggests that our retrieval originally developed for the overcast conditions likely will work for non-overcast conditions as well.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  14. The Broad Band Spectral Energy Distributions of SDSS Blazars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Huaizhen; Jiang, Yunguo; Yi, Tingfeng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compiled the radio, optical, and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broad band spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat-spectral radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacs objects. On the other hand, the broad band spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects (LBLs) objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs) have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme also is revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameter.

  15. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  16. Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.

  17. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE DUST EMISSION IN THE FAR-INFRARED AND SUBMILLIMETER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veneziani, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Paladini, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piacentini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ''La Sapienza'', I-00185 Rome (Italy); Paradis, D., E-mail: marcella.veneziani@ipac.caltech.edu [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method, based on Bayesian statistics, to fit the dust emission parameters in the far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. The method estimates the dust temperature and spectral emissivity index, plus their relationship, properly taking into account the statistical and systematic uncertainties. We test it on three sets of simulated sources detectable by the Herschel Space Observatory in the PACS and SPIRE spectral bands (70-500 {mu}m), spanning over a wide range of dust temperatures. The simulated observations are a one-component interstellar medium and two two-component sources, both warm (H II regions) and cold (cold clumps (CCs)). We first define a procedure to identify the better model, then we recover the parameters of the model and measure their physical correlations by means of a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm adopting multi-variate Gaussian priors. In this process, we assess the reliability of the model recovery and of parameter estimation. We conclude that the model and parameters are properly recovered only under certain circumstances and that false models may be derived in some cases. We applied the method to a set of 91 starless CCs in an interarm region of the Galactic plane with low star formation activity, observed by Herschel in the Hi-GAL survey. Our results are consistent with a temperature-independent spectral index.

  18. Spatial Spectral Estimation forSpatial Spectral Estimation for Reactor Modeling and ControlReactor Modeling and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scarrott, Carl

    Spatial Spectral Estimation forSpatial Spectral Estimation for Reactor Modeling and ControlReactor in Magnox nuclear reactors l Establish safe operating limits l Issues: ­ Subset of measurements ­ Control Modeling and Control Carl Scarrott Granville Tunnicliffe-Wilson Lancaster University, UK c

  19. Spectral equivalences from Bethe Ansatz equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorey, P; Tateo, R; Dorey, Patrick; Dunning, Clare; Tateo, Roberto

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equation for the potential $x^6+\\alpha x^2 +l(l+1)/x^2$ has many interesting properties. For certain values of the parameters l and alpha the equation is in turn supersymmetric (Witten), quasi-exactly solvable (Turbiner), and it also appears in Lipatov's approach to high energy QCD. In this paper we signal some further curious features of these theories, namely novel spectral equivalences with particular second- and third-order differential equations. These relationships are obtained via a recently-observed connection between the theories of ordinary differential equations and integrable models. Generalised supersymmetry transformations acting at the quasi-exactly solvable points are also pointed out, and an efficient numerical procedure for the study of these and related problems is described. Finally we generalise slightly and then prove a conjecture due to Bessis, Zinn-Justin, Bender and Boettcher, concerning the reality of the spectra of certain PT-symmetric quantum-mecha...

  20. Mid-infrared second-order susceptibility of -quartz and its application to visible-infrared surface sum-frequency spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Mid-infrared second-order susceptibility of -quartz and its application to visible-infrared surface to elucidate the nonlinear susceptibility of any material in the mid-infrared region. Crystalline quartz-frequency spectroscopy which are expanding into the mid-IR with the increasing availability of widely tunable infrared

  1. Cancellation of Infrared divergences to all orders in LFQED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jai D. More; Anuradha Misra

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent state approach has been proposed as an alternate way to deal with the true infrared divergences in light front field theory. We show that infrared divergences in fermion mass renormalization are eliminated to all orders in light front time ordered perturbation theory if one uses coherent state basis instead of the usual Fock basis to calculate the Hamiltonian matrix elements.

  2. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos; Stavros (Livermore, CA), Staggs; Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  3. Multivariate classification of infrared spectra of cell and tissue samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Jones, Howland D. T. (Albuquerque, NM); Thomas, Edward V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multivariate classification techniques are applied to spectra from cell and tissue samples irradiated with infrared radiation to determine if the samples are normal or abnormal (cancerous). Mid and near infrared radiation can be used for in vivo and in vitro classifications using at least different wavelengths.

  4. active infrared systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    active infrared systems First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Infrared spectroscopic...

  5. akari infrared observations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    akari infrared observations First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The Infrared Astronomical...

  6. affecting thermal infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting thermal infrared First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Thermal Infrared Remote...

  7. Apparatus and method for transient thermal infrared spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClelland, John F. (Ames, IA); Jones, Roger W. (Ames, IA)

    1991-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for enabling analysis of a material (16, 42) by applying a cooling medium (20, 54) to cool a thin surface layer portion of the material and to transiently generate a temperature differential between the thin surface layer portion and the lower portion of the material sufficient to alter the thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material from the black-body thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material. The altered thermal infrared emission spectrum of the material is detected by a spectrometer/detector (28, 50) while the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of the emitted infrared radiation. The detection is effected prior to the temperature differential propagating into the lower portion of the material to an extent such that the altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is no longer sufficiently free of self-absorption by the material of emitted infrared radiation, so that the detected altered thermal infrared emission spectrum is indicative of the characteristics relating to the molecular composition of the material.

  8. akari infrared spectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    akari infrared spectroscopy First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Near-infrared and...

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic tissue imaging for medical applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  10. Infrared Limit of Gluon Amplitudes at Strong Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evgeny I. Buchbinder

    2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note, we propose that the infrared structure of gluon amplitudes at strong coupling can be fully extracted from a local consideration near cusps. This is consistent with field theory and correctly reproduces the infrared divergences of the four-gluon amplitude at strong coupling calculated recently by Alday and Maldacena.

  11. als infrared beamlines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    als infrared beamlines First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Noise reduction for the infrared...

  12. akari infrared camera: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    akari infrared camera First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The Infrared Camera (IRC) for...

  13. akari space infrared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    akari space infrared First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The Infrared Astronomical Mission...

  14. Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    T Temperature profile of the infrared image Heat exchange between atmosphere and ocean References coefficient of heat in water determine the heat transfer velocity: *t Infrared images of the water surface: a-Karls-Universität Heidelberg www.uni-heidelberg.de Active controlled flux technique (ACFT) Continuous heat flux Periodic heat

  15. FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS) Proposal Team: L INFORMATION · TECHNIQUE(S): Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Raman and visible spectroscopy; Diamond techniques combined with DACs; Laser heating techniques combined with DACs. · SOURCE: Large-gap (90 mm

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Polyhydroxylated Near-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson-Prior, Linda

    Synthesis and Evaluation of Polyhydroxylated Near-Infrared Carbocyanine Molecular Probes Zongren achilefus@wustl.edu Received April 22, 2004 ABSTRACT A new near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probe as needlelike crystals directly from the reaction mixture by controlled heating of the mixture between 100

  17. Infrared Thermography User Group (IRUG) 2003 Meeting Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared thermography is a key component of predictive maintenance programs for fossil and nuclear utilities. EPRI's Technology for Equipment Assessment and Maintenance (TEAM) group and their Maintenance Management & Technology (MM&T) program supported the 13th Infrared Thermography Users' Group (IRUG) meeting, which was hosted and also supported by Progress Energy.

  18. OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Wotao

    OIL SPILL SENSOR USING MULTISPECTRAL INFRARED IMAGING VIA 1 MINIMIZATION Yingying Li , Wei Computational and Applied Mathematics, Rice University ABSTRACT Early detection of oil spill events is the key in detecting the early onset of a small-scale oil spill event. Based on an infrared oil-water contrast model

  19. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies and the Origin of QSOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Sanders

    2001-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the evidence which suggests that ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIGs) are the precursors of optically selected quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) and discuss additional data that suggests that the majority, if not all QSOs, may begin their lives in an intense infrared phase. Implications for the host galaxies of QSOs are discussed.

  20. A Panoramic Mid-infrared Survey of Two Distant Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geach, J E; Ellis, Richard S; Moran, S M; Smith, G P; Treu, T; Kneib, J P; Edge, A C; Kodama, T; Smail, Ian

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (abridged) We present panoramic Spitzer MIPS 24um observations covering 9x9Mpc (25'x25') fields around two massive clusters, Cl0024+16 and MS0451-03, at z=0.39 and z=0.55. Our observations cover a very wide range of environments within these clusters, from high-density regions around the cores out to the turn-around radius. Cross-correlating the mid-infrared catalogs with deep optical and near-infrared imaging of these fields, we investigate the optical/near-infrared colors of the mid-infrared sources. We find excesses of mid-infrared sources with optical/near-infrared colors expected of cluster members in the two clusters and test this selection using spectroscopically confirmed 24um members. The much more significant excess is associated with Cl0024+16, whereas MS0451-03 has comparatively few mid-infrared sources. The mid-infrared galaxy population in Cl0024+16 appears to be associated with dusty star-forming galaxies (typically redder than the general cluster population by up to A_V~1-2 mags) rather than e...