Sample records for infrared ir rays

  1. MID-INFRARED IRS SPECTROSCOPY OF NGC 7331: A FIRST LOOK AT THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES SURVEY (SINGS) LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Draine, Bruce T.

    MID-INFRARED IRS SPECTROSCOPY OF NGC 7331: A FIRST LOOK AT THE SPITZER INFRARED NEARBY GALAXIES to 38 m using all modules of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). A strong new dust emission feature with standard photodissociation region (PDR) models. Either additional PDR heating or shocks are required

  2. An infrared study of galactic OH/IR stars. I. An optical/near-IR atlas of the Arecibo sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. M. Jiménez-Esteban; L. Agudo-Mérida; D. Engels; P. García-Lario

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present optical and near-infrared finding charts, accurate astrometry (~1") and single-epoch near-infrared photometry for 371 IRAS sources, 96% of those included in the so-called Arecibo sample of OH/IR stars (Eder et al. 1988; Lewis et al. 1990a; Chengalur et al. 1993). The main photometric properties of the stars in the sample are presented and discussed as well as the problems found during the process of identification of the optical/near-infrared counterparts. In addition, we also identify suitable reference stars in each field to be used for differential photometry purposes in the future. We find that 39% of the sources (144 in number) have no optical counterpart, 8 of them being invisible even at near infrared wavelengths. The relative distribution of sources with and without optical counterpart in the IRAS two-colour diagram and their characteristic near infrared colours are interpreted as the consequence of the increasing thickness of their circumstellar shells. Among the objects not detected at near infrared wavelengths four non-variable sources are proposed to be heavily obscured post-AGB stars which have just very recently left the AGB. Eight additional objects with unusually bright and/or blue near-infrared colours are identified as candidate post-AGB stars and/or proto-planetary nebulae.

  3. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  4. Hard X-rays and Fluorescent Iron Emission from the Embedded Infrared Cluster in NGC 2071

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephen L. Skinner; Audrey E. Simmons; Marc Audard; Manuel Guedel

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present first results of XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the infrared cluster lying near the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B region. This cluster is of interest because it is one of the closest regions known to harbor embedded high-mass stars. We report the discovery of hard X-ray emission from the dense central NGC 2071-IR subgroup which contains at least three high-mass young stellar objects (NGC 2071 IRS-1, IRS-2, and IRS-3). A prominent X-ray source is detected within 1 arcsecond of the infrared source IRS-1, which is thought to drive a powerful bipolar molecular outflow. The X-ray spectrum of this source is quite unusual compared to the optically thin plasma spectra normally observed in young stellar objects (YSOs). The spectrum is characterized by a hard broad-band continuum plus an exceptionally broad emission line at approximately 6.4 keV from neutral or near-neutral iron. The fluorescent Fe line likely originates in cold material near the embedded star (i.e. a disk or envelope) that is irradiated by the hard heavily-absorbed X-ray source.

  5. Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast Two-Dimensional Infrared (2D IR RECEIVED ON FEBRUARY 3, 2009 C O N S P E C T U S Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species

  6. Infrared Observations of Soft GammaRay Repeaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ian Andrew

    Infrared Observations of Soft Gamma­Ray Repeaters I. A. Smith Department of Space Physics been found for SGR 0525--66. This paper gives a brief overview of some recent and ongoing infrared observing programs. For a more detailed review article, see Smith (1997) [2]. INFRARED SPECTRA OF SGR 1806

  7. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; N. Kobayashi; Y. Tsuboi

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is found from a mid-infrared protostar L1448 IRS 3(A). The lack of detection of this source in our deep NIR images indicates that this source has a very steep spectral slope of > 3.2 in 2--10 micron.

  8. The determination of Os and Ir by delayed X-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillay, A.E.; Mashilo, N. (Univ. of Witwatersrand (South Africa))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Delayed X-ray spectrometry preceded by fast neutron activation, is a relatively novel application and its capabilities as an analytical tool for the specific determination of Os and Ir in small powdered samples was evaluated. The investigation took the form of a feasibility study which relied heavily on the high sensitivity of the detector used. Detection of the delayed X-rays was achieved with a 100 mm{sup 2} Ge detector whose ability to produce optimum photopeak-to-noise ratios formed the basis exploited in this investigation. Analytical conditions are demonstrated over a range of concentrations for the elements of interest and the potential of the technique for application to the general routine analysis of Os and Ir is discussed. The authors indicate that interferences from the sample matrix can be suppressed to a degree which makes the method almost independent of the matrix. This and other attractive features make the technique a strong rival to conventional activation analysis.

  9. Infrared Surveys for AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harding E. Smith

    2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    From the earliest extragalactic infrared studies AGN have shown themselves to be strong infrared sources and IR surveys have revealed new populations of AGN. I briefly review current motivations for AGN surveys in the infrared and results from previous IR surveys. The Luminous Infrared Galaxies, which in some cases house dust-enshrouded AGN, submillimeter surveys, and recent studies of the cosmic x-ray and infrared backgrounds suggest that there is a population of highly-obscured AGN at high redshift. ISO Surveys have begun to resolve the infrared background and may have detected this obscured AGN population. New infrared surveys, particularly the SIRTF Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (SWIRE), will detect this population and provide a platform for understanding the evolution of AGN, Starbursts and passively evolving galaxies in the context of large-scale structure and environment.

  10. OpenIR [Open Infrared] : enhancing environmental monitoring through accessible remote sensing, in Indonesia and beyond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducao, Arlene (Arlene Brigoli)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the human landscape changes ever more rapidly, environmental change accelerates. Much environmental information is publicly available as infrared satellite data. However, for the general user, this information is difficult ...

  11. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED MONITORING OF THE BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARY GX 339-4 DURING 2002-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxton, Michelle M.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Capelo, Holly L.; Chatterjee, Ritaban [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Dincer, Tolga; Kalemci, Emrah [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Orhanli-Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 (Turkey); Tomsick, John A., E-mail: michelle.buxton@yale.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the optical/infrared (O/IR) light curve of the black hole X-ray binary GX 339-4 collected at the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope from 2002 to 2010. During this time the source has undergone numerous state transitions including hard-to-soft state transitions when we see large changes in the near-IR flux accompanied by modest changes in optical flux, and three rebrightening events in 2003, 2005, and 2007 after GX 339-4 transitioned from the soft state to the hard. All but one outburst show similar behavior in the X-ray hardness-intensity diagram. We show that the O/IR colors follow two distinct tracks that reflect either the hard or soft X-ray state of the source. Thus, either of these two X-ray states can be inferred from O/IR observations alone. From these correlations we have constructed spectral energy distributions of the soft and hard states. During the hard state, the near-IR data have the same spectral slope as simultaneous radio data when GX 339-4 was in a bright optical state, implying that the near-IR is dominated by a non-thermal source, most likely originating from jets. Non-thermal emission dominates the near-IR bands during the hard state at all but the faintest optical states, and the fraction of non-thermal emission increases with increasing optical brightness. The spectral slope of the optical bands indicate that a heated thermal source is present during both the soft and hard X-ray states, even when GX 339-4 is at its faintest optical state. We have conducted a timing analysis of the light curve for the hard and soft states and find no evidence of a characteristic timescale within the range of 4-230 days.

  12. Near Infrared observations of Soft X-ray selected AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Grupe; H. -C Thomas

    2002-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of near infrared observations of 19 soft X-ray selected AGN. The goal of the observations was to search for strong, narrow Paschen-alpha or Brackett-gamma emission lines, as a sign of nuclear starbursts. We found Pa-alpha emission in the spectra of 11 sources and Br-gamma in at least five. Strong NIR emission has been found in two sources, CBS 126 and Mkn 766, both objects with strong [OIII]5007 emission, weak FeII emission and wavelength dependent degree of polarization in the optical. Classical Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies do not show exceptionally strong NIR emission lines. We present the results of our study and discuss how our findings fit into an evolutionary scheme of AGN.

  13. Frying Doughnuts: What can the reprocessing of X-rays to IR tell us about the AGN environment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. McKernan; K. E. S. Ford; N. Chang; C. S. Reynolds

    2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) produce vast amounts of high energy radiation deep in their central engines. X-rays either escape the AGN or are absorbed and re-emitted mostly as IR. By studying the dispersion in the ratio of observed mid-IR luminosity to observed 2-10keV X-ray luminosity (R_{ir/x}) in AGN we can investigate the reprocessing material (possibly a torus or donut of dust) in the AGN central engine, independent of model assumptions. We studied the ratio of observed mid-IR and 2-10keV X-ray luminosities in a heterogeneous sample of 245 AGN from the literature. We found that when we removed AGN with prominent jets, ~90% of Type I AGN lay within a very tight dispersion in luminosity ratio (1cloud cover, turbulent disk, opening angle of absorbing structures such as dusty tori) must span a very narrow range of parameters. We also found that the far-IR(100um) to mid-IR (12um) observed luminosity ratio is an effective descriminator between heavily obscured AGN and relatively unobscured AGN.

  14. X-ray-induced electronic structure change in CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gretarsson, H.; Kim, Young-June [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Kim, Jungho; Casa, D.; Gog, T. [CMC-XOR, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Choi, K. R. [l-PEM, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, S. W. [l-PEM, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); R-CEM and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structure of CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4} is investigated using various bulk-sensitive x-ray spectroscopic methods near the Ir L{sub 3} edge: resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS), x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the partial fluorescence yield mode, and resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy. A strong RIXS signal (0.75 eV) resulting from a charge-density-wave gap opening is observed below the metal-insulator transition temperature of 230 K. The resultant modification of electronic structure is consistent with the density functional theory prediction. In the spin- and charge-dimer disordered phase induced by x-ray irradiation below 50 K, we find that a broad peak around 0.4 eV appears in the RIXS spectrum.

  15. HOST GALAXIES, CLUSTERING, EDDINGTON RATIOS, AND EVOLUTION OF RADIO, X-RAY, AND INFRARED-SELECTED AGNs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Brodwin, Mark; Narayan, Ramesh; Kenter, Almus; Caldwell, Nelson; Anderson, Michael E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel [Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T.; Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton 3800, Victoria (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cool, Richard J. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States)], E-mail: rhickox@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the connection between different classes of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the evolution of their host galaxies, by deriving host galaxy properties, clustering, and Eddington ratios of AGNs selected in the radio, X-ray, and infrared (IR) wavebands. We study a sample of 585 AGNs at 0.25 < z < 0.8 using redshifts from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES). We select AGNs with observations in the radio at 1.4 GHz from the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, X-rays from the Chandra XBooetes Survey, and mid-IR from the Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey. The radio, X-ray, and IR AGN samples show only modest overlap, indicating that to the flux limits of the survey, they represent largely distinct classes of AGNs. We derive host galaxy colors and luminosities, as well as Eddington ratios, for obscured or optically faint AGNs. We also measure the two-point cross-correlation between AGNs and galaxies on scales of 0.3-10 h {sup -1} Mpc, and derive typical dark matter halo masses. We find that: (1) radio AGNs are mainly found in luminous red sequence galaxies, are strongly clustered (with M {sub halo} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have very low Eddington ratios {lambda} {approx}< 10{sup -3}; (2) X-ray-selected AGNs are preferentially found in galaxies that lie in the 'green valley' of color-magnitude space and are clustered similar to the typical AGES galaxies (M {sub halo} {approx} 10{sup 13} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), with 10{sup -3} {approx}< {lambda} {approx}< 1; (3) IR AGNs reside in slightly bluer, slightly less luminous galaxies than X-ray AGNs, are weakly clustered (M {sub halo} {approx}< 10{sup 12} h {sup -1} M {sub sun}), and have {lambda}>10{sup -2}. We interpret these results in terms of a simple model of AGN and galaxy evolution, whereby a 'quasar' phase and the growth of the stellar bulge occurs when a galaxy's dark matter halo reaches a critical mass between {approx}10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M {sub sun}. After this event, star formation ceases and AGN accretion shifts from radiatively efficient (optical- and IR-bright) to radiatively inefficient (optically faint, radio-bright) modes.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW MID-INFRARED ULTRAFAST LASER SOURCES FOR COMPACT COHERENT X-RAY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sterling Backus

    2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we proposed to develop laser based mid-infrared lasers as a potentially robust and reliable source of ultrafast pulses in the mid-infrared region of the spectrum, and to apply this light source to generating bright, coherent, femtosecond-to-attosecond x-ray beams.

  17. Maskelynite formation via solid-state transformation: Evidence of infrared and x-ray anisotropy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaret, Steven J.; Ehm, Lars; Woerner, William R.; Phillips, Brian L.; Nekvasil, Hanna; Wright, Shawn P.; Glotch, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high-energy X-ray total scattering experiments, and micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy on shocked labradorite from the Lonar Crater, India. We show that maskelynite of shock class 2 is structurally more similar to fused glass than to crystalline plagioclase. However, there are slight but significant differences – preservation of original pre-impact igneous zoning, anisotropy at Infrared wavelengths, X-ray anisotropy, and preservation of some intermediate range order – which are all consistent with a solid-state transformation formation of maskelynite.

  18. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  19. Radio, Infrared and X-ray observations of GRS 1915+105

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Fender; G. G. Pooley; C. R. Robinson; B. A. Harmon; S. N. Zhang; C. Canosa

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present multiwavelength observations of the superluminal jet source GRS 1915+105 in 1996 April-May, over which period a variety of phenomena, including radio QPO, strong infrared emission lines and rapid X-ray flickering and outbursts were observed.

  20. THREE NEW GALACTIC CENTER X-RAY SOURCES IDENTIFIED WITH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeWitt, Curtis [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bandyopadhyay, Reba M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Sellgren, Kris [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blum, Robert; Olsen, Knut [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bauer, Franz E., E-mail: curtis.n.dewitt@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have conducted a near-infrared spectroscopic survey of 47 candidate counterparts to X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory near the Galactic center (GC). Though a significant number of these astrometric matches are likely to be spurious, we sought out spectral characteristics of active stars and interacting binaries, such as hot, massive spectral types or emission lines, in order to corroborate the X-ray activity and certify the authenticity of the match. We present three new spectroscopic identifications, including a Be high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) or a ? Cassiopeiae (Cas) system, a symbiotic X-ray binary, and an O-type star of unknown luminosity class. The Be HMXB/? Cas system and the symbiotic X-ray binary are the first of their classes to be spectroscopically identified in the GC region.

  1. Understanding the two-dimensional ionization structure in luminous infrared galaxies. A near-IR integral field spectroscopy perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colina, Luis; Arribas, Santiago; Riffel, Rogerio; Riffel, Rogemar A; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Pastoriza, Miriani; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Sales, Dinalva

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the 2D excitation structure of the ISM in a sample of LIRGs and Seyferts using near-IR IFS. This study extends to the near-IR the well-known optical and mid-IR emission line diagnostics used to classify activity in galaxies. Based on the spatially resolved spectroscopy of prototypes, we identify in the [FeII]1.64/Br$\\gamma$ - H_2 1-0S(1)/Br$\\gamma$ plane regions dominated by the different heating sources, i.e. AGNs, young MS massive stars, and evolved stars i.e. supernovae. The ISM in LIRGs occupy a wide region in the near-IR diagnostic plane from -0.6 to +1.5 and from -1.2 to +0.8 (in log units) for the [FeII]/Br$\\gamma$ and H_2/Br$\\gamma$ line ratios, respectively. The corresponding median(mode) ratios are +0.18(0.16) and +0.02(-0.04). Seyferts show on average larger values by factors ~2.5 and ~1.4 for the [FeII]/Br$\\gamma$ and H_2/Br$\\gamma$ ratios, respectively. New areas and relations in the near-IR diagnostic plane are defined for the compact, high surface brightness regions dominated by ...

  2. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr?IrO? using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, X.; Dean, M. P. M.; Liu, J.; Chiuzbaian, S. G.; Jaouen, N.; Nicolaou, A.; Yin, W. G.; Rayan Serrao, C.; Ramesh, R.; Ding, H.; et al

    2015-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr?IrO?, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edgemore »RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.« less

  3. Probing single magnon excitations in Sr?IrO? using O K-edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Dean, M. P. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chiuzbaian, S. G. [Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); Jaouen, N. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); Nicolaou, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France); Yin, W. G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rayan Serrao, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ramesh, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ding, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Beijing National Lab. for Condensed Matter Physics (BNLCP-CAS); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Hill, J. P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) at the L-edge of transition metal elements is now commonly used to probe single magnon excitations. Here we show that single magnon excitations can also be measured with RIXS at the K-edge of the surrounding ligand atoms when the center heavy metal elements have strong spin-orbit coupling. This is demonstrated with oxygen K-edge RIXS experiments on the perovskite Sr?IrO?, where low energy peaks from single magnon excitations were observed. This new application of RIXS has excellent potential to be applied to a wide range of magnetic systems based on heavy elements, for which the L-edge RIXS energy resolutions in the hard X-ray region is usually poor.

  4. X-ray and Near-infrared Studies of a Star-forming Cloud; L1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, M; Tsuboi, Y

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of X-ray and near-infrared (NIR) observations of L1448, a star-forming region in the Perseus cloud complex using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the 4 m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. We detect 72 X-ray sources in a ~17 arcmin x 17 arcmin region with a ~68 ks ACIS exposure, for which we conduct follow-up NIR imaging observations in a concentric ~11 arcmin x 11 arcmin region with FLAMINGOS down to m_Ks ~ 17 mag. Twelve X-ray sources have NIR or optical counterparts. By plotting X-ray mean energy versus NIR to X-ray flux ratio, the X-ray sources are clearly separated into two groups. The X-ray spectral and temporal features as well as NIR magnitudes and colors indicate that one group mainly consists of young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud and the other of background extragalactic sources. Ten X-ray-emitting YSO candidates are thus newly identified, which are low-mass or brown dwarf mass sources from their NIR magnitudes. In addition, a possible X-ray signal is fou...

  5. A Chandra Deep X-ray Exposure on the Galactic Plane and Near Infrared Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ebisawa; A. Paizis; T. J. -L. Couvoisier; P. Dubath; M. Tsujimoto; K. Hamaguchi; V. Beckmann; A. Bamba; A. Senda; M. Ueno; H. Kaneda; Y. Maeda; G. Sato; S. Yamauchi; R. Cutri; E. Nishihara

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Chandra ACIS-I instruments, we have carried out a deep X-ray observation on the Galactic plane region at (l,b) ~ (28.5, 0.0), where no discrete X-ray sources have been known previously. We have detected, as well as strong diffuse emission, 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) within two partially overlapping fields (~250 arcmin^2 in total) down to the flux limit ~3 x 10^{-15} $ erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} (2 -- 10 keV) and ~ 7 x 10^{-16} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} (0.5 -- 2 keV). We clearly resolved point sources and the Galactic diffuse emission, and found that ~ 90 % of the flux observed in our field of view originates from diffuse emission. Many point sources are detected either in the soft X-ray band (below 2 keV) or in the hard band (above 2 keV), and only a small number of sources are detected in both energy bands. On the other hand, most soft X-ray sources are considered to be nearby X-ray active stars. We have carried out a follow-up near-infrared (NIR) observation using SOFI at ESO/NTT. Most of the soft X-ray sources were identified, whereas only a small number of hard X-ray sources had counterparts in NIR. Using both X-ray and NIR information, we can efficiently classify the point X-ray sources detected in the Galactic plane. We conclude that most of the hard X-ray sources are background Active Galactic Nuclei seen through the Milky Way, whereas majority of the soft X-ray sources are nearby X-ray active stars.

  6. Cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aplin, K L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic rays produce charged molecular clusters by ionisation as they pass through the lower atmosphere. Neutral molecular clusters such as dimers and complexes are expected to make a small contribution to the radiative balance, but atmospheric absorption by charged clusters has not hitherto been observed. In an atmospheric experiment, a filter radiometer tuned to the 9.15 um absorption band associated with infra-red absorption of charged molecular clusters was used to monitor changes immediately following events identified by a cosmic ray telescope sensitive to high energy (>400MeV) particles, principally muons. The change in longwave radiation in this absorption band due to charged molecular clusters is 7 mW^m-2. The integrated atmospheric energy change for each event is 2J, representing an amplification factor of 10^10 compared to the 2GeV energy of a typical tropospheric cosmic ray. This absorption is expected to occur continuously and globally.

  7. Analysis of local warm forming of high strength steel using near infrared ray energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. H., E-mail: whyang21@hyundai.com [Hyundai Motor Company, 700 Yeompo-ro, Buk-Gu, Ulsan, 683-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K., E-mail: klee@deform.co.kr [Solution Lab, 502, 102, Dunsan-daero 117 beon-gil, Seo-Gu, Daejeon, 302-834 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, E. H., E-mail: mtgs2@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: dyyang@kaist.ac.kr; Yang, D. Y., E-mail: mtgs2@kaist.ac.kr, E-mail: dyyang@kaist.ac.kr [KAIST, Science Town291, Daehak-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The automotive industry has been pressed to satisfy more rigorous fuel efficiency requirements to promote energy conservation, safety features and cost containment. To satisfy this need, high strength steel has been developed and used for many different vehicle parts. The use of high strength steels, however, requires careful analysis and creativity in order to accommodate its relatively high springback behavior. An innovative method, called local warm forming with near infrared ray, has been developed to help promote the use of high strength steels in sheet metal forming. For this method, local regions of the work piece are heated using infrared ray energy, thereby promoting the reduction of springback behavior. In this research, a V-bend test is conducted with DP980. After springback, the bend angles for specimens without local heating are compared to those with local heating. Numerical analysis has been performed using the commercial program, DEFORM-2D. This analysis is carried out with the purpose of understanding how changes to the local stress distribution will affect the springback during the unloading process. The results between experimental and computational approaches are evaluated to assure the accuracy of the simulation. Subsequent numerical simulation studies are performed to explore best practices with respect to thermal boundary conditions, timing, and applicability to the production environment.

  8. Stratified Quasar Winds: Integrating X-ray and Infrared Views of Broad Absorption Line Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. C. Gallagher; J. E. Everett

    2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Quasars are notable for the luminous power they emit across decades in frequency from the far-infrared through hard X-rays; emission at different frequencies emerges from physical scales ranging from AUs to parsecs. Each wavelength regime thus offers a different line of sight into the central engine and a separate probe of outflowing material. Therefore, obtaining a complete accounting of the physical characteristics and kinetic power of quasar winds requires a panchromatic approach. X-ray and infrared studies are particularly powerful for covering the range of interesting physical scales and ionization states of the outflow. We present a stratified wind picture based on a synthesis of multiwavelength research programs designed to constrain the nature of mass ejection from radio-quiet quasars. This wind comprises three zones: the highly ionized shielding gas, the UV broad absorption line wind, and the cold dusty outflow. The primary launching mechanism for the wind likely varies in each zone. While radiative acceleration on resonance lines dominates for the UV absorbing wind, the shielding gas may instead be driven by magnetic forces. Ultraviolet continuum radiative pressure, perhaps coupled with magnetic launching, accelerates a dusty outflow that obscures the inner broad line region in unification schemes.

  9. IR Hot Wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  10. Far-infrared observations of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohn, Saul A; Bourne, Nathan; Baes, Maarten; Fritz, Jacopo; Cooray, Asantha; De Looze, Ilse; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Eales, Stephen; Furlanetto, Cristina; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Ibar, Edo; Ivison, Rob J; Maddox, Steve J; Scott, Douglas; Smith, Daniel J B; Smith, Matthew W L; Symeonidis, Myrto; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic phenomena in the Universe; believed to result from the collapse and subsequent explosion of massive stars. Even though it has profound consequences for our understanding of their nature and selection biases, little is known about the dust properties of the galaxies hosting GRBs. We present analysis of the far-infrared properties of an unbiased sample of 21 GRB host galaxies (at an average redshift of $z\\,=\\,3.1$) located in the {\\it Herschel} Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS), the {\\it Herschel} Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS), the {\\it Herschel} Fornax Cluster Survey (HeFoCS), the {\\it Herschel} Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) and the {\\it Herschel} Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES), totalling $880$ deg$^2$, or $\\sim 3$\\% of the sky in total. Our sample selection is serendipitous, based only on whether the X-ray position of a GRB lies within a large-scale {\\it Herschel} survey -- therefore our sample can be considered completely unbiased. Using ...

  11. The Infrared Luminosity of Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Giard; Ludovic Montier; Etienne Pointecouteau; Ellen Simmat

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study is to quantify the infrared luminosity of clusters as a function of redshift and compare this with the X-ray luminosity. This can potentially constrain the origin of the infrared emission to be intracluster dust and/or dust heated by star formation in the cluster galaxies. We perform a statistical analysis of a large sample of galaxy clusters selected from existing databases and catalogues.We coadd the infrared IRAS and X-ray RASS images in the direction of the selected clusters within successive redshift intervals up to z = 1. We find that the total infrared luminosity is very high and on average 20 times higher than the X-ray luminosity. If all the infrared luminosity is to be attributed to emission from diffuse intracluster dust, then the IR to X-ray ratio implies a dust-to-gas mass abundance of 5e-4. However, the infrared luminosity shows a strong enhancement for 0.1 infrared luminosity that we measure is generated by the ongoing star formation in the member galaxies. From theoretical predictions calibrated on extinction measurements (dust mass abundance equal to 1e-5), we expect only a minor contribution, of a few percent, from intracluster dust.

  12. Infrared retina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishna, Sanjay (Albuquerque, NM); Hayat, Majeed M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tyo, J. Scott (Tucson, AZ); Jang, Woo-Yong (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments provide an infrared (IR) retinal system and method for making and using the IR retinal system. The IR retinal system can include adaptive sensor elements, whose properties including, e.g., spectral response, signal-to-noise ratio, polarization, or amplitude can be tailored at pixel level by changing the applied bias voltage across the detector. "Color" imagery can be obtained from the IR retinal system by using a single focal plane array. The IR sensor elements can be spectrally, spatially and temporally adaptive using quantum-confined transitions in nanoscale quantum dots. The IR sensor elements can be used as building blocks of an infrared retina, similar to cones of human retina, and can be designed to work in the long-wave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from about 8 .mu.m to about 12 .mu.m as well as the mid-wave portion ranging from about 3 .mu.m to about 5 .mu.m.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopic, X-ray and Nanoscale Characterization of Strontium Titanate Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, J. D.; Moutinho, H. R.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Mueller, C. H.; Rivkin, T. V.; Treece, R. E.; Dalberth, M.; Rogers, C. T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the ATR mode with a thallium iodobromide (KRS-5) crystal to measure the frequencies of the v{sub 3} and v{sub 4} phonon absorption bands in thin strontium titanate films deposited on single-crystal yttrium-barium copper oxide (YBCO), lanthanum aluminate, magnesium oxide, and strontium titanate substrates. The KRS-5 crystal enabled FTIR-ATR measurements to be made at frequencies above 400 cm-1. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also made to further characterize the films. The measurements were repeated on single-crystal specimens of strontium titanate and the substrates for comparison. Softening in the frequency of the v{sub 4} transverse optical phonon in the lattice-mismatched films below the established value of 544 cm-1 is indicative of the highly textured, polycrystalline ceramic nature of the films and is consistent with the XRD and AFM results.

  14. Chandra Deep X-ray Observation of a Typical Galactic Plane Region and Near-Infrared Identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Ebisawa; M. Tsujimoto; A. Paizis; K. Hamaguchi; A. Bamba; R. Cutri; H. Kaneda; Y. Maeda; G. Sato; A. Senda; M. Ueno; S. Yamauchi; V. Beckmann; T. J. -L. Courvoisier; P. Dubath; E. Nishihara

    2005-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Chandra Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer Imaging array (ACIS-I), we have carried out a deep hard X-ray observation of the Galactic plane region at (l,b) ~ (28.5, 0.0), where no discrete X-ray source had been reported previously. We have detected 274 new point X-ray sources (4 sigma confidence) as well as strong Galactic diffuse emission within two partially overlapping ACIS-I fields (~250 arcmin^2in total). Sum of all the detected point source fluxes accounts for only ~ 10 % of the total X-ray flux in the field of view. Even hypothesizing a new population of much dimmer and numerous Galactic point sources, the total observed X-ray flux cannot be explained. Therefore, we conclude that X-ray emission from the Galactic plane has truly diffuse origin. Only 26 point sources were detected both in the soft and hard bands, indicating that there are two distinct classes of the X-ray sources distinguished by the spectral hardness ratio. Surface number density of the hard sources is only slightly higher than that measured at the high Galactic latitude regions, indicating that majority of the hard sources are background AGNs. Following up the Chandra observation, we have performed a near-infrared (NIR) survey with SOFI at ESO/NTT. Almost all the soft X-ray sources have been identified in NIR and their spectral types are consistent with main-sequence stars, suggesting most of them are nearby X-ray active stars. On the other hand, only 22 % of the hard sources had NIR counterparts, which are presumably Galactic. From X-ray and NIR spectral study, they are most likely to be quiescent cataclysmic variables. We have also carried out a precise spectral study of the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission excluding the point sources.

  15. 4/8/09 10:57 PMThe X-ray Population in the Infrared Cluster in NGC 2071 as Observed by Chandra Page 1 of 2http://cdsads.u-strasbg.fr/abs/2009AAS...21344215S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guedel, Manuel

    ...21344215S Abstract The infrared cluster near the NGC 2071 reflection nebula in the Orion B cloud is one4/8/09 10:57 PMThe X-ray Population in the Infrared Cluster in NGC 2071 as Observed by Chandra Page) · · Translate This Page Title: The X-ray Population in the Infrared Cluster in NGC 2071 as Observed by Chandra

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR EMJSSWITY EFFECTS USING RAY-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvaggio, Carl

    . These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic

  17. Deep Near Infrared Observations of the X-ray Emitting Class 0 Protostar Candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; Y. Tsuboi; G. Chartas; M. Goto; N. Kobayashi; H. Terada; A. T. Tokunaga

    2002-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtained near infrared (NIR) imaging with the Subaru Telescope of the class 0 protostar candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3, two of which were discovered to have X-ray emission by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We found strong evidence for the class~0 nature of the X-ray sources. First, our deep K-band image shows no emission brighter than 19.6 mag from both of these X-ray sources. Since class I protostars or class II T Tauri stars should be easily detected in the NIR with this sensitivity, the lack of K-band detection suggests that they are likely much more obscured than class I protostars. Second, our H2 v=1-0 S(1) image shows a bubble-like feature from one of the X-ray class 0 protostar candidates, which reinforces the idea that this is a class 0 protostar. We also discuss the nature of nine NIR sources found in our deep image based on their colors, spatial coincidence with millimeter cores, and the properties of their X-ray counterparts.

  18. On-Line Weld NDE with IR Thermography

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technology for RSW quality monitoring based on infrared (IR) thermography that can be adopted reliably and cost-effectively in high-volume...

  19. On-Line Weld NDE with IR Thermography

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (NDE) technology for resistance spot weld (RSW) quality monitoring based on infrared (IR) thermography that can be adopted reliably and cost-effectively in high-volume...

  20. The potential for detecting gamma-ray burst afterglows from population III stars with the next generation of infrared telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macpherson, D. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Coward, D. M. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zadnik, M. G., E-mail: damien.macpherson@icrar.org [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the detectability of a proposed population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of Population III (Pop III) stars. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will be able to observe the late time infrared afterglows. We have developed a new method to calculate their detectability, which takes into account the fundamental initial mass function and formation rates of Pop III stars, from which we find the temporal variability of the afterglows and ultimately the length of time JWST and SPICA can detect them. In the range of plausible Pop III GRB parameters, the afterglows are always detectable by these instruments during the isotropic emission, for a minimum of 55 days and a maximum of 3.7 yr. The average number of detectable afterglows will be 2.96× 10{sup –5} per SPICA field of view (FOV) and 2.78× 10{sup –6} per JWST FOV. These are lower limits, using a pessimistic estimate of Pop III star formation. An optimal observing strategy with SPICA could identify a candidate orphan afterglow in ?1.3 yr, with a 90% probability of confirmation with further detailed observations. A beamed GRB will align with the FOV of the planned GRB detector Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope once every 9 yr. Pop III GRBs will be more easily detected by their isotropic emissions (i.e., orphan afterglows) rather than by their prompt emissions.

  1. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  2. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  3. Hidden activity in high-redshift spheroidal galaxies from mid-infrared and X-ray observations in the GOODS-North field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodighiero, G; Civano, F; Comastri, A; Franceschini, A; Mignoli, M; Fritz, J; Vignali, C; Treu, T

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We exploit very deep mid-IR (MIR) and X-ray observations by Spitzer and Chandra in the GOODS North to identify signs of hidden (either starburst or AGN) activity in spheroidal galaxies between z~0.3 and 1. Our reference is a complete sample of 168 morphologically classified spheroidal galaxies with z[AB]<22.5 selected from GOODS ACS imaging. Nineteen of these have 24 micron detections in the GOODS catalogue, half of which have an X-ray counterpart in the 2 Ms Chandra catalogue, while about 25% have 1.4 GHz fluxes larger than 40 microJy. Traces of hidden activity in the spheroidal population are also searched for in the deep X-ray images and 14 additional galaxies are detected in X-rays only. The nature of the observed MIR emissions is investigated by modelling their SEDs based on the available multi-wavelength photometry, including X-ray, UV, optical, near-IR, MIR and radio fluxes, and optical spectroscopy. The amount of dust derived from the IR emission observed by Spitzer appears in excess of that expect...

  4. Models for Multiband IR Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong Xu; Carol J. Lonsdale; David L. Shupe; JoAnn O'Linger; Frank Masci

    2001-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical 'backward' galaxy evolution models for IR-bright galaxies are constrained using multiband IR surveys. A new Monte-Carlo algorithm is developed for this task. It exploits a large library of realistic Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of 837 local IR galaxies (IRAS 25$\\mu m$ selected) from the UV (1000{\\AA}) to the radio (20cm), including ISO-measured 3--13$\\mu m$ unidentified broad features (UIBs). The basic assumption is that the local correlation between SEDs and Mid-Infrared (MIR) luminosities can be applied to earlier epochs of the Universe. Three populations of IR sources are considered in the evolution models. These include (1) starburst galaxies, (2) normal late-type galaxies, and (3) galaxies with AGN. A set of models so constructed are compared with data from the literature. Predictions for number counts, confusion limits, redshift distributions, and color-color diagrams are made for multiband surveys using the upcoming SIRTF satellite.

  5. Connecting Far-Infrared and Radio Morphologies of Disk Galaxies: Cosmic-Ray Electron Diffusion After Star Formation Episodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. J. Murphy; G. Helou; J. D. P. Kenney; L. Armus; R. Braun

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results on the interstellar medium (ISM) properties of 29 galaxies based on a comparison of {\\it Spitzer} far-infrared and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope radio continuum imagery. Of these 29 galaxies, 18 are close enough to resolve at $\\la$1 kpc scales at 70 $\\micron$ and 22 cm. We extend the \\citet{ejm06a,ejm06b} approach of smoothing infrared images to approximate cosmic-ray (CR) electron spreading and thus largely reproduce the appearance of radio images. Using a wavelet analysis we decompose each 70 $\\micron$ image into one component containing the star-forming {\\it structures} and a second one for the diffuse {\\it disk}. The components are smoothed separately, and their combination compared to a free-free corrected 22 cm radio image; the scale-lengths are then varied to best match the radio and smoothed infrared images. We find that late-type spirals having high amounts of ongoing star formation benefit most from the two-component method. We also find that the disk component dominates for galaxies having low star formation activity, whereas the structure component dominates at high star formation activity. We propose that this result arises from an age effect rather than from differences in CR electron diffusion due to varying ISM parameters. The bulk of the CR electron population in actively star-forming galaxies is significantly younger than that in less active galaxies due to recent episodes of enhanced star formation; these galaxies are observed within $\\sim10^{8}$ yr since the onset of the most recent star formation episode. The sample irregulars have anomalously low best-fit scale-lengths for their surface brightnesses compared to the rest of the sample spirals which we attribute to enhanced CR electron escape.

  6. Characterization of Chain Molecular Assemblies in Long-Chain, Layered Silver Thiolates: A Joint Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    , and Theoretical DiVisions, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ReceiVed: October 1, 1998 of infrared transmission spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. The structural attributes elucidated. The three-dimensional network of 1D channels alternates between the chain layers. All the chain structural

  7. Comparison of dust-to-gas ratios in luminous, ultraluminous, and hyperluminous infrared galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Contini; T. Contini

    2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The dust-to-gas ratios in three different samples of luminous, ultraluminous, and hyperluminous infrared galaxies are calculated by modelling their radio to soft X-ray spectral energy distributions using composite models which account for the photoionizing radiation from HII regions, starbursts, or AGNs, and for shocks. The models are limited to a set which broadly reproduces the mid-IR fine structure line ratios of local, IR bright, starburst galaxies. The results show that two types of clouds contribute to the IR emission. Those characterized by low shock velocities and low preshock densities explain the far-IR dust emission, while those with higher velocities and densities contribute to mid-IR dust emission. An AGN is found in nearly all of the ultraluminous IR galaxies and in half of the luminous IR galaxies of the sample. High IR luminosities depend on dust-to-gas ratios of about 0.1 by mass, however, most hyperluminous IR galaxies show dust-to-gas ratios much lower than those calculated for the luminous and ultraluminous IR galaxies.

  8. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  9. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  10. Zachar and Naik Principles of Infrared Thermography and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Zachar and Naik 1 Principles of Infrared Thermography and Application for Assessment details the principles of infrared thermography from the underlying theoretical considerations to the physical constraints involved with performing the test. Infrared (IR) thermography testing may be conducted

  11. Resonant-cavity-enhanced multispectral infrared photodetectors for monolithic integration on silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianfei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multispectral infrared (IR) detection has been widely employed for numerous applications including hyperspectral imaging, IR spectroscopy, and target identification. Traditional multispectral detection technology is based ...

  12. Rational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (0)3 85 59 53 85 E-mail: anna.dupleix@ensam.eu Abstract Heating green wood logs by infrared (IR-line IR heating system installed on the peeling lathe. Keywords: green wood; heating; infrared; modelingRational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments Anna

  13. Near-infrared photoluminescence and ligand K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopies of AnO2Cl42-(An:u, NP, Pu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkerson, Marianne P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clark, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conradson, Steven D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hobart, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kozimor, Stosh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used photoluminescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopies to investigate electronic structures and metal-ligand bonding of a series of An02CI/ ' (An = U, Np, Pu) compounds. Specifically, we will discuss time-resolved near-infrared emission spectra of crystalline Cs2U(An)02C14 (An = Np and Pu) both at 23 K and 75 K, as well as chlorine Kedge X-ray absorption spectra ofCs2An02CI4 (An = U, Np).

  14. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Houck, James; Barry, Donald [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lebouteiller, Vianney, E-mail: dweedman@isc.astro.cornell.edu [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, DAPNIA/Service d'Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 {mu}m silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m)/L(X) = -0.31 {+-} 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) = (37.2 {+-} 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s{sup -1} and BHM in M{sub Sun }. The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in {nu}L{sub {nu}}(7.8 {mu}m) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 {mu}m from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 {mu}m using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 < z < 5, reaching total infrared luminosity L{sub IR} = 10{sup 14.4} L{sub Sun }. Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities L{sub bol} estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to L{sub IR}. For the local AGN, the median log L{sub IR}/L{sub bol} = -0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log L{sub IR}/L{sub bol} = 0.1, with extremes indicating that ultraviolet-derived L{sub bol} can be seriously underestimated even for type 1 quasars.

  15. Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Infrared Fiber Optics James A. Harrington Ceramic & Materials Engineering Rutgers University Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 1. Introduction Infrared (IR) optical fibers may be defined as fiber optics IR fiber optics may logically be divided into three broad categories: glass, crystalline, and hollow

  16. On-Line Weld NDE with IR Thermography

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technology for spot weld quality monitoring based on infrared (IR) thermography that can be adopted reliably and cost-effectively in high-volume...

  17. Infra-Red Process for Colour Fixation on Fabrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, D.; Raymond, D. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc . They come from the electric IR specific...

  18. Infra-Red Process for Colour Fixation on Fabrics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biau, D.; Raymond, D. J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infra-red radiations find wide application in industrial processes as heating, drying, stoving and forming. The results are often far better than those from the other techniques: convection oven, gas IR etc . They come from the electric IR specific...

  19. Moving Object Detection and Compression in IR Sequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Amit

    infrared (IR) sensors. The aim is to use IR image sequences to detect moving objects (humans or vehicles computational power of computing devices attached to the sensor, the algorithms should be computationally simple implemented in C/C++ and their performance has been evaluated the using Hitachi's SH4 platform with software

  20. Digital meteorological radar data compared with digital infrared data from a geostationary meteorological satellite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Rodney Stuart

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and infrared spectrums. The SEM in- eludes a magnetometer, a solar x ? ray telescope, and an energetic 22 particle monitor. The TTC includes equipment for S-band trans- mission and reception (ir. reduced bandwidth) of VISSR data, S-band transmission... the visible and infrared spectrums. Radiation is received by the VISSR's primary optics via a 45 object-space scan mirror. The mirror is an elliptically shaped plane mirror which is tilted about its minor axis to obtain the north- south scan steps. West...

  1. X-ray Surveys and Wide-Field Optical/Near-Infrared Imaging with the Joint Dark Energy Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. N. Brandt

    2004-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    I briefly describe a few important scientific issues that could be addressed effectively via the combination of data from JDEM and X-ray missions. The topics covered are largely focused on active galactic nuclei (AGN) and include (1) the selection of AGN via X-ray emission and optical variability, (2) nuclear outbursts in galaxies due to transient fueling of their supermassive black holes, (3) moderate-luminosity AGN at high redshift (z > 4) found via application of "dropout" techniques to X-ray sources, and (4) the host-galaxy morphologies of X-ray selected AGN. I also describe the substantial challenges to obtaining wide-field X-ray data with sufficient sensitivity to complement JDEM properly.

  2. X-RAY AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE OBSCURED ACCRETING PULSAR IGR J18179–1621

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paizis, A.

    IGR J18179–1621 is an obscured accreting X-ray pulsar discovered by INTEGRAL on 2012 February 29. We report on our 20 ks Chandra-High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer observation of the source performed on 2012 ...

  3. Learning about the Recent Star Formation History of Galaxy Disks by Comparing their Far-Infrared and Radio Morphologies: Cosmic-Ray Electron Diffusion after Star Formation Episodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. J. Murphy; G. Helou; J. D. P. Kenney; L. Armus; R. Braun

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results on the interstellar medium (ISM) properties of 29 galaxies based on a comparison of {\\it Spitzer} far-infrared and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope radio continuum imagery. Of these 29 galaxies, 18 are close enough to resolve at $\\la$1 kpc scales at 70 $\\micron$ and 22 cm. We extend the \\citet{ejm06a,ejm06b} approach of smoothing infrared images to approximate cosmic-ray (CR) electron spreading and thus largely reproduce the appearance of radio images. Using a wavelet analysis we decompose each 70 $\\micron$ image into one component containing the star-forming {\\it structures} and a second one for the diffuse {\\it disk}. The components are smoothed separately, and their combination compared to a free-free corrected 22 cm radio image; the scale-lengths are then varied to best match the radio and smoothed infrared images. We find that late-type spirals having high amounts of ongoing star formation benefit most from the two-component method. We also find that the disk component dominates for galaxies having low star formation activity, whereas the structure component dominates at high star formation activity. We propose that this result arises from an age effect rather than from differences in CR electron diffusion due to varying ISM parameters. The bulk of the CR electron population in actively star-forming galaxies is significantly younger than that in less active galaxies due to recent episodes of enhanced star formation; these galaxies are observed within $\\sim10^{8}$ yr since the onset of the most recent star formation episode. The sample irregulars have anomalously low best-fit scale-lengths for their surface brightnesses compared to the rest of the sample spirals which we attribute to enhanced CR electron escape.

  4. LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA-LIKE UV/OPTICAL/INFRARED TRANSIENTS ASSOCIATED WITH ULTRA-LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM METAL-POOR BLUE SUPERGIANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Yajima, Hidenobu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Suwa, Yudai, E-mail: kzk15@psu.edu [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-poor massive stars typically end their lives as blue supergiants (BSGs). Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from such progenitors could have an ultra-long duration of relativistic jets. For example, Population III (Pop III) GRBs at z {approx} 10-20 might be observable as X-ray-rich events with a typical duration of T{sub 90} {approx} 10{sup 4}(1 + z) s. The recent GRB111209A at z = 0.677 has an ultra-long duration of T{sub 90} {approx} 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} s and it has been suggested that its progenitor might have been a metal-poor BSG in the local universe. Here, we suggest that luminous UV/optical/infrared emission is associated with this new class of GRBs from metal-poor BSGs. Before the jet head breaks out of the progenitor envelope, the energy injected by the jet is stored in a hot plasma cocoon, which finally emerges and expands as a baryon-loaded fireball. We show that the photospheric emissions from the cocoon fireball could be intrinsically very bright (L{sub peak} {approx} 10{sup 42}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) in UV/optical bands ({epsilon}{sub peak} {approx} 10 eV) with a typical duration of {approx}100 days in the rest frame. Such cocoon emissions from Pop III GRBs might be detectable in infrared bands at {approx}years after Pop III GRBs at up to z {approx} 15 by upcoming facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. We also suggest that GRB111209A might have been rebrightening in UV/optical bands up to an AB magnitude of {approx}< 26. The cocoon emission from local metal-poor BSGs might have been observed previously as luminous supernovae without GRBs since they can be seen from the off-axis direction of the jet.

  5. Comparison of junction temperature evaluations in a power IGBT module using an IR camera and three thermo-sensitive electrical parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and electrical methods. The main optical methods are local infrared sensors [3,4], optical fibers [5], infraredComparison of junction temperature evaluations in a power IGBT module using an IR camera and three information of the actual chip temperature distribution. In this paper, we propose to use infrared (IR

  6. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF IGR J17177–3656 WITH X-RAY, NEAR-INFRARED, AND RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paizis, A.

    We report on the first broadband (1-200 keV) simultaneous Chandra-INTEGRAL observations of the recently discovered hard X-ray transient IGR J17177–3656 that took place on 2011 March 22, about two weeks after the source ...

  7. The AGN content in luminous IR galaxies at z\\sim2 from a global SED analysis including Herschel data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pozzi, F; Gruppioni, C; Feltre, A; Fritz, J; Fadda, D; Andreani, P; Berta, S; Cimatti, A; Delvecchio, I; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; Maiolino, R; Nordon, R; Popesso, P; Rodighiero, G; Rosario, D; Santini, P; Vaccari, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use Herschel-PACS far-infrared data, combined with previous multi-band information and mid-IR spectra, to properly account for the presence of an active nucleus and constrain its energetic contribution in luminous infrared (IR) sources at z\\sim2. The sample is composed of 24 sources in the GOODS-South field, with typical IR luminosity of 10^{12} Lo. Data from the 4 Ms Chandra X-ray imaging in this field are also used to identify and characterize AGN emission. We reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution (SED), decomposed into a host-galaxy and an AGN component. A smooth-torus model for circum-nuclear dust is used to account for the direct and re-processed contribution from the AGN. We confirm that galaxies with typical L_{8-1000um}\\sim10^{12}Lo at z\\sim2 are powered predominantly by star-formation. An AGN component is present in nine objects (\\sim35% of the sample) at the 3sigma confidence level, but its contribution to the 8-1000 um emission accounts for only \\sim5% of the energy budget. The AGN...

  8. IR-laser initiated combustion -- A step toward complete combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laghai, A.; Nabavi, S.H.; Servati, H.B.; Syed, F.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new global environmental regulations for reducing the engine emissions from both moving and stationary sources, as well as improvement in fuel economy are the major motifs to obtain a perfect combustion process and exhaust aftertreatment methods. Infrared (IR)-Laser initiated combustion provides a very high initial temperature, which produces propagation of a turbulent thermopressure pulse that results in a fast burning and improved combustion. The role of IR is to maximize the heat generation efficiency.

  9. Infrared fixed point in quantum Einstein gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Nagy; J. Krizsan; K. Sailer

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed the renormalization group analysis of the quantum Einstein gravity in the deep infrared regime for different types of extensions of the model. It is shown that an attractive infrared point exists in the broken symmetric phase of the model. It is also shown that due to the Gaussian fixed point the IR critical exponent $\

  10. MID-IR LUMINOSITIES AND UV/OPTICAL STAR FORMATION RATES AT z < 1.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salim, Samir; Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Michael Rich, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice C. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G. [Departamento de AstrofIsica, Facultad de CC. FIsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Noeske, Kai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Papovich, Casey; Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ivison, Rob J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Frayer, David T. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walton, Josiah M. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Chary, Ranga-Ram [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bundy, Kevin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: samir@noao.edu

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) nonionizing continuum and mid-infrared (IR) emission constitute the basis of two widely used star formation (SF) indicators at intermediate and high redshifts. We study 2430 galaxies with z < 1.4 in the Extended Groth Strip with deep MIPS 24 {mu}m observations from FIDEL, spectroscopy from DEEP2, and UV, optical, and near-IR photometry from the AEGIS. The data are coupled with dust-reddened stellar population models and Bayesian spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to estimate dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). In order to probe the dust heating from stellar populations of various ages, the derived SFRs were averaged over various timescales-from 100 Myr for 'current' SFR (corresponding to young stars) to 1-3 Gyr for long-timescale SFRs (corresponding to the light-weighted age of the dominant stellar populations). These SED-based UV/optical SFRs are compared to total IR luminosities extrapolated from 24 {mu}m observations, corresponding to 10-18 {mu}m rest frame. The total IR luminosities are in the range of normal star-forming galaxies and luminous IR galaxies (10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun}). We show that the IR luminosity can be estimated from the UV and optical photometry to within a factor of 2, implying that most z < 1.4 galaxies are not optically thick. We find that for the blue, actively star-forming galaxies the correlation between the IR luminosity and the UV/optical SFR shows a decrease in scatter when going from shorter to longer SFR-averaging timescales. We interpret this as the greater role of intermediate age stellar populations in heating the dust than what is typically assumed. Equivalently, we observe that the IR luminosity is better correlated with dust-corrected optical luminosity than with dust-corrected UV light. We find that this holds over the entire redshift range. Many so-called green valley galaxies are simply dust-obscured actively star-forming galaxies. However, there exist 24 {mu}m detected galaxies, some with L{sub IR}>10{sup 11} L{sub sun}, yet with little current SF. For them a reasonable amount of dust absorption of stellar light (but presumably higher than in nearby early-type galaxies) is sufficient to produce the observed levels of IR, which includes a large contribution from intermediate and old stellar populations. In our sample, which contains very few ultraluminous IR galaxies, optical and X-ray active galactic nuclei do not contribute on average more than {approx}50% to the mid-IR luminosity, and we see no evidence for a large population of 'IR excess' galaxies.

  11. Infrared-Based Screening System Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared-Based Screening System (IBSS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC underperforming or overworking components are identified. These thermal-based systems integrate infrared (IR) sensors or cameras, video images, and vehicle position sensors, and are generically known as infrared

  12. Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negligible Sample Heating from Synchrotron Infrared Beam Michael C. Martina , Nelly M. Tsvetkovab of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California at Davis, USA Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is one can now obtain diffraction-limited spot sizes with high signal intensity in an infrared microscope

  13. Mid-infrared second-order susceptibility of -quartz and its application to visible-infrared surface sum-frequency spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    Mid-infrared second-order susceptibility of -quartz and its application to visible-infrared surface to elucidate the nonlinear susceptibility of any material in the mid-infrared region. Crystalline quartz-frequency spectroscopy which are expanding into the mid-IR with the increasing availability of widely tunable infrared

  14. A Chandra Snapshot Survey of IR-bright LINERs: A Possible Link Between Star Formation, AGN Fueling, and Mass Accretion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. P. Dudik; S. Satyapal; M. Gliozzi; R. M. Sambruna

    2004-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a high resolution X-ray imaging study of nearby LINERs observed by Chandra. This study complements and extends previous X-ray studies of LINERs, focusing on the under-explored population of nearby dust-enshrouded infrared-bright LINERs. The sample consists of 15 IR-bright LINERs (L_FIR/L_B > 3), with distances that range from 11 to 26 Mpc. Combining our sample with previous Chandra studies we find that ~ 51% (28/55) of the LINERs display compact hard X-ray cores. The nuclear 2-10 keV luminosities of the galaxies in this expanded sample range from ~ 2 X 10^38 ergs s^-1 to ~ 2 X 10^44 ergs s^-1. We find an intriguing trend in the Eddington ratio vs. L_FIR and L_FIR/L_B for the AGN-LINERs in the expanded sample that extends over seven orders of magnitude in L/L_Edd. This correlation may imply a link between black hole growth, as measured by the Eddington ratio, and the star formation rate (SFR), as measured by the far-IR luminosity and IR-brightness ratio. If the far-IR luminosity is an indicator of the molecular gas content in our sample of LINERs, our results may further indicate that the mass accretion rate scales with the host galaxy's fuel supply. We discuss the potential implications of our results in the framework of black hole growth and AGN fueling in low luminosity AGN. (Abridged)

  15. Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

    We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

  16. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  17. Collective Hydrogen Bond Reorganization in Water Studied with Temperature-Dependent Ultrafast Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

    We use temperature-dependent ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of dilute HOD in H2O to study the picosecond reorganization of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water. Temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR), ...

  18. Multi-mode two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of peptides and proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeFlores, Lauren P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, a methodology for understanding structural stability of proteins through multi-mode two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is developed. The experimental framework for generation of broadband infrared ...

  19. The Nature of OH/IR Stars in the Galactic Centre Region Joris Blommaert,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sjouwerman, Loránt

    The Nature of OH/IR Stars in the Galactic Centre Region Joris Blommaert, Sterrewacht Leiden, P, 439 92 Onsala, Sweden Abstract. We report on infrared observations of stars in a field of 30 0 near distinct populations of OH/IR stars near the galactic centre is addressed. The dust­to­gas mass loss ratio

  20. Infrared Emission from AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Sanders

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared observations of complete samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) have shown that a substantial fraction of their bolometric luminosity is emitted at wavelengths ~8-1000microns. In radio-loud and Blazar-like objects much of this emission appears to be direct non-thermal synchrotron radiation. However, in the much larger numbers of radio-quiet AGN it is now clear that thermal dust emission is responsible for the bulk of radiation from the near-infrared through submillimeter wavelengths. Luminous infrared-selected AGN are often surrounded by powerful nuclear starbursts, both of which appear to be fueled by enormous supplies of molecular gas and dust funneled into the nuclear region during the strong interaction/merger of gas rich disks. All-sky surveys in the infrared show that luminous infrared AGN are at least as numerous as optically-selected AGN of comparable bolometric luminosity, suggesting that AGN may spend a substantial fraction of their lifetime in a dust-enshrouded phase. The space density of luminous infrared AGN at high redshift may be sufficient to account for much of the X-Ray background, and for a substantial fraction of the far-infrared background as well. These objects plausibly represent a major epoch in the formation of spheroids and massive black holes (MBH).

  1. Investigation of microstructure, surface morphology, and hardness properties of PtIr films by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chao-Te; Liu, Bo-Heng; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Wei [Instrument Technology Research Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pt{sub 1-x}Ir{sub x} films with x varying from 22.76 to 63.25 at. % are deposited on (100) Si wafer substrates at 400 deg. C by magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of the Ir concentration on the microstructure, morphology, and hardness of PtIr films are investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and nanoindentation system. The columnar structures are observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that PtIr films have preferred orientation along Pt(111) when the Ir concentration is below 50.84 at. %. When the Ir content is more than 50.84 at. %, the PtIr film shifts to another preferred orientation, Ir(111). The surface morphology is analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The roughness of the PtIr films decreases with increasing Ir content. The hardness of all the PtIr films is below 20 GPa. The maximum hardness of the PtIr films is about 14.9 GPa when the Ir concentration is 57.9 at. %.

  2. The Late-Time Rebrightening of Type Ia SN 2005gj in the Mid-Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Ori D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A growing number of observations reveal a subset of Type Ia supernovae undergoing circumstellar interaction (SNe Ia-CSM). We present unpublished archival Spitzer Space Telescope data on SNe Ia-CSM 2002ic and 2005gj obtained > 1300 and 500 days post-discovery, respectively. Both SNe show evidence for late-time mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission from warm dust. The dust parameters are most consistent with a pre-existing dust shell that lies beyond the forward-shock radius, most likely radiatively heated by optical and X-ray emission continuously generated by late-time CSM interaction. In the case of SN 2005gj, the mid-IR luminosity more than doubles after 1 year post-discovery. While we are not aware of any late-time optical-wavelength observations at these epochs, we attribute this rebrightening to renewed shock interaction with a dense circumstellar shell.

  3. THE LATE-TIME REBRIGHTENING OF TYPE Ia SN 2005gj IN THE MID-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Ori D.; Filippenko, Alexei V., E-mail: ofox@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A growing number of observations reveal a subset of Type Ia supernovae undergoing circumstellar interaction (SNe Ia-CSM). We present unpublished archival Spitzer Space Telescope data on SNe Ia-CSM 2002ic and 2005gj obtained >1300 and 500 days post-discovery, respectively. Both SNe show evidence for late-time mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission from warm dust. The dust parameters are most consistent with a preexisting dust shell that lies beyond the forward-shock radius, most likely radiatively heated by optical and X-ray emission continuously generated by late-time CSM interaction. In the case of SN 2005gj, the mid-IR luminosity more than doubles after 1 yr post-discovery. While we are not aware of any late-time optical-wavelength observations at these epochs, we attribute this rebrightening to renewed shock interaction with a dense circumstellar shell.

  4. Thermal measurements of active semiconductor micro-structures acquired through the substrate using near IR thermoreflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , which precludes the use of typical surface thermal characterization techniques. A near infrared microscopy (SThM), or optical techniques such as infrared (IR) microscopy, or thermoreflectance to be able to measure the heating of devices in flip chip bonded integrated circuit's (IC) and other

  5. advanced infrared focal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    present is the largest IR focal plane of the 21 st century. The work is being done by Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO but better known as SBRC) by many of the same people who...

  6. IR Kuiper Belt Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teplitz, V L; Anderson, J D; Rosenbaum, D C; Scalise, R J; Wentzler, P; Teplitz, Vigdor L.; Anderson, John D.; Rosenbaum, Doris; Scalise, Randall J.; Wentzler, Paul

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius $a$ and albedo $\\alpha$ at heliocentric distance $R$, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of COBE DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance, $R$, particle radius, $a$, and particle albedo, $\\alpha$. We then apply these results to a recently-developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40IR spectra for various parameter v...

  7. Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix Domingos De Sousa Meneses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix · Domingos De Sousa Meneses and the amount of energy absorbed by green wood under infrared (IR) radiation. This lack of knowledge is a potential barrier to the development of IR heating as an alternative to soaking as a means of warming logs

  8. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vassilis Charmandaris; the Spitzer/IRS Instrument Team

    2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper I summarize the science motivations, as well as a few mid-infrared spectroscopic methods used to identify the principal mechanisms of energy production in dust enshrouded galactic nuclei. The development of the various techniques is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the data which are becoming available with the infrared spectrograph (IRS) on Spitzer, as well as the results which have been obtained by IRS over the past two years.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Process Monitoring and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, P. R.; Carangelo, M. D.; Carangelo, R. M.

    FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECl'ROSCOPY FOR PROCESS MONITORING AND CONTROL Peter R. Solomon Martin D. Carangelo Robert M. Carangelo President Software Engineer Vice-President On-Line Technologies, Inc. On-Line Technologies, Inc. On... years, significant progress has been made in the applications and hardware for Fourier Transform Infrared (Ff?IR) spectroscopy. The applications of Fr-IR include: i) concentrations of multiple species and phases (gases, liquid, particles, surfaces...

  10. INFRARED AND ULTRAVIOLET STAR FORMATION IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES IN THE ACCEPT SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffer, Aaron S.; Donahue, Megan; Hicks, Amalia [Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-2320 (United States); Barthelemy, R. S., E-mail: hofferaa@msu.edu, E-mail: donahue@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: hicksam@msu.edu, E-mail: ramon.s.barthelemy@wmich.edu [Physics Department, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5252 (United States)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) photometry for a sample of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The BCGs are from a heterogeneous but uniformly characterized sample, the Archive of Chandra Cluster Entropy Profile Tables (ACCEPT), of X-ray galaxy clusters from the Chandra X-ray telescope archive with published gas temperature, density, and entropy profiles. We use archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), Spitzer Space Telescope, and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) observations to assemble spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and colors for BCGs. We find that while the SEDs of some BCGs follow the expectation of red, dust-free old stellar populations, many exhibit signatures of recent star formation in the form of excess UV or mid-IR emission, or both. We establish a mean near-UV (NUV) to 2MASS K color of 6.59 {+-} 0.34 for quiescent BCGs. We use this mean color to quantify the UV excess associated with star formation in the active BCGs. We use both fits to a template of an evolved stellar population and library of starburst models and mid-IR star formation relations to estimate the obscured star formation rates (SFRs). We show that many of the BCGs in X-ray clusters with low central gas entropy exhibit enhanced UV (38%) and mid-IR emission (43%) from 8 to 160 {mu}m, above that expected from an old stellar population. These excesses are consistent with ongoing star formation activity in the BCG, star formation that appears to be enabled by the presence of high-density, X-ray-emitting intergalactic gas in the core of the cluster of galaxies. This hot, X-ray-emitting gas may provide the enhanced ambient pressure and some of the fuel to trigger star formation. This result is consistent with previous works that showed that BCGs in clusters with low central gas entropies host H{alpha} emission-line nebulae and radio sources, while clusters with high central gas entropy exhibit none of these features. GALEX UV and Spitzer mid-IR measurements combined provide a complete picture of unobscured and obscured star formation occurring in these systems. We present IR and UV photometry and estimated equivalent continuous SFRs for a sample of BCGs.

  11. The European Large Area ISO Survey VI - Discovery of a new hyperluminous infrared galaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Morel; A. Efstathiou; S. Serjeant; I. Marquez; J. Masegosa; P. Heraudeau; C. Surace; A. Verma; S. Oliver; M. Rowan-Robinson; I. Georgantopoulos; D. Farrah; D. M. Alexander; I. Perez-Fournon; C. J. Willott; F. Cabrera-Guerra; E. A. Gonzalez-Solares; A. Cabrera-Lavers; J. I. Gonzalez-Serrano; P. Ciliegi; F. Pozzi; I. Matute; H. Flores

    2001-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of the first hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HyLIG) in the course of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). This object has been detected by ISO at 6.7, 15, and 90 microns, and is found to be a broad-line, radio-quiet quasar at a redshift: z = 1.099. From a detailed multi-component model fit of the spectral energy distribution, we derive a total infrared luminosity: L_IR (1-1000 microns) ~ 1.0 x 10E13 h_65^-2 L_sun (q_0 = 0.5), and discuss the possible existence of a starburst contributing to the far-IR output. Observations to date present no evidence for lens magnification. This galaxy is one of the very few HyLIGs with an X-ray detection. On the basis of its soft X-ray properties, we suggest that this broad-line object may be the face-on analogue of narrow-line, Seyfert-like HyLIGs.

  12. Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhang, Wei [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Zhenzhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

  13. Overluminous HNC Line Emission in Arp220, NGC4418 and Mrk231 - Global IR Pumping or XDRs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Aalto; M. Spaans; M. C. Wiedner; S. Huttemeister

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We find that the HNC J=3-2 emission is brighter than the HCN 3-2 emission by factors of 1.5 to 2.3 in the ultraluminous mergers Arp220 and Mrk231 and the luminous IR galaxy NGC4418. We furthermore report the detection of HNC J=4-3 in Mrk231. Overluminous HNC emission is unexpected in warm molecular gas in ultraluminous galaxies since I(HNC)>I(HCN) is usually taken as a signature of cold (10 - 20 K) dark clouds. Since the molecular gas of the studied galaxies is warm (T_k > 40 K) we present two alternative explanations to the overluminous HNC: a) HNC excitation is affected by pumping of the rotational levels through the mid-infrared continuum and b) XDRs (X-ray Dominated Regions) influence the abundances of HNC. HNC may become pumped at 21.5 micron brightness temperatures of 50 K, suggesting that HNC-pumping could be common in warm, ultraluminous galaxies with compact IR-nuclei.On the other hand, all three galaxies are either suspected of having buried AGN - or the presence of AGN is clear (Mrk231) - indicating that X-rays may affect the ISM chemistry. We conclude that both the pumping and XDR alternatives imply molecular cloud ensembles distinctly different from those of typical starforming regions in the Galaxy, or the ISM of less extreme starburst galaxies. The HNC molecule shows the potential of becoming an additional important tracer of extreme nuclear environments.

  14. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Charles C. (Fairfield, OH); Taylor, Larry T. (Blacksburg, VA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  15. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  16. INFRARED SPECTRAL OBSERVATION OF EIGHT BL LAC OBJECTS FROM THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. S.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) low-resolution spectra for eight BL Lac objects are presented in this paper. It can be seen that the infrared spectrum of S5 0716+714 shows in the IRS region many emission features that would be from a nearby galaxy. It is also shown that, except for the silicate absorptions around 10 {mu}m for some sources, emission lines in the infrared spectra for the other seven BL Lac objects are indeed very weak or absent. In addition, ignoring the silicate feature, all spectra can be well fitted by a power-law distribution indicative of the emission mechanism of the synchrotron radiation for these BL Lac objects in the IRS region.

  17. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of 70um-Selected Distant Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kate Brand; Dan W. Weedman; Vandana Desai; Emeric Le Floc'h; Lee Armus; Arjun Dey; Jim R. Houck; Buell T. Jannuzi; Howard A. Smith; B. T. Soifer

    2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-infrared spectroscopy obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope of a sample of 11 optically faint, infrared luminous galaxies selected from a Spitzer MIPS 70um imaging survey of the NDWFS Bootes field. These are the first Spitzer IRS spectra presented of distant 70um-selected sources. All the galaxies lie at redshifts 0.3infrared luminosities of L_IR~ 0.1-17 x 10^12 solar luminosities. Seven of the galaxies exhibit strong emission features attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The average IRS spectrum of these sources is characteristic of classical starburst galaxies, but with much larger infrared luminosities. The PAH luminosities of L(7.7) ~ 0.4 - 7 x 10^11 solar luminosities imply star formation rates of ~ 40 - 720 solar masses per year. Four of the galaxies show deep 9.7um silicate absorption features and no significant PAH emission features (6.2um equivalent widths infrared luminosities and low f70/f24 flux density ratios suggests that these sources have AGN as the dominant origin of their large mid-infrared luminosities, although deeply embedded but luminous starbursts cannot be ruled out. If the absorbed sources are AGN-dominated, a significant fraction of all far-infrared bright, optically faint sources may be dominated by AGN.

  18. Properties of infrared extrapolations in a harmonic oscillator basis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidney A. Coon; Michael K. G. Kruse

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We continue our studies of infrared (ir) and ultraviolet (uv) regulators of no-core shell model calculations. We extend our results that an extrapolation in the ir cutoff with the uv cutoff above the intrinsic uv scale of the interaction is quite successful, not only for the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian but also for expectation values of operators considered long range. The latter results are obtained with Hamiltonians transformed by the similarity renormalization group (SRG) evolution. On the other hand, a suggested extrapolation in the uv cutoff when the ir cutoff is below the intrinsic ir scale is neither robust nor reliable.

  19. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  20. THE SUB-mJy RADIO POPULATION OF THE E-CDFS: OPTICAL AND INFRARED COUNTERPART IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonzini, M.; Mainieri, V.; Padovani, P.; Rosati, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Miller, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Tozzi, P.; Balestra, I. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Vattakunnel, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universit di Trieste, piazzale Europa 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xue, Y. Q., E-mail: mbonzini@eso.org [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a sample of 883 sources detected in a deep Very Large Array survey at 1.4 GHz in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This paper focuses on the identification of their optical and infrared (IR) counterparts. We use a likelihood-ratio technique that is particularly useful when dealing with deep optical images to minimize the number of spurious associations. We find a reliable counterpart for 95% of our radio sources. Most of the counterparts (74%) are detected at optical wavelengths, but there is a significant fraction (21%) that are only detectable in the IR. Combining newly acquired optical spectra with data from the literature, we are able to assign a redshift to 81% of the identified radio sources (37% spectroscopic). We also investigate the X-ray properties of the radio sources using the Chandra 4 Ms and 250 ks observations. In particular, we use a stacking technique to derive the average properties of radio objects undetected in the Chandra images. The results of our analysis are collected in a new catalog containing the position of the optical/IR counterpart, the redshift information, and the X-ray fluxes. It is the deepest multi-wavelength catalog of radio sources, which will be used for future study of this galaxy population.

  1. CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8CHAPTER 8:CHAPTER 8: Thermal InfraredThermal Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    measurable temperature variations of 1/10,000 °C.p · In World War I, S. O. Hoffman could detect men at 120 m remote sensor data were collected by the U. S. Television IR Operational Satellite (TIROS) launched a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) that included a thermal infrared sensor for monitoring sea

  2. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ?SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (?SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  3. On the Nature of the Gamma-ray Source 2FGL J1823.8 4312: The Discovery of a New Class of Extragalactic X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massaro, Francesco

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the unsolved mysteries of gamma-ray astronomy concerns the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources. Recently, using the Second Fermi LAT source catalog (2FGL) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) archive, we discovered that the WISE counterparts of gamma-ray blazars, a class of active galactic nuclei, delineate a region (the WISE Gamma-ray Strip) in the 3-dimensional infrared color space well separated from the locus of the other astronomical objects. Based on this result, we built an association procedure to recognize if there areWISE blazar candidates within the positional uncertainty region of the unidentified gamma-ray sources. Here we report on our analysis of 2FGL J1823.8+4312, a gamma-ray active galactic nucleus of uncertain type associated with the X-ray source 1RXS J182418.7+430954 according to the 2FGL, to verify whether it is a blazar. Applying our association method we found two sources with IR colors typical of gamma-ray blazars, located within the 99.9% confidence region of 2FGL J1823.8+4312: WISE J182352.33+431452.5 and WISE J182409.25+431404.7. Then we searched in the Chandra, NVSS and SDSS archival observations for their counterparts. We discovered that WISE J182352.33+431452.5, our preferred gamma-ray blazar candidate according to our WISE association procedure, is detected in the optical and in the X-rays but not in the radio, making it extremely unusual if it is a blazar. Given its enigmatic spectral energy distribution, we considered the possibility that it is a 'radio faint blazar' or the prototype of a new class of extragalactic sources, our conclusion is independent of whether WISE J182352.33+431452.5 is the actual counterpart of 2FGL J1823.8+4312.

  4. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25?m (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}?m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}?m{sub 25}?=??2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25?m, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  5. Cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    identified by a cosmic ray telescope sensitive to high-energy (>400 MeV) particles, principally muons experiment, a narrowband thermopile filter radiometer centred on 9.15 µm, an absorption band previously. The integrated atmospheric energy density for each event is 2 Jm-2, representing an amplification factor of 1012

  6. High energy cosmic rays experiments inspired by noncommutative quantum field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Josip Trampetic

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenomenological analysis of the covariant theta-exact noncommutative (NC) gauge field theory (GFT), inspired by high energy cosmic rays experiments, is performed in the framework of the inelastic neutrino-nucleon scatterings, plasmon and $Z$-boson decays into neutrino pair, the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the Reheating Phase After Inflation (RPAI), respectively. Next we have have found neutrino two-point function and shows a closed form decoupling of the hard ultraviolet (UV) divergent term from softened ultraviolet/infrared (UV/IR) mixing term and from the finite terms as well. For a certain choice of the noncommutative parameter theta which preserves unitarity, problematic UV divergent and UV/IR mixing terms vanish. Non-perturbative modifications of the neutrino dispersion relations are assymptotically independent of the scale of noncommutativity in both the low and high energy limits and may allow superluminal propagation.

  7. Non-destructive component separation using infrared radiant energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Knoxville, TN); Russell, Steven W. (Knoxville, TN); Holt, Jerrid S. (Knoxville, TN); Brown, John D. (Harriman, TN)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating a first component and a second component from one another at an adhesive bond interface between the first component and second component. Typically the method involves irradiating the first component with infrared radiation from a source that radiates substantially only short wavelengths until the adhesive bond is destabilized, and then separating the first component and the second component from one another. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is placed inside an enclosure and the assembly is illuminated from an IR source that is external to the enclosure. In some embodiments an assembly of components to be debonded is simultaneously irradiated by a multi-planar array of IR sources. Often the IR radiation is unidirectional. In some embodiments the IR radiation is narrow-band short wavelength infrared radiation.

  8. Infrared pulse characterization using four-wave mixing inside a few cycle pulse filament in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, Claude, E-mail: claude.marceau.2@ulaval.ca; Thomas, Steven; Kassimi, Yacine; Gingras, Guillaume; Witzel, Bernd [Centre d'Optique, Photonique et Laser, Pavillon d'optique-photonique Québec (Québec), Université Laval, Québec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a four-wave mixing (FWM) technique to measure near- and mid-infrared (IR) laser pulse shapes in time domain. Few cycle 800?nm laser pulses were synchronized with the IR pulse and focused colinearly to generate a plasma filament in air. Second harmonic radiation around 400?nm was generated through FWM, with a yield proportional to the IR pulse intensity. Excellent signal to noise ratio was observed from 2.1??m to 18??m. With proper phase stabilization of the IR beam, this technique is a promising step toward direct electric field sensing of near-IR pulses in air.

  9. Tunable Infrared Emission From Printed Colloidal Quantum Dot/Polymer Composite Films on Flexible Substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panzer, Matthew J.

    A simple and robust device structure for a flexible, multicolor infrared (IR) display is described. The display operates by optical downconversion of AC-driven blue phosphor electroluminescence using different-sized, ...

  10. A tale of coupled vibrations in solution told by coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, Munira, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coherent two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy is used as a tool for investigating the molecular structure and dynamics of coupled vibrations in solution on a picosecond timescale. The strongly coupled asymmetric ...

  11. CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER Yuichiro Sakamoto a technique for the construction of an elastic touch panel using silicone rubber. The technique is similar is made of transparent silicone rubber rather than acrylic. Moreover, we embedded infrared LEDs within

  12. Infrared floodlight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Robert E. (S. Hamilton, MA); English, George J. (Reading, MA)

    1986-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared floodlight assembly designed particularly for security purposes and including a heat-conducting housing, a lens secured to the housing to provide a closure therefor, and a floodlight located within (and surrounded by) the housing. The floodlight combines the use of a tungsten halogen light source and dichroic hot and cold mirrors for directing substantially only infrared radiation toward the assembly's forward lens. Visible radiation is absorbed by the housing's interior wall(s) and, optionally, by a filter located between the floodlight and lens. An optional means may be used within the floodlight to reflect all forward radiation back toward the paraboloidal hot mirror or, alternatively, to reflect only visible radiation in this direction. The dichroic hot and cold mirrors preferably each comprise a glass substrate having multiple layers of titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide thereon.

  13. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at z~2 I: the Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Yan; Anna Sajina; Dario Fadda; Phil Choi; Lee Armus; George Helou; Harry Teplitz; David Frayer; Jason Surace

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra obtained with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) for a sample of 52 sources, selected as infrared luminous, z>1 candidates in the Extragalactic First Look Survey (XFLS). The sample selection criteria are f(24um) > 0.9mJy, nu fnu(24um)/nu fnu(8um) > 3.16 and nu fnu(24um)/nu fnu(0.7um) > 10. Of the 52 spectra, 47 (90%) produced measurable redshifts based solely on the mid-IR spectral features, with the majority (35/47=74%) at 1.5 1. Their $L_{1600\\AA}$ and $L_{\\rm IR}$ suggest that our sample is among the most luminous and most dust enshrouded systems of its epoch . Our study has revealed a significant population of dust enshrouded galaxies at z~2, whose enormous energy output, comparable to that of quasars, is generated by AGN as well as starburst. This IR luminous population has very little overlap with sub-mm and UV-selected populations (Abridged).

  14. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Averill, Frank [ORNL] [ORNL; Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  15. Infrared Imaging of the Nanometer-Thick Accumulation Layer in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Q. Li; G. M. Wang; N. Sai; D. Moses; M. C. Martin; M. Di Ventra; A. J. Heeger; D. N. Basov

    2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on infrared (IR) spectro-microscopy of the electronic excitations in nanometer-thick accumulation layers in FET devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene). IR data allows us to explore the charge injection landscape and uncovers the critical role of the gate insulator in defining relevant length scales. This work demonstrates the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for the investigation of physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices.

  16. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  17. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  18. Platinum Monolayer on IrFe Core–Shell Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki K.; Kuttiyiel, K.A.; Su, D.; Adzic, R.R.

    2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We synthesized high activity and stability platinum monolayer on IrFe core-shell nanoparticle electrocatalysts. Carbon-supported IrFe core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction and subsequent thermal annealing. The formation of Ir shells on IrFe solid-solution alloy cores has been verified by scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The Pt monolayers were deposited on IrFe core-shell nanoparticles by galvanic replacement of underpotentially deposited Cu adatoms on the Ir shell surfaces. The specific and Pt mass activities for the ORR on the Pt monolayer on IrFe core-shell nanoparticle electrocatalyst are 0.46 mA/cm{sup 2} and 1.1 A/mg{sub Pt}, which are much higher than those on a commercial Pt/C electrocatalyst. High durability of Pt{sub ML}/IrFe/C has also been demonstrated by potential cycling tests. These high activity and durability observed can be ascribed to the structural and electronic interaction between the Pt monolayer and the IrFe core-shell nanoparticles.

  19. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  20. Discovery of Extremely Embedded X-ray Sources in the R Coronae Australis Star Forming Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenji Hamaguchi; Michael F. Corcoran; Rob Petre; Nicholas E. White; Beate Stelzer; Ko Nedachi; Naoto Kobayashi; Alan T. Tokunaga

    2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    With the XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories, we detected two extremely embedded X-ray sources in the R Corona Australis (R CrA) star forming core, near IRS 7. These sources, designated as XB and XA, have X-ray absorption columns of ~3e23 cm-2 equivalent to AV ~180 mag. They are associated with the VLA centimeter radio sources 10E and 10W, respectively. XA is the counterpart of the near-infrared source IRS 7, whereas XB has no K-band counterpart above 19.4 mag. This indicates that XB is younger than typical Class I protostars, probably a Class 0 protostar or in an intermediate phase between Class 0 and Class I. The X-ray luminosity of XB varied between 29ray brightness by a factor of two in 30 ksec during an XMM-Newton observation. The XMM-Newton spectra indicate emission from a hot plasma with kT ~3-4 keV and also show fluorescent emission from cold iron. Though the X-ray spectrum from XB is similar to flare spectra from Class I protostars in luminosity and temperature, the light curve does not resemble the lightcurves of magnetically generated X-ray flares because the variability timescale of XB is too long and because variations in X-ray count rate were not accompanied by variations in spectral hardness. The short-term variation of XB may be caused by the partial blocking of the X-ray plasma, while the month-long flux enhancement may be driven by mass accretion.

  1. Observing Conditions and Mid-IR Data Quality Rachel Masona, Andre Wonga, b, Tom Geballea, Kevin Volka, Tom Haywardc, Matt Dillmana,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Thomas

    . These data can be used to illustrate the effect of factors such as water vapour column, airmass, cloud cover these effects is important for the efficiency of mid-IR queue observing, the ability of classical observers imaging observations, and which can safely be neglected. Keywords: infrared radiation, infrared

  2. A COMPARATIVE ASTROCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE HIGH-MASS PROTOSTELLAR OBJECTS NGC 7538 IRS 9 AND IRS 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barentine, John C.; Lacy, John H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of the high-mass protostellar object NGC 7538 IRS 9 and compare our observations to published data on the nearby object NGC 7538 IRS 1. Both objects originated in the same molecular cloud and appear to be at different points in their evolutionary histories, offering an unusual opportunity to study the temporal evolution of envelope chemistry in objects sharing a presumably identical starting composition. Observations were made with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a sensitive, high spectral resolution (R {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx_equal} 100,000) mid-infrared grating spectrometer. Forty-six individual lines in vibrational modes of the molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CO were detected, including two isotopologues ({sup 13}CO, {sup 12}C{sup 18}O) and one combination mode ({nu}{sub 4} + {nu}{sub 5} C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). Fitting synthetic spectra to the data yielded the Doppler shift, excitation temperature, Doppler b parameter, column density, and covering factor for each molecule observed; we also computed column density upper limits for lines and species not detected, such as HNCO and OCS. We find differences among spectra of the two objects likely attributable to their differing radiation and thermal environments. Temperatures and column densities for the two objects are generally consistent, while the larger line widths toward IRS 9 result in less saturated lines than those toward IRS 1. Finally, we compute an upper limit on the size of the continuum-emitting region ({approx}2000 AU) and use this constraint and our spectroscopy results to construct a schematic model of IRS 9.

  3. Spitzer Detection of PAH and Silicate Dust Features in the Mid-Infrared Spectra of z~2 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Yan; R. Chary; L. Armus; H. Teplitz; G. Helou; D. Frayer; D. Fadda; J. Surace; P. Choi

    2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the initial results from a Spitzer GO-1 program to obtain low resolution, mid-infrared spectra of infrared luminous galaxies at z~1-2. This paper presents the spectra of eight sources observed with the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS). Of the eight spectra, six have mid-IR spectral features, either emission from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) or silicate absorption. Based on these mid-IR features, the inferred six redshifts are in the range of 1.8-2.6. The remaining two spectra detect only strong continua, thus do not yield redshift information. Strong, multiple PAH emission features are detected in two sources, and weak PAH emission in another two. These data provide direct evidence that PAH molecules are present and directly observable in ULIRGs at z~2. The six sources with measured redshifts are dusty, infrared luminous galaxies at z~2 with estimated $L_{bol} \\sim 10^{13}L_\\odot$. Of the eight sources, two appear starburst dominated; two with only power law continua are probably type I QSOs; and the remaining four are likely composite systems containing a buried AGN and a starburst component. Since half of our sample are optically faint sources with R>25.5mag (Vega), our results demonstrate the potential of using mid-infrared spectroscopy, especially the Aromatic and silicate features produced by dust grains to directly probe optically faint and infrared luminous populations at high redshift.

  4. Infrared behavior and gauge artifacts in de Sitter spacetime: The photon field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed Youssef

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the infrared (long distance) behavior of the free photon field in de Sitter spacetime. Using a two-parameter family of gauge fixing terms, we show that the infrared (IR) behavior of the two-point function is highly gauge-dependent and ranges from vanishing to growing. This situation is in disagreement with its counterpart in flat spacetime, where the two-point function vanishes in the IR for any choice of the gauge fixing parameters. A criterion to isolate the "physical" part of the two-point function is given and is shown to lead to a well-behaved two-point function in the IR.

  5. GOODS–Herschel: an infrared main sequence for star-forming galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Graham Wallace; Elbaz, D.; Dickinson, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Dí az-Santos, T.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Le Borgne, D.; Galliano, F.; Pannella, M.; Chanial, P.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Daddi, E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the references) Received 11 May 2011 / Accepted 3 August 2011 ABSTRACT We present the deepest 100 to 500 ?m far-infrared observations obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the GOODS-Herschel key program, and examine the infrared (IR) 3–500 ?m... nuclei (AGN) is predominantly produced by star formation and that candidate dusty AGNs with a power-law emission in the mid-IR systematically occur in compact, dusty starbursts. After correcting for the effect of starbursts on IR8, we identify new...

  6. Size-dependent infrared properties of MgO nanoparticles with evidence of screening effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Size-dependent infrared properties of MgO nanoparticles with evidence of screening effect Yann June 2012) We have investigated the infrared (IR) absorption properties of MgO nanoparticles (NPs by local heating,5,6 heat assisted magnetic recording,7 enhancement of the extraction of light from LEDs

  7. Laser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    -scattering or in the transmission mode using a variety of sensor probes. In this work we used the infrared (IR) photothermal radioLaser infrared photothermal radiometric depth profilometry of steels and its potential in rail track evaluation A. Mandelis*, M. Munidasa, L. Nicolaides Photothermal and Optoelectronic Diagnostics

  8. Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Infrared emission spectroscopy of CO2 at high temperature. Part I: Experimental setup and source measurement, tube effects, CO2 infrared radiation 1. Introduction The knowledge of very high temperature for instance that the IR emission of the CO2 molecule remains predominant at temperatures as high as 4000 K [1

  9. Widely tunable mid-infrared generation via frequency conversion in semiconductor waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of mid-infrared and far-infrared (IR) radiation using second-order optical nonlinearities is attractive, large optical nonlinearities, large optical damage threshold, and mature fabrication tech- nology [3 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (190.4975) Parametric processes; (230.4320) Nonlinear optical

  10. Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry: Components, Calibration, and Application #12;CIP-DATA KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK, DEN HAAG Boer, Johannes Henricus Wilhelmus Gerardus den Spectroscopic Infrared in Dutch. ISBN 90 386 0017 8 Subject headings: spectroscopy ellipsometry infrared. #12;Spectroscopic

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of two luminous submillimeter galaxies at z~2.8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Lutz; E. Valiante; E. Sturm; R. Genzel; L. J Tacconi; M. D. Lehnert; A. Sternberg; A. J. Baker

    2005-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have obtained rest frame mid-infrared spectroscopy of two bright submillimeter galaxies. SMMJ02399-0136 at z=2.81 shows a superposition of PAH emission features and a mid-infrared continuum, indicating significant and roughly equal contributions to its bolometric luminosity from star formation and from a Compton-thick AGN. We derive a new redshift of z=2.80 for MMJ154127+6616 from the IRS spectrum and find this object is dominated by starburst PAH emission. The rest frame mid- to far-infrared spectral energy distributions are consistent with these submillimeter galaxies being scaled up versions of local ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The mid-infrared spectra support the scenario that submillimeter galaxies are sites of extreme star formation and represent a key phase in the formation of massive galaxies.

  12. Your FAFSA and the IRS Data Retrieval Tool What is the IRS Data Retrieval Tool?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    Your FAFSA and the IRS Data Retrieval Tool What is the IRS Data Retrieval Tool? The U.S. Department of Education and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) have collaborated to develop a tool that simplifies the completion of the FAFSA application. The IRS Data Retrieval tool allows FAFSA applicants and parents

  13. Experimental investigation of subcooled flow boiling using synchronized high speed video, infrared thermography, and particle image velocimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Bren Andrew

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subcooled flow boiling of water was experimentally investigated using high-speed video (HSV), infrared (IR) thermography, and particle image velocimetry (PIV) to generate a unique database of synchronized data. HSV allowed ...

  14. Infrared light detection using a whispering-gallery-mode optical microcavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Jiangang, E-mail: jzhu@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: yang@seas.wustl.edu; Ozdemir, Sahin Kaya, E-mail: jzhu@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: yang@seas.wustl.edu; Yang, Lan, E-mail: jzhu@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: ozdemir@seas.wustl.edu, E-mail: yang@seas.wustl.edu [Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63117 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a thermal infrared (IR) detector based on an ultra-high-quality-factor (Q) whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microtoroidal silica resonator and investigate its performance to detect IR radiation at 10??m wavelength. The bandwidth and the sensitivity of the detector are dependent on the power of a probe laser and the detuning between the probe laser and the resonance frequency of the resonator. The microtoroid IR sensor achieved a noise-equivalent-power (NEP) of 7.46?nW, corresponding to an IR intensity of 0.095?mW/cm{sup 2}.

  15. Radio observations of the CDF-South: a possible link between radio emission and star formation in X-ray selected AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Rovilos; A. Georgakakis; I. Georgantopoulos; J. Afonso; A. M. Koekemoer; B. Mobasher; C. Goudis

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the nature of the radio emission of X-ray selected AGN by combining deep radio (1.4GHz; 60micro-Jy) and X-ray data with multiwavelength (optical, mid-infrared) observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (E-CDFS). The fraction of radio detected X-ray sources increases from 9% in the E-CDFS to 14% in the central region of this field, which has deeper X-ray coverage from the 1Ms CDFS. We find evidence that the radio emission of up to 60% of the hard X-ray/radio matched AGN is likely associated with star-formation in the host galaxy. Firstly, the mid-IR (24micron) properties of these sources are consistent with the infrared/radio correlation of starbursts. Secondly, most of them are found in galaxies with blue rest-frame optical colours (U-V), suggesting a young stellar population. On the contrary, X-ray/radio matched AGN which are not detected in the mid-infrared have red U-V colours suggesting their radio emission is associated with AGN activity. We also find no evidence for a population of heavily obscured radio-selected AGN that are not detected in X-rays. Finally, we do no confirm previous claims for a correlation between radio emission and X-ray obscuration. Assuming that the radio continuum measures star-formation, this finding is against models where the dust and gas clouds associated with circumnuclear starbursts are spherically blocking our view to the central engine.

  16. ILLUMINATING THE DARKEST GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH RADIO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B. A.; Berger, E.; Margutti, R.; Fong, W.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Soderberg, A. M. [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Olivares E, F.; Greiner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Perley, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Carpenter, J. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91225 (United States); Updike, A. C. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI 02809 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Nakar, E. [Department of Astrophysics, Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Chandra, P. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Castro-Tirado, A. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Bremer, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 Saint Martin d'Heres (France); and others

    2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present X-ray, optical, near-infrared (IR), and radio observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 110709B and 111215A, as well as optical and near-IR observations of their host galaxies. The combination of X-ray detections and deep optical/near-IR limits establish both bursts as ''dark''. Sub-arcsecond positions enabled by radio detections lead to robust host galaxy associations, with optical detections that indicate z {approx}< 4 (110709B) and z Almost-Equal-To 1.8-2.9 (111215A). We therefore conclude that both bursts are dark due to substantial rest-frame extinction. Using the radio and X-ray data for each burst we find that GRB 110709B requires A{sub V}{sup host}{approx}>5.3 mag and GRB 111215A requires A{sub V}{sup host}{approx}>8.5 mag (assuming z = 2). These are among the largest extinction values inferred for dark bursts to date. The two bursts also exhibit large neutral hydrogen column densities of N{sub H,{sub int}} {approx}> 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (z = 2) as inferred from their X-ray spectra, in agreement with the trend for dark GRBs. Moreover, the inferred values are in agreement with the Galactic A{sub V} -N{sub H} relation, unlike the bulk of the GRB population. Finally, we find that for both bursts the afterglow emission is best explained by a collimated outflow with a total beaming-corrected energy of E{sub {gamma}} + E{sub K} Almost-Equal-To (7-9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg (z = 2) expanding into a wind medium with a high density, M Almost-Equal-To (6-20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} (n Almost-Equal-To 100-350 cm{sup -3} at Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 17} cm). While the energy release is typical of long GRBs, the inferred density may be indicative of larger mass-loss rates for GRB progenitors in dusty (and hence metal rich) environments. This study establishes the critical role of radio observations in demonstrating the origin and properties of dark GRBs. Observations with the JVLA and ALMA will provide a sample with sub-arcsecond positions and robust host associations that will help to shed light on obscured star formation and the role of metallicity in GRB progenitors.

  17. Role of dipolar correlations in the IR spectra of water and ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei Chen; Manu Sharma; Raffaele Resta; Giulia Galli; Roberto Car

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report simulated infrared spectra of deuterated water and ice using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics with maximally localized Wannier functions. Experimental features are accurately reproduced within the harmonic approximation. By decomposing the lineshapes in terms of intra and intermolecular dipole correlation functions we find that short-range intermolecular dynamic charge fluctuations associated to hydrogen bonds are prominent over the entire spectral range. Our analysis reveals the origin of several spectral features and identifies network bending modes in the far IR range.

  18. Active infrared materials for beam steering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Gin, Aaron V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Miao, Xiaoyu; Barrick, Todd A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR, 3 {micro}m -12 {micro}m) is a highly desirable spectral range for imaging and environmental sensing. We propose to develop a new class of mid-IR devices, based on plasmonic and metamaterial concepts, that are dynamically controlled by tunable semiconductor plasma resonances. It is well known that any material resonance (phonons, excitons, electron plasma) impacts dielectric properties; our primary challenge is to implement the tuning of a semiconductor plasma resonance with a voltage bias. We have demonstrated passive tuning of both plasmonic and metamaterial structures in the mid-IR using semiconductors plasmas. In the mid-IR, semiconductor carrier densities on the order of 5E17cm{sup -3} to 2E18cm{sup -3} are desirable for tuning effects. Gate control of carrier densities at the high end of this range is at or near the limit of what has been demonstrated in literature for transistor style devices. Combined with the fact that we are exploiting the optical properties of the device layers, rather than electrical, we are entering into interesting territory that has not been significantly explored to date.

  19. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apreutesei, Mihai [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco, E-mail: fmacedo@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Borges, Joel [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and SEG-CEMUC Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  20. Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Sco McWilliams U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consor;um (PVMC) Infrared Thermography Infrared Thermography (IRT) has been demonstrated...

  1. C2D Spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T Tauri stars: I. Silicate emission and grain growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. E. Kessler-Silacci; J. -C. Augereau; C. P. Dullemond; V. Geers; F. Lahuis; N. J. Evans II; E. F. van Dishoeck; G. A. Blake; A. C. A. Boogert; J. Brown; J. K. Jorgensen; C. Knez; K. M. Pontoppidan

    2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared ~5--35 um spectra for 40 solar-mass T Tauri stars and 7 intermediate-mass Herbig Ae stars with circumstellar disks were obtained using the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the c2d IRS survey. This work complements prior spectroscopic studies of silicate infrared emission from disks, which were focused on intermediate-mass stars, with observations of solar-mass stars limited primarily to the 10 um region. The observed 10 and 20 um silicate feature strengths/shapes are consistent with source-to-source variations in grain size. A large fraction of the features are weak and flat, consistent with um-sized grains indicating fast grain growth (from 0.1--1.0 um in radius). In addition, approximately half of the T Tauri star spectra show crystalline silicate features near 28 and 33 um indicating significant processing when compared to interstellar grains. A few sources show large 10-to-20 um ratios and require even larger grains emitting at 20 um than at 10 um. This size difference may arise from the difference in the depth into the disk probed by the two silicate emission bands in disks where dust settling has occurred. The 10 um feature strength vs. shape trend is not correlated with age or Halpha equivalent width, suggesting that some amount of turbulent mixing and regeneration of small grains is occurring. The strength vs. shape trend is related to spectral type, however, with M stars showing significantly flatter 10 um features (larger grain sizes) than A/B stars. The connection between spectral type and grain size is interpreted in terms of the variation in the silicate emission radius as a function of stellar luminosity, but could also be indicative of other spectral-type dependent factors (e.g, X-rays, UV radiation, stellar/disk winds, etc.).

  2. IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 27, NO. 12. DECEMBER 1991 2691 Applications of Infrared Free-Electron Lasers: Basic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 27, NO. 12. DECEMBER 1991 2691 Applications of Infrared. Fayer Invited Paper Abstract-Applications of tunable infrared (IR) picosecond (ps) pulses generated- heating are suggested. I. INTRODUCTION REE-ELECTRON lasers (FEL's) have developed Frapidly in the last 15

  3. Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: Single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    , a parameterization of the bulk scattering properties is developed. The radiative properties of ice cloudsSpectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: Single-scattering calculations the spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared (far-IR) spectral region from 100 to 667 cmÃ?1 (15

  4. Comparison between Model Simulations and Measurements of Hyperspectral Far- infrared Radiation from FIRST during the RHUBC-II Campaign 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baugher, Elizabeth

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface downward far-infrared (far-IR) spectra were collected from NASA’s Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument from August to October 2009 at an altitude of 5.4 km near the summit of Cerro Toco, Chile. This region is known...

  5. Deposition dynamics and chemical properties of size-selected Ir clusters on TiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott L.

    reserved. Keywords: Iridium; Clusters; Titanium oxide; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; Low energy ion report a study of Irn/TiO2 samples prepared by size and energy-selected deposition of Irþ n (n ¼ 1, 2, 5 in the zero oxidation state, and there are no significant shifts in Ir 4f binding energy with cluster size

  6. Infrared Inspection Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  7. Infrared Inspection Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, A. B.; Bevers, D. V.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scanning equipment has been used at Amoco's Texas City refinery since 1971 as an inspection tool. A camera scans the field of view and focuses the infrared radiation on a detector which converts the infrared signal to an electrical signal...

  8. Comparing the use of mid-infrared versus far-infrared lasers for mitigating damage growth on fused silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Steven T.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Elhadj, Selim; Cooke, Diane; Guss, Gabriel M.; Draggoo, Vaughn G.; Wegner, Paul J.

    2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser-induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and, therefore, increase operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, we quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {mu}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {mu}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The nonlinear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda}=4.6 {mu}m, while far-IR laser heating is well described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on IR radiometry, as well as subsurface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally ablative conditions. Based on our FOM, we show that, for cracks up to at least 500 {mu}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {mu}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {mu}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {mu}m in depth.

  9. The first infrared beamline at the ALS: Design, construction, and initial commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, W.R.; Hirschmugl, C.J.; Padmore, H.A.; Lauritzen, T.; Andresen, N.; Andronaco, G.; Patton, R.; Fong, M.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first Infrared (IR) Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Beamline 1.4, is described. The design of the optical and mechanical systems are discussed, including choices and tradeoffs. The initial commissioning of the beamline is reported. The beamline, while designed primarily for IR microscopy and only initially instrumented for microscopy (with a Nicolet interferometer and microscope), will have the potential for surface science experiments at grazing incidence, and time-resolved visible spectroscopy.

  10. GaSb substrates with extended IR wavelength for advanced space based applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Lisa P.; Flint, Patrick; Dallas, Gordon; Bakken, Daniel; Blanchat, Kevin; Brown, Gail J.; Vangala, Shivashankar R.; Goodhue, William D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaSb substrates have advantages that make them attractive for implementation of a wide range of infrared (IR) detectors with higher operating temperatures for stealth and space based applications. A significant aspect that would enable widespread commercial application of GaSb wafers for very long wavelength IR (VLWIR) applications is the capability for transmissivity beyond 15 m. Due largely to the GaSb (antisite) defect and other point defects in undoped GaSb substrates, intrinsic GaSb is still slightly p-type and strongly absorbs in the VLWIR. This requires backside thinning of the GaSb substrate for IR transmissivity. An extremely low n-type GaSb substrate is preferred to eliminate thinning and provide a substrate solution for backside illuminated VLWIR devices. By providing a more homogeneous radial distribution of the melt solute to suppress GaSb formation and controlling the cooling rate, ultra low doped n:GaSb has been achieved. This study examines the surface properties and IR transmission spectra of ultra low doped GaSb substrates at both room and low temperatures. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), homoepitaxy by MBE, and infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) analysis was implemented to examine material quality. As compared with standard low doped GaSb, the ultra low doped substrates show over 50% transmission and consistent wavelength transparency past 23 m with improved %T at low temperature. Homoepitaxy and AFM results indicate the ultra low doped GaSb has a low thermal desorbtion character and qualified morphology. In summary, improvements in room temperature IR transmission and extended wavelength characteristics have been shown consistently for ultra low doped n:GaSb substrates.

  11. Airborne infrared observations and analyses of a large forest fire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearns, J.R.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E.; Sanford, B.P.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive IR spatial images and spectral signatures were gathered from an active large brush and forest fire by the Flying Infrared Signatures Technology Aircraft of the U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory. Infrared images give the apparent temperatures of actively burning and burned over regions and aid in identifying the type and intensity of the fire. Spectral signatures of hot regions from interferometer and spatial data can also be used to determine apparent fire temperatures. Gasesous combustion products in the fire plume are quantitatively identified by the IR absorption spectra at 1-cm/sup -1/ resolution using the hot fire emission as the radiation source. Concentrations of CO were measured at 50 times higher than ambient levels. The applicability of these techniques to gathering data relevant to important environmental and military problems, including atmospheric pollution from fires and possible short-term climatic effects due to fires ignited in a nuclear exchange, is discussed.

  12. Origin of the phase transition in IrTe2: structural modulation and local bonding instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Huibo [ORNL; Chakoumakos, Bryan C [ORNL; Yan, Jiaqiang [ORNL; Zhou, Haidong [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Mandrus, D. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Chen, Xin [ORNL; Yang, Hui [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We used X-ray/neutron diffraction to determine the low temperature (LT) structure of IrTe2. A structural modulation was observed with a wavevector of k =(1/5, 0, 1/5) below Ts285 K, accompanied by a structural transition from a trigonal to a triclinic lattice. We also performed the first principles calculations for high temperature (HT) and LT structures, which elucidate the nature of the phase transition and the LT structure. A local bonding instability associated with the Te 5p states is likely the origin of the structural phase transition in IrTe2.

  13. WATER ICE IN HIGH MASS-LOSS RATE OH/IR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Young-Joo, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate water-ice features in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of high mass-loss rate OH/IR stars. We use a radiative transfer code which can consider multiple components of dust shells to make model calculations for various dust species including water ice in the OH/IR stars. We find that the model SEDs are sensitively dependent on the location of the water-ice dust shell. For two sample stars (OH 127.8+0.0 and OH 26.5+0.6), we compare the detailed model results with the infrared observational data including the spectral data from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). For the two sample stars, we reproduce the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 3.1 {mu}m and 11.5 {mu}m; emission at 44 and 62 {mu}m) observed by ISO using a separate component of the water-ice dust shell that condensed at about 84-87 K (r {approx} 1500-1800 AU) as well as the silicate dust shell that condensed at about 1000 K (r {approx} 19-25 AU). For a sample of 1533 OH/IR stars, we present infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) using the Infrared Astronomical Satellite and AKARI data compared with theoretical model results. We find that the theoretical models clearly show the effects of the crystalline water-ice features (absorption at 11.5 {mu}m and emission at 62 {mu}m) on the 2CDs.

  14. A late, infrared flash from the afterglow of GRB 050319

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koshy George; Dipankar P. K. Banerjee; Thyagarajan Chandrasekahar; Nagarhalli M. Ashok

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the detection of a bright, near-infrared flash from the afterglow of GRB 050319, 6.15 hours after the burst. The IR flash faded rapidly from J=13.12 mag. to J > 15.5 mag. in about 4 minutes. There are no reported simultaneous observations at other wavelengths making it an unique event. We study the implications of its late timing in the context of current theoretical models for GRB afterglows.

  15. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  16. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  17. Processing of formic acid-containing ice by heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergantini, A; Rothard, H; Boduch, P; Andrade, D P P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formic acid (HCOOH) has been extensively detected in space environments, including interstellar medium (gas and grains), comets and meteorites. Such environments are often subjected to the action of ionizing agents, which may cause changes in the molecular structure, thus leading to formation of new species. Formic acid is a possible precursor of pre-biotic species, such as Glycine (NH2CH2COOH). This work investigates experimentally the physicochemical effects resulting from interaction of heavy and energetic cosmic ray analogues (46MeV 58Ni11+) in H2O:HCOOH (1:1) ice, at 15 K, in ultrahigh vacuum regime, using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in the mid-infrared region (4000-600 cm-1 or 2.5-12.5 microns). After the bombardment, the sample was slowly heated to room temperature. The results show the dissociation cross-section for the formic acid of 2.4x10^-13 cm2, and half-life due to galactic cosmic rays of 8x10^7 yr. The IR spectra show intense formation of CO and CO2, and small production of more com...

  18. IRS Data Retrieval Tool 2012-2013 FAFSA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 IRS Data Retrieval Tool 2012-2013 FAFSA Financial Aid Office University of California, San Diego #12;2 What is the IRS Data Retrieval Tool? · The IRS Retrieval Tool gives FAFSA applicants and parents the ability to transfer their data from the IRS to the FAFSA · The Retrieval Tool saves time and increases

  19. Molecular Hydrogen in Infrared Cirrus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kristen Gillmon; J. Michael Shull

    2005-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We combine data from our recent FUSE survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen absorption toward 50 high-latitude AGN with COBE-corrected IRAS 100 micron emission maps to study the correlation of infrared cirrus with H2. A plot of the H2 column density vs. IR cirrus intensity shows the same transition in molecular fraction, f_H2, as seen with total hydrogen column density, N_H. This transition is usually attributed to H2 self-shielding, and it suggests that many diffuse cirrus clouds contain H2 in significant fractions, f_H2 = 1-30%. These clouds cover approximately 50% of the northern sky at latitudes b > 30 degrees, at temperature-corrected 100 micron intensities D_100 > 1.5 MJy/sr. The sheetlike cirrus clouds, with hydrogen densities n_H > 30 cm^-3, may be compressed by dynamical processes at the disk-halo interface, and they are conducive to H2 formation on grain surfaces. Exploiting the correlation between N(H2) and 100 micron intensity, we estimate that cirrus clouds at b > 30 contain approximately 3000 M_sun in H2. Extrapolated over the inner Milky Way, the cirrus may contain 10^7 M_sun of H2 and 10^8 M_sun in total gas mass. If elevated to 100 pc, their gravitational potential energy is ~10^53 erg.

  20. Spitzer Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at z~2 II: Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Sajina; Lin Yan; Lee Armus; Phil Choi; Dario Fadda; George Helou; Henrik Spoon

    2007-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present mid-IR spectral decomposition of a sample of 48 Spitzer-selected ULIRGs spanning z~1-3 and likely L_IR~10^12-10^13Lsun. Our study aims at quantifying the star-formation and AGN processes in these sources which recent results suggest have evolved strongly between the observed epoch and today. To do this, we study the mid-IR contribution of PAH emission, continuum, and extinction. About 3/4 of our sample are continuum- (i.e. AGN) dominated sources, but ~60% of these show PAH emission, suggesting the presence of star-formation activity. These sources have redder mid-IR colors than typical optically-selected quasars. About 25% of our sample have strong PAH emission, but none are likely to be pure starbursts as reflected in their relatively high 5um hot dust continua. However, their steep 30um-to-14um slopes suggest that star-formation might dominate the total infrared luminosity. Six of our z~2 sources have EW6.2>~0.3um and L_14um>~10^12Lsun (implying L_IR>~10^13Lsun). At these luminosities, such high EW6.2 ULIRGs do not exist in the local Universe. We find a median optical depth at 9.7um of =1.4. This is consistent with local IRAS-selected ULIRGs, but differs from early results on SCUBA-selected z~2 ULIRGs. Similar to local ULIRGs about 25% of our sample show extreme obscuration (tau_9.7>~3) suggesting buried nuclei. In general, we find that our sources are similar to local ULIRGs, but are an order of magnitude more luminous. It is not clear whether our z~2 ULIRGs are simply scaled-up versions of local ULIRGs, or subject to fundamentally different physical processes.

  1. Linear dichroism amplification: Adapting a long-known technique for ultrasensitive femtosecond IR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehault, Julien; Helbing, Jan [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Zanirato, Vinicio [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Ferrara, via Fossato di Mortara 17-19, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Olivucci, Massimo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Siena, via Aldo Moro 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy) and Chemistry Department, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403 (United States)

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate strong amplification of polarization-sensitive transient IR signals using a pseudo-null crossed polarizer technique first proposed by Keston and Lospalluto [Fed. Proc. 10, 207 (1951)] and applied for nanosecond flash photolysis in the visible by Che et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 224, 145 (1994)]. We adapted the technique to ultrafast pulsed laser spectroscopy in the infrared using photoelastic modulators, which allow us to measure amplified linear dichroism at kilohertz repetition rates. The method was applied to a photoswitch of the N-alkylated Schiff base family in order to demonstrate its potential of strongly enhancing sensitivity and signal to noise in ultrafast transient IR experiments, to simplify spectra and to determine intramolecular transition dipole orientations.

  2. Elimination of IR/UV via Gravity in Noncommutative Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kersting; J. Yan

    2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Models of particle physics with Noncommutative Geometry (NCG) generally suffer from a manifestly non-Wilsonian coupling of infrared and ultraviolet degrees of freedom known as the "IR/UV Problem" which would tend to compromise their phenomenological relevance. In this Letter we explicitly show how one may remedy this by coupling NCG to gravity. In the simplest scenario the Lagrangian gets multiplied by a nonconstant background metric; in $\\phi-4$ theory the theorem that $\\int d^4 x \\phi \\star \\phi = \\int d^4 x \\phi^2$ is no longer true and the field propagator gets modified by a factor which depends on both NCG and the variation of the metric. A suitable limit of this factor as the propagating momentum gets asymptotically large then eradicates the IR/UV problem. With gravity and NCG coupled to each other, one might expect anti-symmetric components to arise in the metric. Cosmological implications of such are subsequently discussed.

  3. Atomic structure, electrical properties, and infrared range optical properties of diamondlike carbon films containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Qiuming

    , and elastic modulus.4 Furthermore, unlike polycrystalline diamond films pre- pared by chemical vapor, infrared (IR) transparent, and chemically inert.3 High-quality DLC films can rival diamond films in terms- tigations have confirmed that ultraviolet (UV) pulsed laser ablation of a high-purity polycrystalline

  4. Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors J. W. Cleary1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Silicides for infrared surface plasmon resonance biosensors J. W. Cleary1 , R. E. Peale1,2 , D, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, FL 32816, U.S.A. 3 AFRL/RYHC, Sensors on silicon were evaluated as conducting hosts for surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) in proposed long-wave IR

  5. Infrared-sensitive photocathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariella, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, G.A.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-crystal, multi-layer device is described incorporating an IR absorbing layer that is compositionally different from the Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Sb layer which acts as the electron emitter. Many different IR absorbing layers can be envisioned for use in this embodiment, limited only by the ability to grow quality material on a chosen substrate. A non-exclusive list of possible IR absorbing layers would include GaSb, InAs and InAs/Ga{sub w}In{sub y}Al{sub 1{minus}y{minus}w}Sb superlattices. The absorption of the IR photon excites an electron into the conduction band of the IR absorber. An externally applied electric field then transports electrons from the conduction band of the absorber into the conduction band of the Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Sb, from which they are ejected into vacuum. Because the band alignments of Ga{sub x}Al{sub 1{minus}x}Sb can be made the same as that of GaAs, emitting efficiencies comparable to GaAs photocathodes are obtainable. The present invention provides a photocathode that is responsive to wavelengths within the range of 0.9 {mu}m to at least 10 {mu}m. 9 figures.

  6. Feedback-Driven Evolution of the Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Luminous and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukanya Chakrabarti; T. J. Cox; Lars Hernquist; Philip F. Hopkins; Brant Robertson; Tiziana Di Matteo

    2007-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from simulations of major galaxy mergers and study the effect of AGN and starburst driven feedback on the evolution of the SED as a function of time. We use a self-consistent three-dimensional radiative equilibrium code to calculate the emergent SEDs and to make images. To facilitate a simple description of our findings, we describe our results in reference to an approximate analytic solution for the far-IR SED. We focus mainly on the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) and ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) phases of evolution. We contrast the SEDs of simulations performed with AGN feedback to simulations performed with starburst driven wind feedback. We find that the feedback processes critically determine the evolution of the SED. Changing the source of illumination (whether stellar or AGN) has virtually no impact on the reprocessed far-infrared SED. We find that AGN feedback is particularly effective at dispersing gas and rapidly injecting energy into the ISM. The observational signature of such powerful feedback is a warm SED. In general, simulations performed with starburst driven winds have colder spectra and reprocess more of their emission into the infrared, resulting in higher infrared to bolometric luminosities compared to (otherwise equivalent) simulations performed with AGN feedback. We depict our results in IRAS bands, as well as in Spitzer's MIPS bands, and in Herschel's PACS bands.

  7. Ternary Electrocatalysts for Oxidizing Ethanol to Carbon Dioxide: Making Ir Capable of Splitting C-C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Meng [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Cullen, David A [ORNL; Sasaki, Kotaro [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Marinkovic, N. [University of Delaware; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Adzic, Radoslav R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Splitting the C-C bond is the main obstacle to electroxidation of ethanol (EOR) to CO2. We recently demonstrated that the ternary PtRhSnO2 electrocatalyst can accomplish that reaction at room temperature with Rh having a unique capability to split the C-C bond. In this article we report the finding that Ir can be induced to split the C-C bond as a component of the ternary catalyst. We synthesized, characterized and compared the properties of several ternary electrocatalysts. Carbon-supported nanoparticle (NP) electrocatalysts comprising a SnO2 NP core decorated with multi-metallic nanoislands (MM = PtIr, PtRh, IrRh, PtIrRh) were prepared using a seeded growth approach. An array of characterization techniques were employed to establish the composition and architecture of the synthesized MM /SnO2 NPs, while electrochemical and in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies elucidated trends in activity and the nature of the reaction intermediates and products. Both EOR reactivity and selectivity towards CO2 formation of several of these MM /SnO2/C electrocatalysts are significantly higher compared to conventional Pt/C and Pt/SnO2/C catalysts. We demonstrate that the PtIr/SnO2/C catalyst with high Ir content shows outstanding catalytic property with the most negative EOR onset potential and reasonably good selectivity towards ethanol complete oxidation to CO2. PtRh/SnO2/C catalysts with a moderate Rh content exhibit the highest EOR selectivity, as deduced from infrared studies.

  8. IR-4 Ornamental Horticulture Program Trial Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    the height is determined by the lengths of the blades of grass. This was not affected by Pendulum. The width was supported through funding from the USDA IR-4 Program, Western Region based at UC Davis, Davis, CA. Personnel (plant culture, data collection). The materials being tested were supplied by the manufacturer

  9. IRS Contribution Limits and OSU Retirement Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    Impact: OTRS requires contributions on total compensation (salary plus benefits) without regardIRS Contribution Limits and OSU Retirement Programs The OSU Defined Contribution Plan (DCP), (for Revenue Code 401(a). The Internal Revenue Code restrictions on employer-paid contributions make

  10. Tycho 2 stars with infrared excess in the MSX Point Source Catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Clarke; R. D. Oudmaijer; S. L Lumsden

    2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Stars of all evolutionary phases have been found to have excess infrared emission due to the presence of circumstellar material. To identify such stars, we have positionally correlated the infrared MSX point source catalogue and the Tycho 2 optical catalogue. A near/mid infrared colour criteria has been developed to select infrared excess stars. The search yielded 1938 excess stars, over half (979) have never previously been detected by IRAS. The excess stars were found to be young objects such as Herbig Ae/Be and Be stars, and evolved objects such as OH/IR and carbon stars. A number of B type excess stars were also discovered whose infrared colours could not be readily explained by known catalogued objects.

  11. Star-formation histories of local luminous infrared galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Arribas, Santiago; Bellocchi, Enrica; Cazzoli, Sara; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; López, Javier Piqueras

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the analysis of the integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) from the ultraviolet (UV) to the far-infrared and H$\\alpha$ of a sample of 29 local systems and individual galaxies with infrared (IR) luminosities between 10^11 Lsun and 10^11.8 Lsun. We have combined new narrow-band H$\\alpha$+[NII] and broad-band g, r optical imaging taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), with archival GALEX, 2MASS, Spitzer, and Herschel data. The SEDs (photometry and integrated H$\\alpha$ flux) have been fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code using stellar population synthesis models for the UV-near-IR range and thermal emission models for the IR emission taking into account the energy balance between the absorbed and re-emitted radiation. From the SED fits we derive the star-formation histories (SFH) of these galaxies. For nearly half of them the star-formation rate appears to be approximately constant during the last few Gyrs. In the other half, the current star-formation rate seems to be enha...

  12. The infrared environments of masers associated with star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James De Buizer

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The near infrared (1-2um) and the thermal infrared (3-25um) trace many of the environments in which masers are thought to reside, including shocks, outflows, accretion disks, and the dense medium near protostars. After a number of recent surveys it has been found that there is a higher detection rate of mid-IR emission towards masers than cm radio continuum emission from UC HII regions, and that the mid-IR emission is actually more closely cospatial to the maser locations. A high percentage of water and methanol masers that are not coincident with the UC HII regions in massive star forming regions are likely to be tracing outflows and extremely young high mass stars before the onset of the UC HII region phase. After a decade of groundwork supporting the hypothesis that linarly distributed class II methanol masers may generally trace accretion disks around young massive stars, compelling evidence is mounting that these masers may generally be associated with outflows instead. Substantiation of this claim comes from recent outflow surveys and high angular resolution mid-IR imaging of the maser environments.

  13. Syntheses, crystal structures, and properties of EuRhIn, EuIr{sub 2}, and EuIrSn{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poettgen, R.; Hoffmann, R.D.; Moeller, M.H.; Kotzyba, G.; Kuennen, B.; Rosenhahn, C.; Mosel, B.D. [Univ. Muenster (Germany)] [Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The title compounds were prepared from the elements by reactions in sealed tantalum tubes in a high-frequency furnace. Their structures were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: Pnma, a = 744.4(1) pm, b = 434.15(9) pm, c = 845.5(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0433, 658 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables for EuRhIn, Rd3m, a = 756.5(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0349, 94 F{sup 2} values, 5 variables for EuIr{sub 2}, and Cmcm, a = 434.78(3) pm, b = 1124.0(1) pm, c = 751.20(5) pm, wR2 = 0.0561, 565 F{sup 2} values, 16 variables for EuIrSn{sub 2}. EuRhIn crystallizes with a TiNiSi type structure that consists of strongly puckered Rh{sub 3}In{sub 3} hexagons. The europium atoms fill the channels within the three-dimensional [RhIn] polyanion. EuRhIn orders ferromagnetically at 22.0(5) K with a saturation magnetic moment of 6.7(1) {mu}{sub B}/Eu at 4 k and 5.5 T. The divalent character of the europium atoms in EuRhIn was determined from temperature dependent susceptibility (7.9 {mu}{sub B}/Eu in the high-temperature part) and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopic experiments. The latter show an isomer shift of {delta} = {minus}8.30(2) mm/s at 78 K. At 4.2 K full magnetic hyperfine field splitting subjected to significant quadrupole splitting of {Delta}E{sub Q} = 8 mm/s is observed. EuRhIn is a metallic conductor with a room temperature value of 58 {micro}{Omega}cm for the specific resistivity. The structure of the Laves phase EuIr{sub 2} is confirmed on the basis of single crystal X-ray data. The iridium atoms form a tetrahedral network with Ir-Ir distances of 268 pm. EuIrSn{sub 2} adopts a MgCuAl{sub 2} type structure that may be described as an iridium-filled variant of a distorted CaIn{sub 2}-like sublattice of composition EuSn{sub 2}. The tin atoms in the distorted and puckered hexagonal network have shorter (303 and 322 pm) and longer (343 pm) tin-tin contacts. 40 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Infrared length scale and extrapolations for the no-core shell model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendt, K A; Papenbrock, T; Sääf, D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We precisely determine the infrared (IR) length scale of the no-core shell model (NCSM). In the NCSM, the $A$-body Hilbert space is truncated by the total energy, and the IR length can be determined by equating the intrinsic kinetic energy of $A$ nucleons in the NCSM space to that of $A$ nucleons in a $3(A-1)$-dimensional hyper-radial well with a Dirichlet boundary condition for the hyper radius. We demonstrate that this procedure indeed yields a very precise IR length by performing large-scale NCSM calculations for $^{6}$Li. We apply our result and perform accurate IR extrapolations for bound states of $^{4}$He, $^{6}$He, $^{6}$Li, $^{7}$Li. We also attempt to extrapolate NCSM results for $^{10}$B and $^{16}$O with bare interactions from chiral effective field theory over tens of MeV.

  15. DISCOVERY OF EXTREMELY EMBEDDED X-RAY SOURCES IN THE R CORONAE AUSTRALIS STAR-FORMING CORE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    DISCOVERY OF EXTREMELY EMBEDDED X-RAY SOURCES IN THE R CORONAE AUSTRALIS STAR-FORMING CORE Kenji-ray sources in the R Corona Australis (R CrA) star-forming core, near IRS 7. These sources, designated as XE accretion phase and emit in the near-IR at temper- atures of T $ 3000 5000 K. Protostellar cores

  16. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis Conditions on CuSiO2. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis...

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: IR Thermography...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IR Thermography as a Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Tool for Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: IR Thermography as a Non-Destructive...

  18. May 15, 2000 / Vol. 25, No. 10 / OPTICS LETTERS 743 Mid-infrared differencefrequency generation in periodically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arie, Ady

    the optical prop- erties of PP KTP in the mid-IR range by DFG.8 KTP has a much higher damage threshold than LiMay 15, 2000 / Vol. 25, No. 10 / OPTICS LETTERS 743 Mid-infrared difference­frequency generation University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel Received January 10, 2000 Tunable mid-infrared radiation 3.45 3.75 mm

  19. A GENERALIZED POWER-LAW DIAGNOSTIC FOR INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND HOT INTERSTELLAR DUST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputi, K. I., E-mail: karina@astro.rug.nl [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    I present a generalized power-law (PL) diagnostic which allows one to identify the presence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in infrared (IR) galaxies at z > 1, down to flux densities at which the extragalactic IR background is mostly resolved. I derive this diagnostic from the analysis of 174 galaxies with S{sub {nu}}(24 {mu}m)>80 {mu}Jy and spectroscopic redshifts z{sub spec} > 1 in the Chandra Deep Field South, for which I study the rest-frame UV/optical/near-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs), after subtracting a hot-dust, PL component with three possible spectral indices {alpha} = 1.3, 2.0, and 3.0. I obtain that 35% of these 24 {mu}m sources are power-law composite galaxies (PLCGs), which I define as those galaxies for which the SED fitting with stellar templates, without any previous PL subtraction, can be rejected with >2{sigma} confidence. Subtracting the PL component from the PLCG SEDs produces stellar mass correction factors <1.5 in >80% of cases. The PLCG incidence is especially high (47%) at 1.0 < z < 1.5. To unveil which PLCGs host AGNs, I conduct a combined analysis of 4 Ms X-ray data, galaxy morphologies, and a graybody modeling of the hot dust. I find that (1) 77% of all the X-ray AGNs in my 24 {mu}m sample at 1.0 < z < 1.5 are recognized by the PLCG criterion; (2) PLCGs with {alpha} = 1.3 or 2.0 have regular morphologies and T{sub dust} {approx}> 1000 K, indicating nuclear activity. Instead, PLCGs with {alpha} = 3.0 are characterized by disturbed galaxy dynamics, and a hot interstellar medium can explain their dust temperatures T{sub dust} {approx} 700-800 K. Overall, my results indicate that the fraction of AGNs among 24 {mu}m sources is between {approx}30% and 52% at 1.0 < z < 1.5.

  20. Extreme Galactic-Winds and Starburst in IR Mergers and IR QSOs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Lipari; D. Sanders; R. Terlevich; S. Veilleux; R. Diaz; Y. Taniguchi; W. Zheng; D. Kim; Z. Tsvetanov; G. Carranza; H. Dottori

    2000-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report -as a part of a long-term study of mergers and IR QSOs- detailed spectroscopic evidences for outflow (OF) and/or Wolf Rayet features in: (i) low velocity OF in the ongoing mergers NGC 4038/39 and IRAS 23128-5919; (ii) extreme velocity OF (EVOF) in the QSOs IRAS 01003-2238 and IRAS 13218+0552; (iii) OF and EVOF in a complete sample of ultra-luminous IR galaxies/QSOs ("The IRAS 1 Jy MKO-KPNO Survey", of 118 objects). We found EVOF in IRAS 11119+3257, 14394+5332, 15130+1958 and 15462-0450. The OF components detected in these objects were mainly associated to starburst processes: i.e., to galactic-winds generated in multiple type II SN explosions and massive stars. The EVOF were detected in objects with strong starburst plus obscured IR QSOs; which suggest that interaction of both processes could generate EVOF. In addition, we analyze the presence of Wolf Rayet features in the large sample of Bright PG-QSOs (Boroson and Green 1992), and nearby mergers and galactic-wind galaxies. We found clear WR features in the Fe II QSOs (type I): PG 1244+026, 1444+407, 1448+273, 1535+547; and in the IR merger Arp 220. HST archive images of IR+BAL QSOs show in practically all of these objects "arc or shell" features probably associated to galactic-winds (i.e., to multiple type II SN explosions) and/or merger processes. Finally, we discuss the presence of extreme starburst and galactic wind as a possible evolutive link between IR merger and IR QSOs; where the relation between mergers and extreme starburst (with powerful galactic-winds) plays in important role, in the evolution of galaxies.

  1. The chemical instability of Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krizan, J.W., E-mail: jkrizan@princeton.edu; Roudebush, J.H.; Fox, G.M.; Cava, R.J.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} decomposes rapidly in laboratory air. • The decomposition requires the simultaneous presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. • Decomposition results in a dramatic change in the magnetic properties. • Second 5 K feature in magnetic susceptibility not previously reported. - Abstract: We report that Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}, which has a layered honeycomb iridium oxide sublattice interleaved by Na planes, decomposes in laboratory air while maintaining the same basic crystal structure. The decomposition reaction was monitored by time-dependent powder X-ray diffraction under different ambient atmospheres, through which it was determined that it occurs only in the simultaneous presence of both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. A hydrated sodium carbonate is the primary decomposition product along with altered Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3}. The diffraction signature of the altered Na{sub 2}IrO{sub 3} is quite similar to that of the pristine material, which makes the detection of decomposition difficult in a sample handled under ordinary laboratory conditions. The decomposed samples show a significantly decreased magnetic susceptibility and the disappearance of the low temperature antiferromagnetic transition considered to be characteristic of the phase. Samples that have never been exposed to air after synthesis display a previously unreported magnetic transition at 5 K.

  2. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  3. Variable waveband infrared imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Scott R.

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A waveband imager includes an imaging pixel that utilizes photon tunneling with a thermally actuated bimorph structure to convert infrared radiation to visible radiation. Infrared radiation passes through a transparent substrate and is absorbed by a bimorph structure formed with a pixel plate. The absorption generates heat which deflects the bimorph structure and pixel plate towards the substrate and into an evanescent electric field generated by light propagating through the substrate. Penetration of the bimorph structure and pixel plate into the evanescent electric field allows a portion of the visible wavelengths propagating through the substrate to tunnel through the substrate, bimorph structure, and/or pixel plate as visible radiation that is proportional to the intensity of the incident infrared radiation. This converted visible radiation may be superimposed over visible wavelengths passed through the imaging pixel.

  4. Infrared Renormalization Group Flow for Heavy Quark Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre H. Hoang; Ambar Jain; Ignazio Scimemi; Iain W. Stewart

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A short-distance heavy quark mass depends on two parameters, the renormalization scale mu controlling the absorption of ultraviolet fluctuations into the mass, and a scale R controlling the absorption of infrared fluctuations. 1/R can be thought of as the radius for perturbative corrections that build up the mass beyond its point-like definition in the pole scheme. Treating R as a variable gives a renormalization group equation. We argue that the sign of this anomalous dimension is universal: increasing R to add IR modes decreases m(R). The flow improves the stability of conversions between mass schemes, allowing us to avoid large logs and the renormalon. The flow in R can be used to study IR renormalons without using bubble chains, and we use it to determine the coefficient of the LambdaQCD renormalon ambiguity of the pole mass with a convergent sum-rule.

  5. Modeling the Infrared Emission from the Epsilon Eridani Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, A; Bendo, G J; Li, Aigen

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We model the infrared (IR) emission from the ring-like dust disk around the main-sequence (MS) star Epsilon Eridani, a young analog to our solar system, in terms of a porous dust model previously developed for the extended wedge-shaped disk around the MS star $\\beta$ Pictoris and the sharply truncated ring-like disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars HR 4796A and HD 141569A. It is shown that the porous dust model with a porosity of $\\simali$90% is also successful in reproducing the IR to submillimeter dust emission spectral energy distribution as well as the 850$\\mum$ flux radial profile of the dust ring around the more evolved MS star Epsilon Eridani. Predictions are made for future {\\it SIRTF} observations which may allow a direct test of the porous dust model.

  6. Mid Infrared Spectra of Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogle, P M; Whysong, D

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of 3C radio galaxies and quasars shed new light on the nature of the central engines of AGN. Emission from silicate dust obscuring the central engine can be used to estimate the bolometric luminosity of an AGN. Emission lines from ions such as O IV and Ne V give another indication of the presence or lack of a hidden source of far-UV photons in the nucleus. Radio-loud AGN with relative-to-Eddington luminosity ratios of L/L_Edd hydrogen pure-rotational emission lines are also seen in some mid-IR weak radio galaxies, caused by either merger shocks or jet shocks in the interstellar medium.

  7. Mid Infrared Spectra of Radio Galaxies and Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Ogle; R. R. J. Antonucci; D. Whysong

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of 3C radio galaxies and quasars shed new light on the nature of the central engines of AGN. Emission from silicate dust obscuring the central engine can be used to estimate the bolometric luminosity of an AGN. Emission lines from ions such as O IV and Ne V give another indication of the presence or lack of a hidden source of far-UV photons in the nucleus. Radio-loud AGN with relative-to-Eddington luminosity ratios of L/L_Edd hydrogen pure-rotational emission lines are also seen in some mid-IR weak radio galaxies, caused by either merger shocks or jet shocks in the interstellar medium.

  8. Infrared Thermometer (IRT) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VR Morris

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Infrared Thermometer (IRT) is a ground-based radiation pyrometer that provides measurements of the equivalent blackbody brightness temperature of the scene in its field of view. The downwelling version has a narrow field of view for measuring sky temperature and for detecting clouds. The upwelling version has a wide field of view for measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    FTIR - 1 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL FTIR DETERMINATION OF MTBE IN GASOLINE AND ETHANOL IN VODKA AND MOUTHWASH INTRODUCTION As a part has contained MTBE (methyl tert­butyl ether) as its primary oxygenate. However, there has been

  10. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ALL-SKY LIRG SURVEY: COMPARISON OF ULTRAVIOLET AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Justin H.; Armus, Lee; Surace, Jason A.; Petric, Andreea; Bridge, Carrie; Haan, Sebastian; Inami, Hanae [Spitzer Science Center, MS 220-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mazzarella, Joseph M.; Chan, Ben H. P.; Madore, Barry F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Evans, Aaron S.; Kim, Dong-Chan [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Sanders, David B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Appleton, Phil; Frayer, David T.; Lord, Steven; Schulz, Bernhard [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bothun, Greg [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [University of Crete, Department of Physics, Heraklion 71003 (Greece); Melbourne, Jason, E-mail: jhhowell@ipac.caltech.ed [Caltech Optical Observatories, Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Mail Stop 320-47, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) consists of a complete sample of 202 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) selected from the IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample (RBGS). The galaxies span the full range of interaction stages, from isolated galaxies to interacting pairs to late stage mergers. We present a comparison of the UV and infrared properties of 135 galaxies in GOALS observed by GALEX and Spitzer. For interacting galaxies with separations greater than the resolution of GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2''-6''), we assess the UV and IR properties of each galaxy individually. The contribution of the FUV to the measured star formation rate (SFR) ranges from 0.2% to 17.9%, with a median of 2.8% and a mean of 4.0% {+-} 0.4%. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) of the GOALS sample is extremely high, with a median value (3.9 x 10{sup -10} yr{sup -1}) that is comparable to the highest SSFRs seen in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample. We examine the position of each galaxy on the IR excess-UV slope (IRX-{beta}) diagram as a function of galaxy properties, including IR luminosity and interaction stage. The LIRGs on average have greater IR excesses than would be expected based on their UV colors if they obeyed the same relations as starbursts with L{sub IR} < 10{sup 11} L{sub sun} or normal late-type galaxies. The ratio of L{sub IR} to the value one would estimate from the IRX-{beta} relation published for lower luminosity starburst galaxies ranges from 0.2 to 68, with a median value of 2.7. A minimum of 19% of the total IR luminosity in the RBGS is produced in LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies with red UV colors ({beta}>0). Among resolved interacting systems, 32% contain one galaxy which dominates the IR emission while the companion dominates the UV emission. Only 21% of the resolved systems contain a single galaxy which dominates both wavelengths.

  11. Improved signal to noise ratio and sensitivity of an infrared imaging video bolometer on large helical device by using an infrared periscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Sano, Ryuichi [High Temperature Plasma Physics Research Division, The Graduate University of Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Enokuchi, Akito; Takeyama, Norihide [GENESIA Corporation, 3-38-4-601 Shimo-Renjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0013 (Japan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) diagnostic is currently being used in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for studying the localization of radiation structures near the magnetic island and helical divertor X-points during plasma detachment and for 3D tomography. This research demands high signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity to improve the temporal resolution for studying the evolution of radiation structures during plasma detachment and a wide IRVB field of view (FoV) for tomography. Introduction of an infrared periscope allows achievement of a higher SNR and higher sensitivity, which in turn, permits a twofold improvement in the temporal resolution of the diagnostic. Higher SNR along with wide FoV is achieved simultaneously by reducing the separation of the IRVB detector (metal foil) from the bolometer's aperture and the LHD plasma. Altering the distances to meet the aforesaid requirements results in an increased separation between the foil and the IR camera. This leads to a degradation of the diagnostic performance in terms of its sensitivity by 1.5-fold. Using an infrared periscope to image the IRVB foil results in a 7.5-fold increase in the number of IR camera pixels imaging the foil. This improves the IRVB sensitivity which depends on the square root of the number of IR camera pixels being averaged per bolometer channel. Despite the slower f-number (f/# = 1.35) and reduced transmission (?{sub 0} = 89%, due to an increased number of lens elements) for the periscope, the diagnostic with an infrared periscope operational on LHD has improved in terms of sensitivity and SNR by a factor of 1.4 and 4.5, respectively, as compared to the original diagnostic without a periscope (i.e., IRVB foil being directly imaged by the IR camera through conventional optics). The bolometer's field of view has also increased by two times. The paper discusses these improvements in apt details.

  12. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  13. SYNCHROTRON-BASED INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY AS A USEFUL TOOL TO STUDY HYDRATION STATES OF METEORITE CONSTITUENTS. L. V. Moroz1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroi, Takahiro

    Mighei, Murrey, and Cold Bokkeveld for comparison. The IRIS IR Beamline at the BESSY II synchrotronSYNCHROTRON-BASED INFRARED MICROSPECTROSCOPY AS A USEFUL TOOL TO STUDY HYDRATION STATES.moroz@dlr.de, 2 BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, Berlin, D-12489, Berlin, Germany, 3 Department of Geosciences

  14. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992 Infrared Radiation from an Arc Plasma and Its

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    in the electric field of a charged particle, radiation is emitted. In terms of radiation intensity, electronB ) Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, Vol. 12, No.4, 1992 Infrared Radiation from an Arc ifinfraredradiation from an arc plasma can fie used for diagnostic purposes. Tire properties of IR radiation

  15. Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Mid-Infrared Spectrometer Using Opto-Nanofluidic Slot-Waveguide for Label-Free On-Chip Chemical an engineered nanofluidic channel consisting of a Si-liquid-Si slot- structure. Utilizing the large refractive-IR lightwave can be efficiently guided and confined within a nanofluidic capillary (100 nm wide). The optical

  16. CRYSTALLINE SILICATES IN EVOLVED STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTROSCOPY OF IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, AND 23239+5754

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, B. W.; Zhang, Ke [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Aigen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lisse, C. M., E-mail: bjiang@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: kzhang@caltech.edu, E-mail: lia@missouri.edu, E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of three evolved stars: IRAS 16456-3542, 18354-0638, and 23239+5754. The 9.9-37.2 {mu}m Spitzer/IRS high-resolution spectra of these three sources exhibit rich sets of enstatite-dominated crystalline silicate emission features. IRAS 16456-3542 is extremely rich in crystalline silicates, with >90% of its silicate mass in crystalline form, the highest to date ever reported for crystalline silicate sources.

  17. Infrared Maximally Abelian Gauge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tereza Mendes; Attilio Cucchieri; Antonio Mihara

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The confinement scenario in Maximally Abelian gauge (MAG) is based on the concepts of Abelian dominance and of dual superconductivity. Recently, several groups pointed out the possible existence in MAG of ghost and gluon condensates with mass dimension 2, which in turn should influence the infrared behavior of ghost and gluon propagators. We present preliminary results for the first lattice numerical study of the ghost propagator and of ghost condensation for pure SU(2) theory in the MAG.

  18. Relation of SiO maser emission to IR radiation in evolved stars based on the MSX observation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. W. Jiang

    2002-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the space MSX observation in bands A(8$\\mu$m), C(12$\\mu$m), D(15$\\mu$m) and E(21$\\mu$m), and the ground SiO maser observation of evolved stars by the Nobeyama 45-m telescope in the v=1 and v=2 J=1-0 transitions, the relation between SiO maser emission and mid-IR continuum radiation is analyzed. The relation between SiO maser emission and the IR radiation in the MSX bands A, C, D and E is all clearly correlated. The SiO maser emission can be explained by a radiative pumping mechanism according to its correlation with infrared radiation in the MSX band A.

  19. Ternary lithium stannides Li{sub x}T{sub 3}Sn{sub 7-x} (T=Rh, Ir)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreeraj, Puravankara [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, and Sonderforschungsbereich 458, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kurowski, Daniel [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, and Sonderforschungsbereich 458, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, and Sonderforschungsbereich 458, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Wu Zhiyun [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, and Sonderforschungsbereich 458, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, NRW Graduate School of Chemistry, and Sonderforschungsbereich 458, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: pottgen@uni-muenster.de

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ternary stannides Li{sub x}Rh{sub 3}Sn{sub 7-x} (x=0.45, 0.64, 0.80) and Li{sub x}Ir{sub 3}Sn{sub 7-x} (x=0.62 and 0.66) were synthesized from the elements in sealed tantalum tubes in a water-cooled sample chamber of an induction furnace. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The stannides adopt the cubic Ir{sub 3}Ge{sub 7}-type structure (space group Im3-bar m, Z=4). In this structure type the tin atoms occupy the Wyckoff positions 12d and 16f and form two interpenetrating frameworks consisting of cubes and square antiprisms. The rhodium and iridium atoms center the square antiprisms and are arranged in pairs. With increasing lithium substitution the lattice parameter of Ir{sub 3}Sn{sub 7} (936.7) decreases via 932.2pm (x=0.62) to 931.2pm (x=0.66), while the Ir-Ir distance remains almost the same (290pm). A similar trend is observed for the rhodium compounds. The lithium atoms substitute Sn on both framework sites. However, the 16f site shows a substantially larger preference for Li occupation. This is in contrast to the isotypic magnesium based compounds.

  20. R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd): Crystal structures with nets of Ir atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarema, Maksym [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine) [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA), Ueberlandstr. 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Zaremba, Oksana; Gladyshevskii, Roman [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Mefodiya Str, 6, UA-79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Hlukhyy, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hlukhyy@lrz.tu-muenchen.de [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany)] [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Faessler, Thomas F. [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany)] [Department Chemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystal structures of the new ternary compounds Sm{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} and LaIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} were determined and refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. They belong to the Ho{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (oP52, Pmmn) and CeCo{sub 3}B{sub 2} (hP5, P6/mmm) structure types, respectively. The formation of isotypic compounds R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} with R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} with R=Ce, Pr, Nd, was established by powder X-ray diffraction. The RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) compounds exist only in as-cast samples and decompose during annealing at 800 Degree-Sign C with the formation of R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9}. The structure of Sm{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting, slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms (4{sup 4})(4{sup 3}.6){sub 2}(4.6{sup 2}){sub 2} and (4{sup 4}){sub 2}(4{sup 3}.6){sub 4}(4.6{sup 2}){sub 2} that are perpendicular to [0 1 1] as well as to [0 -1 1] and [0 0 1]. The Ir atoms are surrounded by Ge atoms that form tetrahedra or square pyramids (where the layers intersect). The Sm and additional Ir atoms (in trigonal-planar coordination) are situated in channels along [1 0 0] (short translation vector). In the structure of LaIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets (3.6.3.6) perpendicular to [0 0 1]. These nets alternate along the short translation vector with layers of La and Ge atoms. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures contain the nets of Ir atoms as main structural motif: R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms, whereas in the structure of RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ir-rich ternary germanides R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm) and RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd) have been synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} compounds exist only in as-cast samples and decompose during annealing at 800 Degree-Sign C with the formation of R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of R{sub 4}Ir{sub 13}Ge{sub 9} contains intersecting slightly puckered nets of Ir atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the structure of RIr{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} the Ir atoms form planar Kagome nets.

  1. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  2. Determining Transition State Geometries in Liquids Using 2D-IR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Charles; Cahoon, James F.; Sawyer, Karma R.; Schlegel, Jacob P.; Harris, Charles B.

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Many properties of chemical reactions are determined by the transition state connecting reactant and product, yet it is difficult to directly obtain any information about these short-lived structures in liquids. We show that two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy can provide direct information about transition states by tracking the transformation of vibrational modes as a molecule crossed a transition state. We successfully monitored a simple chemical reaction, the fluxional rearrangement of Fe(CO)5, in which the exchange of axial and equatorial CO ligands causes an exchange of vibrational energy between the normal modes of the molecule. This energy transfer provides direct evidence regarding the time scale, transition state, and mechanism of the reaction.

  3. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Diagnostic Techniques: IR Thermography with Reactive Flow through Excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manak, A. J.; Ulsh, M.; Bender, G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While design and material considerations for PEMFCs have a large impact on cost, it is also necessary to consider a transition to high volume production of fuel cell systems, including MEA components, to enable economies of scale and reduce per unit cost. One of the critical manufacturing tasks is developing and deploying techniques to provide in?process measurement of fuel cell components for quality control. This effort requires a subsidiary task: The study of the effect of manufacturing defects on performance and durability with the objective to establish validated manufacturing tolerances for fuel cell components. This work focuses on the development of a potential quality control method for gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The method consists of infrared (IR) thermography combined with reactive flow through (RFT) excitation. Detection of catalyst loading reduction defects in GDE catalyst layers will be presented.

  4. Soft X-ray irradiation of methanol ice: Formation of products as a function of photon energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure methanol ices have been irradiated with monochromatic soft X-rays of 300 and 550 eV close to the 1s resonance edges of C and O, respectively, and with a broadband spectrum (250-1200 eV). The infrared (IR) spectra of the irradiated ices show several new products of astrophysical interest such as CH{sub 2}OH, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, HCOOH, HCOCH{sub 2}OH, CH{sub 3}COOH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, as well as HCO, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The effect of X-rays is the result of the combined interactions of photons and electrons with the ice. A significant contribution to the formation and growth of new species in the CH{sub 3}OH ice irradiated with X-rays is given by secondary electrons, whose energy distribution depends on the energy of X-ray photons. Within a single experiment, the abundances of the new products increase with the absorbed energy. Monochromatic experiments show that product abundances also increase with the photon energy. However, the abundances per unit energy of newly formed species show a marked decrease in the broadband experiment as compared to irradiations with monochromatic photons, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the energy deposition rate. The number of new molecules produced per absorbed eV in the X-ray experiments has been compared to those obtained with electron and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiments.

  5. Comparison of laser-based mitigation of fused silica surface damage using mid- versus far-infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser induced growth of optical damage can limit component lifetime and therefore operating costs of large-aperture fusion-class laser systems. While far-infrared (IR) lasers have been used previously to treat laser damage on fused silica optics and render it benign, little is known about the effectiveness of less-absorbing mid-IR lasers for this purpose. In this study, they quantitatively compare the effectiveness and efficiency of mid-IR (4.6 {micro}m) versus far-IR (10.6 {micro}m) lasers in mitigating damage growth on fused silica surfaces. The non-linear volumetric heating due to mid-IR laser absorption is analyzed by solving the heat equation numerically, taking into account the temperature-dependent absorption coefficient {alpha}(T) at {lambda} = 4.6 {micro}m, while far-IR laser heating is well-described by a linear analytic approximation to the laser-driven temperature rise. In both cases, the predicted results agree well with surface temperature measurements based on infrared radiometry, as well as sub-surface fictive temperature measurements based on confocal Raman microscopy. Damage mitigation efficiency is assessed using a figure of merit (FOM) relating the crack healing depth to laser power required, under minimally-ablative conditions. Based on their FOM, they show that for cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation with a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation with a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser. This conclusion is corroborated by direct application of each laser system to the mitigation of pulsed laser-induced damage possessing fractures up to 225 {micro}m in depth.

  6. Sensitive Multi-Species Emissions Monitoring: Infrared Laser-Based Detection of Trace-Level Contaminants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steill, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes our development of spectroscopic chemical analysis techniques and spectral modeling for trace-gas measurements of highly-regulated low-concentration species present in flue gas emissions from utility coal boilers such as HCl under conditions of high humidity. Detailed spectral modeling of the spectroscopy of HCl and other important combustion and atmospheric species such as H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 O, NO 2 , SO 2 , and CH 4 demonstrates that IR-laser spectroscopy is a sensitive multi-component analysis strategy. Experimental measurements from techniques based on IR laser spectroscopy are presented that demonstrate sub-ppm sensitivity levels to these species. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy is used to detect and quantify HCl at ppm levels with extremely high signal-to-noise even under conditions of high relative humidity. Additionally, cavity ring-down IR spectroscopy is used to achieve an extremely high sensitivity to combustion trace gases in this spectral region; ppm level CH 4 is one demonstrated example. The importance of spectral resolution in the sensitivity of a trace-gas measurement is examined by spectral modeling in the mid- and near-IR, and efforts to improve measurement resolution through novel instrument development are described. While previous project reports focused on benefits and complexities of the dual-etalon cavity ring-down infrared spectrometer, here details on steps taken to implement this unique and potentially revolutionary instrument are described. This report also illustrates and critiques the general strategy of IR- laser photodetection of trace gases leading to the conclusion that mid-IR laser spectroscopy techniques provide a promising basis for further instrument development and implementation that will enable cost-effective sensitive detection of multiple key contaminant species simultaneously.

  7. Which Oxidation State Leads to O-O Bond Formation in Cp*Ir(bpy)Cl-Catalyzed Water Oxidation, Ir(V), Ir(VI), or Ir(VII)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Which Oxidation State Leads to O-O Bond Formation in Cp*Ir(bpy)Cl-Catalyzed Water Oxidation, Ir: Density functional calculations are used to revisit the reaction mechanism of water oxidation catalyzed oxidation at higher oxidation state even though it can also promote O-O bond formation. Therefore, [(bpy

  8. Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth of graphene on Ir(111) Johann Coraux1 ,, Alpha T. N'Diaye1 §, Martin Engler1 , Carsten Busse a renewed interest as a route towards high quality graphene prepared in a reproducible manner. Here we employ two growth methods for graphene on Ir(111), namely room temperature adsorption and thermal

  9. Simultaneous multi-beam planar array IR (pair) spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elmore, Douglas L.; Rabolt, John F.; Tsao, Mei-Wei

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method capable of providing spatially multiplexed IR spectral information simultaneously in real-time for multiple samples or multiple spatial areas of one sample using IR absorption phenomena requires no moving parts or Fourier Transform during operation, and self-compensates for background spectra and degradation of component performance over time. IR spectral information and chemical analysis of the samples is determined by using one or more IR sources, sampling accessories for positioning the samples, optically dispersive elements, a focal plane array (FPA) arranged to detect the dispersed light beams, and a processor and display to control the FPA, and display an IR spectrograph. Fiber-optic coupling can be used to allow remote sensing. Portability, reliability, and ruggedness is enhanced due to the no-moving part construction. Applications include determining time-resolved orientation and characteristics of materials, including polymer monolayers. Orthogonal polarizers may be used to determine certain material characteristics.

  10. Transitions between the $4f$-core-excited states in Ir$^{16+}$, Ir$^{17+}$, and Ir$^{18+}$ ions for clock applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. I. Safronova; V. V. Flambaum; M. S. Safronova

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Iridium ions near $4f$-$5s$ level crossings are the leading candidates for a new type of atomic clocks with a high projected accuracy and a very high sensitivity to the temporal variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$. To identify spectra of these ions in experiment accurate calculations of the spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities should be performed. Properties of the $4f$-core-excited states in Ir$^{16+}$, Ir$^{17+}$, and Ir$^{18+}$ ions are evaluated using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (COWAN code). We evaluate excitation energies, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates. Our large-scale calculations includes the following set of configurations: $4f^{14-k}5s^{m}5p^{n}$ with $(k+m+n)$ equal to 3, 2, and 1 for the Ir$^{16+}$, Ir$^{17+}$, and Ir$^{18+}$ ions, respectively. The $5s-5p$ transitions are illustrated by the synthetic spectra in the 180 - 200 \\AA range. Large contributions of magnetic-dipole transitions to lifetimes of low-lying states in the region below 2.5 Ry are demonstrated.

  11. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Newaz, Golam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  12. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectral Maps of the Superwind in M82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beirão, P; Lehnert, M D; Guillard, P; Heckman, T; Draine, B; Hollenbach, D; Walter, F; Sheth, K; Smith, J D; Shopbell, P; Boulanger, F; Surace, J; Hoopes, C; Engelbracht, C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have mapped the superwind/halo region of the nearby starburst galaxy M82 in the mid-infrared with $Spitzer-IRS$. The spectral regions covered include the H$_2 S(1)-S(3)$, [NeII], [NeIII] emission lines and PAH features. We estimate the total warm H$_2$ mass and the kinetic energy of the outflowing warm molecular gas to be between $M_{warm}\\sim5-17\\times10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$ and $E_{K}\\sim6-20\\times10^{53}$ erg. Using the ratios of the 6.2, 7.7 and 11.3 micron PAH features in the IRS spectra, we are able to estimate the average size and ionization state of the small grains in the superwind. There are large variations in the PAH flux ratios throughout the outflow. The 11.3/7.7 and the 6.2/7.7 PAH ratios both vary by more than a factor of five across the wind region. The Northern part of the wind has a significant population of PAH's with smaller 6.2/7.7 ratios than either the starburst disk or the Southern wind, indicating that on average, PAH emitters are larger and more ionized. The warm molecular gas to PAH f...

  13. Infrared Hall Effect in cuprates*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Diagram #12;Fermi surfaces H. KONTANI, K. KANKI, AND K. UEDA PRB 59 (1999). #12;IR Hall EffectB i m c = - 2 2 4 ( ) p H xy i = - =1000 cm-1 Schmadel, et al, PRB (2007) #12;Opt. Bi(2212): Far IR Hall H H i = - 84 cm-1 Schmadel, et al, PRB (2007) H ~ 0.3 cm-1/T H ~ aT1.65 #12

  14. Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging F Jamme1, 2 coupled to an infrared microscope allows imaging at the so-called diffraction limit. Thus, numerous infrared beamlines around the world have been developed for infrared chemical imaging. Infrared microscopes

  15. A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van-Charles A novel spectroscopic ellipsometer in the infrared / by Jean-Charles Cigal. ­ Eindhoven : Technische / infraroodspectroscopie / siliciumoxide / botweefsel Subject headings: ellipsometers / infrared spectroscopy / silicon

  16. The Unidentified InfraRed Features after ISO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Peeters; L. J. Allamandola; D. M. Hudgins; S. Hony; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2003-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) has provided the first complete mid-IR spectra for a wide range of objects. Almost all of these spectra are dominated by the well-known infrared emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, and 11.2 $\\mu$m, the so-called Unidentified Infra-Red (UIR) features. Besides the major features, there is an array of minor features and broad plateaux stretching from 3 to 20 $\\mu$m which reveal subtle details of conditions in the emission zones and properties of the carriers. Generally attributed to the vibrational relaxation of UV-pumped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) containing some 50--100 C-atoms, these UIR spectra are a treasure trove of information. The ISO spectra have, for the first time, allowed a systematic analysis of the spectral characteristics of the UIR features in a wide variety of environments. The peak positions, profiles, and relative strengths of the major features vary from source to source and spatially within sources. These specific profiles are not unique to certain object types but can occur within each individual source. Here, we review ISO and recent ground-based observations and assess some of their implications.

  17. Can infrared gravitons screen $?$?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume Garriga; Takahiro Tanaka

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that infrared gravitons in de Sitter space may lead to a secular screening of the effective cosmological constant. This seems to clash with the naive expectation that the curvature scalar should stay constant due to the Heisenberg equation of motion. Here, we show that the tadpole correction to the local expansion rate, which has been used in earlier analyses as an indicator of a decaying effective $\\Lambda$, is not gauge invariant. On the other hand, we construct a gauge invariant operator which measures the renormalized curvature scalar smeared over an arbitrary window function, and we find that there is no secular screening of this quantity (to any given order in perturbation theory).

  18. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  19. Asymptotics of the Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Crompton

    2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We follow recent formulations of dimensionally reduced loop operators for quantum field theories and exact representations of probabilistic lattice dynamics to identify a new scheme for the evaluation of partition function zeroes, allowing for the explicit analysis of quantum critical phenomena. This new approach gives partition function zeroes from a factored quantum loop operator basis and, as we show, constitutes an effective mapping of the renormalization group $\\beta$-function onto the noncommuting local operator basis of a countably finite Hilbert space. The Vafa-Witten theorem for CP-violation and related complex action problems of Euclidean Field theories are discussed, following recent treatments, and are shown to be natural consequences of the analyticity of the limiting distribution of these zeroes, and properties of vacuum regimes governed by a dominant quantum fluctuation in the vicinity of a renormalization group equation fixed point in the infrared.

  20. PROCESS PARAMETERS for INFRARED PROCESSING of FePt NANOPARTICLE FILMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulse thermal processing (PTP) of FePt nanoparticle films was studied using a high density infrared (HDI) plasma arc lamp. FePt nanoparticle films on silicon substrates were processed using 0.25- second infrared (IR) pulses. The processing was aimed at reaching a peak target temperature for multiple pulses of 550 C. Numerical simulations of the heat transfer for the PTP were performed to determine the operating power levels for the plasma arc lamp. Infrared measurements were conducted to obtain experimental data for the surface temperature of the FePt nanofilm. Parameters needed for the heat-transfer model were identified based on the experimental temperature results. Following the model validation, several numerical simulations were performed to estimate the power levels. It was shown that the FePt nanoparticle films were successfully processed using the power levels provided by the heat-transfer analysis.

  1. Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Synchrotron Infrared Unveils a Mysterious Microbial Community Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 A cold sulfur...

  2. A Sample of IRAS Infrared-Selected Seyfert 1.5 Galaxies: Infrared-Color $?(60,25)$ Dominated Eigenvector 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Wang; J. Y. Wei; X. T. He

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The well-documented E1 relationships are first extended to infrared color $\\alpha(60,25)$ and flux ratio [OIII]/H$\\beta_{\\rm{n}}$ by comparing emission line properties to continuum properties in infrared wavelength. Both direct correlations and a principle component analysis are used in a sample of 50 IRAS IR-selected Seyfert 1.5 galaxies. In addition to confirm the correlations of E1 in Boroson & Green (1992), our Eigenvector 1 turns out to be dominated by mid-infrared color $\\alpha$(60,25), and most strongly effected by RFe, [OIII]/H$\\beta_{\\rm{n}}$, and EW(H$\\beta_{\\rm{b}}$). Our analysis indicate that the objects with large E1 tend to co-existent with relatively young nuclear stellar populations, which implies that the E1 is related with nuclear starformation history. The IR-dominated Eigenvector 1 can be, therefore, inferred to be interpreted as ``age'' of AGN. In confirmation of Xu et al. (2003), it is clear that the extreme Seyfert galaxies with both large RFe and large [OIII]/H$\\beta_{\\rm{n}}$ are rare in our Universe.

  3. Molecular Active Sites in Heterogeneous Ir-La/C Catalyzed Carbonylatio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular Active Sites in Heterogeneous Ir-LaC Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methanol to Acetates. Molecular Active Sites in Heterogeneous Ir-LaC Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methanol...

  4. Ir. Charles Mussche 8 Spruce St, New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ir. Charles Mussche 8 Spruce St, New York 10038 NYC Mobile: +1 (347 at an industrial solar-energy project developer. Function: Autonomy Auditing New business in Renewable Energy Ecole Des Mines ParisTech ­ Kassel University First Semester

  5. DWEA Webinar: IRS Guidance for Small Wind Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has issued Notice 2015-4 providing new performance and quality standards of small wind turbines – defined as having a nameplate capacity of up to 100 kW – in...

  6. The Environment on few Mpc scales of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at Redshifts z~1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Marcillac; G. H. Rieke; C. Papovich; C. N. A. Willmer; B. J. Weiner; A. L. Coil; M. C. Cooper; B. F. Gerke; J. Woo; J. A. Newman; A. Georgakakis; E. S. Laird; K. Nandra; G. G. Fazio; J. -S. Huang; D. C. Koo

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the environment of infrared luminous galaxies (L$_{IR}$[8-1000 $\\mu $m$] >10^{11}$L$_{\\sun}$). We focus on the redshift range 0.7 $\\leq$ z $\\leq$ 1, where these galaxies dominate the star formation activity and play a significant role in galaxy evolution. We employ MIPS 24$\\mu$m data to identify infrared galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). We use a local density indicator to probe the environment on few Mpc scales and a group member catalog, both of which make use of the DEEP2 spectroscopic redshift catalog, to quantify the environment of these galaxies. We find that the local environment of LIRGs and ULIRGs is intermediate between that of blue and red galaxies. LIRGs and ULIRGs avoid underdense environments and inhabit local environments that are more dense on average than those of other DEEP2 galaxies at similar redshifts. However, when the comparison sample of the non-IR DEEP2 galaxies is restricted to have the same range of stellar mass, color, or luminosity as the IR--galaxies, there is no longer any significant difference in environment; the IR-galaxies follow the same trends in the color-environment and luminosity-environment relations observed at z$\\sim$1. We also find that about 30% of the LIRGs and ULIRGs belong to groups, associated with a minimum dark matter halo of 6$\\times10^{12}$M$_{\\odot}$h$^{-1}$. The group members constitute 20 % of the sources responsible for the IR star formation rate density and comoving energy density at z$\\sim$1.

  7. OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF NH{sub 3} AND NH{sub 3}:N{sub 2} AMORPHOUS ICES IN THE NEAR-INFRARED AND MID-INFRARED REGIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Gálvez, Óscar; Herrero, Víctor J.; Escribano, Rafael; Maté, Belén, E-mail: belen.mate@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia ice has been detected on different astrophysical media ranging from interstellar medium (ISM) particles to the surface of various icy bodies of our solar system, where nitrogen is also present. We have carried out a detailed study of amorphous NH{sub 3} ice and NH{sub 3}:N{sub 2} ice mixtures, based on infrared (IR) spectra in the mid-IR (MIR) and near-IR (NIR) regions, supported by theoretical quantum chemical calculations. Spectra of varying ice thicknesses were obtained and optical constants were calculated for amorphous NH{sub 3} at 15 K and 30 K and for a NH{sub 3}:N{sub 2} mixture at 15 K over a 500-7000 cm{sup –1} spectral range. These spectra have improved accuracy over previous data, where available. Moreover, we also obtained absolute values for the band strengths of the more prominent IR features in both spectral regions. Our results indicate that the estimated NH{sub 3} concentration in ISM ices should be scaled upward by ?30%.

  8. Industrial Use of Infrared Inspections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duch, A. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    operating load. - Pinpointing of the exact location of the problems. - The inspections will locate problems which will, in most cases, go unnoticed using conventional techniques. An infrared inspection will locate problem areas in the plant electrica1...

  9. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    it will detect Type Ia supernovæ between z = 1 and 1.7 andphotometry for all supernovæ. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-Keywords: Cosmology, Supernovae, Dark Energy, Near Infrared,

  10. Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Dry-peeling Technology for Tomatoes Saves Energy Energy Efficiency Research Office PIER This research will use infrared heating technology for peeling tomatoes. Infrared dry peeling, a device, producing less wastewater and preserving product quality. Infrared drypeeling is expected to reduce

  11. High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    High-power parametric conversion from near-infrared to short-wave infrared Adrien Billat,1,* Steevy.billat@epfl.ch Abstract: We report the design of an all-fiber continuous wave Short-Wave Infrared source capable to output.4370) Nonlinear optics, fibers; (140.3070) Infrared and far-infrared lasers. References and links 1. M. N

  12. YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamura, Issei

    1 YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA I the near- and mid-infrared low resolu- tion spectral catalogues of point sources, and image maps in #12;ve wavelength bands in the far-infrared. The point source catalogues contains over 14 000 (near-infrared

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galis, Frietson

    infrared emission. This initially provoked heated debate between a ``starburst'' camp and an ``activeHIGH-RESOLUTION MID-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES D. Farrah,1 J. Bernard, 10Y37 m spectra of 53 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), taken using the Infrared Spectrograph

  14. Infrared behavior of gluon and ghost propagators from asymmetric lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attilio Cucchieri; Tereza Mendes

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical study of the lattice Landau gluon and ghost propagators in three-dimensional pure SU(2) gauge theory. Data have been obtained using asymmetric lattices (V = 20^2 X 40, 20^2 X 60, 8^2 X 64, 8^2 X 140, 12^2 X 140 and 16^2 X 140) for the lattice coupling beta = 3.4, in the scaling region. We find that the gluon (respectively ghost) propagator is suppressed (respec. enhanced) at small momenta in the limit of large lattice volume V. By comparing these results with data obtained using symmetric lattices (V = 60^3 and 140^3), we find that both propagators suffer from systematic effects in the infrared region (p \\lesssim 650 MeV). In particular, the gluon (respec. ghost) propagator is less IR-suppressed (respec. enhanced) than in the symmetric case. We discuss possible implications of the use of asymmetric lattices.

  15. Mid-Infrared Fiber-Coupled QCl-QEPAS Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnolo, V.; Patimisco, P.; Borri, Simone; Scamarcio, G.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kriesel, J.M.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative spectroscopic system based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) coupled with a mid-infrared (mid-IR) fiber and quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is described. SF6 has been selected as a target gas in demonstration of the system for trace gas sensing. Single mode laser delivery through the prongs of the quartz tuning fork has been obtained employing a hollow waveguide fiber with inner silver–silver iodine (Ag–AgI) coatings and internal core diameter of 300 lm. A detailed design and realization of the QCL fiber coupling and output collimator system allowed almost practically all (99.4 %) of the laser beam to be transmitted through the spectrophone module. The achieved sensitivity of the system is 50 parts per trillion in 1 s, corresponding to a record for QEPAS normalized noise-equivalent absorption 2.7 9 10-10 W cm-1 Hz-1/2.

  16. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  17. What are the galaxies contributing to the Cosmic Infrared Background ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Guiderdoni

    1997-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent optical observations have led to a significant progress in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. However, our view on the deep universe is currently limited to the starlight which directly escapes from high-redshift galaxies, since we so far ignore the fraction of luminosity absorbed by dust and released in the IR/submm wavelength range. A new constraint is set by the possible detection of the Cosmic Infrared Background. We briefly review the observations and use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution to predict number counts consistent with the level of the background. It turns out that the predictions fairly accomodate preliminary data at 175 and 850 microns. This suggests that a significant fraction of star/galaxy formation at high z is hidden by dust.

  18. The influence of the spectral emissivity of flat-plate calibrators on the calibration of IR thermometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cárdenas-García, D.; Méndez-Lango, E. [Centro Nacional de Metrología, CENAM Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cués, El Marqués, Querétaro, 76246 (Mexico)] [Centro Nacional de Metrología, CENAM Km 4.5 Carretera a los Cués, El Marqués, Querétaro, 76246 (Mexico)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Flat Calibrators (FC) are an option for calibration of infrared thermometers (IT) with a fixed large target. FCs are neither blackbodies, nor gray-bodies; their spectral emissivity is lower than one and depends on wavelength. Nevertheless they are used as gray-bodies with a nominal emissivity value. FCs can be calibrated radiometrically using as reference a calibrated IR thermometer (RT). If an FC will be used to calibrate ITs that work in the same spectral range as the RT then its calibration is straightforward: the actual FC spectral emissivity is not required. This result is valid for any given fixed emissivity assessed to the FC. On the other hand, when the RT working spectral range does not match with that of the ITs to be calibrated with the FC then it is required to know the FC spectral emissivity as part of the calibration process. For this purpose, at CENAM, we developed an experimental setup to measure spectral emissivity in the infrared spectral range, based on a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Not all laboratories have emissivity measurement capability in the appropriate wavelength and temperature ranges to obtain the spectral emissivity. Thus, we present an estimation of the error introduced when the spectral range of the RT used to calibrate an FC and the spectral ranges of the ITs to be calibrated with the FC do not match. Some examples are developed for the cases when RT and IT spectral ranges are [8,13] ?m and [8,14] ?m respectively.

  19. X-ray Observations of Mrk 231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. J. Turner

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents new X-ray observations of Mrk 231, an active galaxy of particular interest due to its large infrared luminosity and the presence of several blueshifted broad absorption line (BAL) systems, a phenomenon observed in a small fraction of QSOs. A ROSAT HRI image of Mrk 231 is presented, this shows an extended region of soft X-ray emission, covering several tens of kpc, consistent with the extent of the host galaxy. An ASCA observation of Mrk 231 is also presented. Hard X-rays are detected but the data show no significant variability in X-ray flux. The hard X-ray continuum is heavily attenuated and X-ray column estimates range from ~ 2 x 10^{22} - 10^{23} cm^{-2} depending on whether the material is assumed to be neutral or ionized, and on the model assumed for the extended X-ray component. These ASCA data provide only the second hard X-ray spectrum of a BAL AGN presented to date. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution of the source is discussed. While Mrk 231 is X-ray weak compared to Seyfert 1 galaxies, it has an optical-to-X-ray spectrum typical of a QSO.

  20. arXiv:astro-ph/0612563v119Dec2006 Hard X-rays and Fluorescent Iron Emission from the Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guedel, Manuel

    results of XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the infrared cluster lying near the NGC 2071 reflection nebula winds. One of the closest regions known to contain young high-mass stars is the infrared cluster near (Anthony-Twarog 1982; Brown et al. 1994). Near-infrared observations by Lada et al. (1991) revealed more

  1. Far-infrared Point Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Guiderdoni

    1999-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the submm anisotropies that will be mapped by the forthcoming MAP and PLANCK satellites requires careful foreground subtraction before measuring CMB fluctuations. Among these, the foreground due to IR/submm thermal radiation from dusty sources was poorly known until recent observational breakthroughs began unveiling the properties of these objects. We hereafter briefly review the observational evidence for a strong evolution of IR/submm sources with respect to the local universe explored by IRAS. We present the basic principles of a new modeling effort where consistent spectral energy distributions of galaxies are implemented into the paradigm of hierarchical clustering with the fashionable semi-analytic approach. This model provides us with specific predictions in IR/submm wavebands, that seem to reproduce the current status of the observations and help assessing the capabilities of forthcoming instruments to pursue the exploration of the deep universe at IR/submm wavelengths. Finally, the ability of the PLANCK High Frequency Instrument all-sky survey to produce a catalogue of dusty sources at submm wavelengths is briefly described.

  2. Dusty Infrared Galaxies: Sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilaine Lagache; Jean-Loup Puget; Herve Dole

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in 1996, together with recent cosmological surveys from the mid-infrared to the millimeter have revolutionized our view of star formation at high redshifts. It has become clear, in the last decade, that a population of galaxies that radiate most of their power in the far-infrared (the so-called ``infrared galaxies'') contributes an important part of the whole galaxy build-up in the Universe. Since 1996, detailed (and often painful) investigations of the high-redshift infrared galaxies have resulted in the spectacular progress covered in this review. We outline the nature of the sources of the CIB including their star-formation rate, stellar and total mass, morphology, metallicity and clustering properties. We discuss their contribution to the stellar content of the Universe and their origin in the framework of the hierarchical growth of structures. We finally discuss open questions for a scenario of their evolution up to the present-day galaxies.

  3. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and...

  4. Superconducting and magnetic properties of Sr?Ir?Sn??

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Biswas, P. K.; Wang, Kefeng; Amato, A.; Khasanov, R.; Luetkens, H.; Petrovic, C.; Cook, R. M.; Lees, M. R.; Morenzoni, E.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetization and muon spin relaxation or rotation (µSR) measurements have been performed to study the superconducting and magnetic properties of Sr?Ir?Sn??. From magnetization measurements the lower and upper critical fields of Sr?Ir?Sn?? are found to be 81(1) Oe and 14.4(2) kOe, respectively. Zero-field µSR data show no sign of any magnetic ordering or weak magnetism in Sr?Ir?Sn??. Transverse-field µSR measurements in the vortex state provided the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth ?. The dependence of ??² with temperature is consistent with the existence of single s-wave energy gap in the superconducting state of Sr?Ir?Sn?? with a gap valuemore »of 0.82(2) meV at absolute zero temperature. The magnetic penetration depth at zero temperature ?(0) is 291(3) nm. The ratio ?(0)/kBTc = 2.1(1) indicates that Sr?Ir?Sn?? should be considered as a strong-coupling superconductor.« less

  5. Superconducting and magnetic properties of Sr?Ir?Sn??

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Biswas, P. K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Wang, Kefeng [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Amato, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Khasanov, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Luetkens, H. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Petrovic, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cook, R. M. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Lees, M. R. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Morenzoni, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetization and muon spin relaxation or rotation (µSR) measurements have been performed to study the superconducting and magnetic properties of Sr?Ir?Sn??. From magnetization measurements the lower and upper critical fields of Sr?Ir?Sn?? are found to be 81(1) Oe and 14.4(2) kOe, respectively. Zero-field µSR data show no sign of any magnetic ordering or weak magnetism in Sr?Ir?Sn??. Transverse-field µSR measurements in the vortex state provided the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth ?. The dependence of ??² with temperature is consistent with the existence of single s-wave energy gap in the superconducting state of Sr?Ir?Sn?? with a gap value of 0.82(2) meV at absolute zero temperature. The magnetic penetration depth at zero temperature ?(0) is 291(3) nm. The ratio ?(0)/kBTc = 2.1(1) indicates that Sr?Ir?Sn?? should be considered as a strong-coupling superconductor.

  6. Optical constants of silicon carbide for astrophysical applications. II. Extending optical functions from IR to UV using single-crystal absorption spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmeister, A M; Goncharov, A F; Speck, A K

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory measurements of unpolarized and polarized absorption spectra of various samples and crystal stuctures of silicon carbide (SiC) are presented from 1200--35,000 cm$^{-1}$ ($\\lambda \\sim$ 8--0.28 $\\mu$m) and used to improve the accuracy of optical functions ($n$ and $k$) from the infrared (IR) to the ultraviolet (UV). Comparison with previous $\\lambda \\sim$ 6--20 $\\mu$m thin-film spectra constrains the thickness of the films and verifies that recent IR reflectivity data provide correct values for $k$ in the IR region. We extract $n$ and $k$ needed for radiative transfer models using a new ``difference method'', which utilizes transmission spectra measured from two SiC single-crystals with different thicknesses. This method is ideal for near-IR to visible regions where absorbance and reflectance are low and can be applied to any material. Comparing our results with previous UV measurements of SiC, we distinguish between chemical and structural effects at high frequency. We find that for all spectral re...

  7. The Michigan Recreational Angler Survey Tracking status and trends of Michiga ir resource use ir resource use n's anglers and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Michigan Recreational Angler Survey Tracking status and trends of Michiga ir resource use ir of angling effort for all of Michigan's fisheries · · Method · Monthly, statewide mail survey of Michigan's licensed anglers Priority Outcomes & Management Applications glers · s · Baseline

  8. anomalous x-ray pulsars: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  9. anomalous x-ray scattering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  10. analyzing x-ray pulsar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  11. anomalous x-ray fluorescence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  12. anomalous small-angle x-ray: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  13. anomalous surface x-ray: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  14. anomalous x-ray diffraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  15. anomalous x-ray pulsar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from the soft X-rays emitted by the neutron-star surface. The relation between these heating rates and measured near-infrared fluxes in the K and Ks bands places severe...

  16. The Optical - Infrared Colors of CORALS QSOs: Searching for Dust Reddening Associated With High Redshift Damped Lyman Alpha Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sara L. Ellison; Patrick B. Hall; Paulina Lira

    2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of dust in quasar absorbers, such as damped Lyman alpha (DLA) systems, may cause the background QSO to appear reddened. We investigate the extent of this potential reddening by comparing the optical-to-infrared (IR) colors of QSOs with and without intervening absorbers. Our QSO sample is based on the Complete Optical and Radio Absorption Line System (CORALS) survey of Ellison et al (2001). We have obtained near-simultaneous B and K band magnitudes for subset of the CORALS sample and supplemented our observations with further measurements published in the literature. To account for redshift-related color changes, the B-K colors are normalized using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) QSO composite. The mean normalized B-K color of the DLA sub-sample is +0.12, whereas the mean for the no-DLA sample is -0.10; both distributions have RMS scatters ~0.5. Neither a student's T-test nor a KS test indicate that there is any significant difference between the two color distributions. Based on simulations which redden the colors of QSOs with intervening DLAs, we determine a reddening limit which corresponds to E(B-V) < 0.04 (SMC-like extinction) at 99% confidence (3 sigma), assuming that E(B-V) is the same for all DLAs. Finally, we do not find any general correlation between absorber properties (such as [Fe/Zn] or neutral hydrogen column density) and B-K color. One of these two QSOs shows evidence for strong associated absorption from X-ray observations, an alternative explanation for its very red color. We conclude that the presence of intervening galaxies causes a minimal reddening of the background QSO.

  17. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  18. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  19. Infrared tip of the red giant branch and distances to the MAFFEI/IC 342 group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R. Brent; Jacobs, Bradley A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, HI 96822 (United States); Rizzi, Luca [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Karachentsev, Igor D. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the use of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method to near-infrared wavelengths from the previously used I-band, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Upon calibration of a color dependency of the TRGB magnitude, the IR TRGB yields a random uncertainty of ?5% in relative distance. The IR TRGB methodology has an advantage over the previously used Advance Camera for Surveys F606W and F814W filter set for galaxies that suffer from severe extinction. Using the IR TRGB methodology, we obtain distances toward three principal galaxies in the Maffei/IC 342 complex, which are located at low Galactic latitudes. New distance estimates using the TRGB method are 3.45{sub ?0.13}{sup +0.13} Mpc for IC 342, 3.37{sub ?0.23}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 1, and 3.52{sub ?0.30}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 2. The uncertainties are dominated by uncertain extinction, especially for Maffei 1 and Maffei 2. Our IR calibration demonstrates the viability of the TRGB methodology for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES: DIAGNOSTICS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION AND CONTRIBUTION TO TOTAL INFRARED LUMINOSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipley, Heath V.; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Rieke, George H.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Weiner, Benjamin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Moustakas, John, E-mail: heath.shipley@tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study the nature of star-formation and supermassive black hole accretion for a sample of 65 IR-luminous galaxies at 0.02 < z < 0.6 with F(24 {mu}m) > 1.2 mJy. The MIR spectra cover wavelengths 5-38 {mu}m, spanning the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features and important atomic diagnostic lines. Our sample of galaxies corresponds to a range of total IR luminosity, L{sub IR} = L(8-1000 {mu}m) = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun} (median L{sub IR} of 3.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }). We divide our sample into a subsample of galaxies with Spitzer Infrared Array Camera 3.6-8.0 {mu}m colors indicative of warm dust heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN; IRAGN) and those galaxies whose colors indicate star-formation processes (non-IRAGN). Compared to the non-IRAGN, the IRAGN show smaller PAH emission equivalent widths, which we attribute to an increase in mid-IR continuum from the AGN. We find that in both the IRAGN and star-forming samples, the luminosity in the PAH features correlates strongly with [Ne II] {lambda}12.8 {mu}m emission line, from which we conclude that the PAH luminosity directly traces the instantaneous star-formation rate (SFR) in both the IRAGN and star-forming galaxies. We compare the ratio of PAH luminosity to the total IR luminosity, and we show that for most IRAGN star-formation accounts for 10%-50% of the total IR luminosity. We also find no measurable difference between the PAH luminosity ratios of L{sub 11.3}/L{sub 7.7} and L{sub 6.2}/L{sub 7.7} for the IRAGN and non-IRAGN, suggesting that AGN do not significantly excite or destroy PAH molecules on galaxy-wide scales. Interestingly, a small subset of galaxies (8 of 65 galaxies) show a strong excess of [O IV] {lambda}25.9 {mu}m emission compared to their PAH emission, which indicates the presence of heavily-obscured AGN, including 3 galaxies that are not otherwise selected as IRAGN. The low PAH emission and low [Ne II] emission of the IRAGN and [O IV]-excess objects imply the IR luminosity of these objects is dominated by processes associated with the AGN. Because these galaxies lie in the ''green valley'' of the optical color-magnitude relation and have low implied SFRs, we argue their hosts have declining SFRs and these objects will transition to the red sequence unless some process restarts their star-formation.

  1. Infrared extrapolations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Furnstahl; G. Hagen; T. Papenbrock; K. A. Wendt

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmonic oscillator model-space truncations introduce systematic errors to the calculation of binding energies and other observables. We identify the relevant infrared scaling variable and give values for this nucleus-dependent quantity. We consider isotopes of oxygen computed with the coupled-cluster method from chiral nucleon-nucleon interactions at next-to-next-to-leading order and show that the infrared component of the error is sufficiently understood to permit controlled extrapolations. By employing oscillator spaces with relatively large frequencies, well above the energy minimum, the ultraviolet corrections can be suppressed while infrared extrapolations over tens of MeVs are accurate for ground-state energies. However, robust uncertainty quantification for extrapolated quantities that fully accounts for systematic errors is not yet developed.

  2. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that it does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.

  3. Lattice Simulations and Infrared Conformality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Appelquist, Thomas; Fleming, George T.; Lin, Meifeng; Neil, Ethan T.; Schaich, David A.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine several recent lattice-simulation data sets, asking whether they are consistent with infrared conformality. We observe, in particular, that for an SU(3) gauge theory with 12 Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation, recent simulation data can be described assuming infrared conformality. Lattice simulations include a fermion mass m which is then extrapolated to zero, and we note that this data can be fit by a small-m expansion, allowing a controlled extrapolation. We also note that the conformal hypothesis does not work well for two theories that are known or expected to be confining and chirally broken, and that itmore »does work well for another theory expected to be infrared conformal.« less

  4. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Analysis of the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum of Cyclopropane. Abstract: The high resolution infrared spectrum of...

  5. Low Dose IR Creates an Oncogenic Microenvironment by Inducing Premature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Zhi-Min [Harvard School of Public Health

    2013-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction Much of the work addressing ionizing radiation-induced cellular response has been carried out mainly with the traditional cell culture technique involving only one cell type, how cellular response to IR is influenced by the tissue microenvironment remains elusive. By use of a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture system to model critical interactions of different cell types with their neighbors and with their environment, we recently showed that low-dose IR-induced extracellular signaling via the tissue environment affects profoundly cellular responses. This proposal aims at determining the response of mammary epithelial cells in a tissue-like setting.

  6. MS, S and C Stars in the Infrared. Luminosities and Mass Loss Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Guandalini

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this note I present an outline of infrared (IR) photometric AGB properties, based on two samples of Galactic Long Period Variables (C- and S-type respectively). I show the various selection criteria used during the choice of the sources and describe the motivations of observing them at near- and mid-IR wavelengths. I discuss the problems encountered in estimating their luminosity and distance and motivate the methods I choose for this purpose. Properties of the luminosity functions and of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams obtained from the analysis are discussed. Finally, the choices made for estimating of the mass loss rates are described and preliminary results concerning them are shown.

  7. Coupling mid-infrared light from a photonic crystal waveguide to metallic transmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco-Redondo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.blanco@tecnalia.com, E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu [ICT-European Software Institute Division, Tecnalia, Ibaizabal Bidea, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain) [ICT-European Software Institute Division, Tecnalia, Ibaizabal Bidea, Ed. 202, 48170 Zamudio, Bizkaia (Spain); Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Sarriugarte, Paulo [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain)] [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Garcia-Adeva, Angel [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, E.T.S. Ingeniería de Bilbao, UPV-EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)] [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, E.T.S. Ingeniería de Bilbao, UPV-EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Zubia, Joseba [Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)] [Dpto. Electronica y Telecom., E.T.S. Ingeniería Bilbao, UPV/EHU, Alda. Urquijo, 48103 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Hillenbrand, Rainer, E-mail: andrea.blanco@tecnalia.com, E-mail: r.hillenbrand@nanogune.eu [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain) [Nanooptics Group, CIC nanoGUNE Consolider, 20018 Donostia–San Sebastian, Gipuzkoa (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and theoretically study a hybrid structure consisting of a photonic crystal waveguide (PhC-wg) and a two-wire metallic transmission line (TL), engineered for efficient transfer of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light between them. An efficiency of 32% is obtained for the coupling from the transverse magnetic (TM) photonic mode to the symmetric mode of the TL, with a predicted intensity enhancement factor of 53 at the transmission line surface. The strong coupling is explained by the small phase velocity mismatch and sufficient spatial overlapping between the modes. This hybrid structure could find applications in highly integrated mid-IR photonic-plasmonic devices for biological and gas sensing, among others.

  8. artworks ir microspectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 submitted papers In Situ Infrared Microspectroscopy of ;850 Million-Year-Old Geosciences Websites Summary: , Santa...

  9. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Stanley A. (Countryside, IL); Reedy, Gerald T. (Bourbonnais, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  10. Infrared Antennas & Frequency Selective Surfaces Glenn D. Boreman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Stryland, Eric

    ... Research focus: Extension of radiofrequency concepts to IR CREOL IR Systems Lab 1989 #12;Research Approach radiation. Incident radiation induces IR-frequency current waves to flow in the arms of the antenna

  11. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structure of the Quaternary Magnetic EuTAl4Si2 (T = Rh and Ir) Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maurya, Arvind [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; Thamizhavel, Arumugam [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research; Provino, Alessia [University of Genova; Pani, Marcella [University of Genova; Manfrinetti, Pietro [University of Genova; Paudyal, Durga [Ames Laboratory; Dhar, Sudesh Kumar [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Single crystals of the quaternary europium compounds EuRhAl4Si2 and EuIrAl4Si2 were synthesized by using the Al–Si binary eutectic as a flux. The structure of the two quaternary compounds has been refined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are stoichiometric and adopt an ordered derivative of the ternary KCu4S3 structure type (tetragonal tP8, P4/mmm). The two compounds reported here represent the first example of a quaternary and truly stoichiometric 1:1:4:2 phase crystallizing with this structure type. In light of our present results, the structure of the BaMg4Si3 compound given in literature as representing a new prototype is actually isotypic with the KCu4S3 structure. Local spin density approximation including the Hubbard U parameter (LSDA + U) calculations show that Eu ions are in the divalent state, with a significant hybridization between the Eu 5d, Rh (Ir) 4d (5d), Si 3p and Al 3p states. Magnetic susceptibility measured along the [001] direction confirms the divalent nature of the Eu ions in EuRhAl4Si2 and EuIrAl4Si2, which order magnetically near 11 and 15 K, respectively.

  12. Quantitative nondestructive testing using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manohar, Arun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    steady, and selective heating scenarios. Infrared Physics &heating thermography and lock-in ther- mography to quantitative nondestructive evaluations. Infraredheating is very difficult to achieve in a practical scenario. The Infrared

  13. Scientific Coordination Prof. dr. ir. Michel De Paepe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    govern- ments) in order to reduce CO2 emissions and the use of fossil fuels. Ten years later we seeScientific Coordination Prof. dr. ir. Michel De Paepe Department of Flow, heat and combustion that fuel prices have doubled and energy saving has reached a point of economic importance in the whole span

  14. UV/IR duality in noncommutative quantum field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre Fischer; Richard J. Szabo

    2010-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the construction of renormalizable noncommutative euclidean phi(4)-theories based on the UV/IR duality covariant modification of the standard field theory, and how the formalism can be extended to scalar field theories defined on noncommutative Minkowski space.

  15. A Mid-Infrared Study of the Class 0 Cluster in LDN 1448

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. O'Linger; D. M. Cole; M. E. Ressler; G. A. Wolf-Chase

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ground-based mid-infrared observations of Class 0 protostars in LDN 1448. Of the five known protostars in this cloud, we detected two, L1448N:A and L1448C, at 12.5, 17.9, 20.8, and 24.5 microns, and a third, L1448 IRS 2, at 24.5 microns. We present high-resolution images of the detected sources, and photometry or upper limits for all five Class 0 sources in this cloud. With these data, we are able to augment existing spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for all five objects and place them on an evolutionary status diagram.

  16. Imaging Local Chemical Microstructure of Germinated Wheat with Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koc,H.; Wetzel, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial resolution enabled by in situ Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy as predicted from our earlier report in Spectroscopy (1) is applied to localized chemical analysis in this vital biological process of seed germination. Germination includes several different biochemical and structural processes. Ultimately, the entire seed is consumed in sustaining the new life that results after sprouting and growth (2-4). Alpha amylase production is the standard evidence for detection of sprouted (germinated) wheat at harvest. Moist preharvest conditions can cause devastating losses and render the harvested wheat unfit for flour production. Dormancy of dry seeds following harvest retards sprouting under proper storage.

  17. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Dawson, L. Ralph (Albuquerque, NM); Howard, Arnold J. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared emitting device and method. The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns.

  18. Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masao Hirokawa

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We mathematically study the infrared catastrophe for the Hamiltonian of Nelson's model when it has the external potential in a general class. For the model, we prove the pull-through formula on ground states in operator theory first. Based on this formula, we show both non-existence of any ground state and divergence of the total number of soft bosons.

  19. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Post-AGB Star AC Herculis with the MMT Adaptive Optics System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laird M. Close; Beth Biller; William F. Hoffmann; Phil M. Hinz; John H. Bieging; Francois Wildi; Michael Lloyd-Hart; Guido Brusa; Don Fisher; Doug Miller; Roger Angel

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilized the MMT's unique deformable secondary adaptive optics system to produce high-resolution (FWHM=0.3"), very high Strehl mid-infrared (9.8, 11.7 & 18 micron) images of the post-AGB star AC Her. The very high (98+/-2%) Strehls achieved with Mid-IR AO led naturally to an ultra-stable PSF independent of airmass, seeing, or location on the sky. We find no significant difference between AC Her's morphology and our unresolved PSF calibration stars (mu UMa & alpha Her) at 9.8, 11.7, & 18 microns. Our current observations do not confirm any extended Mid-IR structure around AC Her. These observations are in conflict with previously reported Keck (seeing-limited) 11.7 and 18 micron images which suggested the presence of a resolved ~0.6" edge-on circumbinary disk. We conclude that AC Her has no extended Mid-IR structure on scales greater than 0.2" (R<75 AU). These first results of Mid-IR AO science are very encouraging for future high accuracy Mid-IR imaging with this technique.

  20. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eckels, Joel Del (Livermore, CA); Klunder, Gregory L. (Oakland, CA)

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  1. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  2. Using Infrared Sensors to Follow an Infrared Beam Scott Sobieski, Thomas Richards, David Peacock,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    Using Infrared Sensors to Follow an Infrared Beam Scott Sobieski, Thomas Richards, David Peacock, Computer Science Department The second robot follows the infrared beam from the first robot. These sensors infrared sensors produce a value between 0 and 255 depending on their distance from the emitting beam

  3. YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamura, Issei

    1 YET ANOTHER INFRARED ARCHIVE: RELEASE OF THE INFRARED TELESCOPE IN SPACE (IRTS) ARCHIVE DATA I from 1.4 to 700 µm. Presently the archive includes the near- and mid-infrared low resolu- tion spectral catalogues of point sources, and image maps in five wavelength bands in the far-infrared. The point source

  4. Comparison of Long-Wave Infrared Imaging and Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging of Vegetation for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Comparison of Long-Wave Infrared Imaging and Visible/Near-Infrared Imaging of Vegetation using spectral imaging. This has been accom- plished with both visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) sunlight reflection and long-wave infrared (LWIR) thermal emission. During a 4-week period in summer 2011

  5. Vacuum-UV to IR supercontinuum in hydrogen-filled photonic crystal fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belli, Federico; Chang, Wonkeun; Travers, John C; Russell, Philip St J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although supercontinuum sources are readily available for the visible and near infrared, and recently also for the mid-IR, many areas of biology, chemistry and physics would benefit greatly from the availability of compact, stable and spectrally bright deep ultraviolet (DUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) supercontinuum sources. Such sources have however not yet been developed. Here we report the generation of a bright supercontinuum, spanning more than three octaves from 124 nm to beyond 1200 nm, in hydrogen-filled kagom\\'e-style hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (kagom\\'e-PCF). Few-{\\mu}J, 30 fs pump pulses at wavelength 805 nm are launched into the fiber, where they undergo self-compression via the Raman-enhanced Kerr effect. Modeling indicates that before reaching a minimum sub-cycle pulse duration of ~1 fs, much less than one period of molecular vibration (8 fs), nonlinear reshaping of the pulse envelope, accentuated by self-steepening and shock formation, creates an ultrashort feature that causes impulsi...

  6. WATER ABSORPTION FROM GAS VERY NEAR THE MASSIVE PROTOSTAR AFGL 2136 IRS 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seifahrt, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Richter, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ground-based observations of the ?{sub 1} and ?{sub 3} fundamental bands of H{sub 2}O toward the massive protostar AFGL 2136 IRS 1, identifying absorption features due to 47 different ro-vibrational transitions between 2.468 ?m and 2.561 ?m. Analysis of these features indicates the absorption arises in warm (T = 506 ± 25 K), very dense (n(H{sub 2}) > 5 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}) gas, suggesting an origin close to the central protostar. The total column density of warm water is estimated to be N(H{sub 2}O) = (1.02 ± 0.02) × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –2}, giving a relative abundance of N(H{sub 2}O)/N(H{sub 2}) ? 10{sup –4}. Our study represents the first extensive use of water vapor absorption lines in the near infrared, and demonstrates the utility of such observations in deriving physical parameters.

  7. A Medium-Resolution Near-Infrared Spectral Library of Late Type Stars: I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valentin D. Ivanov; Marcia J. Rieke; Charles W. Engelbracht; Almudena Alonso-Herrero; George H. Rieke; Kevin L. Luhman

    2003-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an empirical infrared spectral library of medium resolution (R~2000-3000) H (1.6 micron) and K (2.2 micron) band spectra of 218 red stars, spanning a range of [Fe/H] from ~-2.2 to ~+0.3. The sample includes Galactic disk stars, bulge stars from Baade's window, and red giants from Galactic globular clusters. We report the values of 19 indices covering 12 spectral features measured from the spectra in the library. Finally, we derive calibrations to estimate the effective temperature, and diagnostic relationships to determine the luminosity classes of individual stars from near-infrared spectra. This paper is part of a larger effort aimed at building a near-IR spectral library to be incorporated in population synthesis models, as well as, at testing synthetic stellar spectra.

  8. Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopgood, Adrian

    166 Chapter VIII Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual Medical Images G. Schaefer Aston written permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Medical infrared imaging captures the temperature a useful diagnostic visualisation for the clinician. #12;167 Automated Overlay of Infrared and Visual

  9. Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Tec / Satellite Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Infrared Soundings From NOAA Spacecraft L. M. McMillin D. Q. Wark J. M. Siomkajlo P. G. Abel A. Werbowetzki. E. Bittner C. M. Hayden #12;UDC 551.507.362.2:551.508.2:551.501.7:535-1 Physics Infrared radiation

  10. Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model Masao Hirokawa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Catastrophe for Nelson's Model Masao Hirokawa Department of Mathematics, Okayama University, 700­8530 Okayama, Japan Abstract We study the infrared catastrophe for Nelson's Hamiltonian general conditions. 1 Introduction The purpose of this study is to investigate the infrared catastrophe

  11. Highlights: Optical/NIR Spectroscopy of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Veilleux

    1999-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the results from recent optical and near-infrared spectroscopic studies of ultraluminous infrared galaxies.

  12. INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY J1023+0038: EVIDENCE FOR THE SHORT-TERM NATURE OF ITS INTERACTING PHASE IN 2000-2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xuebing; Wang, Zhongxiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile)] [Las Campanas Observatory, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, La Serena (Chile)

    2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report our multi-band infrared (IR) imaging of the transitional millisecond pulsar system J1023+0038, a rare pulsar binary known to have an accretion disk in 2000-2001. The observations were carried out with ground-based and space telescopes from near-IR to far-IR wavelengths. We detected the source in near-IR JH bands and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m mid-IR channels. Combined with the previously reported optical spectrum of the source, the IR emission is found to arise from the companion star, with no excess emission detected in the wavelength range. Because our near-IR fluxes are nearly equal to those obtained by the 2MASS all-sky survey in 2000 February, the result indicates that the binary did not contain the accretion disk at the time, whose existence would have raised the near-IR fluxes to twice larger values. Our observations have thus established the short-term nature of the interacting phase seen in 2000-2001: the accretion disk existed for at most 2.5 yr. The binary was not detected by the WISE all-sky survey carried out in 2010 at its 12 and 22 {mu}m bands and our Herschel far-IR imaging at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Depending on the assumed properties of the dust, the resulting flux upper limits provide a constraint of <3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} g on the mass of the dust grains that possibly exist as the remnants of the previously seen accretion disk.

  13. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-94MT94011 during the period September 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 which covers the nineth quarter of the project. The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. As the environmental regulations become more stringent, infrared burners are receiving increasing interests.

  14. The nearby eclipsing stellar system delta Velorum - I. Origin of the infrared excess from VISIR and NACO imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre Kervella; Frédéric Thévenin; Monika Petr-Gotzens

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    - Context: The triple stellar system delta Vel system presents a significant infrared excess, whose origin is still being debated. A large infrared bow shock has been discovered using Spitzer/MIPS observations. Although it appears as a significant contributor to the measured IR excess, the possibility exists that a circumstellar IR excess is present around the stars of the system. - Aims: The objective of the present VISIR and NACO observations is to identify whether one of the stars of the delta Vel system presents a circumstellar photometric excess in the thermal IR domain and to quantify it. - Methods: We observed delta Vel using the imaging modes of the ESO/VLT instruments VISIR (in BURST mode) and NACO to resolve the A-B system (0.6" separation) and obtain the photometry of each star. We also obtained one NACO photometry epoch precisely at the primary (annular) eclipse of delta Vel Aa by Ab. - Results: Our photometric measurements with NACO (2.17 mic), complemented by the existing visible photometry allowed us to reconstruct the spectral energy distribution of the three stars. We then compared the VISIR photometry (8.6-12.8 mic) to the expected photospheric emission from the three stars at the corresponding wavelengths. - Conclusions: We can exclude the presence of a circumstellar thermal infrared excess around delta Vel A or B down to a few percent level. This supports the conclusions of Gaspar et al. (2008) that the IR excess of delta Vel has an interstellar origin, although a cold circumstellar disk could still be present. In addition, we derive the spectral types of the three stars Aa, Ab, and B (respectively A2IV, A4V and F8V), and we estimate the age of the system around 400-500 Myr.

  15. Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays, & Neutrinos in the Starburst Nuclei of Arp 220

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cores of Arp 220, the closest ultra-luminous infrared starburst galaxy, provide an opportunity to study interactions of cosmic rays under extreme conditions. In this paper, we model the populations of cosmic rays produced by supernovae in the central molecular zones of both starburst nuclei. We find that ~65 - 100% of cosmic rays are absorbed in these regions due to their huge molecular gas contents, and thus, the nuclei of Arp 220 nearly complete proton calorimeters. As the cosmic ray protons collide with the interstellar medium, they produce secondary electrons that are also contained within the system and radiate synchrotron emission. Using results from chi-squared tests between the model and the observed radio spectral energy distribution, we predict the emergent gamma-ray and high-energy neutrino spectra and find the magnetic field to be at milligauss levels. Because of the extremely intense far-infrared radiation fields, the gamma-ray spectrum steepens significantly at TeV energies due to gamma-gamm...

  16. GRB optical and IR rapid follow-up with the 2 m Liverpool Robotic Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gomboc; M. F. Bode; D. Carter; C. G. Mundell; A. M. Newsam; R. J. Smith; I. A. Steele

    2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liverpool Telescope, owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated at Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, is the first 2-m, fully instrumented robotic telescope. We plan to use the LT in conjunction with Gamma Ray Observatories (HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift) to study GRB physics. A special over-ride mode will enable observations commencing less than a minute after the GRB alert, including optical and near infrared imaging and spectroscopy. These observations, together with systematic monitoring of the burst through the afterglow, will help to unravel the nature of prompt optical flashes, short bursts, optically dark bursts, redshift distribution, GRB - supernova connection and other questions related to the GRB phenomenon. In particular, the combination of aperture, instrumentation and rapid automated response makes the Liverpool Telescope excellently suited to the investigation of optically dark bursts and currently optically unstudied short bursts.

  17. SESAM FT-IR: A Comparison of the R&D Workhorse to Standard Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SESAM FT-IR: A Comparison of the R&D Workhorse to Standard Emission Benches SESAM FT-IR: A Comparison of the R&D Workhorse to Standard Emission Benches Data for a number of...

  18. Novel Techniques for Single-Pulse Spectrum and Pulsewidth Measurements for an IR-FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leemans, W.P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ofthe LBL/Stanford diagnostics. FEL Thespectral andtemporalMeasurements for an IR-FEL W.P. Leemans, J.A. Edighoffer, K-Measurements for an IR-FEL* W. P. Leemans, J. A. Edighoffer,

  19. The Role of Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Role of Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion to C2+ Oxygenates. The Role of Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion to C2+ Oxygenates....

  20. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lashley, Jason Charles (Sante Fe, NM); Opeil, Cyril P. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Smith, James Lawrence (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  1. Multi-channel infrared thermometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ulrickson, Michael A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring the two-dimensional temperature profile of a surface comprises imaging optics for generating an image of the light radiating from the surface; an infrared detector array having a plurality of detectors; and a light pipe array positioned between the imaging optics and the detector array for sampling, transmitting, and distributing the image over the detector surfaces. The light pipe array includes one light pipe for each detector in the detector array.

  2. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics.

  3. Infrared emitting device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, S.R.; Biefeld, R.M.; Dawson, L.R.; Howard, A.J.; Baucom, K.C.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The infrared emitting device comprises a III-V compound semiconductor substrate upon which are grown a quantum-well active region having a plurality of quantum-well layers formed of a ternary alloy comprising InAsSb sandwiched between barrier layers formed of a ternary alloy having a smaller lattice constant and a larger energy bandgap than the quantum-well layers. The quantum-well layers are preferably compressively strained to increase the threshold energy for Auger recombination; and a method is provided for determining the preferred thickness for the quantum-well layers. Embodiments of the present invention are described having at least one cladding layer to increase the optical and carrier confinement in the active region, and to provide for waveguiding of the light generated within the active region. Examples have been set forth showing embodiments of the present invention as surface- and edge-emitting light emitting diodes (LEDs), an optically-pumped semiconductor laser, and an electrically-injected semiconductor diode laser. The light emission from each of the infrared emitting devices of the present invention is in the midwave infrared region of the spectrum from about 2 to 6 microns. 8 figs.

  4. THERMAL FLUID MODELING OF BEPCII IR QUADRUPOLE MAGNET CRYOSTAT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG.L.; TANG,H.M.; ZHANG,X.B.; YANG,G.D.; JIA,L.X.

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A pair of superconducting interaction region quadrupole magnets for BEPCII was designed and fabricated at Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. The cryogenic system for the IR magnets was designed at Harbin Institute of Technology, China. This paper provides the results of thermal fluid modeling for the magnet cryostat. The numerical analyses were carried out for two types of cooling methods, the subcooled liquid helium and the supercritical helium flow. The pressure and temperature changes in the cooling circuits are given.

  5. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. UV/IR mode mixing and the CMB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palma, Gonzalo A. [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Physics Department, FCFM, Universidad de Chile, Blanco Encalada 2008, Santiago (Chile); Patil, Subodh P. [Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Newtonstrasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well understood that spatial noncommutativity, if indeed realized in nature, is a phenomenon whose effects are not just felt at energy scales comparable to the noncommutativity scale. Loop effects can transmit signatures of any underlying noncommutativity to macroscopic scales (a manifestation of a phenomenon that has come to be known as UV/IR mode mixing) and offer a potential lever to constrain the amount of noncommutativity present in nature, if present at all. Field theories defined on noncommutative spaces (realized in string theory when D-branes are coupled to backgrounds of nontrivial RR background flux), can exhibit strong UV/IR mode mixing, manifesting in a nonlocal one-loop effective action. In the context of inflation in the presence of any background noncommutativity, we demonstrate how this UV/IR mixing at the loop level can allow us to place severe constraints on the scale of noncommutativity if we presume inflation is responsible for large-scale structure. We demonstrate that any amount of noncommutativity greatly suppresses the cosmic microwave background power at all observable scales, independent of the scale of inflation, and independent of whether or not the noncommutativity tensor redshifts during inflation, therefore nullifying a very salient and successful prediction of inflation.

  7. RAPID INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THREE RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: A VIEW FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Ning; Zhou Hongyan; Wang Tinggui; Dong Xiaobo; Jiang Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Yuan Weimin [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Ji Tuo; Tian Qiguo, E-mail: jnac@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Pudong, Shanghai 200136 (China)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using newly released data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we report the discovery of rapid infrared variability in three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s) selected from the 23 sources in the sample of Yuan et al. J0849+5108 and J0948+0022 clearly show intraday variability, while J1505+0326 has a longer measurable timescale within 180 days. Their variability amplitudes, corrected for measurement errors, are {approx}0.1-0.2 mag. The detection of intraday variability restricts the size of the infrared-emitting region to {approx}10{sup -3} pc, significantly smaller than the scale of the torus but consistent with the base of a jet. The three variable sources are exceptionally radio-loud, have the highest radio brightness temperature among the whole sample, and all show detected {gamma}-ray emission in Fermi/LAT observations. Their spectral energy distributions resemble those of low-energy-peaked blazars, with a synchrotron peak around infrared wavelengths. This result strongly confirms the view that at least some radio-loud NLS1s are blazars with a relativistic jet close to our line of sight. The beamed synchrotron emission from the jet contributes significantly to and probably dominates the spectra in the infrared and even optical bands.

  8. Star Formation Activity in the Long, Filamentary Infrared Dark Cloud G53.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Davis, Christopher J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present star formation activity in the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G53.2, a remarkable IRDC located at Galactic coordinates $(l,b)\\sim(53^{\\circ}.2,\\,0^{\\circ}.0)$ based on the census of young stellar object (YSO) candidates. IRDC G53.2 was previously identified as several IRDCs in mid-IR images, but it is in fact a long ($\\gtrsim$45 pc) cloud, well consistent with a CO cloud at $v\\sim23$ \\kms\\ (or at $d\\sim$1.7 kpc). We present a point-source catalog of IRDC G53.2 that contains $\\sim$370 sources from our photometry of the {\\it Spitzer} MIPS 24 \\um\\ data and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire Catalog. The classification of the identified sources based on their spectral index and control field analysis to remove field star contamination reveals that IRDC G53.2 is an active star-forming region with $\\sim$300 YSO candidates. We compare the YSO classification based on spectral index, mid-IR colors, and the wavelength range used, which results in consistent classification, except for flat-s...

  9. A complete census of silicate features in the mid-infrared spectra of active galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Feltre, Anna; Piñol-Ferrer, Nuria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive study of the silicate features at 9.7 and 18 micron of a sample of almost 800 active galactic nuclei (AGN) with available spectra from the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS). We measure the strength of the silicate feature at 9.7 micron, S9.7, before and after subtracting the host galaxy emission from the IRS spectra. The numbers of type 1 and 2 AGN with the feature in emission increase by 20 and 50%, respectively, once the host galaxy is removed, while 35% of objects with the feature originally in absorption exhibit it in even deeper absorption. The peak of S9.7, lambda_peak, has a bimodal distribution when the feature is in emission, with about 65% of the cases showing lambda_peak > 10.2 micron. Silicates can appear in emission in objects with mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity spanning over six orders of magnitude. The derived distributions of the strength of the silicate features at 9.7 and 18 micron provide a solid test bed for modeling the dust distribution in AGN. Clumpiness is n...

  10. A near-infrared shock wave in the 2006 outburst of recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramkrishna Das; Dipankar P. K. Banerjee; Nagarhalli M. Ashok

    2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared spectra are presented for the recent 2006 outburst of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph).We report the rare detection of an infrared shock wave as the nova ejecta plows into the pre-existing wind of the secondary in the RS Oph system consisting of a white dwarf (WD) primary and a red giant secondary. The evolution of the shock is traced through a free expansion stage to a decelerative phase. The behavior of the shock velocity with time is found to be broadly consistent with current shock models. The present observations also imply that the WD in the RS Oph system has a high mass indicating that it could be a potential SNIa candidate. We also discuss the results from a recent study showing that the near-IR continuum from the recent RS Oph eruption does not originate in an expanding fireball. However, the present work shows that the IR line emission does have an origin in an expanding shock wave.

  11. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasnier, C. J., E-mail: lasnier@LLNL.gov; Allen, S. L.; Ellis, R. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Morris, K.; Seppala, L. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Crabtree, K. [College of Optics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  12. The first Swift X-ray Flash: The faint afterglow of XRF 050215B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levan, A J; Tanvir, N R; Page, K L; Rol, E; Zhang, B; Goad, M R; O'Brien, P T; Priddey, R S; Bersier, D; Burrows, D N; Chapman, R; Fruchter, A S; Giommi, P; Gehrels, N; Hughes, M A; Pak, S; Simpson, C; Tagliaferri, G; Vardoulaki, E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the discovery of XRF 050215B and its afterglow. The burst was detected by the Swift BAT during the check-out phase and observations with the X-ray telescope began approximately 30 minutes after the burst. These observations found a faint, slowly fading X-ray afterglow near the centre of the error box as reported by the BAT. Infrared data, obtained at UKIRT after 10 hours also revealed a very faint K-band afterglow. The afterglow appear unusual since it is very faint, especially in the infrared with K>20 only 9 hours post burst. The X-ray and infrared lightcurves exhibit a slow, monotonic decay with alpha=0.8 and no evidence for steepening associated with the jet break to 10 days post burst. We discuss possible explanations for the faintness and slow decay in the context of present models for the production of X-ray Flashes.

  13. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, Thomas J. (Alamo, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile.

  14. Passive infrared bullet detection and tracking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for passively detecting a projectile such as, for example, a bullet using a passive infrared detector. A passive infrared detector is focused onto a region in which a projectile is expected to be located. Successive images of infrared radiation in the region are recorded. Background infrared radiation present in the region is suppressed such that second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile as the projectile passes through the region are produced. A projectile path calculator determines the path and other aspects of the projectile by using the second successive images of infrared radiation generated by the projectile. The present invention, in certain embodiments, also determines the origin of the path of the projectile and takes a photograph of the area surrounding the origin and/or fires at least one projectile at the area surrounding the origin of the path of the projectile. 9 figs.

  15. Pb+ irradiation of synthetic zircon (ZrSiO4): Infrared spectroscopic investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ming [University of Cambridge; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Salje, Ekhard K.H. [University of Cambridge; Honda, Shin-ichi [ORNL; Ewing, Rodney C. [University of Michigan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural variations of synthetic zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) single crystals irradiated at room temperature by 280 keV Pb{sup +} ions (with fluences up to 1 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) were investigated using infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Like metamict zircon whose crystal structure is damaged and amorphized by naturally occurring {alpha}-decay events, the Pb{sup +}-irradiated zircon crystals show a dramatic decrease in reflectivity. However, no significant decrease in wavenumbers of the stretching vibrations of SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra in zircon was detected. The Pb{sup +}-implanted zircon exhibits new IR bands, indicating irradiation-induced new vibrations or domains, clusters or phases in addition to SiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}. IR features consistent with those of Pb silicates (with a divalent state, i.e., Pb{sup 2+}) are also found in the irradiated sample. This finding implies that some of the radiogenic Pb in natural zircon might not actually reside in the zircon lattice or in ZrSiO{sub 4} phases, but form new local domains or clusters. Infrared bands of OH-stretching vibrations were also detected in the irradiated synthetic zircon, which was originally free from OH features prior to the irradiation. These results indicate that H can easily diffuse into the irradiated layer or into irradiated-induced phases to form OH or and hydrous species after the irradiated material is damaged. The type and content of hydrous species vary with irradiation fluences.

  16. Mid-Infrared Emission from Elliptical Galaxies: Sensitivity to Stellar Age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquale Temi; Fabrizio Brighenti; William G. Mathews

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Mid-infrared observations (3.6 - 24 microns) of normal giant elliptical galaxies with the Spitzer space telescope are consistent with pure populations of very old stars with no evidence of younger stars. Most of the stars in giant elliptical galaxies are old but the mean stellar age determined from Balmer absorption in optical spectra can appear much younger due to a small admixture of younger stars. The mean stellar age can also be determined from the spectral energy distribution in the mid-infrared which decreases with time relative to the optical emission and shifts to shorter wavelengths. The observed flux ratios F_8um/F_3.6um and F_24um/F_3.6um for elliptical galaxies with the oldest Balmer line ages are lower than predicted by recent models of single stellar populations. For ellipticals with the youngest Balmer line ages in our sample, 3-5 Gyrs, the flux ratios F_24um/F_3.6um are identical to those of the oldest stars. When theoretical mid-IR spectra of old (12 Gyr) and young stellar populations are combined, errors in the F_24um/F_3.6um observations are formally inconsistent with a mass fraction of young stars that exceeds ~1%. This is less than the fraction of young stars expected in discussions of recent surveys of elliptical galaxies at higher redshifts. However, this inconsistancy between Balmer line ages and those inferred from mid-IR observations must be regarded as provisional until more accurate observations and theoretical spectra become available. Finally, there is no evidence to date that central disks or patches of dust commonly visible in optical images of elliptical galaxies contribute sensibly to the mid-IR spectrum.

  17. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Zane William (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  18. Ground-based All-sky Mid-infrared and Visible Imagery for Purposes of Characterizing Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebe, Dimitri; Blatherwick, R. D.; Morris, Victor R.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer (ASIVA), a multi-purpose visible and infrared sky imaging and analysis instrument whose primary functionality is to provide radiometrically calibrated imagery in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) atmospheric window. This functionality enables the determination of diurnal hemispherical cloud fraction (HCF) and estimates of sky/cloud temperature from which one can derive estimates of cloud emissivity and cloud height. This paper describes the calibration methods and performance of the ASIVA instrument with particular emphasis on data products being developed for the meteorological community. Data presented here were collected during a field campaign conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility from May 21 to July 27, 2009. The purpose of this campaign was to determine the efficacy of IR technology in providing reliable nighttime HCF data. Significant progress has been made in the analysis of the campaign data over the past several years and the ASIVA has proven to be an excellent instrument for determining HCF as well as several other important cloud properties.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis and infrared emissivity property of flower-like SnO{sub 2} particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, J. X. [Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China) [Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); Beijing Institute of Environmental Features, Beijing, 100854 (China); Zhang, Z. Y., E-mail: zhangzy@nwu.edu.cn [Institute of Photonics and Photon-Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069 (China); School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China); Yan, J. F.; Ruan, X. F.; Yun, J. N.; Zhao, W.; Zhai, C. X. [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China)] [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The flower-like SnO{sub 2} particles are synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and the infrared emissivity property of the as-prepared products are characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and infrared spectroradio meter (ISM) respectively. The results show that the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} products are all indexed to tetragonal cassiterite phase of SnO{sub 2}. The different molarity ratios of the OH{sup ?} concentration to Sn{sup 4+} concentration ([OH{sup ?}]:[Sn{sup 4+}]) and the polyacrylamide (PAM) lead to the different morphological structures of SnO{sub 2}, which indicates that both the [OH{sup ?}]:[Sn{sup 4+}] and the PAM play an important role in the morphological evolution respectively. The infrared emissivities of the as-prepared SnO{sub 2} products are discussed.

  20. Infrared regularization with vector mesons and baryons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. C. Bruns; Ulf-G. Meißner

    2008-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the method of infrared regularization to spin-1 fields coupled to baryons. As an application, we discuss the axial form factor of the nucleon.

  1. DUST AROUND R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS. I. SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anibal Garcia-Hernandez, D. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Kameswara Rao, N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Lambert, David L., E-mail: agarcia@iac.es, E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in, E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu [W. J. McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Spitzer/infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectra from 5 to 37 {mu}m for a complete sample of 31 R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) are presented. These spectra are combined with optical and near-infrared photometry of each RCB at maximum light to compile a spectral energy distribution (SED). The SEDs are fitted with blackbody flux distributions and estimates are made of the ratio of the infrared flux from circumstellar dust to the flux emitted by the star. Comparisons for 29 of the 31 stars are made with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) fluxes from three decades earlier: Spitzer and IRAS fluxes at 12 {mu}m and 25 {mu}m are essentially equal for all but a minority of the sample. For this minority, the IRAS to Spitzer flux ratio exceeds a factor of three. The outliers are suggested to be stars where formation of a dust cloud or dust puff is a rare event. A single puff ejected prior to the IRAS observations may have been reobserved by Spitzer as a cooler puff at a greater distance from the RCB. RCBs which experience more frequent optical declines have, in general, a circumstellar environment containing puffs subtending a larger solid angle at the star and a quasi-constant infrared flux. Yet, the estimated subtended solid angles and the blackbody temperatures of the dust show a systematic evolution to lower solid angles and cooler temperatures in the interval between IRAS and Spitzer. Dust emission by these RCBs and those in the LMC is similar in terms of total 24 {mu}m luminosity and [8.0]-[24.0] color index.

  2. The nuclear and extended infrared emission of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 2992 and the interacting system Arp 245

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Bernete, I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Alonso-Herrero, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Castillo, M; Pereira-Santaella, M; Esquej, P; González-Martín, O; Díaz-Santos, T; Roche, P; Fisher, S; Povi?, M; García, A M Pérez; Valtchanov, I; Packham, C; Levenson, N A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present subarcsecond resolution infrared (IR) imaging and mid-IR spectroscopic observations of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992, obtained with the Gemini North Telescope and the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). The N-band image reveals faint extended emission out to ~3 kpc, and the PAH features detected in the GTC/CanariCam 7.5-13 micron spectrum indicate that the bulk of this extended emission is dust heated by star formation. We also report arcsecond resolution MIR and far-IR imaging of the interacting system Arp 245, taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. Using these data, we obtain nuclear fluxes using different methods and find that we can only recover the nuclear fluxes obtained from the subarcsecond data at 20-25 micron, where the AGN emission dominates. We fitted the nuclear IR spectral energy distribution of NGC 2992, including the GTC/CanariCam nuclear spectrum (~50 pc), with clumpy torus models. We then used the best-fitting torus model to decompose the Spitzer/...

  3. THE HST EXTREME DEEP FIELD (XDF): COMBINING ALL ACS AND WFC3/IR DATA ON THE HUDF REGION INTO THE DEEPEST FIELD EVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Oesch, P. A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Stiavelli, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van Dokkum, P. G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Trenti, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Carollo, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Gonzalez, V., E-mail: gdi@ucolick.org [University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) combines data from 10 years of observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Wide-Field Camera 3 Infra-Red (WFC3/IR) into the deepest image of the sky ever in the optical/near-IR. Since the initial observations of the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) in 2003, numerous surveys and programs, including supernovae follow-up, HUDF09, CANDELS, and HUDF12, have contributed additional imaging data across this region. However, these images have never been combined and made available as one complete ultra-deep image dataset. We combine them now with the XDF program. Our new and improved processing techniques provide higher quality reductions of the total dataset. All WFC3/IR and optical ACS data sets have been fully combined and accurately matched, resulting in the deepest imaging ever taken at these wavelengths, ranging from 29.1 to 30.3 AB mag (5? in a 0.''35 diameter aperture) in 9 filters. The combined image therefore reaches to 31.2 AB mag 5? (32.9 at 1?) for a flat f {sub ?} source. The gains in the optical for the four filters done in the original ACS HUDF correspond to a typical improvement of 0.15 mag, with gains of 0.25 mag in the deepest areas. Such gains are equivalent to adding ?130 to ?240 orbits of ACS data to the HUDF. Improved processing alone results in a typical gain of ?0.1 mag. Our 5? (optical+near-IR) SExtractor catalogs reveal about 14,140 sources in the full field and about 7121 galaxies in the deepest part of the XDF.

  4. Compensated infrared absorption sensor for carbon dioxide and other infrared absorbing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor, whose chamber uses filters and choppers in either a semicircular geometry or annular geometry, and incorporates separate infrared radiation filters and optical choppers. This configuration facilitates the use of a single infrared radiation source and a single detector for infrared measurements at two wavelengths, such that measurement errors may be compensated.

  5. Infrared Colors and Variability of Evolved Stars from COBE DIRBE Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beverly J. Smith

    2003-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For a complete 12 micron flux-limited sample of 207 IRAS sources, we have extracted light curves in seven infrared bands between 1.25 - 60 microns using the database of the DIRBE instrument on the COBE satellite. Using previous infrared surveys, we filtered these light curves to remove datapoints affected by nearby companions. In the time-averaged DIRBE color-color plots, we find clear segregation of semi-regulars, Mira variables, carbon stars, OH/IR stars, and red giants without circumstellar dust and with little or no visual variation. The DIRBE 1.25 - 25 micron colors become progressively redder and the variability in the DIRBE database increases along the oxygen-rich sequence non-dusty slightly varying red giants -> SRb/Lb -> SRa -> Mira -> OH/IR and the carbon-rich SRb/Lb -> Mira sequence. This supports previous assertions that these are evolutionary sequences involving the continued production and ejection of dust. Carbon stars are redder than oxygen-rich stars for the same variability type, except in the F(12)/F(25) ratio. Of the 28 sources in the sample not previous noted to be variable, 18 are clearly variable in the DIRBE data, with amplitudes of variation of ~0.9 magnitudes at 4.9 microns and ~0.6 magnitudes at 12 microns, consistent with them being very dusty Mira-like variables. The light curves of the semi-regular variable L2 Pup are particularly remarkable. The maxima at 1.25, 2.2, and 3.5 microns occur 10 - 20 days before those at 4.9 and 12 microns, and, at 4.9 and 12 microns, another maximum is seen between the two near-infrared maxima.

  6. Hydrocarbon emission features in the IR spectra of warm supergiants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.H. Jr.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Werner, M.W.; Bregman, J.D. (NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations in the 3-13 micron range are presented for two objects possessing the unidentified 21-micron feature, IRAS 22272 and IRAS 07134, which were obtained in the course of search for circumstellar aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands. The 3.3 and 6.2 micron bands are attributed to circumstellar PAH molecules, and the 6-9 micron plateau and the 12- and 6.9-micron lines are attributed to larger, aromatic hydrocarbon clusters. These are the coolest stars known to exhibit the IR emission bands. The 21-micron feature is conjectured to also originate in a carbonaceous carrier. 29 refs.

  7. Large exchange bias enhancement in (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co trilayers with ultrathin IrMn thanks to interfacial Cu dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinai, G. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Moritz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, Bd des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Bandiera, S. [Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnitude of exchange bias (H{sub ex}) at room temperature can be significantly enhanced in IrMn/Co and (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co structures thanks to the insertion of an ultrathin Cu dusting layer at the IrMn/Co interface. The combination of trilayer structure and interfacial Cu dusting leads to a three-fold increase in H{sub ex} as compared to the conventional IrMn/Co bilayer structure, with an increased blocking temperature (T{sub B}) and a concave curvature of the temperature dependence H{sub ex}(T), ideal for improved Thermally Assisted-Magnetic Random Access Memory storage layer. This exchange bias enhancement is ascribed to a reduction of the spin frustration at the IrMn/Co interface thanks to interfacial Cu addition.

  8. An X-ray Imaging Study of the Stellar Population in RCW49

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; E. D. Feigelson; L. K. Townsley; P. S. Broos; K. V. Getman; J. Wang; G. P. Garmire; D. Baba; T. Nagayama; M. Tamura; E. B. Churchwell

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a high-resolution X-ray imaging study of the stellar population in the Galactic massive star-forming region RCW49 and its central OB association Westerlund 2. We obtained a 40 ks X-ray image of a 17'x17' field using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and deep NIR images using the Infrared Survey Facility in a concentric 8'3x8'3 region. We detected 468 X-ray sources and identified optical, NIR, and Spitzer Space Telescope MIR counterparts for 379 of them. The unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity of the X-ray image, enhanced by optical and infrared imaging data, yielded the following results: (1) The central OB association Westerlund 2 is resolved for the first time in the X-ray band. X-ray emission is detected from all spectroscopically-identified early-type stars in this region. (2) Most (86%) X-ray sources with optical or infrared identifications are cluster members in comparison with a control field in the Galactic Plane. (3) A loose constraint (2--5 kpc) for the distance to RCW49 is derived from the mean X-ray luminosity of T Tauri stars. (4) The cluster X-ray population consists of low-mass pre--main-sequence and early-type stars as obtained from X-ray and NIR photometry. About 30 new OB star candidates are identified. (5) We estimate a cluster radius of 6'--7' based on the X-ray surface number density profiles. (6) A large fraction (90%) of cluster members are identified individually using complimentary X-ray and MIR excess emission. (7) The brightest five X-ray sources, two Wolf-Rayet stars and three O stars, have hard thermal spectra.

  9. The continued optical to mid-infrared evolution of V838 Monocerotis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loebman, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Wisniewski, J. P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Schmidt, S. J. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kowalski, A. F. [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barry, R. K. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Laboratory for Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bjorkman, K. S. [Ritter Observatory, MS #113, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Hammel, H. B. [AURA, 1212 New York Avenue NW, Suite 450, Washington, DC 20005 (United States); Hawley, S. L.; Szkody, P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, L. [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Kasliwal, M. M. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W. [The Aerospace Corporation, M2-266, P.O. Box 92957, Los Angeles, CA 90009-29257 (United States); Sitko, M. L., E-mail: sloebman@umich.edu [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH 45221 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eruptive variable V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon) gained notoriety in 2002 when it brightened nine magnitudes in a series of three outbursts and then rapidly evolved into an extremely cool supergiant. We present optical, near-infrared (near-IR), and mid-IR spectroscopic and photometric observations of V838 Mon obtained between 2008 and 2012 at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m, NASA IRTF 3 m, and Gemini South 8 m telescopes. We contemporaneously analyze the optical and IR spectroscopic properties of V838 Mon to arrive at a revised spectral type L3 supergiant and effective temperature T{sub eff}?2000–2200 K. Because there are no existing optical observational data for L supergiants, we speculate that V838 Mon may represent the prototype for L supergiants in this wavelength regime. We find a low level of H? emission present in the system, consistent with interaction between V838 Mon and its B3V binary; however, we cannot rule out a stellar collision as the genesis event, which could result in the observed H? activity. Based upon a two-component blackbody fit to all wavelengths of our data, we conclude that, as of 2009, a shell of ejecta surrounded V838 Mon at a radius of R=263±10 AU with a temperature of T=285±2 K. This result is consistent with IR interferometric observations from the same era and predictions from the Lynch et al. model of the expanding system, which provides a simple framework for understanding this complicated system.

  10. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J.; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Benezeth, Pascale; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S.

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell’s infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct radiation from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system is demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO2 (scCO2) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay’s sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO2 hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO2 on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) in water-bearing scCO2 at 50 °C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO2, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 hours, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO2 and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO2 (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  11. Automated high-pressure titration system with in situ infrared spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.thompson@pnnl.gov; Martin, Paul F.; Chen, Jeffrey; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Loring, John S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Benezeth, Pascale [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)] [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), CNRS-Université de Toulouse, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully automated titration system with infrared detection was developed for investigating interfacial chemistry at high pressures. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure fluid generation and delivery system coupled to a high-pressure cell with infrared optics. A manifold of electronically actuated valves is used to direct pressurized fluids into the cell. Precise reagent additions to the pressurized cell are made with calibrated tubing loops that are filled with reagent and placed in-line with the cell and a syringe pump. The cell's infrared optics facilitate both transmission and attenuated total reflection (ATR) measurements to monitor bulk-fluid composition and solid-surface phenomena such as adsorption, desorption, complexation, dissolution, and precipitation. Switching between the two measurement modes is accomplished with moveable mirrors that direct the light path of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer into the cell along transmission or ATR light paths. The versatility of the high-pressure IR titration system was demonstrated with three case studies. First, we titrated water into supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) to generate an infrared calibration curve and determine the solubility of water in CO{sub 2} at 50?°C and 90 bar. Next, we characterized the partitioning of water between a montmorillonite clay and scCO{sub 2} at 50?°C and 90 bar. Transmission-mode spectra were used to quantify changes in the clay's sorbed water concentration as a function of scCO{sub 2} hydration, and ATR measurements provided insights into competitive residency of water and CO{sub 2} on the clay surface and in the interlayer. Finally, we demonstrated how time-dependent studies can be conducted with the system by monitoring the carbonation reaction of forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) in water-bearing scCO{sub 2} at 50?°C and 90 bar. Immediately after water dissolved in the scCO{sub 2}, a thin film of adsorbed water formed on the mineral surface, and the film thickness increased with time as the forsterite began to dissolve. However, after approximately 2.5 h, the trend reversed, and a carbonate precipitate began to form on the forsterite surface, exposing dramatic chemical changes in the thin-water film. Collectively, these applications illustrate how the high-pressure IR titration system can provide molecular-level information about the interactions between variably wet scCO{sub 2} and minerals relevant to underground storage of CO{sub 2} (geologic carbon sequestration). The apparatus could also be utilized to study high-pressure interfacial chemistry in other areas such as catalysis, polymerization, food processing, and oil and gas recovery.

  12. A CATALOG OF GALACTIC INFRARED CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P. S. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory and Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Yang, X. H., E-mail: iraspsc@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: yangxh@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We collected almost all of the Galactic infrared carbon stars (IRCSs) from literature published up to the present to organize a catalog of 974 Galactic IRCSs in this paper. Some of their photometric properties in the near-, mid-, and far-infrared are discussed.

  13. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  14. OPTICAL DIFFERENCE FREQUENCY GENERATION OF FAR INFRARED RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, J.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption on Far-Infrared Generation IV. V. Comparison withIII CHAPTER IV. PHASE MATCHED FAR-INFRARED GENERATION BY THE1970). CHAPTER IV. PHASE MATCHED FAR-INFRARED GENERATION BY

  15. The Use of Infrared Technology To Detect Heat Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkner, K.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared refers to electro magnetic energy with a wave length longer than those of visible light. Researchers developed methods to quantify, focus and form real-time images to infrared energy. This spawned the development of infrared Thenrography...

  16. Polymer-Ceramic MEMS Bimorphs as Thermal Infrared Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Clinton Gregory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in response to heating cause by infrared light. In order to70 Heating and cooling of infrared source as measured withto detect the heating and cooling of the infrared source,

  17. Radio--Far infrared correlation in "blue cloud" galaxies with 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Aritra; Beelen, Alexandre; Singh, Veeresh; Archana, K N; Sirothia, Sandeep; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the radio--far infrared (FIR) correlation in "blue cloud" galaxies chosen from the PRism MUltiobject Survey (PRIMUS) up to redshift ($z$) of 1.2 in the XMM-LSS field. We use rest-frame emission at 1.4 GHz in the radio and both monochromatic (at 70$\\mu$m) and bolometric (between $8-1000~\\mu$m) emission in the FIR. To probe the nature of the correlation up to $z\\sim1.2$, where direct detection of blue star-forming galaxies is impossible with current technology, we employ the technique of image stacking at 0.325 and 1.4 GHz in the radio and in six infrared bands, viz. 24, 70, 160, 250, 350 and $500~\\mu$m. For comparison, we also study the correlation for more luminous galaxies that are directly detected. The stacking analysis allows us to probe the radio--FIR correlation for galaxies that are up to 2 orders of magnitude fainter than the ones detected directly. The $k-$correction in the infrared wavebands is obtained by fitting the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) with a composite mid-IR power...

  18. C/O abundance ratios, iron depletions, and infrared dust features in Galactic planetary nebulae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Inglada, Gloria

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dust present in 56 Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) through their iron depletion factors, their C/O abundance ratios (in 51 objects), and the dust features that appear in their infrared spectra (for 33 objects). Our sample objects have deep optical spectra of good quality, and most of them also have ultraviolet observations. We use these observations to derive the iron abundances and the C/O abundance ratios in a homogeneous way for all the objects. We compile detections of infrared dust features from the literature and we analyze the available Spitzer/IRS spectra. Most of the PNe have C/O ratios below one and show crystalline silicates in their infrared spectra. The PNe with silicates have C/O < 1, with the exception of Cn 1-5. Most of the PNe with dust features related to C-rich environments (SiC or the 30 {\\mu}m feature usually associated to MgS) have C/O $\\gtrsim$ 0.8. PAHs are detected over the full range of C/O values, including 6 objects that also show silicates. Iron abundances are low...

  19. FY 2006 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics and optical fiber processing methods for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions.

  20. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa)] [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, 7935 Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); Escala, A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)] [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland)] [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Ryder, S., E-mail: zara@saao.ac.za [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ?40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M{sub K} ? –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency.

  1. Nanowire-based frequency-selective capacitive photodetector for resonant detection of infrared radiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, Saumil, E-mail: saumilb@mit.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Characteristics of a capacitive infrared photodetector that works at room temperature by registering a change in capacitance upon illumination are reported. If used in an ideal resonant inductor-resistor-capacitor circuit, it can exhibit zero dark current, zero standby power dissipation, infinite detectivity, and infinite light-to-dark contrast ratio. It is also made frequency-selective by employing semiconductor nanowires that selectively absorb photons of energies close to the nanowire's bandgap. Based on measured parameters, the normalized detectivity is estimated to be ?3?×?10{sup 7} Jones for 1.6??m IR wavelength at room temperature.

  2. Infrared spectroscopy of ionic clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, J.M. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes new experiments wherein the infrared vibrational predissociation spectra of a number of mass-selected ionic cluster systems have been obtained and analyzed in the 2600 to 4000 cm{sup {minus}1} region. The species studied include: the hydrated hydronium ions, H{sub 3}O{sup +} (H{sub 2}O){sub 3 {minus}10}, ammoniated ammonium ions, NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub 1 {minus}10} and cluster ions involving both water and ammonia around an ammonium ion core, (mixed clusters) NH{sub 4}{sup +}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m} (n+m=4). In each case, the spectra reveal well resolved structures that can be assigned to transitions arising from the vibrational motions of both the ion core of the clusters and the surrounding neutral solvent molecules. 154 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. FY 2005 Infrared Photonics Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Allen, Paul J.; Ho, Nicolas; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Johnson, Bradley R.; Sundaram, S. K.; Riley, Bradley M.; Martinez, James E.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Schultz, John F.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications by exploiting the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass. PNNL has developed thin-film deposition capabilities, direct laser writing techniques, infrared photonic device demonstration, holographic optical element design and fabrication, photonic device modeling, and advanced optical metrology—all specific to chalcogenide glass. Chalcogenide infrared photonics provides a pathway to quantum cascade laser (QCL) transmitter miniaturization. QCLs provide a viable infrared laser source for a new class of laser transmitters capable of meeting the performance requirements for a variety of national security sensing applications. The high output power, small size, and superb stability and modulation characteristics of QCLs make them amenable for integration as transmitters into ultra-sensitive, ultra-selective point sampling and remote short-range chemical sensors that are particularly useful for nuclear nonproliferation missions. During FY 2005, PNNL’s Infrared Photonics research team made measurable progress exploiting the extraordinary optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to develop miniaturized integrated optics for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. We investigated sulfur purification methods that will eventually lead to routine production of optical quality chalcogenide glass. We also discovered a glass degradation phenomenon and our investigation uncovered the underlying surface chemistry mechanism and developed mitigation actions. Key research was performed to understand and control the photomodification properties. This research was then used to demonstrate several essential infrared photonic devices, including LWIR single-mode waveguide devices and waveguide couplers. Optical metrology tools were also developed to characterize optical waveguide structures and LWIR optical components.

  4. A new architecture as transparent electrodes for solar and IR applications based on photonic structures via soft lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, Ping

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting electrodes with the combination of high optical transmission and good electrical conductivity are essential for solar energy harvesting and electric lighting devices. Currently, indium tin oxide (ITO) is used because ITO offers relatively high transparency (>80%) to visible light and low sheet resistance (R{sub s} = 10 ohms/square ({Omega}#2;/?)) for electrical conduction. However, ITO is costly due to limited indium reserves, and it is brittle. These disadvantages have motivated the search for other conducting electrodes with similar or better properties. There has been research on a variety of electrode structures involving carbon nanotube networks, graphene films, nanowire and nanopatterned meshes and grids. Due to their novel characteristics in light manipulation and collection, photonic crystal structures show promise for further improvement. Here, we report on a new architecture consisting of nanoscale high aspect ratio metallic photonic structures as transparent electrodes fabricated via a combination of processes. For (Au) and silver (Ag) structures, the visible light transmission can reach as high as 80%, and the sheet resistance of the structure can be as low as 3.2{Omega}#2;/?. The optical transparency of the high aspect ratio metal structures at visible wavelength range is comparable to that of ITO glass, while their sheet resistance is more than 3 times lower, which indicates a much higher electrical conductivity of the metal structures. Furthermore, the high aspect ratio metal structures have very high infrared (IR) reflection (90%) for the transverse magnetic (TM) mode, which can lead to the development of fabrication of metallic structures as IR filters for heat control applications. Investigations of interdigitated structures based on the high aspect ratio metal electrodes are ongoing to study the feasibility in smart window applications in light transmission modulation.

  5. Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stahl, Bennett

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Olson. “Observations of gamma-ray bursts of cosmic origin. ”E. Lingenfelter. “Gamma-ray bursts. ” Annual Review of652-654. Waxman, Eli. “Gamma-ray-burst afterglow: supporting

  6. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Automated High-Pressure Titration System with In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Detection. Abstract: A...

  7. Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared Spectrum and Assignment of Vibrational Fundamentals of Analysis of Rotational Structure in the High-Resolution Infrared...

  8. Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Infrared Thermography (IRT) Working Group Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado...

  9. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy. Detection of Low Volatility Organic Analytes on Soils Using Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy....

  10. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-PhaseGlyoxal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal,Methylglyoxal,...

  11. atmospheric infrared sounder: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 4 Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder:...

  12. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman Spectroscopy. High Throughput Operando Studies using Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and Raman...

  13. DNA microarray analyses reveal a post-irradiation differential time-dependent gene expression profile in yeast cells exposed to X-rays and {gamma}-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Shinzo [Laboratory of Environmental Biology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Ishidou, Emi [Human Stress Signal Research Center (HSS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) WEST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Kurita, Sakiko [Human Stress Signal Research Center (HSS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) WEST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshiteru [Human Stress Signal Research Center (HSS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) WEST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Shibato, Junko [Human Stress Signal Research Center (HSS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) WEST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Rakwal, Randeep [Human Stress Signal Research Center (HSS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) WEST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)]. E-mail: rakwal-68@aist.go.jp; Iwahashi, Hitoshi [Human Stress Signal Research Center (HSS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) WEST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan)

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is the most enigmatic of genotoxic stress inducers in our environment that has been around from the eons of time. IR is generally considered harmful, and has been the subject of numerous studies, mostly looking at the DNA damaging effects in cells and the repair mechanisms therein. Moreover, few studies have focused on large-scale identification of cellular responses to IR, and to this end, we describe here an initial study on the transcriptional responses of the unicellular genome model, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C), by cDNA microarray. The effect of two different IR, X-rays, and gamma ({gamma})-rays, was investigated by irradiating the yeast cells cultured in YPD medium with 50 Gy doses of X- and {gamma}-rays, followed by resuspension of the cells in YPD for time-course experiments. The samples were collected for microarray analysis at 20, 40, and 80 min after irradiation. Microarray analysis revealed a time-course transcriptional profile of changed gene expressions. Up-regulated genes belonged to the functional categories mainly related to cell cycle and DNA processing, cell rescue defense and virulence, protein and cell fate, and metabolism (X- and {gamma}-rays). Similarly, for X- and {gamma}-rays, the down-regulated genes belonged to mostly transcription and protein synthesis, cell cycle and DNA processing, control of cellular organization, cell fate, and C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism categories, respectively. This study provides for the first time a snapshot of the genome-wide mRNA expression profiles in X- and {gamma}-ray post-irradiated yeast cells and comparatively interprets/discusses the changed gene functional categories as effects of these two radiations vis-a-vis their energy levels.

  14. Discriminating trpzip2 and trpzip4 peptides’ folding landscape using the two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: A simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Tianmin; Zhang, Ruiting; Li, Huanhuan; Zhuang, Wei, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China); Yang, Lijiang, E-mail: wzhuang@dicp.ac.cn, E-mail: lijiangy@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyzed, based on the theoretical spectroscopic modeling, how the differences in the folding landscapes of two ?-hairpin peptides trpzip2 and trpzip4 are reflected in their thermal unfolding infrared measurements. The isotope-edited equilibrium FTIR and two dimensional infrared spectra of the two peptides were calculated, using the nonlinear exciton propagation method, at a series of temperatures. The spectra calculations were based on the configuration distributions generated using the GB{sup OBC} implicit solvent MD simulation and the integrated tempering sampling technique. Conformational analysis revealed the different local thermal stabilities for these two peptides, which suggested the different folding landscapes. Our study further suggested that the ellipticities of the isotope peaks in the coherent IR signals are more sensitive to these local stability differences compared with other spectral features such as the peak intensities. Our technique can thus be combined with the relevant experimental measurements to achieve a better understanding of the peptide folding behaviors.

  15. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  16. Multi-Messenger Astronomy: Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays, and Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Halzen

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Although cosmic rays were discovered a century ago, we do not know where or how they are accelerated. There is a realistic hope that the oldest problem in astronomy will be solved soon by ambitious experimentation: air shower arrays of 10,000 kilometer-square area, arrays of air Cerenkov telescopes and kilometer- scale neutrino observatories. Their predecessors are producing science. We will review the highlights: - Cosmic rays: the highest energy particles and the GZK cutoff, the search for cosmic accelerators and the the Cygnus region, top-down mechanisms: photons versus protons? - TeV-energy gamma rays: blazars, how molecular clouds may have revealed proton beams, first hints of the diffuse infrared background? - Neutrinos: first results and proof of concept for technologies to construct kilometer-scale observatories.

  17. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bullington, Jeff A. (Albuquerque, NM); Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert W. (Seneca, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  18. THE NUCLEAR INFRARED EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Levenson, N. A.; Radomski, J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea, s/n, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Colina, L. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Crta de Torrejon a Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Elitzur, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Roche, P. F. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Oi, N. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) imaging, nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and archival Spitzer spectra for 22 low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs; L{sub bol} {approx}< 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}). Infrared (IR) observations may advance our understanding of the accretion flows in LLAGNs, the fate of the obscuring torus at low accretion rates, and, perhaps, the star formation histories of these objects. However, while comprehensively studied in higher-luminosity Seyferts and quasars, the nuclear IR properties of LLAGNs have not yet been well determined. We separate the present LLAGN sample into three categories depending on their Eddington ratio and radio emission, finding different IR characteristics for each class. (1) At the low-luminosity, low-Eddington-ratio (log L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} < -4.6) end of the sample, we identify 'host-dominated' galaxies with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bands that may indicate active (circum-)nuclear star formation. (2) Some very radio-loud objects are also present at these low Eddington ratios. The IR emission in these nuclei is dominated by synchrotron radiation, and some are likely to be unobscured type 2 AGNs that genuinely lack a broad-line region. (3) At higher Eddington ratios, strong, compact nuclear sources are visible in the MIR images. The nuclear SEDs of these galaxies are diverse; some resemble typical Seyfert nuclei, while others lack a well-defined MIR 'dust bump'. Strong silicate emission is present in many of these objects. We speculate that this, together with high ratios of silicate strength to hydrogen column density, could suggest optically thin dust and low dust-to-gas ratios, in accordance with model predictions that LLAGNs do not host a Seyfert-like obscuring torus. We anticipate that detailed modeling of the new data and SEDs in terms of accretion disk, jet, radiatively inefficient accretion flow, and torus components will provide further insights into the nuclear structures and processes of LLAGNs.

  19. ISO and the Cosmic Infrared Background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herve Dole

    2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ISO observed, for the first time to such a high sensitivity level, the mid- and far-infrared universe. A Number of deep surveys were performed to probe the cosmological evolution of galaxies. In this review, I discuss and summarize results of mid-infrared ISOCAM and far-infrared ISOPHOT surveys, and show how our vision of the extragalactic infrared universe has become more accurate. In particular, ISO allowed us to resolve into sources a significant fraction of the Cosmic Infrared Background (CIB) in the mid-infrared, and to probe a fainter population in the far-infrared with the detection of the CIB fluctuations. Together with other wavelength data sets, the nature of ISO galaxies is now in the process of being understood. I also show that the high quality of the ISO data put strong constraints on the scenarios of galaxy evolution. This induced a burst in the development of models, yielding to a more coherent picture of galaxy evolution. I finally emphasize the potential of the ISO data archive in the field of observational cosmology, and describe the next steps, in particular the forthcoming cosmological surveys to be carried out by SIRTF.

  20. Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC IR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabbi, G.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Coccoli, M.; Dietderich, D.r.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb{sub 3}Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb{sub 3}Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented.

  1. The gas-rich circumbinary disk of HR 4049. I. A detailed study of the mid-infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J., E-mail: sarahemalek@gmail.com, E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of the peculiar evolved object HR 4049. The full Spitzer-IRS high-resolution spectrum shows a wealth of emission with prominent features from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and possible contributions from HCN and OH. We model the molecular emission and find that it originates from a massive (M ? 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ?}), warm (T {sub ex} ? 500 K) and radially extended gas disk that is optically thick at infrared wavelengths. We also report less enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O than previously found and a comparison of the Spitzer observations to earlier data obtained by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory reveals that the CO{sub 2} flux has more than doubled in 10 yr time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. If the gas originates from interaction between the stellar wind and the dust, this suggests that the dust could be oxygen-rich in nature. The molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the infrared photons emitted by the dust. This results in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk.

  2. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datskos, Panagiotis G. (Knoxville, TN); Rajic, Solobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskou, Irene C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

  3. Infrared Evolution Equations: Method and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. I. Ermolaev; M. Greco; S. I. Troyan

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a brief review on composing and solving Infrared Evolution Equations. They can be used in order to calculate amplitudes of high-energy reactions in different kinematic regions in the double-logarithmic approximation.

  4. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Herdegen

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  5. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  6. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Concord, TN); Ohriner, Evan Keith (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  7. Science and applications of infrared semiconductor nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Scott Mitchell

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we study several applications of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with infrared band gaps. In the first half, we explore the physics of two systems with applications in NC based photovoltaics. The physics of ...

  8. Rapid infrared heating of a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Blue, Craig A.; Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    High energy flux infrared heaters are used to treat an object having a surface section and a base section such that a desired characteristic of the surface section is physically, chemically, or phasically changed while the base section remains unchanged.

  9. The near infrared 12 1 electronic transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, John Paul

    The near infrared 12 A00 2 X2 A0 1 electronic transition of B3 in a neon matrix Anton Batalov, Jan applying a double reflection technique. The light beam reflects from the metal surface of the substrate

  10. Applying near-infrared spectroscopy (nirs)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wruck, Eric Michael

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated. A recently developed optical imaging technique called near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) shows promise for being an acceptable alternative to invasive imaging techniques. NIRS measures correlates of neural activity by assessing hemoglobin...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of infrared quantum dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Daniel Kelly

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the development of synthetic methods to create application ready quantum dots (QDs) in the infrared for biological imaging and optoelectronic devices. I concentrated primarily on controlling the size ...

  12. Principles of X-ray Navigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, John Eric; /SLAC

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray navigation is a new concept in satellite navigation in which orientation, position and time are measured by observing stellar emissions in x-ray wavelengths. X-ray navigation offers the opportunity for a single instrument to be used to measure these parameters autonomously. Furthermore, this concept is not limited to missions in close proximity to the earth. X-ray navigation can be used on a variety of missions from satellites in low earth orbit to spacecraft on interplanetary missions. In 1997 the Unconventional Stellar Aspect Experiment (USA) will be launched as part of the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). USA will provide the first platform for real-time experimentation in the field of x-ray navigation and also serves as an excellent case study for the design and manufacturing of space qualified systems in small, autonomous groups. Current techniques for determining the orientation of a satellite rely on observations of the earth, sun and stars in infrared, visible or ultraviolet wavelengths. It is possible to use x-ray imaging devices to provide arcsecond level measurement of attitude based on star patterns in the x-ray sky. This technique is explored with a simple simulation. Collimated x-ray detectors can be used on spinning satellites to provide a cheap and reliable measure of orientation. This is demonstrated using observations of the Crab Pulsar taken by the high Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-1) in 1977. A single instrument concept is shown to be effective, but dependent on an a priori estimate of the guide star intensity and thus susceptible to errors in that estimate. A star scanner based on a differential measurement from two x-ray detectors eliminates the need for an a priori estimate of the guide star intensity. A first order model and a second order model of the two star scanner concepts are considered. Many of the stars that emit in the x-ray regime are also x-ray pulsars with frequency stability approaching a part in 10{sup 9}. By observing these pulsations, a satellite can keep accurate time autonomously. They have demonstrated the acquisition and tracking of the Crab nebula pulsar by simulating the operation of a phase-locked loop.

  13. The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1 X-ray and Gamma-ray Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enomoto, Ryoji

    The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1 X-ray and Gamma-ray Measurements Masaki Mori-ray and gamma-ray measurements, of the 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference. 1. Introduction Thick atmosphere of the earth forces direct observations of X-rays and gamma-rays on satellites in space

  14. Infrared Issues in Graviton Higgs Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srijit Bhattacharjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the one-loop infrared behaviour of the effective potential in minimally coupled graviton Higgs theory in Minkowski background. The gravitational analogue of one loop Coleman Weinberg effective potential turns out to be complex, the imaginary part indicating an infrared instability. This instability is traced to a tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator for constant Higgs fields. Physical implications of this behaviour are studied. We also discuss physical differences between gauge theories coupled to Higgs fields and graviton Higgs theory.

  15. Infrared-laser spectroscopy, 1980-1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, R.S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The review article used as a text for the Short Course on Infrared Laser Spectroscopy was completed in January 1980 and included only a few references after that date. There has ensued three years of progress, during which spectroscopy using tunable infrared lasers has become an increasingly used tool both for basic research and for analytical and industrial applications. The present paper, which follows closely the outline of the earlier review, updates the latter to early 1983. 238 references.

  16. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    levels for objects seen in the CRT. (Radiance levels refer to the amount of infrared energy produced by an object.) The conversion of these radiance compari sons to temperatures and heat flows will be discussed below. Infrared images may be recorded... radiance level comparisons since colors may be associated with particular temperature ranges. Black and white images may be colorized during the inspection process. Alternatively, the black and white images may be stored on magnetic tape and color...

  17. Gamma ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  18. THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, K. S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Chernyshov, D. O. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii lane, 141700 Moscow Region, Dolgoprudnii (Russian Federation); Dogiel, V. A. [I. E. Tamm Theoretical Physics Division of P. N. Lebedev Institute, Leninskii pr, 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Hui, C. Y. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermi has detected gamma-ray emission from eight globular clusters (GCs). It is commonly believed that the energy sources of these gamma rays are millisecond pulsars (MSPs) inside GCs. Also it has been standard to explain the spectra of most Fermi Large Area Telescope pulsars including MSPs resulting from the curvature radiation (CR) of relativistic electrons/positrons inside the pulsar magnetosphere. Therefore, gamma rays from GCs are expected to be the collection of CR from all MSPs inside the clusters. However, the angular resolution is not high enough to pinpoint the nature of the emission. In this paper, we calculate the gamma rays produced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering between relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar wind of MSPs in the GCs and background soft photons including cosmic microwave/relic photons, background star lights in the clusters, the galactic infrared photons, and the galactic star lights. We show that the gamma-ray spectrum from 47 Tucanae can be explained equally well by upward scattering of either the relic photons, the galactic infrared photons, or the galactic star lights, whereas the gamma-ray spectra from the other seven GCs are best fitted by the upward scattering of either the galactic infrared photons or the galactic star lights. We also find that the observed gamma-ray luminosity is correlated better with the combined factor of the encounter rate and the background soft photon energy density. Therefore, the IC scattering may also contribute to the observed gamma-ray emission from GCs detected by Fermi in addition to the standard CR process. Furthermore, we find that the emission region of high-energy photons from GCs produced by the IC scattering is substantially larger than the cores of GCs with a radius >10 pc. The diffuse radio and X-rays emitted from GCs can also be produced by the synchrotron radiation and IC scattering, respectively. We suggest that future observations including radio, X-rays, and gamma rays with energy higher than 10 GeV and better angular resolution can provide better constraints for the models.

  19. Mechanism of Homogeneous Ir(III) Catalyzed Regioselective Arylation of Olefins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    . On the basis of this mechanism, we suggest new catalysts expected to have improved activity. Initiation by reduction. Recently, Matsumoto2-4 and Periana5 reported the synthesis of a novel Ir complex, [Ir (turn- over-frequency (TOF) of 10-3 s-1 at 200 °C), but there are also problems with selectivity, cost

  20. A Comparison of LSA, WordNet and PMI-IR for Predicting User Click Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornof, Anthony

    A Comparison of LSA, WordNet and PMI-IR for Predicting User Click Behavior Ishwinder Kaur. This paper discusses a comparison of three semantic systems--LSA, WordNet and PMI-IR--to evaluate their performance in predicting the link that people would select given an information goal and a webpage. PMI

  1. A STUDY OF HEATING AND COOLING OF THE ISM IN NGC 1097 WITH HERSCHEL-PACS AND SPITZER-IRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beirao, P.; Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Helou, G. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. N. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Smith, J.-D. T.; Croxall, K. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mail Drop 111, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Wolfire, M. G.; Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Sandstrom, K. M.; Groves, B.; Schinnerer, E.; Rix, H.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Crocker, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hinz, J. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C., E-mail: pedro@ipac.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar, and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far-infrared (FIR) [C II]158 {mu}m and [O I]63 {mu}m lines and mid-infrared H{sub 2} emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star-forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([C II]158 {mu}m+[O I]63 {mu}m)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7 {mu}m PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [C II]158 {mu}m/PAH(5.5-14 {mu}m) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [C II]158 {mu}m and [O I]63 {mu}m emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high-intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 2.3} and n{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 3.5} cm{sup -3} in the ring. For these values of G{sub 0} and n{sub H}, PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H{sub 2} emission. Much of the H{sub 2} emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse interstellar medium that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.

  2. Infrared finite coupling in Sudakov resummation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georges Grunberg

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    New arguments are presented to emphasize the interest of the infrared finite coupling approach to power corrections in the context of Sudakov resummation. The more regular infrared behavior of some peculiar combinations of Sudakov anomalous dimensions, free of Landau singularities at large Nf, is pointed out. A general conflict between the infrared finite coupling and infrared renormalon approaches to power corrections is explained, and a possible resolution is proposed, which makes use of the arbitrariness of the choice of exponentiated constant terms. A simple ansatz for a 'universal' non-perturbative Sudakov effective coupling at large Nf follows naturally from these considerations. In this last version, a new result is presented: the striking emergence of an infrared finite perturbative effective coupling in the Drell-Yan process at large Nf (at odds with the infrared renormalon argument) within the framework of Sudakov resummation for eikonal cross sections of Laenen, Sterman and Vogelsang. Some suggestions for phenomenology at finite Nf, alternative to the shape function approach, are given.

  3. Infrared spectroscopic diagnostics for Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luigi Spinoglio

    2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy in the mid- and far-infrared provides powerful diagnostics for studying the emission regions in active galaxies. The large variety of ionic fine structure lines can probe gas conditions in a variety of physical conditions, from highly ionized gas excited by photons originated by black hole accretion to gas photoionized by young stellar systems. The critical density and the ionization potential of these transitions allow to fully cover the density-ionization parameter space. Some examples of line ratios diagrams using both mid-infrared and far-infrared ionic fine structure lines are presented. The upcoming space observatory Herschel will be able to observe the far-infrared spectra of large samples of local active galaxies. Based on the observed near-to-far infrared emission line spectrum of the template galaxy NGC1068, are presented the predictions for the line fluxes expected for galaxies at high redshift. To observe spectroscopically large samples of distant galaxies, we will have to wait fot the future space missions, like SPICA and, ultimately, FIRI.

  4. A Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) for DES/CTIO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Peter M.; Rogers, Howard; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel radiometric all-sky infrared camera [RASICAM] has been constructed to allow automated real-time quantitative assessment of night sky conditions for the Dark Energy Camera [DECam] located on the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The camera is optimized to detect the position, motion and optical depth of thin, high (8-10km) cirrus clouds and contrails by measuring their apparent temperature above the night sky background. The camera system utilizes a novel wide-field equiresolution catadioptic mirror system that provides sky coverage of 2{pi} azimuth and 14-90{sup o} from zenith. Several new technological and design innovations allow the RASICAM system to provide unprecedented cloud detection and IR-based photometricity quantification. The design of the RASICAM system is presented.

  5. The development of in-situ calibration method for divertor IR thermography in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sugie, T.; Ogawa, H.; Takeyama, S.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    For the development of the calibration method of the emissivity in IR light on the divertor plate in ITER divertor IR thermography system, the laboratory experiments have been performed by using IR instruments. The calibration of the IR camera was performed by the plane black body in the temperature of 100–600 degC. The radiances of the tungsten heated by 280 degC were measured by the IR camera without filter (2.5–5.1 ?m) and with filter (2.95 ?m, 4.67 ?m). The preliminary data of the scattered light of the laser of 3.34 ?m that injected into the tungsten were acquired.

  6. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mobasher, Bahram [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Faber, S. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 92064 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Graur, Or [Department of Astrophysics, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); and others

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z Almost-Equal-To 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  7. Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

  8. Extraction and analysis of pollutant organics from contaminated solids using off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and on-line SFE-infrared spectroscopy. Task 2. Semiannual report, November 1995--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawthorne, S.B.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes activities in the following tasks associated with a project on environmental management technology decontamination and commercialization: A commercialized version of a field-portable instrument for performing supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection;pyrolysis of plastic wastes associated with mixtures of radioactive wastes;management and reporting activities; centrifugal membrane filtration with application to tank waste remediation; technology development integration activities associated with remedial action and waste management.

  9. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1?x}N thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria)] [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria)] [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)] [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1?x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  10. CITIUS: An infrared-extreme ultraviolet light source for fundamental and applied ultrafast science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazioli, C.; Gauthier, D.; Ivanov, R.; De Ninno, G. [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia) [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)] [Italy; Callegari, C.; Spezzani, C. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy)] [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Ciavardini, A. [Sapienza University, Rome (Italy)] [Sapienza University, Rome (Italy); Coreno, M. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy) [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas (CNR-IMIP), Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P.; Poletto, L. [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), Padova (Italy)] [Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), Padova (Italy); Golob, D. [Kontrolni Sistemi d.o.o., Sežana (Slovenia)] [Kontrolni Sistemi d.o.o., Sežana (Slovenia); Kivimäki, A. [Institute of Materials Manufacturing (CNR-IOM), TASC Laboratory, Trieste (Italy)] [Institute of Materials Manufacturing (CNR-IOM), TASC Laboratory, Trieste (Italy); Mahieu, B. [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy) [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Service des Photons Atomes et Molécules, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique, Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, Bâtiment 522, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bu?ar, B.; Merhar, M. [Laboratory of Mechanical Processing Technologies, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)] [Laboratory of Mechanical Processing Technologies, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Polo, E. [Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (CNR-ISOF), Ferrara (Italy)] [Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (CNR-ISOF), Ferrara (Italy); Ressel, B. [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)] [Laboratory of Quantum Optics, University of Nova Gorica, Nova Gorica (Slovenia)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the main features of CITIUS, a new light source for ultrafast science, generating tunable, intense, femtosecond pulses in the spectral range from infrared to extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The XUV pulses (about 10{sup 5}-10{sup 8} photons/pulse in the range 14-80 eV) are produced by laser-induced high-order harmonic generation in gas. This radiation is monochromatized by a time-preserving monochromator, also allowing one to work with high-resolution bandwidth selection. The tunable IR-UV pulses (10{sup 12}-10{sup 15} photons/pulse in the range 0.4-5.6 eV) are generated by an optical parametric amplifier, which is driven by a fraction of the same laser pulse that generates high order harmonics. The IR-UV and XUV pulses follow different optical paths and are eventually recombined on the sample for pump-probe experiments. We also present the results of two pump-probe experiments: with the first one, we fully characterized the temporal duration of harmonic pulses in the time-preserving configuration; with the second one, we demonstrated the possibility of using CITIUS for selective investigation of the ultra-fast dynamics of different elements in a magnetic compound.

  11. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C.; Farrington, Jaime A.; Layne, Bobby H.; Preses, Jack M.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Wishart, James F.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of amore »unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.« less

  12. Mid-Infrared Source Multiplicity within Hot Molecular Cores traced by Methanol Masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. N. Longmore; M. G. Burton; V. Minier; A. J. Walsh

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high resolution, mid-infrared images toward three hot molecular cores signposted by methanol maser emission; G173.49+2.42 (S231, S233IR), G188.95+0.89 (S252, AFGL-5180) and G192.60-0.05 (S255IR). Each of the cores was targeted with Michelle on Gemini North using 5 filters from 7.9 to 18.5 microns. We find each contains both large regions of extended emission and multiple, luminous point sources which, from their extremely red colours (F[18.5]/F[7.9] >= 3), appear to be embedded young stellar objects. The closest angular separations of the point sources in the three regions are 0.79, 1.00 and 3.33 arcseconds corresponding to linear separations of 1,700, 1,800 and 6,000AU respectively. The methanol maser emission is found closest to the brightest MIR point source (within the assumed 1 arcsecond pointing accuracy). Mass and luminosity estimates for the sources range from 3-22 Msol and 50-40,000 Lsol. Assuming the MIR sources are embedded objects and the observed gas mass provides the bulk of the reservoir from which the stars formed, it is difficult to generate the observed distributions for the most massive cluster members from the gas in the cores using a standard form of the IMF.

  13. Study of the hydrolysis of uranium hexafluoride by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.P.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction of uranium hexafluoride with water has been studied by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Several different methods for accomplishing this task have been carried out. In addition, interpretatins of the results have been made. These interpretations have been based on literature values for the reactants and for compounds analogous to possible products. It was shown that classical matrix-isolation techniques proved to be unsatisfactory for studying this reaction. Other methods were developed in order to obtain results. They were: (1) the codeposition of pure UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/O on a cold window at 16/sup 0/K, (2) the codeposition of argon matrix to sample ratios of 10:1 to 2:1 of UF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/O at 16/sup 0/K, and (3) the annealing of the samples produced by (1) and (2) while they were being scanned with FT-IR. 78 refs., 86 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. The gas-rich disk of HR 4049: A study of the infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malek, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Cami, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 Canada and SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94034 (United States)

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we present a summary of our analyses of the mid-and near-infrared spectrum of the unusual evolved binary HR 4049. We f nd that the disk is massive (M > 8 × 10{sup ?3} M{sub ?}), warm and radially extended. We also report some enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O and a comparison of observations from Spitzer-IRS to those obtained by ISO-SWS 10 years earlier reveals that the CO{sub 2} f ux has more than doubled in this time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. Given the high column densities of the gas in the disk, we expect that the molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the IR photons emitted by the dust. This will result in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk. Finally, we estimate a mass for the primary in HR 4049 which is too low for the star to have experienced a typical evolutionary path.

  15. Development of nanosecond time-resolved infrared detection at the LEAF pulse radiolysis facility

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grills, David C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Farrington, Jaime A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Layne, Bobby H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Preses, Jack M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bernstein, Herbert J. [Dowling College, Shirley, NY (United States); Wishart, James F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When coupled with transient absorption spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis, which utilizes high-energy electron pulses from an accelerator, is a powerful tool for investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics of a wide range of radiation-induced redox and electron transfer processes. The majority of these investigations detect transient species in the UV, visible, or near-IR spectral regions. Unfortunately, the often-broad and featureless absorption bands in these regions can make the definitive identification of intermediates difficult. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy would offer much improved structural characterization, but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis. In this paper, we describe in detail the development of a unique nanosecond time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection capability for condensed-phase pulse radiolysis on a new beam line at the LEAF facility of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The system makes use of a suite of high-power, continuous wave external-cavity quantum cascade lasers as the IR probe source, with coverage from 2330-1051 cm?¹. The response time of the TRIR detection setup is ?40 ns, with a typical sensitivity of ?100 µOD after 4-8 signal averages using a dual-beam probe/reference normalization detection scheme. This new detection method has enabled mechanistic investigations of a range of radiation-induced chemical processes, some of which are highlighted here.

  16. MID-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS. II. THE STRUCTURE OF MASSIVE STARLESS CORES AND CLUMPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, Michael J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop the mid-infrared extinction (MIREX) mapping technique of Butler and Tan (Paper I), presenting a new method to correct for the Galactic foreground emission based on observed saturation in independent cores. Using Spitzer GLIMPSE 8 {mu}m images, this allows us to accurately probe mass surface densities, {Sigma}, up to {approx_equal} 0.5 g cm{sup -2} with 2'' resolution and mitigate one of the main sources of uncertainty associated with Galactic MIREX mapping. We then characterize the structure of 42 massive starless and early-stage cores and their surrounding clumps, selected from 10 infrared dark clouds, measuring {Sigma}{sub cl}(r) from the core/clump centers. We first assess the properties of the core/clump at a scale where the total enclosed mass as projected on the sky is M{sub cl} = 60 M{sub Sun }. We find that these objects have a mean radius of R{sub cl} {approx_equal} 0.1 pc, mean {Sigma}{sub cl} = 0.3 g cm{sup -} and, if fitted by a power-law (PL) density profile {rho}{sub cl}{proportional_to}r{sup -k{sub {rho}}{sub ,}{sub c}{sub l}}, a mean value of k{sub {rho},cl} = 1.1. If we assume a core is embedded in each clump and subtract the surrounding clump envelope to derive the core properties, then we find a mean core density PL index of k{sub {rho},c} = 1.6. We repeat this analysis as a function of radius and derive the best-fitting PL plus uniform clump envelope model for each of the 42 core/clumps. The cores have typical masses of M{sub c} {approx} 100 M{sub Sun} and {Sigma}-bar{sub c} {approx} 0.1 g cm{sup -2}, and are embedded in clumps with comparable mass surface densities. We also consider Bonnor-Ebert density models, but these do not fit the observed {Sigma} profiles as well as PLs. We conclude that massive starless cores exist and are well described by singular polytropic spheres. Their relatively low values of {Sigma} and the fact that they are IR dark may imply that their fragmentation is inhibited by magnetic fields rather than radiative heating. Comparing to massive star-forming cores and clumps, there is tentative evidence for an evolution toward higher densities and steeper density profiles as star formation proceeds.

  17. Interaction of far-infrared and mid-infrared laser transitions in the ammonia laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.Y.; Buchwald, M.I.; Jones, C.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mid-infrared laser emission in ammonia is usually observed on a P(J + 2) transition when a CO/sub 2/ laser is used to optically pump a near resonant R(J) absorption feature. However, by generating simultaneous FIR ammonia laser emission in the same optical cavity, mid-infrared emission is obtained exclusively on the P(J) transition.

  18. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena 144147 (2005) 259269 Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy of biological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    in the case of electron beam based techniques; radiation damage in the case of electron microscopy; lack. This requires a source of bright, continu- ouslytunablesoftX-rays(50­2000 eV),andthussynchrotron radiation spatial reso- lution in the case of IR, NMR and optical techniques; inabil- ity to couple to wet specimens

  19. Stretching and bending with flexible FT-IR process monitors, probes and software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, D.C. [KVB/Analect, Utica, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    FT-IR process analyzers continue to gain recognition for reliable and accurate on-line analyses on a broad variety of processes around the world. When fast analyses are required, on-line FT-IR analyzers offer speed and specificity for many applications. The use of FT-IR spectroscopy, either in the Mid-IR region or Near IR region offers fundamental advantages over other technologies. These advantages make calibrations exceptionally stable for an analyzer over time and offer improved ease of calibration transfer between similar analyzers. Spectral region selection criteria are reviewed, to help define when to use the Mid-IR region or the Near-IR region (or even when to use parts of both) for a given sample stream. New fiber optic sampling probes for transmission, attenuated total reflection, diffuse reflection and web sensing have solved nagging problems. What many process analyzer specialists are discovering is that new probes are becoming available each month, offering newer process tolerance (can tolerate higher temp or pressure) or even new sampling approaches altogether. This paper describes on-line applications in pharmaceuticals, specialty chemicals, polymer production and refinery production which demonstrate the range of techniques used to appropriately optimize the on-line analyzer. In addition, calibration transfer issues will be discussed, demonstrating the importance of the software tools to help sort out the causes for cal errors (spectral contamination, etc.).

  20. Infrared curing simulations of liquid composites molding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakouzi, S.; Pancrace, J.; Schmidt, F. M.; Le Maoult, Y.; Berthet, F. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INSA, UPS, Mines Albi, ISAE, ICA - Institut Clement Ader, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi cedex 09 (France); Ecole des Mines Albi, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi (France)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared radiation is an effective energy source to cure thermosetting polymers. Its usage is expected to reduce curing time in comparison with thermal heating and mold thermally regulated. In addition, because of the polymerization mechanism and instant on-off control of this power, an improvement in the final properties of the material is also expected. In this paper, we studied the infrared interaction with carbon (or glass) fibers reinforced epoxy matrix, where Liquid resin infusion (LRI) is used to manufacture the composite. Temperature of the composite is a key parameter that affects its mechanical properties and is controlled by the infrared emitters and the exothermic heat released from the polymerization. Radiative heat flux is computed using the in-lab developed software RAYHEAT. Then, the heat flux (or absorbed energy for glass fibers) is exported to the finite element based program COMSOLMULTIPHYSICS where heat balance equation is solved. This equation is coupled with the exothermic heat released during the curing process in order to predict the composite temperature versus time and degree of cure. Numerical simulations will be performed on planar parts (sheet shape) as well as curvilinear shapes. Experimental validations of the infrared curing carbon (glass)-epoxy composite system are presented in this paper Sheet surface temperature distribution are measured thanks to infrared camera. Kinetic parameters were estimated from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experimental data.

  1. US-LARP Progress on LHC IR Upgrades Tanaji Sen, John Johnstone, Nikolai Mokhov, FNAL, Batavia, IL 60510

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tanaji

    of a long-range interaction on the beams. IR DESIGNS Design and construction of next generation IR magnets in determining these parameters. The required field quality is another key input to the magnet designers. An IR to higher luminosity. In the designs to be presented here, we consider the inner triplet magnets

  2. Recap Clustering: Introduction Clustering in IR K-means Evaluation How many clusters? Introduction to Information Retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Recap Clustering: Introduction Clustering in IR K-means Evaluation How many clusters? Introduction;Recap Clustering: Introduction Clustering in IR K-means Evaluation How many clusters? Overview 1 Recap 2 Clustering: Introduction 3 Clustering in IR 4 K-means 5 Evaluation 6 How many clusters? Sch¨utze: Flat

  3. COUNTRY INSTITUTION DATE WEB ADDRESS IRAN University of Art Isfahn 08.03.2007 http://www.aui.ac.ir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    COUNTRY INSTITUTION DATE WEB ADDRESS IRAN University of Art Isfahn 08.03.2007 http://www.aui.ac.ir IRAN Isfahn University of Technology 08.03.2007 http://www.iut.ac.ir IRAN The University of Isfahn 15/03/2011 http://www.ui.ac.ir IRAN Shahid Bahonar University of Kermn 06.06.2005 http

  4. Ray J. Corey- Biography

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ray Corey currently serves as the Assistance Manager for Safety and Environment at the DOE Richland Operations office (RL).

  5. Near Infrared Observations of the novae V2491 Cygni and V597 Puppis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachindra Naik; D. P. K. Banerjee; N. M. Ashok

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results obtained from near-infrared JHK spectroscopic observations of novae V2491 Cyg and V597 Pup in the early declining phases of their 2007 and 2008 outbursts respectively. In both objects, the spectra displayed emission lines of HI, OI, HeI and NI. In V597 Pup, the HeI lines were found to strengthen rapidly with time. Based on the observed spectral characteristics, both objects are classified as He/N novae. We have investigated the possibility of V2491 Cyg being a recurrent nova as has been suggested. By studying the temporal evolution of the line widths in V2491 Cyg it appears unlikely that the binary companion is a giant star with heavy wind as in recurrent novae of the RS Oph type. Significant deviations from that of recombination case B conditions are observed in the strengths of the HI lines. This indicates that the HI lines, in both novae, are optically thick during the span of our observations. The slope of the continuum spectra in both cases was found to have a \\lambda^-(3-3.5) dependence which deviates from a Rayleigh-Jeans spectral distribution. Both novae were detected in the post-outburst super-soft X-ray phase; V2491 Cyg being very bright in X-rays has been the target of several observations. We discuss and correlate our infrared observations with the observed X-ray properties of these novae.

  6. Near Infrared Spectroscopy of the Ultracompact HII region G45.12+0.13

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart Lumsden; Phil Puxley

    1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present complete, low resolution IJHK spectroscopy of the ultracompact HII region, G45.12+0.13. From the observed HI line strengths, we derive a near infrared extinction law that is slightly steeper than the average. After correction with this extinction law, we find good agreement between the observed line ratios of HeI, Fe+, Fe++, S+ and S++ and the available atomic data. Our data show that the density within the core of G45.12+0.13 must be at least 10^4/cm^3. This is consistent with the known radio structure of the HII region and in considerable disagreement with previous work using mid and far infrared lines. There must also be considerable opacity in the HeI 2 3P-2 3S transition, and we show how the observed strengths of the other HeI lines are consistent with this. From modelling the photoionisation structure, we find good agreement with most of the observed data if the hottest star present has Teff 38000K. Discrepancies still exist between some of the observed and model line ratios, but the most obvious tend to be the mid-IR observations.

  7. Properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in local elliptical galaxies revealed by the Infrared Spectrograph on Spitzer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kaneda; T. Onaka; I. Sakon; T. Kitayama; Y. Okada; T. Suzuki

    2008-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of 18 local dusty elliptical galaxies by using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board Spitzer. We have significantly detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features from 14 out of the 18 galaxies, and thus found that the presence of PAHs is not rare but rather common in dusty elliptical galaxies. Most of these galaxies show an unusually weak 7.7 um emission feature relative to 11.3 um and 17 um emission features. A large fraction of the galaxies also exhibit H2 rotational line and ionic fine-structure line emissions, which have no significant correlation with the PAH emissions. The PAH features are well correlated with the continuum at 35 um, whereas they are not correlated with the continuum at 6 um. We conclude that the PAH emission of the elliptical galaxies is mostly of interstellar origin rather than of stellar origin, and that the unusual PAH interband strength ratios are likely to be due to a large fraction of neutral to ionized PAHs.

  8. Spitzer Observations of V838 Monocerotis: Detection of a Rare Infrared Light Echo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. P. K. Banerjee; K. Y. L. Su; K. A. Misselt; N. M. Ashok

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Spitzer observations of the unusual variable V838 Monocerotis. Extended emission is detected around the object at 24, 70 and 160um. The extended infrared emission is strongly correlated spatially with the HST optical light echo images taken at a similar epoch. We attribute this diffuse nebulosity to be from an infrared light echo caused by reprocessed thermal emission from dust heated by the outward-propagating radiation from the 2002 eruption. The detection of an IR light echo provides an opportunity to estimate the mass in dust of the echo material and hence constrain its origin. We estimate the dust mass of the light echo to be on the order of a solar mass - thereby implying the total gas plus dust mass to be considerably more - too massive for the echo material to be the ejecta from previous outburst/mass-losing events. This is therefore suggestive that a significant fraction of the matter seen through the light echo is interstellar in origin. Unresolved emission at 24 and 70um is also seen at the position of the central star possibly indicating the presence of hot dust freshly condensed in the outburst ejecta.

  9. Infrared absorption strengths of potential gaseous diffusion plant coolants and related reaction products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is scheduled for production curtailment within the next few years, a search for substitutes is underway, and apparently workable alternatives have been found and are under testing. The presently favored substitutes, FC-c3l8 and FC-3110, satisfy ozone depletion and operational chemical compatibility concerns, but will be long-lived greenhouse gases, and thus may be regulated on that basis in the future. A further search is therefore underway for compounds with shorter atmospheric lifetimes which could otherwise satisfy operational physical and chemical requirements. A number of such candidates are in the process of being screened for chemical compatibility in a fluorinating environment. This document presents infrared spectral data developed and used in that study for candidates recently examined, and also for many of their fluorination reaction products. The data include gas-phase infrared spectra, quantitative peak intensities as a function of partial pressure, and integrated absorbance strength in the IR-transparent atmospheric window of interest to global warming modeling. Combining this last property with literature or estimated atmospheric lifetimes, rough estimates of global warming potential for these compounds are also presented.

  10. Infrared instability from nonlinear QCD evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Enberg; R. Peschanski

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation as an explicit example, we show that nonlinear QCD evolution leads to an instability in the propagation toward the infrared of the gluon transverse momentum distribution, if one starts with a state with an infrared cut-off. This effect takes the mathematical form of rapidly moving traveling wave solutions of the BK equation, which we investigate by numerical simulations. These traveling wave solutions are different from those governing the transition to saturation, which propagate towards the ultraviolet. The infrared wave speed, formally infinite for the leading order QCD kernel, is determined by higher order corrections. This mechanism could play a role in the rapid decrease of the mean free path in the Color Glass Condensate scenario for heavy ion collisions.

  11. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kurtz, Steven R. (Albuquerque, NM); Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  12. THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN TAURUS PROBED BY INFRARED POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Nicholas L.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 301-429, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clemens, D. P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Krco, Marko, E-mail: nchapman@u.northwestern.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present maps of the plane-of-sky magnetic field within two regions of the Taurus molecular cloud: one in the dense core L1495/B213 filament and the other in a diffuse region to the west. The field is measured from the polarization of background starlight seen through the cloud. In total, we measured 287 high-quality near-infrared polarization vectors in these regions. In L1495/B213, the percent polarization increases with column density up to A{sub V} {approx} 9 mag, the limits of our data. The radiative torques model for grain alignment can explain this behavior, but models that invoke turbulence are inconsistent with the data. We also combine our data with published optical and near-infrared polarization measurements in Taurus. Using this large sample, we estimate the strength of the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field in nine subregions. This estimation is done with two different techniques that use the observed dispersion in polarization angles. Our values range from 5 to 82 {mu}G and tend to be higher in denser regions. In all subregions, the critical index of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio is sub-unity, implying that Taurus is magnetically supported on large scales ({approx}2 pc). Within the region observed, the B213 filament takes a sharp turn to the north and the direction of the magnetic field also takes a sharp turn, switching from being perpendicular to the filament to becoming parallel. This behavior can be understood if we are observing the rim of a bubble. We argue that it has resulted from a supernova remnant associated with a recently discovered nearby gamma-ray pulsar.

  13. Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: a drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectra of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.

  14. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  15. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link toInfluence ofQuickdegreeInfraredInfrared

  16. FT-IR spectroscopy technology, market evolution and future strategies of Bruker Optics Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higdon, Thomas (Thomas Charles)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the technology and market evolution of FT-IR spectroscopy over its nearly forty year history to aid in determining future product design and marketing strategies for an industry-leading firm, Bruker ...

  17. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed 2 nm Rh and 1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the...

  18. Perpendicular exchange bias effect in sputter-deposited CoFe/IrMn bilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J. Y., E-mail: chenjy02@gmail.com; Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Xu, H. J.; Coey, J. M. D. [School of Physics and CRANN, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    CoFe/IrMn bilayers with perpendicular magnetization for various IrMn layer thicknesses exhibit unusual two-step hysteresis loops with both positive and negative loop shifts. Observed at room temperature in the as-grown state, they provide direct evidence of large antiferromagnetic domain formation at the IrMn interface. The exchange bias field reaches 100?mT with an IrMn layer thickness of 4?nm after field annealing at 200?°C–300?°C in 800?mT, which is at least three times as large as the coercivity, and may be useful for reference layers of spin-valves or magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  19. Estimated IR and phosphorescence emission fluxes for specific Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Red Rectangle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Mulas; G. Malloci; C. Joblin; D. Toublanc

    2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the tentative identification of the blue luminescence in the Red Rectangle by Vijh et al. (2005), we compute absolute fluxes for the vibrational IR emission and phosphorescence bands of three small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The calculated IR spectra are compared with available ISO observations. A subset of the emission bands are predicted to be observable using presently available facilities, and can be used for an immediate, independent, discriminating test on their alleged presence in this well-known astronomical object.

  20. DRIVER ACCELERATOR DESIGN FOR THE 10 KW UPGRADE OF THE JEFFERSON LAB IR FEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DRIVER ACCELERATOR DESIGN FOR THE 10 KW UPGRADE OF THE JEFFERSON LAB IR FEL D. Douglas, S. V, Newport News, VA23606, USA Abstract An upgrade of the Jefferson Lab IR FEL [1] is now un- der construction. It will provide 10 kW output light power in a wavelength range of 2­10 µm. The FEL will be driven by a modest

  1. Strain-balanced Si/SiGe type-II superlattices for near-infrared photodetection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K., E-mail: richardson@lps.umd.edu [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, University of Maryland, 8050 Greenmead Dr., College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Strain balanced silicon-silicon germanium type-II superlattice p-i-n photodetectors grown on a silicon germanium relaxed buffer layer are shown to exhibit an absorption band that extends beyond 0.7?eV (??=?1.77??m) with dark current densities of 27??A cm{sup ?2}. Simulations of the absorption edge, which are based on x-ray diffraction characterization, low observed dark current densities, and low dislocation densities, are consistent with fully strained heterostructures. Potential applications for devices made from this heterostructure design could include integrated silicon detectors, or low-noise absorption regions for infrared-extended silicon based avalanche photodiodes.

  2. Polarization- and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water on TiO2(110): Anisotropy and the Hydrogen-Bonding Network. Polarization- and Azimuth-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Water on...

  3. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  4. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience, the paper introduces the key issues during the use of infrared thermography in building energy efficiency. In order to get a more useful thermal infrared spectrum, we must correct the operating apparatus and measure more...

  5. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  6. Matching of Infrared Emitters with Textiles For Improved Energy Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, W. W.; Williamson, V. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Do, B. T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The successful utilization of infrared radiation is dependent on the spectral characteristics of the material being processed and on how well the spectral output of the infrared source matches those of the material being heated. Very little bas been...

  7. Study of ice cloud properties using infrared spectral data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrett, Kevin James

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this thesis involves the study of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties using both hyperspectral and narrowband infrared spectral data. First, ice cloud models are developed for the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding...

  8. Application of Infrared Thermography in Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Y.; Chen, H.; Xu, Q.; I, D.; Wang, Z.; Fang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on experience, the paper introduces the key issues during the use of infrared thermography in building energy efficiency. In order to get a more useful thermal infrared spectrum, we must correct the operating apparatus and measure more...

  9. Matching of Infrared Emitters with Textiles For Improved Energy Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, W. W.; Williamson, V. A.; Johnson, M. R.; Do, B. T.

    The successful utilization of infrared radiation is dependent on the spectral characteristics of the material being processed and on how well the spectral output of the infrared source matches those of the material being heated. Very little bas been...

  10. Infrared Brightness Temperature of Mars, 1983-2103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Wright

    2007-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The predicted infrared brightness temperature of Mars using the 1976 model of Wright is tabulated here for the period 1983 to 2103. This model was developed for far-infrared calibration, and is still being used for JCMT calibration.

  11. Infrared Optical Imaging Techniques for Gas Visualization and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safitri, Anisa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancement in infrared imaging technology has allowed the thermal imaging to detect and visualize several gases, mostly hydrocarbon gases. In addition, infrared cameras could potentially be used as a non-contact temperature measurement for gas...

  12. Infrared Scales and Factorization in QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aneesh V. Manohar

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective field theory methods are used to study factorization of the deep inelastic scattering cross-section. The cross-section is shown to factor in QCD, even though it does not factor in perturbation theory for some choices of the infrared regulator. Messenger modes are not required in soft-collinear effective theory for deep inelastic scattering as x -> 1.

  13. Infrared Quantum Dots** By Edward H. Sargent*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and treat disease, harness new forms of energy, and visualize threats to our safety and environment depend of the telecommunications wave- length band spans 1200±1700 nm.[1] It is of interest to unite, in a single monolithic±10 cm; solar and thermal photovoltaics for energy conversion; and infrared sensing and imaging based

  14. Monolithically integrated near-infrared and mid-infrared detector array for spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perera, A. G. Unil

    detector test results ensure the high quality of material suitable for near-infrared/QWIP dual-band focal. A CTIS records spatial and spectral information by imaging a scene through an optical relay system

  15. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  16. Application of External-Cavity Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers to Nanosecond Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopy of Condensed-Phase Samples Following Pulse Radiolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grills, D.C.; Cook, A.R.; Fujita, E.; George, M.W.; Miller, J.R.; Preses, J.M.; Wishart, J.F.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulse radiolysis, utilizing short pulses of high-energy electrons from accelerators, is a powerful method for rapidly generating reduced or oxidized species and other free radicals in solution. Combined with fast time-resolved spectroscopic detection (typically in the ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared), it is invaluable for monitoring the reactivity of species subjected to radiolysis on timescales ranging from picoseconds to seconds. However, it is often difficult to identify the transient intermediates definitively due to a lack of structural information in the spectral bands. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy offers the structural specificity necessary for mechanistic investigations but has received only limited application in pulse radiolysis experiments. For example, time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy has only been applied to a handful of gas-phase studies, limited mainly by several technical challenges. We have exploited recent developments in commercial external-cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) technology to construct a nanosecond TRIR apparatus that has allowed, for the first time, TRIR spectra to be recorded following pulse radiolysis of condensed-phase samples. Near single-shot sensitivity of DeltaOD <1 x 10(-3) has been achieved, with a response time of <20 ns. Using two continuous-wave EC-QCLs, the current apparatus covers a probe region from 1890-2084 cm(-1), and TRIR spectra are acquired on a point-by-point basis by recording transient absorption decay traces at specific IR wavelengths and combining these to generate spectral time slices. The utility of the apparatus has been demonstrated by monitoring the formation and decay of the one-electron reduced form of the CO(2) reduction catalyst, [Re(I)(bpy)(CO)(3)(CH(3)CN)](+), in acetonitrile with nanosecond time resolution following pulse radiolysis. Characteristic red-shifting of the nu(CO) IR bands confirmed that one-electron reduction of the complex took place. The availability of TRIR detection with high sensitivity opens up a wide range of mechanistic pulse radiolysis investigations that were previously difficult or impossible to perform with transient UV/visible detection.

  17. X-ray Properties of Young Stellar Objects in OMC-2 and OMC-3 from the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tsujimoto; K. Koyama; Y. Tsuboi; M. Goto; N. Kobayashi

    2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report X-ray results of the Chandra observation of Orion Molecular Cloud 2 and 3. A deep exposure of \\sim 100 ksec detects \\sim 400 X-ray sources in the field of view of the ACIS array, providing one of the largest X-ray catalogs in a star forming region. Coherent studies of the source detection, time variability, and energy spectra are performed. We classify the X-ray sources into class I, class II, and class III+MS based on the J, H, and K-band colors of their near infrared counterparts and discuss the X-ray properties (temperature, absorption, and time variability) along these evolutionary phases.

  18. Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model J#19;ozsef L this Gaussian measure space. KEYWORDS: Nelson's scalar #12;eld model, infrared regular representation, ground] of a spinless electron coupled to a scalar massless Bose #12;eld is infrared divergent in 3 space dimensions

  19. Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Marcel

    Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters David Doxaran* , Marcel Babin extend over the near-infrared spectral region to up to 870 nm. The measurements were conducted in three in the near-infrared very closely matched a - spectral dependence, which is expected when the particle size

  20. INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denver, University of

    INFRARED THERMAL IMAGING OF AUTOMOBILES: Identification of Cold Start Vehicles Angela M. Monateri emitters, even thought they have no repairable fault. This study investigates the use of thermal infrared be differentiated from hot vehicles by infrared imaging, which can distinguish between: ·Hot and cold exhaust system

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD the barrier to linearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oka, Takeshi

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of HD 3 above the barrier to linearity BY JENNIFER L. GOTTFRIED, transitions of HC 3 above the barrier to linearity have been observed. A highly sensitive near-infrared-adiabatic and radiative corrections is revealed. Keywords: HD 3 ; near-infrared spectroscopy; barrier to linearity 1

  2. Infrared modulation spectroscopy of interfaces in amorphous silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    Infrared modulation spectroscopy of interfaces in amorphous silicon solar cells Kai Zhu a,1 , E Solar, Toano, VA 23168, USA Abstract We report infrared depletion modulation spectra for near an infrared modulation spectroscopy technique that probes the optical spectra of dopants and defects

  3. Molecular basis of infrared detection by Elena O. Gracheva1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Eric A.

    , snakes detect infrared signals through a mechanism involving radiant heating of the pit organ, ratherARTICLES Molecular basis of infrared detection by snakes Elena O. Gracheva1 *, Nicholas T. Ingolia2 system for detecting infrared radiation, enabling them to generate a `thermal image' of predators or prey

  4. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  5. NDE of Concrete Structures Strengthened with FRP Using Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    NDE of Concrete Structures Strengthened with FRP Using Infrared Thermography Monica A. STARNES the effectiveness of infrared thermography to estimate the width of subsurface flaws in fiber-reinforced polymer infrared thermography, i.e., not only detecting but also characterizing subsurface flaws. Finite element

  6. Quantum grid infrared photodetectors L. P. Rokhinson,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Quantum grid infrared photodetectors L. P. Rokhinson,a) C. J. Chen, and D. C. Tsui Department to as the quantum grid infrared photodetector QGIP . In an ideal structure, a grid pattern with very narrow to as the quantum grid infrared photodetector QGIP . This approach may produce a more uniform and optimized detector

  7. IN SITU INFRARED STUDY OF CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF NO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KHALID ALMUSAITEER; RAM KRISHNAMURTHY; STEVEN S.C. CHUANG

    1998-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing concerns for the environment and increasingly stringent standards for NO emission have presented a major challenge to control NO emissions from electric utility plants and automobiles. Catalytic decomposition of NO is the most attractive approach for the control of NO emission for its simplicity. Successful development of an effective catalyst for NO decomposition will greatly decrease the equipment and operation cost of NO control. Due to lack of understanding of the mechanism of NO decomposition, efforts on the search of an effective catalyst have been unsuccessful. Scientific development of an effective catalyst requires fundamental understanding of the nature of active site, the rate-limiting step, and an approach to prolong the life of the catalyst. Research is proposed to study the reactivity of adsorbates for the direct NO decomposition and to investigate the feasibility of two novel approaches for improving catalyst activity and resistance to sintering. The first approach is the use of silanation to stabilize metal crystallites and supports for Cu-ZSM-5 and promoted Pt catalysts; the second is utilization of oxygen spillover and desorption to enhance NO decomposition activity. An innovative infrared reactor system will be used to observe and determine the dynamic behavior and the reactivity of adsorbates during NO decomposition, oxygen spillover, and silanation. A series of experiments including X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed desorption, temperature programmed reaction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy will be used to characterized the catalysts. The information obtained from this study will provide a scientific basis for developing an effective catalyst for the NO decomposition under practical flue gas conditions.

  8. Counterparts to the Nuclear Bulge X-ray source population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew J. Gosling; Reba M. Bandyopadhyay; Katherine M. Blundell; Phil Lucas

    2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an initial matching of the source positions of the Chandra Nuclear Bulge X-ray sources to the new UKIDSS-GPS near-infrared survey of the Nuclear Bulge. This task is made difficult by the extremely crowded nature of the region, despite this, we find candidate counterparts to ~50% of the X-ray sources. We show that detection in the J-band for a candidate counterpart to an X-ray source preferentially selects those candidate counterparts in the foreground whereas candidate counterparts with only detections in the H and K-bands are more likely to be Nuclear Bulge sources. We discuss the planned follow-up for these candidate counterparts.

  9. The X-Ray Environment During the Epoch of Terrestrial Planet Formation: Chandra Observations of h Persei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thayne Currie; Nancy Remage Evans; Brad Spitzbart; Jonathan Irwin; Scott J. Wolk; Jesus Hernandez; Scott J. Kenyon; Jay Pasachoff

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe Chandra/ACIS-I observations of the massive ~ 13--14 Myr-old cluster, h Persei, part of the famous Double Cluster (h and chi Persei) in Perseus. Combining the list of Chandra-detected sources with new optical/IR photometry and optical spectroscopy reveals ~ 165 X-ray bright stars with V 1.5 Msun) fall out of X-ray saturation by ~ 10--15 Myr. Changes in stellar structure for > 1.5 Msun stars likely play an important role in this decline of X-ray emission.

  10. Comprehensive Pyrometry of Incandescent Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene in the Visible and Near Infrared

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Scott

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Pop, “Infrared Microscopy of Joule Heating in Graphenenear infrared is attainable through gating and heating of

  11. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis Conditions on Cu/SiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The coverages and surface lifetimes of copper-bound formates on Cu/SiO2 catalysts, and the steady-state rates of reverse water-gas shift and methanol synthesis have been measured simultaneously by mass (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies under a variety of elevated pressure conditions at temperatures between 140 and 160°C. DCOO lifetimes under steady state catalytic conditions in CO2:D2 atmospheres were measured by 12C – 13C isotope transients (SSITKA). The values range from 220s at 160°C to 660s at 140°C. The catalytic rates of both reverse water gas shift (RWGS) and methanol synthesis are ~100-fold slower than this formate removal rate back to CO2+1/2 H2, and thus they do not significantly influence the formate lifetime or coverage at steady state. The formate coverage is instead determined by formate’s rapid production / decomposition equilibrium with gas phase CO2+H2. The results are consistent with formate being an intermediate in methanol synthesis, but with the rate-controlling step being after formate production (for example, its further hydrogenation to methoxy). A 2-3 fold shorter life time (faster decomposition rate) was observed for formate under reactions conditions when both D2 and CO2 are present than in pure Ar or D2+Ar alone, attributed to effects of coadsorbates (produced in D2 and CO2) on adsorbed formate reaction pathways. The carbon which appears in the methanol product spends a longer time on the surface than the formate species, 1.8 times as long at 140°C. The additional delay on the surface is attributed in part to readsorption of methanol on the catalyst, thus obscuring the mechanistic link between formate and methanol.

  12. Characterization of Nano and Mesoscale Deformation Structures with Intense X-ray Synchrotron Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ice, G.E.; Barabash, R.I.; Walker, F.J. (ORNL)

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced polychromatic microdiffraction is sensitive to the organization of dislocations and other defects that rotate the lattice planes. Using ultra-brilliant third-generation synchrotron sources and non-dispersive X-ray focusing optics, it is now possible to analyze individual dislocation cells and walls at a submicron scale that cannot be probed by traditional methods. The method is applied to an Ir weld sample to illustrate how microdiffraction can be used to determine the locally active dislocation system.

  13. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Waxman

    2000-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-high-energy, >10^19 eV, cosmic-ray and high energy, ~10^14 eV, neutrino production in GRBs is discussed in the light of recent GRB and cosmic-ray observations. Emphasis is put on model predictions that can be tested with operating and planned cosmic-ray and neutrino detectors, and on the prospects of testing for neutrino properties.

  14. Infrared scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid argon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Buzulutskov; A. Bondar; A. Grebenuk

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of primary and secondary scintillations in noble gases and liquids is of paramount importance to rare-event experiments using noble gas media. In the present work, the scintillation yield in gaseous and liquid Ar has for the first time been measured in the near infrared (NIR) and visible region, both for primary and secondary (proportional) scintillations, using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APDs) and pulsed X-ray irradiation. The primary scintillation yield of the fast component was measured to be 17000 photon/MeV in gaseous Ar in the NIR, in the range of 690-1000 nm, and 510 photon/MeV in liquid Ar, in the range of 400-1000 nm. Proportional NIR scintillations (electroluminescence) in gaseous Ar have been also observed; their amplification parameter at 163 K was measured to be 13 photons per drifting electron per kV. Possible applications of NIR scintillations in high energy physics experiments are discussed.

  15. Near-infrared Study of the Carina Nebula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchawala, Kaushar; Ojha, Devendra; Ghosh, Swarna Kanti; Nakajima, Yasushi; Tamura, Motohide; Baba, Daisuke; Sato, Shuji; Tsujimoto, Masahiro

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the Carina Nebula for an area of ~400 sq. arcmin. including the star clusters Trumpler 14 (Tr 14) and Trumpler 16 (Tr 16). With 10 sigma limiting magnitudes of J ~ 18.5, H ~ 17.5 and K_s ~ 16.5, we identified 544 Class II and 11 Class I young star candidates. We find some 40 previously unknown very red sources with H-K_s > 2, most of which remain undetected at the J band. The red NIR sources are found to be concentrated to the south-east of Tr 16, along the `V' shaped dust lane, where the next generation of stars seems to be forming. In addition, we find indications of ongoing star formation near the three MSX point sources, G287.51-0.49, G287.47-0.54, and G287.63-0.72. A handful of red NIR sources are seen to populate around each of these MSX sources. Apart from this, we identified two hard Chandra X-ray sources near G287.47-0.54, one of which does not have an NIR counterpart and may be associated with a Class I/Class 0 object. The majority of t...

  16. Near Infrared Spectroscopy for Burning Plasma Diagnostic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2008-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS, 200-750 nm) atomic spectroscopy of neutral and ion fuel species (H, D, T, Li) and impurities (e.g. He, Be, C, W) is a key element of plasma control and diagnosis on ITER and future magnetically confined burning plasma experiments (BPX). Spectroscopic diagnostic implementation and performance issues that arise in the BPX harsh nuclear environment in the UV-VIS range, e.g., degradation of first mirror reflectivity under charge-exchange atom bombardment (erosion) and impurity deposition, permanent and dynamic loss of window and optical fiber transmission under intense neutron and {gamma}-ray fluxes, are either absent or not as severe in the near-infrared (NIR, 750-2000 nm) range. An initial survey of NIR diagnostic applications has been undertaken on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. It is demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy can address machine protection and plasma control diagnostic tasks, as well as plasma performance evaluation and physics studies. Emission intensity estimates demonstrate that NIR measurements are possible in the BPX plasma operating parameter range. Complications in the NIR range due to parasitic background emissions are expected to occur at very high plasma densities, low impurity densities, and at high plasma facing component temperatures.

  17. AEGIS: Infrared Spectroscopy of an Infrared-luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 3.01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, J.-S.; Rigopoulou, D.; Papovich, C.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Ivison, R.; Laird, E. S.; Webb, T.; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Barmby, P.; Chapman, S.; Conselice, C. J.; McLeod, B.; Shu, C. G.; Smith, H. A.; Le Floc'h, E.; Egami, E.; Willmer, C. A. N.; Fazio, G. G.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cannot rule out the presence of a deeply obscured AGN. This LBG appears to be a distorted system in the HST ACS F606W and F814W images, possibly indicating that a significant merger or interaction is driving the large IR luminosity....

  18. The Effect of Radiation Timing on Patients With High-Risk Features of Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: An Analysis of IRS-IV and D9803

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, Aaron C., E-mail: Aaron.Spalding@nortonhealthcare.org [Kosair Children's Hospital and Brain Tumor Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hawkins, Douglas S. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Seattle Children's Hospital, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Anderson, James R.; Lyden, Elizabeth [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Providence, Rhode Island and Seattle, Washington (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Arndt, Carola A.S. [Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Radiation therapy remains an essential treatment for patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PMRMS), and early radiation therapy may improve local control for patients with intracranial extension (ICE). Methods and Materials: To address the role of radiation therapy timing in PMRMS in the current era, we reviewed the outcome from 2 recent clinical trials for intermediate-risk RMS: Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-IV and Children's Oncology Group (COG) D9803. The PMRMS patients on IRS-IV with any high-risk features (cranial nerve palsy [CNP], cranial base bony erosion [CBBE], or ICE) were treated immediately at day 0, and PMRMS patients without any of these 3 features received week 6-9 radiation therapy. The D9803 PMRMS patients with ICE received day 0 X-Ray Therapy (XRT) as well; however, those with either CNP or CBBE had XRT at week 12. Results: Compared with the 198 PMRMS patients from IRS-IV, the 192 PMRMS patients from D9803 had no difference (P<.05) in 5-year local failure (19% vs 19%), failure-free-survival (70% vs 67%), or overall survival (75% vs 73%) in aggregate. The 5-year local failure rates by subset did not differ when patients were classified as having no risk features (None, 15% vs 19%, P=.25), cranial nerve palsy/cranial base of skull erosion (CNP/CBBE, 15% vs 28%, P=.22), or intracranial extension (ICE, 21% vs 15%, P=.27). The D9083 patients were more likely to have received initial staging by magnetic resonance imaging (71% vs 53%). Conclusions: These data support that a delay in radiation therapy for high-risk PMRMS features of CNP/CBBE does not compromise clinical outcomes.

  19. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimonishi, Takashi [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, Nada Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ita, Yoshifusa [Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kawamura, Akiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kaneda, Hidehiro, E-mail: shimonishi@penguin.kobe-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of {approx}10 deg{sup 2} of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R {approx} 20) spectra in 2-5 {mu}m for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 {mu}m, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 {mu}m. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 {mu}m can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared. A large number of near-infrared spectral data provided by the survey possess scientific potential that can be applied to various studies. In this paper, we present the details of the spectroscopic survey and the catalog, and discuss its scientific applications.

  20. Fusion of Infrared and Visible Images for Face Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of IR imagery to facial occlusion caused by eyeglasses. Our experiments indicate that IR-based recognition performance degrades seriously when eyeglasses are present in the probe image of eyeglasses. Our fusion scheme is pixel-based, operates in the wavelet domain, and employs genetic algorithms

  1. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erikat, I. A., E-mail: ihsanas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Jerash University, Jerash-26150 (Jordan); Hamad, B. A. [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)] [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75?ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir–C and Ir–Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

  2. Gamma Ray Bursts Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    Gamma Ray Bursts #12;The Case Sudden, intense flashes of gamma rays come from nowhere and disappear with out a trace. Incredibly powerful: A single gamma ray burst is hundreds of times brighter a supernova #12;Who Vela (1960's) Looking for arms testing, found gamma ray bursts Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

  3. Milagro - A TeV Observatory for Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingus, B.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Milagro is a large field of view ({approx} 2 sr), high duty cycle ({approx}90%), ground-based observatory sensitive to gamma-rays above {approx}100 GeV. This unique detector is ideal for observing the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts. The highest energy gamma rays supply very strong constraints on the nature of gamma-ray burst sources as well as fundamental physics. Because the highest energy gamma-rays are attenuated by pair production with the extragalactic infrared background light, Milagro's sensitivity decreases rapidly for bursts with redshift > 0.5. While only 10 % of bursts have been measured to be within z=0.5, these bursts are very well studied at all wavelengths resulting in the most complete understanding of GRB phenomena. Milagro has sufficient sensitivity in units of E2 dN/dE to detect VHE luminosities lower than the observed luminosities at {approx} 100 keV for these nearby bursts. Therefore, the launch of SWIFT and its ability to localize and measure redshifts of many bursts points to great future possibilities.

  4. The Ionized Absorber and Nuclear Environment of IRAS 13349+2438: Multi-wavelength insights from coordinated Chandra HETGS, HST STIS, HET, and Spitzer IRS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Julia C; Chakravorty, Susmita; Rahoui, Farid; Young, Andrew J; Brandt, William N; Hines, Dean C; Ogle, Patrick M; Reynolds, Christopher S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from a coordinated IR-to-X-ray spectral campaign of the QSO IRAS 13349+2438. Optical spectra reveal extreme Eigenvector-1 characteristics, but the H-beta line width argues against a NLS1 classification; we refine z=0.10853 based on [O III]. We estimate a BH mass=10^9 Msun using 2 independent methods (H-beta line width & SED fits). Blue-shifted absorption (-950km/s & -75km/s) is seen for the 1st time in STIS UV spectra from Ly-alpha, NV, & CIV. The higher velocity UV lines are coincident with the lower-ionisation (xi~1.6) X-ray warm absorber lines. A dusty multiple ionization absorber blueshifted by 700-900km/s is required to fit the X-ray data. Theoretical models comparing different ionising SEDs reveal that a UV-inclusive (i.e., the accretion disc) ionising continuum strongly impacts conclusions for the thermodynamic stability of the warm absorber. Specific to IRAS13349, an Xray-UV ionising SED favors a continuous distribution of ionisation states in a smooth flow (this paper),...

  5. X-ray Detections of Sub-millimetre Galaxies: Active Galactic Nuclei Versus Starburst Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Seth P; Wang, Danial Q; Williams, Christina C; Scott, Kim S; Yun, Min S; Pope, Alexandra; Lowenthal, James; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Kim, M J; Kim, Sungeun; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Ezawa, Hajime; Kawabe, Ryohei; Oshima, Tai; 10.1093/mnras/stt197

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a large-scale study of the X-ray properties and near-IR-to-radio SEDs of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) detected at 1.1mm with the AzTEC instrument across a ~1.2 square degree area of the sky. Combining deep 2-4 Ms Chandra data with Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and VLA data within the GOODS-N/S and COSMOS fields, we find evidence for AGN activity in ~14 percent of 271 AzTEC SMGs, ~28 percent considering only the two GOODS fields. Through X-ray spectral modeling and SED fitting using Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques to Siebenmorgen et al. (2004) (AGN) and Efstathiou et al. (2000) (starburst) templates, we find that while star formation dominates the IR emission, with SFRs ~100-1000 M_sun/yr, the X-ray emission for most sources is almost exclusively from obscured AGNs, with column densities in excess of 10^23 cm^-2. Only for ~6 percent of our sources do we find an X-ray-derived SFR consistent with NIR-to-radio SED derived SFRs. Inclusion of the X-ray luminosities as a prior to the NIR-to-radio SED effectively...

  6. Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Biosensing with Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigo, Daniel; Janner, Davide; Etezadi, Dordaneh; de Abajo, F Javier García; Pruneri, Valerio; Altug, Hatice

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectroscopy is the technique of choice for chemical identification of biomolecules through their vibrational fingerprints. However, infrared light interacts poorly with nanometric size molecules. Here, we exploit the unique electro-optical properties of graphene to demonstrate a high-sensitivity tunable plasmonic biosensor for chemically-specific label-free detection of protein monolayers. The plasmon resonance of nanostructured graphene is dynamically tuned to selectively probe the protein at different frequencies and extract its complex refractive index. Additionally, the extreme spatial light confinement in graphene, up to two orders of magnitude higher than in metals, produces an unprecedentedly high overlap with nanometric biomolecules, enabling superior sensitivity in the detection of their refractive index and vibrational fingerprints. The combination of tunable spectral selectivity and enhanced sensitivity of graphene opens exciting prospects for biosensing.

  7. Mid-Infrared Single Photon Counting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guilherme Temporao; Sebastien Tanzilli; Hugo Zbinden; Nicolas Gisin; Thierry Aellen; Marcella Giovannini; Jerome Faist

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a procedure to detect mid-infrared single photons at 4.65 um via a two-stage scheme based on Sum Frequency Generation, using a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) nonlinear crystal and a Silicon Avalanche Photodiode. An experimental investigation shows that, in addition to a high timing resolution, this technique yields a detection sensitivity of 1.24 pW with 63mW of net pump power.

  8. Broadband Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, C G; Cunningham, C T; Tringe, J W

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the most important results of our effort to develop a new class of infrared spectrometers based on a novel broadband heterodyne design. Our results indicate that this approach could lead to a near-room temperature operation with performance limited only by quantum noise carried by the incoming signal. Using a model quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), we demonstrated key performance features of our approach. For example, we directly measured the beat frequency signal generated by superimposing local oscillator (LO) light of one frequency and signal light of another through a spectrograph, by injecting the LO light at a laterally displaced input location. In parallel with the development of this novel spectrometer, we modeled a new approach to reducing detector volume though plasmonic resonance effects. Since dark current scales directly with detector volume, this ''photon compression'' can directly lead to lower currents. Our calculations indicate that dark current can be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude in an optimized ''superlens'' structure. Taken together, our spectrometer and dark current reduction strategies provide a promising path toward room temperature operation of a mid-wave and possibly long-wave infrared spectrometer.

  9. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter Mészáros

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma-ray bursts have been detected at photon energies up to tens of GeV. We review some recent developments in the X-ray to GeV photon phenomenology in the light of Swift and Fermi observations, and some of the theoretical models developed to explain them, with a view towards implications for C.T.A.

  11. Gamma ray detector shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlinger, R.D.; Humphrey, H.W.

    1985-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma ray detector shield comprised of a rigid, lead, cylindrical-shaped vessel having upper and lower portions with an pneumatically driven, sliding top assembly. Disposed inside the lead shield is a gamma ray scintillation crystal detector. Access to the gamma detector is through the sliding top assembly.

  12. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Pressure of 2500 psi Analysis: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) 10 | US DOE Geothermal Program eere.energy.gov Scientific...

  13. Nucleobase Orientation and Ordering in Films of Single-Stranded DNA on Gold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    infrared (FTIR), and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies. XPS reveals core, T25-SH). IR reflection absorption spectra were measured under a dry nitrogen purge using a p

  14. Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy on Operating Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Sensors During Exposure to Gas-Phase Analytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierlemann, A.; Hill, M.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Thomas, R.C.

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed instrumentation to enable the combination of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor measurements with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopic measurements to understand the response of the SAW sensors with respect to the interfacial chemistry of surface-confined sensing films interacting with gas-phase analytes. Specifically, the instrumentation and software was developed to perform in-situ Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their chemically modified surfaces with analytes. By probing the surface with IR spectroscopy during gas exposure, it is possible to understand in unprecedented detail the interaction processes between the sorptive SAW coatings and the gaseous analyte molecules. In this report, we provide details of this measurement system, and also demonstrate the utility of these combined measurements by characterizing the SAW and FTIR-ERS responses of organic thin-film sensor coatings interacting with gas-phase analytes.

  15. Co layer thickness dependence of exchange biasing for IrMnCo and FeMnCo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Co layer thickness dependence of exchange biasing for IrMnÕCo and FeMnÕCo K. A. Seua) and H. Huang) in IrMn/Co and FeMn/Co bilayers using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. Samples are sputtered wedges on silicon with Co thicknesses ranging from 1 to 17 nm. The IrMn/Co with exchange bias interface energy of 0

  16. UV/IR Mixing for Noncommutative Complex Scalar Field Theory, II (Interaction with Gauge Fields)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Ya. Aref'eva; D. M. Belov; A. S. Koshelev; O. A. Rytchkov

    2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider noncommutative analogs of scalar electrodynamics and N=2 D=4 SUSY Yang-Mills theory. We show that one-loop renormalizability of noncommutative scalar electrodynamics requires the scalar potential to be an anticommutator squared. This form of the scalar potential differs from the one expected from the point of view of noncommutative gauge theories with extended SUSY containing a square of commutator. We show that fermion contributions restore the commutator in the scalar potential. This provides one-loop renormalizability of noncommutative N=2 SUSY gauge theory. We demonstrate a presence of non-integrable IR singularities in noncommutative scalar electrodynamics for general coupling constants. We find that for a special ratio of coupling constants these IR singularities vanish. Also we show that IR poles are absent in noncommutative N=2 SUSY gauge theory.

  17. Hermitian Analyticity, IR/UV Mixing and Unitarity of Noncommutative Field Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chong-Sun Chu; Jerzy Lukierski; Wojtek J. Zakrzewski

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The IR/UV mixing and the violation of unitarity are two of the most intriguing aspects of noncommutative quantum field theories. In this paper the relation between these two phenomena is explained and established. We start out by showing that the S-matrix of noncommutative field theories is hermitian analytic. As a consequence, a noncommutative field theory is unitary if the discontinuities of its Feynman diagram amplitudes agree with the expressions calculated using the Cutkosky formulae. These unitarity constraints relate the discontinuities of amplitudes with physical intermediate states; and allow us to see how the IR/UV mixing may lead to a breakdown of unitarity. Specifically, we show that the IR/UV singularity does not lead to the violation of unitarity in the space-space noncommutative case, but it does lead to its violation in a space-time noncommutative field theory. As a corollary, noncommutative field theory without IR/UV mixing will be unitary in both the space-space and space-time noncommutative case. To illustrate this, we introduce and analyse the noncommutative Lee model--an exactly solvable quantum field theory. We show that the model is free from the IR/UV mixing in both the space-space and space-time noncommutative cases. Our analysis is exact. Due to absence of the IR/UV mixing one can expect that the theory is unitary. We present some checks supporting this claim. Our analysis provides a counter example to the generally held beliefs that field theories with space-time noncommutativity are non-unitary.

  18. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobrovolskas, V; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O I] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O I] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Aims. We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O I] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Methods. We used high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH...

  19. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kühne, P., E-mail: kuehne@huskers.unl.edu; Schubert, M., E-mail: schubert@engr.unl.edu; Hofmann, T., E-mail: thofmann@engr.unl.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Herzinger, C. M., E-mail: cherzinger@jawoollam.com; Woollam, J. A., E-mail: jwoollam@jawoollam.com [J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., 645 M Street, Suite 102, Lincoln, Nebraska 68508-2243 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup ?1} to 7000 cm{sup ?1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  20. Mechanism of Efficient Anti-Markovnikov Olefin Hydroarylation Catalyzed by Homogeneous Ir(III) Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhalla, Gaurav; Bischof, Steven M; Ganesh, Somesh K; Liu, Xiang Y; Jones, C J; Borzenko, Andrey; Tenn, William J; Ess, Daniel H; Hashiguchi, Brian G; Lokare, Kapil S; Leung, Chin Hin; Oxgaard, Jonas; Goddard, William A; Periana, Roy A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of the hydroarylation reaction between unactivated olefins (ethylene, propylene, and styrene) and benzene catalyzed by [(R)Ir(?-acac-O,O,C{sup 3})-(acac-O,O){sub 2}]{sub 2} and [R-Ir(acac-O,O){sub 2}(L)] (R = acetylacetonato, CH{sub 3}, CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, Ph, or CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}Ph, and L = H{sub 2}O or pyridine) Ir(III) complexes was studied by experimental methods. The system is selective for generating the anti-Markovnikov product of linear alkylarenes (61:39 for benzene + propylene and 98:2 for benzene + styrene). The reaction mechanism was found to follow a rate law with first-order dependence on benzene and catalyst, but a non-linear dependence on olefin. {sup 13}C-labelling studies with CH{sub 3}{sup 13}CH{sub 2}-Ir-Py showed that reversible ?-hydride elimination is facile, but unproductive, giving exclusively saturated alkylarene products. The migration of the {sup 13}C-label from the ? to ?-positions was found to be slower than the C–H activation of benzene (and thus formation of ethane and Ph-d{sub 5}-Ir-Py). Kinetic analysis under steady state conditions gave a ratio of the rate constants for CH activation and ?-hydride elimination (k{sub CH}: k{sub ?}) of ~0.5. The comparable magnitude of these rates suggests a common rate determining transition state/intermediate, which has been shown previously with B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Overall, the mechanism of hydroarylation proceeds through a series of pre-equilibrium dissociative steps involving rupture of the dinuclear species or the loss of L from Ph-Ir-L to the solvento, 16-electron species, Ph-Ir(acac-O,O){sub 2}-Sol (where Sol refers to coordinated solvent). This species then undergoes trans to cisisomerization of the acetylacetonato ligand to yield the pseudo octahedral species cis-Ph-Ir-Sol, which is followed by olefin insertion (the regioselective and rate determining step), and then activation of the C–H bond of an incoming benzene to generate the product and regenerate the catalyst.

  1. A Dedicated Storage Ring For Far-IR Coherent Synchrotron Radiation at the ALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    infrared community is being constructed. The first observation of steady CSR at BESSY II [4] has recently by the product between the number of particles per bunch N and the single particle emitted power p

  2. X-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filippo Frontera

    2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery by the BeppoSAX satellite of X-ray afterglow emission from the gamma-ray burst which occurred on 28 February 1997 produced a revolution in our knowledge of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon. Along with the discovery of X-ray afterglows, the optical afterglows of gamma-ray bursts were discovered and the distance issue was settled, at least for long $\\gamma$-ray bursts. The 30 year mystery of the gamma-ray burst phenomenon is now on the way to solution. Here I rewiew the observational status of the X-ray afterglow emission, its mean properties (detection rate, continuum spectra, line features, and light curves), and the X-ray constraints on theoretical models of gamma-ray bursters and their progenitors. I also discuss the early onset afterglow emission, the remaining questions, and the role of future X-ray afterglow observations.

  3. Gamma Ray Bursts as Probes of the First Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James E. Rhoads

    2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The redshift where the first stars formed is an important and unknown milestone in cosmological structure formation. The evidence linking gamma ray bursts (GRBs) with star formation activity implies that the first GRBs occurred shortly after the first stars formed. Gamma ray bursts and their afterglows may thus offer a unique probe of this epoch, because they are bright from gamma ray to radio wavelengths and should be observable to very high redshift. Indeed, our ongoing near-IR followup programs already have the potential to detect bursts at redshift z ~ 10. In these proceedings, we discuss two distinct ways of using GRBs to probe the earliest star formation. First, direct GRB counts may be used as a proxy for star formation rate measurements. Second, high energy cutoffs in the GeV spectra of gamma ray bursts due to pair production with high redshift optical and ultraviolet background photons contain information on early star formation history. The second method is observationally more demanding, but also more rewarding, because each observed pair creation cutoff in a high redshift GRB spectrum will tell us about the integrated star formation history prior to the GRB redshift.

  4. Comparison of ultraviolet and ultraviolet-infrared flame detection systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayton, Robert Mark

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 5 Feet Elevation with the Mumber Seven Orifice Height of Heads: 8. 5 feet Sensitivity Settings: Head Head Head Head Head Orifice Size: ?7 (0. 110") ?1, ?2, ?3, ?4, ?5, Genera I Monitors UV/IR - 3. 75 VDC Detector Electronics UV/IR (1888... n = Al 1 Five repetitions measurements are in feet. Maximum error is sl foot. 38 Height of Heads: 8. 5 feet Sens1t1vity Settings: General Monitors UV/IR - 3. 75 VDC ( ? ) Detector Electronics UV- 32 counts/second ( ~ ? ? ) Armtec UV...

  5. Far-infrared study of K giants in the solar neighborhood: Connection between Li enrichment and mass-loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Y Bharat; Muthumariappan, C; Zhao, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We searched for a correlation between the two anomalous properties of K giants: Li enhancement and IR excess from an unbiased survey of a large sample of RGB stars. A sample of 2000 low-mass K giants with accurate astrometry from the Hipparcos catalog was chosen for which Li abundances have been determined from low-resolution spectra. Far-infrared data were collected from the $WISE$ and $IRAS$ catalogs. To probe the correlation between the two anomalies, we supplemented 15 Li-rich K giants discovered from this sample with 25 known Li-rich K giants from other studies. Dust shell evolutionary models and spectral energy distributions were constructed using the code DUSTY to estimate different dust shell properties, such as dust evolutionary time scales, dust temperatures, and mass-loss rates. Among 2000 K giants, we found about two dozen K giants with detectable far-IR excess, and surprisingly, none of them are Li-rich. Similarly, the 15 new Li-rich K giants that were identified from the same sample show no evid...

  6. A Cryogenic Space Telescope for Far-Infrared Astrophysics: A Vision for NASA in the 2020 Decade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradford, C M; Bolatto, A; Armus, L; Bauer, J; Appleton, P; Cooray, A; Casey, C; Dale, D; Uzgil, B; Aguirre, J; Smith, J D; Sheth, K; Murphy, E J; McKenney, C; Holmes, W; Rizzo, M; Bergin, E; Stacey, G

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the transformative processes in the Universe have taken place in regions obscured by dust, and are best studied with far-IR spectroscopy. We present the Cryogenic-Aperture Large Infrared-Submillimeter Telescope Observatory (CALISTO), a 5-meter class, space-borne telescope actively cooled to 4 K, emphasizing moderate-resolution spectroscopy in the crucial 35 to 600 micron band. CALISTO will enable NASA and the world to study the rise of heavy elements in the Universe's first billion years, chart star formation and black hole growth in dust-obscured galaxies through cosmic time, and conduct a census of forming planetary systems in our region of the Galaxy. CALISTO will capitalize on rapid progress in both format and sensitivity of far-IR detectors. Arrays with a total count of a few 100,000 detector pixels will form the heart of a suite of imaging spectrometers in which each detector reaches the photon background limit. This document contains a large overview paper on CALISTO, as well as six 2-3 page sc...

  7. Infrared and Radio observations of a small group of protostellar objects in the molecular core, L1251-C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jungha; Choi, Minho; Bourke, Tyler L; Evans, Neal J; Di Francesco, James; Cieza, Lucas A; Dunham, Michael M; Kang, Miju

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multi-wavelength observational study of a low-mass star-forming region, L1251-C, with observational results at wavelengths from the near-infrared to the millimeter. Spitzer Space Telescope observations confirmed that IRAS 22343+7501 is a small group of protostellar objects. The extended emission to east-west direction with its intensity peak at the center of L1251A has been detected at 350 and 850 micron with the CSO and JCMT telescopes, tracing dense envelope materials around L1251A. The single-dish data from the KVN and TRAO telescopes show inconsistencies between the intensity peaks of several molecular line emission and that of the continuum emission, suggesting complex distributions of molecular abundances around L1251A. The SMA interferometer data, however, show intensity peaks of CO 2-1 and 13CO 2-1 located at the position of IRS 1, which is both the brightest source in IRAC image and the weakest source in the 1.3 mm dust continuum map. IRS 1 is the strongest candidate for the driving sour...

  8. Constraining the Amount of Circumstellar Matter and Dust around Type Ia Supernovae through Near-Infrared Echo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maeda, Keiichi; Motohara, Kentaro

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circumstellar (CS) environment is a key in understanding progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as well as an origin of peculiar extinction property toward SNe Ia for cosmological application. It has been suggested that multiple em scatterings of SN photons on CS dust might explain a non-standard reddening law. In this paper, we investigate an effect of re-emissions of SN photons by CS dust in the Infrared (IR) wavelengths. We show that this effect allows observed IR light curves to be used to place a constraint on position/size and the amount of CSM dust. We apply the method to observed NIR SN Ia samples, showing that meaningful upper limits, even under conservative assumptions, on the CS dust mass can be derived. We thereby clarify a difficulty of the CS dust scattering model to be a general explanation for the peculiar reddening law, while it may still apply to a sub-sample of highly-reddened SNe Ia. For SNe Ia in general, environment at the interstellar scale should be responsible for the non-standard...

  9. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  10. Infrared spectroscopic characterization of tungsten carbonyl species formed by ultraviolet photoreduction of silica-supported W(VI) in carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, S.D.; Ekerdt, J.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1994-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The tungsten carbonyl species that form during ultraviolet photoreduction of W[sup 6+]SiO[sub 2] in CO were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Two carbonyl species were identified, mer-W(CO)[sub 3] and cis-W(CO)[sub 2], by the number and intensities of the respective IR peaks and through isotopic substitution. The C[sub 2v] symmetry of mer-W(CO)[sub 3] was associated with three IR bands: a very weak (A[sub 1])[sub 1] symmetric trans mode at 2145 cm[sup [minus]1], a strong B[sub 2] symmetric mode at 2112 cm[sup [minus]1], and a strong (A[sub 1])[sub 2] antisymmetric mode at 2179 cm[sup [minus]1] mer-W(CO)[sub 3] was stable at 298 K in 25 Torr of CO. Isothermal evacuation of the mer-W(CO)[sub 3] species resulted in the loss of a single CO ligand, forming cis-W(CO)[sub 2]. The W(CO)[sub 2] species formed during both isothermal evacuation of the mer-W(CO)[sub 3] species and during the initial photoreduction process. cis-W(CO)[sub 2] was identified by its IR spectrum consisting of a strong symmetric mode at 2112 cm[sup [minus]1] and a strong antisymmetric mode at 2040 cm[sup [minus]1]. 22 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Infrared Safety in Factorized Hard Scattering Cross-Sections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew Hornig; Christopher Lee; Grigory Ovanesyan

    2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The rules of soft-collinear effective theory can be used naively to write hard scattering cross-sections as convolutions of separate hard, jet, and soft functions. One condition required to guarantee the validity of such a factorization is the infrared safety of these functions in perturbation theory. Using e+e- angularity distributions as an example, we propose and illustrate an intuitive method to test this infrared safety at one loop. We look for regions of integration in the sum of Feynman diagrams contributing to the jet and soft functions where the integrals become infrared divergent. Our analysis is independent of an explicit infrared regulator, clarifies how to distinguish infrared and ultraviolet singularities in pure dimensional regularization, and demonstrates the necessity of taking zero-bins into account to obtain infrared-safe jet functions.

  12. SWIRE: The SIRTF Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carol J. Lonsdale; Harding E. Smith; Michael Rowan-Robinson; Jason Surace; David Shupe; Cong Xu; Seb Oliver; Deborah Padgett; Fan Fang; Alberto Franceschini; Nick Gautier; Matt Griffin; Frank Masci; Glenn Morrison; JoAnn O'Linger; Ismael Perez-Fournon; Marguerite Pierre; Richard Puetter; Gordon Stacey

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The SIRTF Wide-area InfraRed Extragalactic survey (SWIRE), the largest SIRTF Legacy program, is a wide-area, imaging survey to trace the evolution of dusty, star-forming galaxies, evolved stellar populations, and AGN as a function of environment, from redshifts z~3 to the current epoch. SWIRE will survey 7 high-latitude fields, totaling 60 - 65 sq. deg. in all 7 SIRTF bands: IRAC 3.6, 4.5, 5.6, 8 microns and MIPS 24, 70, 160 microns. The Legacy Extragalactic Catalog may contain in excess of 2 million IR-selected galaxies, dominated by (1) ~150,000 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: L{FIR}>10^11 L_sun), ~7000 of these with z>2; (2) 1 million early-type galaxies, ~10,000 with z>2; and (3) \\~20,000 classical AGN, plus significantly more dust-obscured QSO/AGN among the LIRGs. SWIRE will provide an unprecedented view of the evolution of galaxies, structure, and AGN. The key scientific goals of SWIRE are: (1) to determine the evolution of actively star-forming and passively evolving galaxies in order to understand the history of galaxy formation in the context of cosmic structure formation; (2) to determine the evolution of the spatial distribution and clustering of evolved galaxies, starbursts and AGN in the key redshift range, 0.5

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecular Supernova Remnants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. Reach; Jeonghee Rho

    2000-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Infrared Space Observatory spectroscopy of sites in the supernova remnants W28, W44, and 3C391, where blast waves are impacting molecular clouds. Atomic fine-structure lines were detected from C, N, O, Si, P, and Fe. The S(3) and S(9) lines of H2 were detected for all three remnants. The observations require both shocks into gas with moderate (~ 100 /cm3) and high (~10,000 /cm3) pre-shock densities, with the moderate density shocks producing the ionic lines and the high density shock producing the molecular lines. No single shock model can account for all of the observed lines, even at the order of magnitude level. We find that the principal coolants of radiative supernova shocks in moderate-density gas are the far-infrared continuum from dust grains surviving the shock, followed by collisionally-excited [O I] 63.2 and [Si II] 34.8 micron lines. The principal coolant of the high-density shocks is collisionally-excited H2 rotational and ro-vibrational line emission. We systematically examine the ground-state fine structure of all cosmically abundant elements, to explain the presence or lack of all atomic fine lines in our spectra in terms of the atomic structure, interstellar abundances, and a moderate-density, partially-ionized plasma. The [P II] line at 60.6 microns is the first known astronomical detection. There is one bright unidentified line in our spectra, at 74.26 microns. The presence of bright [Si II] and [Fe II] lines requires partial destruction of the dust. The required gas-phase abundance of Fe suggests 15-30% of the Fe-bearing grains were destroyed. The infrared continuum brightness requires ~1 Msun of dust survives the shock, suggesting about 1/3 of the dust mass was destroyed, in agreement with the depletion estimate and with theoretical models for dust destruction.

  14. Infrared Properties of Nearby Interacting Galaxies: from Spirals to ULIRGs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Charmandaris

    2006-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I present a brief review of some of the mid-infrared properties of interacting galaxies as these were revealed using observations from the Infrared Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope over the last decade. The variation of the infrared spectral energy distribution in interacting galaxies can be used as an extinction free tracer not only of the location of the star formation activity but also of the physical mechanism dominating their energy production.

  15. Doped carbon nanostructure field emitter arrays for infrared imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korsah, Kofi (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baylor, Larry R (Farragut, TN) [Farragut, TN; Caughman, John B (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rack, Philip D (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ivanov, Ilia N (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An infrared imaging device and method for making infrared detector(s) having at least one anode, at least one cathode with a substrate electrically connected to a plurality of doped carbon nanostructures; and bias circuitry for applying an electric field between the anode and the cathode such that when infrared photons are adsorbed by the nanostructures the emitted field current is modulated. The detectors can be doped with cesium to lower the work function.

  16. Public Health Pesticide Inventory IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 7:22 AM 2 Public Health Pesticide Inventory IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 7:22 AM 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    stici f Too ide ols fo s or #12; Public Health Pesticide Inventory ©IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 7:22 AM 2 #12; Public Health Pesticide Inventory ©IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 7 semiochemicals can be used effectively, safety, and legally for vector control. This inventory of public health

  17. Public Health Pesticide Inventory IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 9:54 AM 2 Public Health Pesticide Inventory IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 9:54 AM 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    To stici of ools ide for s #12; Public Health Pesticide Inventory ©IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 9:54 AM 2 #12; Public Health Pesticide Inventory ©IR4/Karl MalamudRoam 4/11/2012 9. This inventory of public health pesticides is intended to address two primary questions: 1) what chemical tools

  18. UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED EMISSION BANDS: PAHs or MAONs?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Kwok; Yong Zhang, E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that the carrier of the unidentified infrared emission (UIE) bands is an amorphous carbonaceous solid with mixed aromatic/aliphatic structures, rather than free-flying polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. Through spectral fittings of the astronomical spectra of the UIE bands, we show that a significant amount of the energy is emitted by the aliphatic component, implying that aliphatic groups are an essential part of the chemical structure. Arguments in favor of an amorphous, solid-state structure rather than a gas-phase molecule as a carrier of the UIE are also presented.

  19. Nonperturbative infrared fixed point in sextet QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Svetitsky; Yigal Shamir; Thomas DeGrand

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The SU(3) gauge theory with fermions in the sextet representation is one of several theories of interest for technicolor models. We have carried out a Schrodinger functional (SF) calculation for the lattice theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions. We find that the discrete beta function changes sign when the SF renormalized coupling is in the neighborhood of g^2 = 2.0, showing a breakdown of the perturbative picture even though the coupling is weak. The most straightforward interpretation is an infrared-stable fixed point.

  20. Infrared Mapping Helps Optimize Catalytic Reactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFPTri-Party AgreementInfrared Mapping Helps