National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for infiltration measurement technique

  1. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to...

  2. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The airtightness of a building can be determined by using several methods. Learn how the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique provides information about air leakage and energy loss.

  3. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  4. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Acoustic Building Infilitration Measurement System project is developing an acoustic method of measuring the infiltration of a building envelope.

  5. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ralph T Muehleisen, rmuehleisen@anl.gov Argonne National Laboratory Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS): New Project 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Wireless Transmission Sound Leaks / Infiltration Sites Microphone Array Analysis Computer Powered Speaker Interior Microphone Oscillator Infiltration Properties Out 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 10/1/2014 Planned end date: 9/30/2015 Key Milestones 1. Full Computer Simulation: 9/30/2014 2. First Prototype

  6. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sound Leaks Infiltration Sites Microphone Array Analysis Computer Powered Speaker ... date: 9302015 Key Milestones 1. Full Computer Simulation: 9302014 2. First Prototype ...

  7. Oxygen Transport Kinetics in Infiltrated SOFCs Cathode by Electrical Conductivity Relaxation Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yihong; Gerdes, Kirk; Liu, Xingbo

    2013-07-01

    Infiltration has attracted increasing attention as an effective technique to modify SOFC cathodes to improve cell electrochemical performance while maintaining material compatibility and long-term stability. However, the infiltrated material's effect on oxygen transport is still not clear and detailed knowledge of the oxygen reduction reaction in infiltrated cathodes is lacking. In this work, the technique of electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR) is used to evaluate oxygen exchange in two common infiltrated materials, Ce{sub 0.8}Sm{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-?}. The ECR technique is also used to examine the transport processes in a composite material formed with a backbone of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-?} and possessing a thin, dense surface layer composed of the representative infiltrate material. Both the surface oxygen exchange process and the oxygen exchange coefficient at infiltrate/LSCF interface are reported. ECR testing results indicate that the application of infiltrate under certain oxygen partial pressure conditions produces a measureable increase in the fitted oxygen exchange parameter. It is presently only possible to generate hypotheses to explain the observation. However the correlation between improved electrochemical performance and increased oxygen transport measured by ECR is reliably demonstrated. The simple and inexpensive ECR technique is utilized as a direct method to optimize the selection of specific infiltrate/backbone material systems for superior performance.

  8. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  9. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  10. Engineering report single-shell tank farms interim measures to limit infiltration through the vadose zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAASS, C.C.

    1999-10-14

    Identifies, evaluates and recommends interim measures for reducing or eliminating water sources and preferential pathways within the vadose zone of the single-shell tank farms. Features studied: surface water infiltration and leaking water lines that provide recharge moisture, and wells that could provide pathways for contaminant migration. An extensive data base, maps, recommended mitigations, and rough order of magnitude costs are included.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements You are...

  12. Comparison of 17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques for Immersion Freezing For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  13. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  14. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Capacitance Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Minority-Carrier Lifetime Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared & Raman Spectroscopy Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Capacitance Techniques Scanning ...

  15. A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid media ...

  16. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  17. Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. ...

  18. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  19. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  20. Remote measurement of corrosion using ultrasonic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, K.M.; Porter, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) technology has the potential of meeting the US Department of Energy`s treatment requirements for mixed radioactive waste. A major technical constraint of the SCWO process is corrosion. Safe operation of a pilot plant requires monitoring of the corrosion rate of the materials of construction. A method is needed for measurement of the corrosion rate taking place during operation. One approach is to directly measure the change in wall thickness or growth of oxide layer at critical points in the SCWO process. In FY-93, a brief survey of the industry was performed to evaluate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for remote corrosion monitoring in supercritical vessels. As a result of this survey, it was determined that ultrasonic testing (UT) methods would be the most cost-effective and suitable method of achieving this. Therefore, the objective for FY-94 was to prove the feasibility of using UT to monitor corrosion of supercritical vessels remotely during operation without removal of the insulation.

  1. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  2. Optical fiber sensor technique for strain measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Michael A.; Ginley, David S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser light from a common source is split and conveyed through two similar optical fibers and emitted at their respective ends to form an interference pattern, one of the optical fibers having a portion thereof subjected to a strain. Changes in the strain cause changes in the optical path length of the strain fiber, and generate corresponding changes in the interference pattern. The interference pattern is received and transduced into signals representative of fringe shifts corresponding to changes in the strain experienced by the strained one of the optical fibers. These signals are then processed to evaluate strain as a function of time, typical examples of the application of the apparatus including electrodeposition of a metallic film on a conductive surface provided on the outside of the optical fiber being strained, so that strains generated in the optical fiber during the course of the electrodeposition are measurable as a function of time. In one aspect of the invention, signals relating to the fringe shift are stored for subsequent processing and analysis, whereas in another aspect of the invention the signals are processed for real-time display of the strain changes under study.

  3. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  4. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home.

  5. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Heating Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vieira, R.; Parker, D.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.

    2013-09-01

    Two identical laboratory homes designed to model existing Florida building stock were sealed and tested to 2.5 ACH50. Then, one was made leaky with 70% leakage through the attic and 30% through windows, to a tested value of 9 ACH50. Reduced energy use was measured in the tighter home (2.5 ACH50) in the range of 15% to 16.5% relative to the leaky (9 ACH50) home. Internal moisture loads resulted in higher dew points inside the tight home than the leaky home. Window condensation and mold growth occurred inside the tight home. Even cutting internal moisture gains in half to 6.05 lbs/day, the dew point of the tight home was more than 15 degrees F higher than the outside dry bulb temperature. The homes have single pane glass representative of older Central Florida homes.

  6. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  7. Assessment of Weatherization Assistance Program Needs for Improved Residential Measure Selection Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gettings, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents a study conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate the current measure selection techniques and needs of agencies within the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study precedes initiation of a project to revise and upgrade the current means of selecting energy conservation measures for low-income single- and multi-family housing and includes recommendations for the revision. Issues relevant to the formation of the revised audit procedures are discussed. Currently available audits are reviewed. No single- to multi-family audit program was found capable of fulfilling the currents needs of the WAP. Recommendations include the separate development of single- and multi-family audits. Addition of specific features to the single-family audit is recommended, including (1) measure ranking unique to each eligible house, (2) heating and cooling equipment measures, (3) cooling envelope measures, (4) means of determining the amount of infiltration work to be performed, (5) potential for customizing and simplifying to meet local needs, and (6) implementation on either a personal computer or as an alternate manual technique. A single-family audit development plan is proposed which includes examination of several existing programs as potential starting points. Recommendations related to the development of a WAP multi-family audit include examination of several existing private programs for possible use by state WAP agencies expressing the greatest need and further study of the DOE supported programs ASEAM and CIRA as possible starting points for a DOE procedure. Early identification of approved multi-family measures and their applicability to various building stock, equipment types, and fuels is also recommended.

  8. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  9. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.G.; Lagus, P.L.; Fleming, K.M.

    1997-08-01

    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  11. The use of microdosimetric techniques in radiation protection measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Hsu, H.H.; Casson, W.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    A major objective of radiation protection is to determine the dose equivalent for routine radiation protection applications. As microdosimetry has developed over approximately three decades, its most important application has been in measuring radiation quality, especially in radiation fields of unknown or inadequately known energy spectra. In these radiation fields, determination of dose equivalent is not straightforward; however, the use of microdosimetric principles and techniques could solve this problem. In this paper, the authors discuss the measurement of lineal energy, a microscopic analog to linear energy transfer, and demonstrate the development and implementation of the variance-covariance method, a novel method in experimental microdosimetry. This method permits the determination of dose mean lineal energy, an essential parameter of radiation quality, in a radiation field of unknown spectrum, time-varying dose rate, and high dose rate. Real-time monitoring of changes in radiation quality can also be achieved by using microdosimetric techniques.

  12. Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, Connor J.; Mendoza, Albert; Zheng, Yunhui; Mathur, Savyasachee

    2007-03-19

    Polarization-sensitive detection of elastic backscatter is useful for detection of cloud phase and depolarizing aerosols. The U.S. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program has deployed micropulse lidar (MPL) for over a decade, but without polarized detection. Adding an actively-controlled liquid crystal retarder provides the capability to identify depolarizing particles by alternately transmitting linearly and circularly polarized light. This represents a departure from established techniques which transmit exclusively linear polarization or exclusively circular polarization. Mueller matrix calculations yield simple relationships between the well-known linear depolarization ratio δlinear, the circular depolarization ratio δcirc, and the hybrid MPL depolarization ratio δMPL. This research was supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  14. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  15. Apparent thermal conductivity measurements by an unguarded technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    An unguarded longitudinal heat-flow apparatus for measuring the apparent thermal conductivity (lambda/sub a) of insulations was tested with mean specimen temperatures from 300 to 330/sup 0/K on samples up to 0.91 m wide, 1.52 m long, and 0.15 m thick. Heat flow is provided by a horizontal electrically heated Nichrome screen sandwiched between test samples that are bounded by temperature controlled copper plates and 9 cm of mineral fiber insulation. A determinate error analysis shows lambda/sub a/ measurement uncertainty to be less than +- 1.7% for insulating materials as thin as 3 cm. Three-dimensional thermal modeling indicates negligible error in lambda/sub a/ due to edge loss for insulations up to 7.62 cm thick when the temperature difference across the sample is measured at the sceen center. System repeatability and reproducibility were determined to be +- 0.2%. Differences of lambda/sub a/ results from the screen tester and results from the National Bureau of Standards were 0.1% for a 10-kg/m/sup 3/ Calibration Transfer Standard and 0.9% for 127-kg/m/sup 3/ fibrous glass board (SRM 1450b). Measurements on fiberglass and rock wool batt insulations showed the dependence of lambda/sub a/ on density, temperature, temperature difference, plate emittance, and heat flow direction. Results obtained for lambda/sub a/ as a function of density at 24/sup 0/C differed by less than 2% from values obtained with a guarded hot plate. These results demonstrate that this simple technique has the accuracy and sensitivity needed for useful lambda/sub a/ measurements on thermal insulating materials.

  16. Technique development for polarized pipe-to-soil potential measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1989-12-01

    Research project PR-200-513 was undertaken with the overall objective to develop practical techniques for determining the polarized pipe-to-soil potential of a buried pipeline. The importance of this project rests with the fact that pipe-to-soil potential measurements are the most commonly used means of assessing the level of cathodic protection on buried gas transmission pipelines. In the recent past years there has been a considerable amount of effort devoted to developing methods and instruments to correct measured pipe-to-soil potentials for IR drops that may occur from currents (from the cathodic protection system or stray sources) in the soil to obtain the polarized potential. However, many of the methods or instruments available are either time-consuming, cumbersome to use in the field, applicable to only certain types of cathodic protection systems and under particular circumstances, subject to influences from stray current sources or not fully developed as of yet. Thus, there is a need to develop a practical method of determining the polarized pipe potential free of IR drop errors. Hence, the objectives of the research program conducted were: (1) to test and evaluate comparatively existing polarized potential measurement approaches, and (2) to develop new approaches to determining the polarized potential.

  17. Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    She, C.Y.; Latifi, H.; Yu, J.R.; Alvarez, R.J. II ); Bills, R.E.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors describe a new two-frequency lidar for measuring Na temperature profiles that uses a stabilized cw single-mode dye laser oscillator (rms frequency jitter < 1 MHz) followed by a pulsed-dye power amplifier (140 MHz FWHM linewidth) which is pumped by an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser. The laser oscillator is tuned to the two operating frequencies by observing the Doppler-free structure of the Na D{sub 2} fluorescence spectrum in a vapor cells. The lidar technique and the initial observations of the temperature profile between 82 and 102 km at Ft. Collins, CO (40.6{degree}N,105{degree}W) are described. Absolute temperature accuracies at the Na layer peak of better than {plus minus}3 K with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an integration period of approximately 5 min were achieved.

  18. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R. [Foothill Engineering, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States); Flint, A.L. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN {number_sign}85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper.

  19. Technique for extending the range of a signal measuring circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaprnka, Anthony G.; Sun, Shan C.; Vercellotti, Leonard C.

    1978-01-01

    An input signal supplied to a signal measuring circuit is either amplified or attenuated as necessary to establish the magnitude of the input signal within the defined dynamic range of the measuring circuit and the output signal developed by the measuring circuit is subsequently readjusted through amplification or attenuation to develop an output signal which corresponds to the magnitude of the initial input signal.

  20. Air exchange effectiveness in office buildings: Measurement techniques and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.

    1992-07-01

    We define two air exchange effectiveness parameters which indicate the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement air flow in an entire building, the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern locally, and the normalized local age of air. After describing two tracer gas procedures for measuring these parameters, we discuss assumptions inherent in the data analysis that are often violated in large office buildings. To obtain valuable data, careful selection of buildings for measurements and assessments to determine if operating conditions are reasonably consistent with the assumptions are necessary. Multiple factors, in addition to the air flow pattern in the occupied space, can affect measurement results, consequently, the interpretation of measurements is not straightforward. We summarize the results of measurements in several office buildings and in a research laboratory. Almost all measurements indicate that the extent of both short circuiting and displacement flow is small. A moderate amount of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. Ages of air and their reciprocals (local ventilation rates) often vary substantially between rooms, probably because of room-to-room variation in the rate of air supply. For future research, we suggest assessments of measurement accuracy, development of measurement approaches that may be practically applied for a broader range of buildings, and a greater focus on pollutant removal efficiencies.

  1. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    11sup 2024 measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work. ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM ...

  2. Thermal Imaging Technique for Measuring Mixing of Fluids - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid flow. Current methods rely on different physical principles such as: pressure measurement, particle tracking using images, heat removal from a wire and Doppler shift...

  3. Surface moisture measurement system electromagnetic induction probe calibration technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-08

    The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) is designed to measure the moisture concentration near the surfaces of the wastes located in the Hanford Site tank farms. This document describes a calibration methodology to demonstrate that the Electromagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture probe meets relevant requirements in the `Design Requirements Document (DRD) for the Surface Moisture Measurement System.` The primary purpose of the experimental tests described in this methodology is to make possible interpretation of EMI in-tank surface probe data to estimate the surface moisture.

  4. Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The adsorption isotherm of Hsub 2 on a copper surface was measured in the equilibrium ... The adsorption energies of 1.18-1.27 kJmol, and the condensation coefficient of ...

  5. A poloidal field measurement technique: Pitch angle measurements via injected He/sup +/ ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    The poloidal field of a tokamak can be determined by observing the light emitted by He/sup +/ ions injected into the plasma by a perpendicular He/sup 0/ beam. These ions will orbit in small circles located where the neutral atom became ionized, and they will remain there for a few microseconds. During this time, some of these ions will also emit light at various spectral lines. The observed spectrum of any of these lines will have a peculiar and very wide shape, and it will be offset (Doppler shifted) with respect to the natural line location. The location and width of the spectral pattern provide independent information about the components of the poloidal field which are parallel and perpendicular to the beam velocity, and this information is local to the point where the light is emitted. For a horizontal beam, these components are b/sub x/ and b/sub y/, respectively. The difference in Doppler shift between two measurement points above one another (at the top and bottom of the beam) is directly proportional to /delta/b/sub x/, which in turn is proportional to the transform on that flux surface. Thus, this technique provides a means to measure directly local values of q(r). Simulation studies indicate that accurate measurements can be made in milliseconds. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  7. Measurement and evaluation techniques for automated demand response demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motegi, Naoya; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Sezgen, Osman; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    The recent electricity crisis in California and elsewhere has prompted new research to evaluate demand response strategies in large facilities. This paper describes an evaluation of fully automated demand response technologies (Auto-DR) in five large facilities. Auto-DR does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a facility through receipt of an external communications signal. This paper summarizes the measurement and evaluation of the performance of demand response technologies and strategies in five large facilities. All the sites have data trending systems such as energy management and control systems (EMCS) and/or energy information systems (EIS). Additional sub-metering was applied where necessary to evaluate the facility's demand response performance. This paper reviews the control responses during the test period, and analyzes demand savings achieved at each site. Occupant comfort issues are investigated where data are available. This paper discusses methods to estimate demand savings and results from demand response strategies at five large facilities.

  8. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique for isentropic loading with graded density impactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-07-01

    A simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique was used for isentropic-loading experiments with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) specimen. The experiments used a graded density impactor accelerated onto a tantalum driver backed with PMMA and then lithium fluoride windows for each experiment. Simultaneous measurements made at each window interface provided precise transit time and particle velocity measurements which can be used to determine the stress-vs-strain loading path using Lagrangian analysis techniques. The experimental technique provides access to 40 GPa stress levels in PMMA under isentropic-loading conditions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique for isentropic loading with graded density impactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.U.; Chhabildas, L.C.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1997-10-01

    A simultaneous PVDF/VISAR measurement technique was used for isentropic-loading experiments with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) specimen. The experiments used a graded density impactor accelerated onto a tantalum driver backed with PMMA and then lithium fluoride windows for each experiment. Simultaneous measurements made at each window interface provided precise transit time and particle velocity measurements which can be used to determine the stress-vs-strain loading path using Lagrangian analysis techniques. The experimental technique provides access to 40 GPa stress levels in PMMA under isentropic-loading conditions.

  11. Techniques for reducing error in the calorimetric measurement of low wattage items

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedlacek, W.A.; Hildner, S.S.; Camp, K.L.; Cremers, T.L.

    1993-08-01

    The increased need for the measurement of low wattage items with production calorimeters has required the development of techniques to maximize the precision and accuracy of the calorimeter measurements. An error model for calorimetry measurements is presented. This model is used as a basis for optimizing calorimetry measurements through baseline interpolation. The method was applied to the heat measurement of over 100 items and the results compared to chemistry assay and mass spectroscopy.

  12. Acoustic Building Infiltration Measurement System (ABIMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lead Performer: Argonne National Laboratory - Lemont, IL Partner: Illinois Institute of Technology - Chicago, IL

  13. Comparison of stress-measuring techniques at the DNA-UTP site, Rodgers Hollow, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) is developing explosives technology through its Underground Technology Program (UTP). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has supported the DNA by conducting research to characterize the in situ stress and rock mass deformability at one of the UTP underground sites at Rodgers Hollow, near Louisville, Kentucky on the Fort Knox Military Reservation. The purpose of SNL`s testing was to determine the in situ stress using three different measurement techniques and, if possible, to estimate the rock mass modulus near the underground opening. The three stress-measuring techniques are (1) borehole deformation measurements using overcoring, (2) Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) complemented by laboratory ultrasonic and mechanical properties testing, and (3) the in situ flatjack technique using cancellation pressure. Rock mass modulus around the underground opening was estimated using the load deformation history of the flatjack and surrounding rock. Borehole deformation measurements using the overcoring technique probably represent the most reliable method for in situ stress determination in boreholes up to 50 ft (15 m) deep in competent rock around an isolated excavation. The technique is used extensively by the tunneling and mining industries. The ASR technique is also a core-based technique and is used in the petroleum and natural gas industries for characterization of in situ stress from deep boreholes. The flatjack technique has also been used in the tunneling and mining industries, and until recently has been limited to measurement of the stress immediately around the excavation. Results from the flatjack technique must be further analyzed to calculate the in situ stress in the far field.

  14. Application of proposed mutual reciprocal inspection measurement techniques to a weapon component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.W.; Frankle, C.M.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1997-04-01

    The shape-measurement technique proposed by Russian scientists for mutual reciprocal inspections (MRI) of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons has been applied to a US weapon component. Measurement procedures are described. Results of the measurements are {open_quotes}self-normalized{close_quotes} to remove any classified information and further renormalized to results of previous joint US/Russian measurements of an unclassified plutonium piece. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form, conforming to the method of presentation recommended by Russian experts during the previous measurements.

  15. Use of image processing techniques for heat transfer measurements using thermochromic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    A Macintosh-based image processing code has been developed for use in making continuous temperature profile measurements using thermochromic liquid crystals. This software is the result of extensive modifications to the public domain software, NIH Image developed by the National Institutes of Health. These modifications primarily include routines to quantify the TLC color changes as temperature measurements while providing a simple user interface. Using these techniques, one can perform literally thousands of temperature measurements over a small area (307,200 temperature measurements in a 640*480 image), thus making continuous profile measurement possible. This technique was developed in support of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (a new nuclear fission research reactor being developed at Oak Ridge National Lab.) for use in experiments designed to study the impact of a flow blockage at the inlet to the reactor core.

  16. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much...

  17. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A. [Geological Survey, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  18. Measurement of nonlinear index by a relay-imaged top-hat Z-scan technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, T.; Kurnit, N.A.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of the nonlinear index of a number of optical materials of interest for the National Ignition Facility have been performed at 1,064 nm and 355 nm by a modified version of the ``top-hat`` technique and the results compared with the more standard gaussian-beam Z-scan technique. The top-hat technique has the advantages of higher sensitivity and smaller uncertainties introduced by beam-quality considerations. The authors have made what they feel to be an additional improvement by placing the defining aperture for the top hat at the front focal plane of the lens that focuses the beam into the sample and then reimaging the input aperture with a second lens onto a ccd camera. Reimaging eliminates diffraction fringes and provides a stationary image even for a wedged sample; recording the entire image permits minimization of spurious effects such as varying interference fringes.

  19. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  20. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Salve, R.

    2002-04-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Tonopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility, using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  1. Techniques for the measurement of disruption halo currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Guttadora, L.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Menard, J.; Takahashi, H.

    2011-10-06

    This paper describes techniques for measuring halo currents, and their associated toroidal peaking, in the National Spherical Torus Experiments. The measurements are based on three techniques: (i) measurement of the toroidal field created by the poloidal halo current, either with segmented Rogowski coils or discrete toroidal field sensors, (ii) the direct measurement of halo currents into specially instrument tiles, and (iii) small Rogowski coils placed on the mechanical supports of in-vessel components. For the segmented Rogowski coils and discrete toroidal field detectors, it is shown that the toroidal peaking factor inferred from the data is significantly less than the peakingmore » factor of the underlying halo current distribution, and a simple model is developed to relate the two. For the array of discrete toroidal field detectors and small Rogowski sensors, the compensation steps that are used to isolate the halo current signal are described. The electrical and mechanical design of compact under-tile resistive shunts and mini-Rogowski coils is described. Example data from the various systems is shown.« less

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content using microwave absorption techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryer, Michael O.; Hills, Andrea J.; Morrison, John L.

    2000-01-01

    A self calibrating method and apparatus for measuring butterfat and protein content based on measuring the microwave absorption of a sample of milk at several microwave frequencies. A microwave energy source injects microwave energy into the resonant cavity for absorption and reflection by the sample undergoing evaluation. A sample tube is centrally located in the resonant cavity passing therethrough and exposing the sample to the microwave energy. A portion of the energy is absorbed by the sample while another portion of the microwave energy is reflected back to an evaluation device such as a network analyzer. The frequency at which the reflected radiation is at a minimum within the cavity is combined with the scatter coefficient S.sub.11 as well as a phase change to calculate the butterfat content in the sample. The protein located within the sample may also be calculated in a likewise manner using the frequency, S.sub.11 and phase variables. A differential technique using a second resonant cavity containing a reference standard as a sample will normalize the measurements from the unknown sample and thus be self-calibrating. A shuttered mechanism will switch the microwave excitation between the unknown and the reference cavities. An integrated apparatus for measuring the butterfat content in milk using microwave absorption techniques is also presented.

  3. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  4. Dynamic analysis of pressure infiltration processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, D.K.; Gatica, J.E.; Tewari, S.N.

    1995-12-01

    Unidirectional pressure infiltration of porous preforms by molten metal/alloys is investigated in this study. The dynamics of the process is analyzed via the numerical solution of a mathematical model. Comparison against classical asymptotic analyses shows that, for realistic samples, end effects may become important and render asymptotic results unreliable. A comparison with experiments proves the model to be an efficient predictive tool in the analysis of infiltration processes for different preform/melt systems.

  5. Sequential Infiltration Synthesis for Enhancing Advanced Lithography |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Lithography Technology available for licensing: The invention is a plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. Benefits: The plasma etch resist

  6. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer InfiltrationVentilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the ...

  7. A measurement technique to determine the calibration accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litzenberg, Dale W.; Gallagher, Ian; Masi, Kathryn J.; Lee, Choonik; Prisciandaro, Joann I.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Ritter, Timothy; Lam, Kwok L.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To present and characterize a measurement technique to quantify the calibration accuracy of an electromagnetic tracking system to radiation isocenter.Methods: This technique was developed as a quality assurance method for electromagnetic tracking systems used in a multi-institutional clinical hypofractionated prostate study. In this technique, the electromagnetic tracking system is calibrated to isocenter with the manufacturers recommended technique, using laser-based alignment. A test patient is created with a transponder at isocenter whose position is measured electromagnetically. Four portal images of the transponder are taken with collimator rotations of 45 135, 225, and 315, at each of four gantry angles (0, 90, 180, 270) using a 3 6 cm{sup 2} radiation field. In each image, the center of the copper-wrapped iron core of the transponder is determined. All measurements are made relative to this transponder position to remove gantry and imager sag effects. For each of the 16 images, the 50% collimation edges are identified and used to find a ray representing the rotational axis of each collimation edge. The 16 collimator rotation rays from four gantry angles pass through and bound the radiation isocenter volume. The center of the bounded region, relative to the transponder, is calculated and then transformed to tracking system coordinates using the transponder position, allowing the tracking system's calibration offset from radiation isocenter to be found. All image analysis and calculations are automated with inhouse software for user-independent accuracy. Three different tracking systems at two different sites were evaluated for this study.Results: The magnitude of the calibration offset was always less than the manufacturer's stated accuracy of 0.2 cm using their standard clinical calibration procedure, and ranged from 0.014 to 0.175 cm. On three systems in clinical use, the magnitude of the offset was found to be 0.053 0.036, 0.121 0

  8. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  9. An optical technique for measuring divergence, beam profile, and aiming direction, of relativistic negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1988-02-01

    A novel, nonobstructive diagnostic technique for high energy H/sup minus/D/sup minus/ ion beams is described. This scheme employs spectroscopic techniques designed to measure beam profile, perpendicular velocity spread (i.e., divergence), and orientation of multiMeV H/sup minus/ beams. The basic principle of this method is to photoneutralize a small portion of the H/sup minus/ beam in a way such that the photodetachment process results in the formation of excited hydrogen atoms in the n = 2 levels. Observation of fluorescence from spontaneous decay of H(sp) andor induced deacy of H(2s) can be readily used to determine beam profile. Doppler broadening measurements can be used to determine velocity spread from which beam emittance is calculated. With off-the-shelf instruments resolutions of 1 mm for beam profile and 2 x 10/sup minus/2) ..pi.. cm-mrad are possible. For photodetachment, the best commercially available laser is found to be ArF eximer laser. The analysis is performed for the 200 MEV BNL Linac. The laser, which has a pulse duration which has a pulse duration which is of 10/sup minus/5) of the linac can produce sufficient signal at a negligible beam loss. In addition, measurements of minute Doppler shifts of this Lyman-Alpha radiation by a spectrograph could in principle resolve beam direction to within 1.57 ..mu..rad. The process under consideration has a resonance known as the shape resonance. As the following literature review indicates, the total cross section is known and there is a reasonable agreement between theory and experiment. There are no experimental measurements of partical cross sections. nevertheless, there are theoretical estimates which agree within 15%. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Technique for measuring air flow and carbon dioxide flux in large, open-top chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ham, J.M.; Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.

    1993-10-01

    Open-Top Chambers (OTCs) are commonly used to evaluate the effect of CO{sub 2},O{sub 3}, and other trace gases on vegetation. This study developed and tested a new technique for measuring forced air flow and net CO{sub 2} flux from OTCs. Experiments were performed with a 4.5-m diam. OTC with a sealed floor and a specialized air delivery system. Air flow through the chamber was computed with the Bernoulli equation using measurements of the pressure differential between the air delivery ducts and the chamber interior. An independent measurement of air flow was made simultaneously to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the Bernoulli relationship. The CO{sub 2} flux density was calculated as the product of chamber air flow and the difference in CO{sub 2} concentration between the air entering and exhausting from the OTC (C{sub in}-C{sub out}). Accuracy was evaluated by releasing CO{sub 2} within the OTC at known rates. Data were collected with OTCs at ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} ({approx}700 {mu}mol{sup -1}). Results showed the Bernoulli equation, with a flow coefficient of 0.7, accurately measured air flow in the OTC within {+-}5% regardless of flow rate and air duct geometry. Experiments in ambient OTCs showed CO{sub 2} flux density ({mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), computed from 2-min averages of air flow and C{sub in} - C{sub out,} was typically within {+-} 10% of actual flux, provided that the exit air velocity at the top of the OTC was greater than 0.6 m s{sup -1}. Obtaining the same accuracy in CO{sub 2}-enriched OTCs required a critical exit velocity near 1.2 m s{sup -1} to minimize the incursion of ambient air and prevent contamination of exit gas sample. When flux data were integrated over time to estimate daily CO{sub 2} flux ({mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), actual and measured values agreed to within {+-}2% for both ambient and CO{sub 2}-enriched chambers, suggesting that accurate measurements of daily net C exchange are possible with this technique.

  11. Measuring water velocity using DIDSON and image cross-correlation techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Mueller, Robert P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-08-01

    To design or operate hydroelectric facilities for maximum power generation and minimum ecological impact, it is critical to understand the biological responses of fish to different flow structures. However, information is still lacking on the relationship between fish behavior and flow structures despite many years of research. Existing field characterization approaches conduct fish behavior studies and flow measurements separately and coupled later using statistical analysis. These types of studies, however, lack a way to determine the specific hydraulic conditions or the specific causes of the biological response. The Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) has been in wide use for fish behavior studies since 1999. The DIDSON can detect acoustic targets at long ranges in dark or turbid dark water. PIV is a state-of-the-art, non-intrusive, whole-flow-field technique, providing instantaneous velocity vector measurements in a whole plane using image cross-correlating techniques. There has been considerable research in the development of image processing techniques associated with PIV. This existing body of knowledge is applicable and can be used to process the images taken by the DIDSON. This study was conducted in a water flume which is 9 m long, 1.2 m wide, and 1.2 m deep when filled with water. A lab jet flow was setup as the benchmark flow to calibrate DIDSON images. The jet nozzle was 6.35 cm in diameter and core jet velocity was 1.52 m/s. Different particles were used to seed the flow. The flow was characterized based on the results using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). A DIDSON was mounted about 5 meters away from the jet nozzle. Consecutive DIDSON images with known time delay were divided into small interrogation spots after background was subtracted. Across-correlation was then performed to estimate the velocity vector for each interrogation spot. The estimated average velocity in the core zone was comparable to that obtained using a LDV. This proof

  12. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  13. CT reconstruction techniques for improved accuracy of lung CT airway measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, A.; Ranallo, F. N.; Judy, P. F.; Gierada, D. S.; Fain, S. B.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of constrained reconstruction techniques on quantitative CT (qCT) of the lung parenchyma and airways for low x-ray radiation dose. Methods: Measurement of small airways with qCT remains a challenge, especially for low x-ray dose protocols. Images of the COPDGene quality assurance phantom (CTP698, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) were obtained using a GE discovery CT750 HD scanner for helical scans at x-ray radiation dose-equivalents ranging from 1 to 4.12 mSv (12100 mA s currenttime product). Other parameters were 40 mm collimation, 0.984 pitch, 0.5 s rotation, and 0.625 mm thickness. The phantom was sandwiched between 7.5 cm thick water attenuating phantoms for a total length of 20 cm to better simulate the scatter conditions of patient scans. Image data sets were reconstructed using STANDARD (STD), DETAIL, BONE, and EDGE algorithms for filtered back projection (FBP), 100% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and Veo reconstructions. Reduced (half) display field of view (DFOV) was used to increase sampling across airway phantom structures. Inner diameter (ID), wall area percent (WA%), and wall thickness (WT) measurements of eight airway mimicking tubes in the phantom, including a 2.5 mm ID (42.6 WA%, 0.4 mm WT), 3 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 0.6 mm WT), and 6 mm ID (49.0 WA%, 1.2 mm WT) were performed with Airway Inspector (Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA) using the phase congruency edge detection method. The average of individual measures at five central slices of the phantom was taken to reduce measurement error. Results: WA% measures were greatly overestimated while IDs were underestimated for the smaller airways, especially for reconstructions at full DFOV (36 cm) using the STD kernel, due to poor sampling and spatial resolution (0.7 mm pixel size). Despite low radiation dose, the ID of the 6 mm ID airway was consistently measured accurately for all methods other than STD FBP

  14. Fluorescence measurements for evaluating the application of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2010-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of cuvette-contained laser dye mixtures are made for evaluation of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments. Nine mixtures of Coumarin 500 and Rhodamine 610 are analyzed, as well as the pure dyes. For each sample, the cuvette is positioned on a two-axis translation stage to allow the interrogation at different spatial locations, allowing the examination of both primary (absorption of the laser light) and secondary (absorption of the fluorescence) inner filter effects. In addition to these expected inner filter effects, we find evidence that a portion of the absorbed fluorescence is re-emitted. A total of 688 spectra are acquired for the evaluation of multivariate analysis approaches to account for nonlinear effects.

  15. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which have a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.

  16. The study of frequency-scan photothermal reflectance technique for thermal diffusivity measurement

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hua, Zilong; Ban, Heng; Hurley, David H.

    2015-05-05

    A frequency scan photothermal reflectance technique to measure thermal diffusivity of bulk samples is studied in this manuscript. Similar to general photothermal reflectance methods, an intensity-modulated heating laser and a constant intensity probe laser are used to determine the surface temperature response under sinusoidal heating. The approach involves fixing the distance between the heating and probe laser spots, recording the phase lag of reflected probe laser intensity with respect to the heating laser frequency modulation, and extracting thermal diffusivity using the phase lag – (frequency)1/2 relation. The experimental validation is performed on three samples (SiO2, CaF2 and Ge), which havemore » a wide range of thermal diffusivities. The measured thermal diffusivity values agree closely with literature values. Lastly, compared to the commonly used spatial scan method, the experimental setup and operation of the frequency scan method are simplified, and the uncertainty level is equal to or smaller than that of the spatial scan method.« less

  17. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang-Yong Nam; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ~1019 cm-3 carrier density, and ~0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.

  18. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Chang-Yong Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ∼10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} carrier density, and ∼0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.

  19. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chang-Yong Nam; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-11-17

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ~1019 cm-3 carrier density, and ~0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application ofmore » infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices.« less

  20. A technique for measuring winds in the lower atmosphere using incoherent Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, D.H.; Slaughter, D.R.; Tulloch, W.M.; White, W.E.

    1993-04-14

    Wind speed is useful from a meteorological standpoint, in atmospheric modeling, and assessment of trace gas dispersal. A continuing effort is involved in improving the sensitivity of such measurements, and is exemplified by the literature. The Mobile Atmospheric Research Laboratory (MARL) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing a method to improve the sensitivity of wind sounding in the lower through middle atmosphere using a pair of Fabry- Perot interferometers in parallel. This technique, first described by Chanin, et al., for the middle atmosphere using Doppler Rayleigh lidar, can be applied to the lower atmosphere where Mie (aerosol) backscatter is strong. Elastic events, inherent in both Rayleigh and Mie backscatter, dominate the return signal throughout the atmosphere. Both are susceptible to local wind vectors; which will Doppler shift the laser frequency proportional to the wind velocity. A pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers, tuned to either side of the laser frequency, will provide necessary data to determine the shift in frequency of the backscattered signal. Spectral drift and jitter of the laser and a lack of data points to determine the wind vector place limits on the sensitivity of the system. A method to minimize each of these is presented.

  1. A technique for measuring winds in the lower atmosphere using incoherent Doppler lidar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, D.H.; Slaughter, D.R.; Tulloch, W.M.; White, W.E.

    1993-04-14

    Wind speed is useful from a meteorological standpoint, in atmospheric modeling, and assessment of trace gas dispersal. A continuing effort is involved in improving the sensitivity of such measurements, and is exemplified by the literature. The Mobile Atmospheric Research Laboratory (MARL) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing a method to improve the sensitivity of wind sounding in the lower through middle atmosphere using a pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers in parallel. This technique, first described by Chanin, et al., for the middle atmosphere using Doppler Rayleigh lidar, can be applied to the lower atmosphere where Mie (aerosol) backscatter is strong. Elastic events, inherent in both Rayleigh and Mie backscatter, dominate the return signal throughout the atmosphere. Both are susceptible to local wind vectors; which will Doppler shift the laser frequency proportional to the wind velocity. A pair of Fabry-Perot interferometers, tuned to either side of the laser frequency, will provide necessary data to determine the shift in frequency of the backscattered signal. Spectral drift and jitter of the laser and a lack of data points to determine the wind vector place limits on the sensitivity of the system. A method to minimize each of these is presented.

  2. Comparison of absolute spectral irradiance responsivity measurement techniques using wavelength-tunable lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahtee, Ville; Brown, Steven W.; Larason, Thomas C.; Lykke, Keith R.; Ikonen, Erkki; Noorma, Mart

    2007-07-10

    Independent methods for measuring the absolute spectral irradiance responsivity of detectors have been compared between the calibration facilities at two national metrology institutes, the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Finland, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The emphasis is on the comparison of two different techniques for generating a uniform irradiance at a reference plane using wavelength-tunable lasers. At TKK's Laser Scanning Facility (LSF) the irradiance is generated by raster scanning a single collimated laser beam, while at the NIST facility for Spectral Irradiance and Radiance Responsivity Calibrations with Uniform Sources (SIRCUS), lasers are introduced into integrating spheres to generate a uniform irradiance at a reference plane. The laser-based irradiance responsivity results are compared to a traditional lamp-monochromator-based irradiance responsivity calibration obtained at the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF). A narrowband filter radiometer with a24 nm bandwidth and an effective band-center wavelength of 801 nm was used as the artifact. The results of the comparison between the different facilities, reported for the first time in the near-infrared wavelength range, demonstrate agreement at the uncertainty level of less than 0.1%. This result has significant implications in radiation thermometry and in photometry as well as in radiometry.

  3. A15 multifilamentary superconductors by the infiltration process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickus, M.R.; Holthuis, J.T.; Rosen, M.

    1980-05-01

    The inherent brittleness of the A15 compounds, and the requirement for a filamentary morphology, led to a heavy reliance on a powder approach for the preparation of superconducting tapes and wires. The quench-age technique, a non-powder process, was employed for the niobium-aluminum system, following the special features of the equilibrium phase diagram. The powder approach proved particularly effective for binaries, such as Nb-Sn, and for the ternaries Nb(Al,Ge) and Nb(Al,Si). Two variations of the powder process were assessed. One involved the use of precompounded powder of the desired stoichiometry but required simultaneous application of heat and pressure. The second variation was the infiltration process. This process involves the preparation of a ductile niobium matrix containing a controlled network of interconnected pores which are subsequently infiltrated with liquid metals (Sn) or low melting-point eutectics (e.g., Al-Ge, Al-Si). The composite is then subjected to a thermomechanical treatment to form a multiply connected array of A15 filaments in a niobium matrix. Multifilamentary conductors, based on Nb/sub 3/Sn, Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/ (Al,Ge) and Nb/sub 3/ (Al,Si), were readily obtained. Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors made by the infiltration process exhibit a critical temperature (Tc) of 18.1 K and a critical current carrying capacity (I/sub c/) of 8 x 10/sup 4/ amp.cm/sup -2/ at 12 Tesla.

  4. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  5. Sequential Infiltration Synthesis for Enhancing Multiple Patterning

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithography | Argonne National Laboratory Multiple Patterning Lithography Technology available for licensing: The invention is simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  6. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Infiltration in Furnaces Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #5 Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (January 2006) (237.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Furnace Pressure Controllers Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired

  7. A novel technique for blade-to-blade velocity measurements in a turbine cascade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goss, L.P.; Post, M.E.; Trump, D.D.; Sarka, B.; Macarthur, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    A two-color particle-image velocimetry technique has been developed to study two-dimensional velocity flowfields. In the method, a green-colored laser sheet (formed by a doubled Nd-YAG laser) and a red-colored laser sheet (formed by a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser) are used sequentially to expose the particle positions. Direction and particle displacement can be uniquely determined with the method because the green-particle image occurs before the red-particle image by a known time increment. The method is particularly useful for complex flowfields where the normal 180-deg directional ambiguity of single-color techniques can be troublesome. Velocity data for a turbine-cascade test section have been obtained with the two-color technique. 15 refs.

  8. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulutsuz, A. G.; Demircioglu, P. Bogrekci, I.; Durakbasa, M. N.

    2015-03-30

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in surface

  9. Techniques for Equation-of-State Measurements on a Three-Stage Light-Gas Gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REINHART,WILLIAM D.; CHHABILDAS,LALIT C.; THORNHILL,T.G.

    2000-09-14

    Understanding high pressure behavior materials is necessary in order to address the physical processes associated with hypervelocity impact events related to space science applications including orbital debris impact and impact lethality. Until recently the highest-pressure states in materials have been achieved from impact loading techniques from two-stage light gas guns with velocity limitations of approximately 81cm/s. In this paper, techniques that are being developed and implemented to obtain the needed shock loading parameters (Hugoniot states) for material characterization studies, namely shock velocity and particle velocity, will be described at impact velocities up to 11 kds. The determination of equation-of-state (EOS) and thermodynamic states of materials in the regimes of extreme high pressures is now attainable utilizing the three-stage launcher. What is new in this report is that these techniques are being implemented for use at engagement velocities never before attained utilizing two-stage light-gas gun technology. The design and test methodologies used to determine Hugoniot states are described in this paper.

  10. Hot filament technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaworske, D.A.; Perry, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    Molten salts, such as lithium fluoride, are attractive candidates for thermal energy storage in solar dynamic space power systems because of their high latent heat of fusion. However, these same salts have poor thermal conductivities which inhibit the transfer of heat into the solid phase and out of the liquid phase. One concept for improving the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storage system is to add a conductive filler material to the molten salt. High thermal conductivity pitch-based graphite fibers are being considered for this application. Although there is some information available on the thermal conductivity of lithium fluoride solid, there is very little information on lithium fluoride liquid, and no information on molten salt graphite fiber composites. This paper describes a hot filament technique for determining the thermal conductivity of molten salts. The hot filament technique was used to find the thermal conductivity of molten lithium fluoride at 930 C, and the thermal conductivity values ranged from 1.2 to 1.6 W/mK. These values are comparable to the slightly larger value of 5.0 W/mK for lithium fluoride solid. In addition, two molten salt graphite fiber composites were characterized with the hot filament technique and these results are also presented.

  11. Fissile material measurements using the differential die-away self interrogation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schear, Melissa A; Menlove, Howard O; Tobin, Stephen J; Evans, Louise G; Lee, S Y

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is substantial research effort focused on quantifying plutonium (Pu) mass in spent fuel using non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques. Of the several techniques being investigated for this purpose, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) is a recently proposed, neutron-based NDA technique capable of quantifying the total fissile content in an assembly. Unlike the conventional Differential Die-Away (DDA) technique, DOSI does not require an external neutron source for sample interrogation, but rather, uses the spontaneous fission neutrons originating from {sup 244}Cm within the spent fuel for self-interrogation. The essence of the technique lies in the time separation between the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons from {sup 244}Cm and the detection of induced fission neutrons at a later time. The DDSI detector design imposes this time separation by optimizing the die-away times ({tau}) of the detector and sample interrogation regions to obtain an early and late neutron distribution respectively. The ratio of the count rates in the late gate to the early gate for singles, doubles, and triples is directly proportional to the fissile content present in the sample, which has already been demonstrated for simplified fuel cases using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The current work applies the DDSI concept to more complex samples, specifically spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies with varying isotopics resulting from a range of initial enrichment, bumup, and cooling time. We assess the feasibility of using the late gate to early gate ratio as a reliable indicator of overall fissile mass for a range of assemblies by defining a {sup 239}Pu effective mass which indicates the mass of {sup 239}Pu that would yield the same DDSI signal as the combined mass of major fissile isotopes present in the sample. This work is important for assessing the individual capability of the DDSI instrument in quantifying fissile mass in

  12. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torello, David; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  13. MRF Applications: Measurement of Process-dependent Subsurface Damage in Optical Materials using the MRF Wedge Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menapace, J A; Davis, P J; Steele, W A; Wong, L L; Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E

    2005-11-02

    Understanding the behavior of fractures and subsurface damage in the processes used during optic fabrication plays a key role in determining the final quality of the optical surface finish. During the early stages of surface preparation, brittle grinding processes induce fractures at or near an optical surface whose range can extend from depths of a few mm to hundreds of mm depending upon the process and tooling being employed. Controlling the occurrence, structure, and propagation of these sites during subsequent grinding and polishing operations is highly desirable if one wishes to obtain high-quality surfaces that are free of such artifacts. Over the past year, our team has made significant strides in developing a diagnostic technique that combines magnetorheological finishing (MRF) and scanning optical microscopy to measure and characterize subsurface damage in optical materials. The technique takes advantage of the unique nature of MRF to polish a prescribed large-area wedge into the optical surface without propagating existing damage or introducing new damage. The polished wedge is then analyzed to quantify subsurface damage as a function of depth from the original surface. Large-area measurement using scanning optical microscopy provides for improved accuracy and reliability over methods such as the COM ball-dimple technique. Examples of the technique's use will be presented that illustrate the behavior of subsurface damage in fused silica that arises during a variety of intermediate optical fabrication process steps.

  14. Application of interferometry and Faraday rotation techniques for density measurements on the next generation of tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snider, R.T.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Hodapp, T.D.; Jobes, F.C.; Peebles, W.A.

    1996-06-01

    The next generation of tokamaks present unique challenges to plasma diagnostic design due to the physical size of the devices and the radiation environment. The need for a density measurement for density feedback control for a prototype reactor such as ITER is well established and several proposals for line average measurements have been put forward. In this paper, a design for a line average density diagnostic for ITER using collinear interferometry and Faraday rotation measurements will be presented. Plasma effects on both types of measurements and density resolution and will be discussed along with the possibility of combining the information from the two collinear measurements to improve the reliability and quality of the density profile. Survivability of the plasma facing mirrors, in particular the surface flatness and surface roughness, are critical issues and preliminary analysis suggests these may limit the wavelength of probing beams. Thermal and stress analysis of the plasma facing mirrors will be presented along with a discussion of mirror material selection based on thermal, nuclear and sputtering considerations.

  15. Comparison of calorimetry and destructive analytical measurement techniques for excess plutonium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welsh, T.L.

    1996-03-15

    In Dec. 1994, IAEA safeguards were initiated on inventory of Pu- bearing materials, originating from the US nuclear weapons complex, at vault 3 of DOE`s Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford. Because of the diversity and heterogeneity of the Pu, plant operators have increasingly used calorimetry for accountability measurements. During the recent commencement of IAEA safeguards at vault 3, destructive (electrochemical titration) methods were used to determine Pu concentrations in subsamples of inventory items with widely ranging chemical purities. The Pu concentrations in the subsamples were determined and contribution of heterogeneity to total variability was identified. Measurement results, gathered by PFP and IAEA laboratories, showed total measurement variability for calorimetry to be comparable with or lower than those of sampling and chemical analyses.

  16. Measurement of isotope separation factors in the palladium-hydrogen system using a thermistor technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortiz, T.M.

    1998-05-01

    The range of available data on separation factors in the palladium-hydrogen/deuterium system has been extended. A matched pair of glass-coated bead thermistors was used to measure gas phase compositions. The compositions of the input gas--assumed also to be the solid phase composition--were measured independently be mass spectrometry as being within 0.5 mole% of the values used to calibrate the thermistors. This assumption is based on the fact that > 99% of the input gas is absorbed into the solid. Separation factors were measured for 175 K {le} T {le} 389 K and for 0.195 {le} x{sub H} {le} 0.785.

  17. Laser-ablated active doping technique for visible spectroscopy measurements on Z.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Matthew Robert

    2013-09-01

    Visible spectroscopy is a powerful diagnostic, allowing plasma parameters ranging from temperature and density to electric and magnetic fields to be measured. Spectroscopic dopants are commonly introduced to make these measurements. On Z, dopants are introduced passively (i.e. a salt deposited on a current-carrying surface); however, in some cases, passive doping can limit the times and locations at which measurements can be made. Active doping utilizes an auxiliary energy source to disperse the dopant independently from the rest of the experiment. The objective of this LDRD project was to explore laser ablation as a method of actively introducing spectroscopic dopants. Ideally, the laser energy would be delivered to the dopant via fiber optic, which would eliminate the need for time-intensive laser alignments in the Z chamber. Experiments conducted in a light lab to assess the feasibility of fibercoupled and open-beam laser-ablated doping are discussed.

  18. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  19. Stopping power measurements with the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fontana, Cristiano L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-10

    In our review of measurements of the stopping power of ions in matter is presented along with new measurements of the stopping powers of O, Si, Ti, and Au ions in self-supporting thin foils of SiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5. Moreover, a Time-of-Flight system at the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, was used in transmission geometry in order to reduce experimental uncertainties. Finally, the resulting stopping powers show good precision and accuracy and corroborate previously quoted values in the literature. New stopping data are determined.

  20. Uranium Sequestration via Phosphate Infiltration/Injection Test...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Uranium Sequestration via Phosphate InfiltrationInjection Test History Supporting the Preferred Alternative 1 300 Area GW Concentrations - Uranium High River Stage - GW ...

  1. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dur- ing cooler weather when the air conditioner is not running, lower air exchange levels can ... Test- ing suggested that "smart" ventilation control systems may be able to provide ...

  2. Stopping power measurements with the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fontana, Cristiano L.; Chen, Chien-Hung; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-11-10

    In our review of measurements of the stopping power of ions in matter is presented along with new measurements of the stopping powers of O, Si, Ti, and Au ions in self-supporting thin foils of SiO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5. Moreover, a Time-of-Flight system at the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, was used in transmission geometry in order to reduce experimental uncertainties. Finally, the resulting stopping powers show good precision and accuracy and corroborate previously quoted values in the literature. New stopping data are determined.

  3. Aerosol characterization study using multi-spectrum remote sensing measurement techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen, Crystal Chanea; Sanchez, Andres L.; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony; Schmitt, Randal L.; Johnson, Mark S.; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Servantes, Brandon Lee

    2013-09-01

    A unique aerosol flow chamber coupled with a bistatic LIDAR system was implemented to measure the optical scattering cross sections and depolarization ratio of common atmospheric particulates. Each of seven particle types (ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, black carbon and Arizona road dust) was aged by three anthropogenically relevant mechanisms: 1. Sulfuric acid deposition, 2. Toluene ozonolysis reactions, and 3. m-Xylene ozonolysis reactions. The results of pure particle scattering properties were compared with their aged equivalents. Results show that as most particles age under industrial plume conditions, their scattering cross sections are similar to pure black carbon, which has significant impacts to our understanding of aerosol impacts on climate. In addition, evidence emerges that suggest chloride-containing aerosols are chemically altered during the organic aging process. Here we present the direct measured scattering cross section and depolarization ratios for pure and aged atmospheric particulates.

  4. Measurement of Interfacial Tension By Use of Pendant Drop Video Techniques

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-26

    An instrument and associated software to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) of aqueous surfactant solutions and crude oil. The method involves injection of a drop of fluid (such as crude oil) into a second immiscible phase to determine the IFT between the two phases. The instrument is composed of an AT-class computer, optical cell, illumination, video camera and lens, video frame digitizer board, monitor, and software. The camera displays an image of the pendant dropmore » on the monitor, which is then processed by the frame digitizer board and non-proprietary software to determine the IFT. Several binary and ternary phase systems were taken from the literature and used to measure the precision and accuracy of the instrument in determining IFTs.« less

  5. Considerations for the use of the modified line reversal technique for gas temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkleman, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    Several areas related to the successful and accurate application of modified line reversal are discussed. Initially, generalized modified line reversal equations are developed. A review of basic line reversal theory is presented followed by development of correction factors for optical system effects. Image size and their effect on accurate determinations of spectral radiances is discussed. Temperature biases introduced by image vignetting is calculated. Measured image irradiances are given.

  6. Measurement of LHCD edge power deposition through modulation techniques on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faust, I. C.; Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Parker, R. R.; Baek, S. G.; Chilenksi, M. A.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Terry, J. L.; Shiraiwa, S.; Walk, J. R.; Wallace, G. M.; Whyte, D. G.; Edlund, E.

    2015-12-10

    The efficiency of LHCD on Alcator C-Mod drops exponentially with line average density. At reactor relevant densities (> 1 · 1020 [m{sup −3}]) no measurable current is driven. While a number of causes have been suggested, no specific mechanism has been shown to be responsible for the loss of current drive at high density. Fast modulation of the LH power was used to isolate and quantify the LHCD deposition within the plasma. Measurements from these plasmas provide unique evidence for determining a root cause. Modulation of LH power in steady plasmas exhibited no correlated change in the core temperature. A correlated, prompt response in the edge suggests that the loss in efficiency is related to a edge absorption mechanism. This follows previous results which found the generation of n{sub ||}-independent SOL currents. Multiple Langmuir probe array measurements of the conducted heat conclude that the lost power is deposited near the last closed flux surface. The heat flux induced by LH waves onto the outer divertor is calculated. Changes in the neutral pressure, ionization and hard X-ray emission at high density highlight the importance of the active divertor in the loss of efficiency. Results of this study implicate a mechanism which may occur over multiple passes, leading to power absorption near the LCFS.

  7. Verification of the helioseismology travel-time measurement technique and the inversion procedure for sound speed using artificial data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parchevsky, K. V.; Zhao, J.; Hartlep, T.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2014-04-10

    We performed three-dimensional numerical simulations of the solar surface acoustic wave field for the quiet Sun and for three models with different localized sound-speed perturbations in the interior with deep, shallow, and two-layer structures. We used the simulated data generated by two solar acoustics codes that employ the same standard solar model as a background model, but utilize different integration techniques and different models of stochastic wave excitation. Acoustic travel times were measured using a time-distance helioseismology technique, and compared with predictions from ray theory frequently used for helioseismic travel-time inversions. It is found that the measured travel-time shifts agree well with the helioseismic theory for sound-speed perturbations, and for the measurement procedure with and without phase-speed filtering of the oscillation signals. This testing verifies the whole measuring-filtering-inversion procedure for static sound-speed anomalies with small amplitude inside the Sun outside regions of strong magnetic field. It is shown that the phase-speed filtering, frequently used to extract specific wave packets and improve the signal-to-noise ratio, does not introduce significant systematic errors. Results of the sound-speed inversion procedure show good agreement with the perturbation models in all cases. Due to its smoothing nature, the inversion procedure may overestimate sound-speed variations in regions with sharp gradients of the sound-speed profile.

  8. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  9. Measuring fuel contamination using high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, S.P.; Bratton, W.L.; Akard, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Decision processes during characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites are greatly retarded by the turnaround time and expense incurred through the use of conventional sampling and laboratory analyses. Furthermore, conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between and among sampling devices and containers. While on-site analysis by conventional gas chromatography can reduce analytical turnaround time, time-consuming sample preparation procedures are still often required, and the potential for loss of VOC is not reduced. This report describes the development of a high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration testing system which can detect and measure subsurface fuel contamination in situ during the cone penetration process.

  10. Diagnostic techniques for magnetically confined high-temperature plasmas. II. Magnetic and electric measurements, charge-exchange diagnostics, particle-beam diagnostics, and fusion-product measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-07-01

    A general overview of the four diagnostic techniques is given. Prospects for each technique are discussed. (MOW)

  11. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  12. Optical fiber sensor technique for strain measurement during materials deposition, chemical reaction, and relaxation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1988-01-21

    Laser light from a common source is split and conveyed through two similar optical fibers and emitted at their respective ends to form an interference pattern, one of the optical fibers having a portion thereof subjected to a strain. Changes in the strain cause changes in the optical path length of the strain fiber, and generate corresponding changes in the interference pattern. The interference pattern is received and transduced into signals representative of fringe shifts corresponding to changes in the strain experienced by the strained one of the optical fibers. These signals are then processed to evaluate strain as a function of time, typical examples of the application of the apparatus including electrodeposition of a metallic film on a conductive surface provided on the outside of the optical fiber being strained, so that strains generated in the optical fiber during the course of the electrodeposition are measurable as a function of time. In one aspect of the invention, signals relating to the fringe shift are stored for subsequent processing and analysis, whereas in another aspect of the invention the signals are processed for real-time display of the strain changes under study. 9 figs.

  13. Low-level measuring techniques for neutrons: High accuracy neutron source strength determination and fluence rate measurement at an underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimbal, Andreas; Reginatto, Marcel; Schuhmacher, Helmut; Wiegel, Burkhard; Degering, Detlev; Zuber, Kai

    2013-08-08

    We report on measuring techniques for neutrons that have been developed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German National Metrology Institute. PTB has characterized radioactive sources used in the BOREXINO and XENON100 experiments. For the BOREXINO experiment, a {sup 228}Th gamma radiation source was required which would not emit more than 10 neutrons per second. The determination of the neutron emission rate of this specially designed {sup 228}Th source was challenging due to the low neutron emission rate and because the ratio of neutron to gamma radiation was expected to be extremely low, of the order of 10{sup −6}. For the XENON100 detector, PTB carried out a high accuracy measurement of the neutron emission rate of an AmBe source. PTB has also done measurements in underground laboratories. A two month measurement campaign with a set of {sup 3}He-filled proportional counters was carried out in PTB's former UDO underground laboratory at the Asse salt mine. The aim of the campaign was to determine the intrinsic background of detectors, which is needed for the analysis of data taken in lowintensity neutron fields. At a later time, PTB did a preliminary measurement of the neutron fluence rate at the underground laboratory Felsenkeller operated by VKTA. By taking into account data from UDO, Felsenkeller, and detector calibrations made at the PTB facility, it was possible to estimate the neutron fluence rate at the Felsenkeller underground laboratory.

  14. Innovative Coal Solids-Flow Monitoring and Measurement Using Phase-Doppler and Mie Scattering Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Seong Lee

    2010-01-19

    Fuel flow to individual burners is complicated and difficult to determine on coal fired boilers, since coal solids were transported in a gas suspension that is governed by the complex physics of two-phase flow. The objectives of the project were the measurements of suspended coal solids-flows in the simulated test conditions. Various extractive methods were performed manually and can give only a snapshot result of fuel distribution. In order to measure particle diameter & velocity, laser based phase-Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were carefully applied. Statistical methods were used to analyze particle characteristics to see which factors have significant effect. The transparent duct model was carefully designed and fabricated for the laser-based-instrumentation of solids-flow monitoring (LISM). The experiments were conducted with two different kinds of particles with four different particle diameters. The particle types were organic particles and saw dust particles with the diameter range of 75-150 micron, 150-250 micron, 250-355 micron and 355-425 micron. The densities of the particles were measured to see how the densities affected the test results. Also the experiment was conducted with humid particles and fog particles. To generate humid particles, the humidifier was used. A pipe was connected to the humidifier to lead the particle flow to the intersection of the laser beam. The test results of the particle diameter indicated that, the mean diameter of humid particles was between 6.1703 microns and 6.6947 microns when the humid particle flow was low. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean diameter was between 6.6728 microns and 7.1872 microns. The test results of the particle mean velocity indicated that the mean velocity was between 1.3394 m/sec and 1.4556 m/sec at low humid particle flow. When the humid particle flow was high, the mean velocity was between 1.5694 m/sec and 1.7856 m/sec. The Air Flow Module, TQ

  15. Systematic measurements of whole-body dose distributions for various treatment machines and delivery techniques in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Contemporary radiotherapy treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy, could increase the radiation-induced malignancies because of the increased beam-on time, i.e., number of monitor units needed to deliver the same dose to the target and the larger volume irradiated with low doses. In this study, whole-body dose distributions from typical radiotherapy patient plans using different treatment techniques and therapy machines were measured using the same measurement setup and irradiation intention. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from 6 MV beams were compared in terms of treatment technique (3D-conformal, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, helical TomoTherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, hard wedges, and flattening filter-free radiotherapy) and therapy machine (Elekta, Siemens and Varian linear accelerators, Accuray CyberKnife and TomoTherapy). Results: Close to the target, the doses from intensity-modulated treatments (including flattening filter-free) were below the dose from a static treatment plan, whereas the CyberKnife showed a larger dose by a factor of two. Far away from the treatment field, the dose from intensity-modulated treatments showed an increase in dose from stray radiation of about 50% compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. For the flattening filter-free photon beams, the dose from stray radiation far away from the target was slightly lower than the dose from a static treatment. The CyberKnife irradiation and the treatment using hard wedges increased the dose from stray radiation by nearly a factor of three compared to the 3D-conformal treatment. Conclusions: This study showed that the dose outside of the treated volume is influenced by several sources. Therefore, when comparing different treatment techniques

  16. Alternating current field measurement (ACFM): A new technique for the NDT of process plant and piping components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raine, G.A.; Monahan, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a new electromagnetic-based NDT technology that is suitable for inspecting process plant and pipework fabricated from some of the more advanced materials, in addition to the traditional carbon steels. The name given to this new NDT technique is Alternating Current Field Measurement, or ACFM. ACFM is an extremely versatile NDT tool with a wide range of practical applications. A major advantage of ACFM over conventional NDT systems is that no calibration is required; crack detection and sizing is based on a theoretical interpretation of the measured signals. The technique is non-contacting and can be used on a wide range of electrically conductive materials (e.g., carbon steel, stainless steel, duplex steel, monel, inconel, aluminum, nickel, titanium, carbon reinforced plastics) without the need for extensive surface cleaning or removal of protective coatings. The flaws may be surface, sub-surface or remote face, depending on the material, and the probes can be designed to suppress signals from features that are not cracks (e.g., corrosion, undercuts, heat-affected zones, etc.), thus overcoming many of the problems associated with other electromagnetic systems and minimizing the probability of spurious indications.

  17. Burst design and signal processing for the speed of sound measurement of fluids with the pulse-echo technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubberke, Frithjof H.; Baumhögger, Elmar; Vrabec, Jadran

    2015-05-15

    The pulse-echo technique determines the propagation time of acoustic wave bursts in a fluid over a known propagation distance. It is limited by the signal quality of the received echoes of the acoustic wave bursts, which degrades with decreasing density of the fluid due to acoustic impedance and attenuation effects. Signal sampling is significantly improved in this work by burst design and signal processing such that a wider range of thermodynamic states can be investigated. Applying a Fourier transformation based digital filter on acoustic wave signals increases their signal-to-noise ratio and enhances their time and amplitude resolutions, improving the overall measurement accuracy. In addition, burst design leads to technical advantages for determining the propagation time due to the associated conditioning of the echo. It is shown that the according operation procedure enlarges the measuring range of the pulse-echo technique for supercritical argon and nitrogen at 300 K down to 5 MPa, where it was limited to around 20 MPa before.

  18. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: I. Impact of Impurities, Measurement Protocols and Applied Corrections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Richards, Ryan M.; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-07-22

    The rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique is being extensively used as a screening tool to estimate the activity of novel PEMFC electrocatalysts synthesized in lab-scale (mg) quantities. Discrepancies in measured activity attributable to glassware and electrolyte impurity levels, as well as conditioning, protocols and corrections are prevalent in the literature. Moreover, the electrochemical response to a broad spectrum of commercially sourced perchloric acid and the effect of acid molarity on impurity levels and solution resistance were also assessed. Our findings reveal that an area specific activity (SA) exceeding 2.0 mA/cm2 (20 mV/s, 25°C, 100 kPa, 0.1 M HClO4) for polished poly-Pt is an indicator of impurity levels that do not impede the accurate measurement of the ORR activity of Pt based catalysts. After exploring various conditioning protocols to approach maximum utilization of the electrochemical area (ECA) and peak ORR activity without introducing catalyst degradation, an investigation of measurement protocols for ECA and ORR activity was conducted. Down-selected protocols were based on the criteria of reproducibility, duration of experiments, impurity effects and magnitude of pseudo-capacitive background correction. In sum, statistical reproducibility of ORR activity for poly-Pt and Pt supported on high surface area carbon was demonstrated.

  19. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: I. Impact of Impurities, Measurement Protocols and Applied Corrections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Richards, Ryan M.; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-07-22

    The rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique is being extensively used as a screening tool to estimate the activity of novel PEMFC electrocatalysts synthesized in lab-scale (mg) quantities. Discrepancies in measured activity attributable to glassware and electrolyte impurity levels, as well as conditioning, protocols and corrections are prevalent in the literature. Moreover, the electrochemical response to a broad spectrum of commercially sourced perchloric acid and the effect of acid molarity on impurity levels and solution resistance were also assessed. Our findings reveal that an area specific activity (SA) exceeding 2.0 mA/cm2 (20 mV/s, 25°C, 100 kPa, 0.1 M HClO4) for polishedmore » poly-Pt is an indicator of impurity levels that do not impede the accurate measurement of the ORR activity of Pt based catalysts. After exploring various conditioning protocols to approach maximum utilization of the electrochemical area (ECA) and peak ORR activity without introducing catalyst degradation, an investigation of measurement protocols for ECA and ORR activity was conducted. Down-selected protocols were based on the criteria of reproducibility, duration of experiments, impurity effects and magnitude of pseudo-capacitive background correction. In sum, statistical reproducibility of ORR activity for poly-Pt and Pt supported on high surface area carbon was demonstrated.« less

  20. Appendix B Surface Infiltration and Aquifer Test Data

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    B Surface Infiltration and Aquifer Test Data This page intentionally left blank ... 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 TIME (MIN) INF-8 TEST I 300 400 TIME (MIN) INF-8 TEST 2 200 250 ...

  1. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  2. Analysis of storm-water infiltration ponds on the North Carolina Outer Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chescheir, G.M.; Fipps, G.; Skaggs, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    Increasing development along the North Carolina coast has been linked to the deterioration of water quality in adjacent sounds and estuaries. Degradation of water quality in sounds and estuaries threatens the coastal ecology which provides resources for the area's fishing and tourism industries. The state of N.C. adopted the current Stormwater Runoff Disposal Rules in 1988 requiring stormwater management plans for new development in 20 coastal counties. Stormwater infiltration pond systems are approved by the State as an option for retaining stormwater on the developed site; however, the long-term performance of these systems has not been measured or determined. The study was conducted to monitor the hydrology of stormwater infiltration ponds on the North Carolina barrier islands and to develop a model that continuously simulates the performance of these ponds. The hydrology of two operating infiltration ponds systems was evaluated in an 18-month field study. Rainfall, pond stage, and water table elevations at selected locations were monitored continuously. Water table elevations at additional locations were monitored on a biweekly basis. Soil hydraulic conductivities and soil water characteristic relationships were determined at both field sites. The subsurface geology was described at one site and an aquifer pump test was performed to determine aquifer transmissivity and specific yield. Both of the infiltration ponds in the field studies effectively served their primary purpose of retaining on site the stormwater runoff from the first 38 mm (1.5 in) of rainfall. In nearly every case, the pond seepage rate was sufficient to completely draw down the pond within 5 days. The hydrology of the infiltration ponds at the two research sites was very different.

  3. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  4. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  5. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  6. Single Step Electrode Infiltration Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Single Step Electrode Infiltration Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Research is active on the patent pending technology titled, "Method of Forming Catalyst Layer by Single Step Infiltration." This invention is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology

  7. Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory Summer Infiltration/Ventilation Test Results from the FRTF Laboratory This presentation was delivered at the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Technical Update meeting on April 29-30, 2013, in Denver, Colorado. cq7_ventilation_hothumid_parker.pdf (7.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Critical Question #7: What are the Best Practices for Single-Family Ventilation in All Climate Regions?

  8. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Fall 2010 Tracer Infiltration Test (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Greenwood, William J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Horner, Jacob A.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2011-04-14

    The primary objectives of the tracer infiltration test were to 1) determine whether field-scale hydraulic properties for the compacted roadbed materials and underlying Hanford fm. sediments comprising the zone of water table fluctuation beneath the site are consistent with estimates based laboratory-scale measurements on core samples and 2) characterize wetting front advancement and distribution of soil moisture achieved for the selected application rate. These primary objectives were met. The test successfully demonstrated that 1) the remaining 2 to 3 ft of compacted roadbed material below the infiltration gallery does not limit infiltration rates to levels that would be expected to eliminate near surface application as a viable amendment delivery approach and 2) the combined aqueous and geophysical monitoring approaches employed at this site, with some operational adjustments based on lessons learned, provides an effective means of assessing wetting front advancement and the distribution of soil moisture achieved for a given solution application. Reasonably good agreement between predicted and observed tracer and moisture front advancement rates was observed. During the first tracer infiltration test, which used a solution application rate of 0.7 cm/hr, tracer arrivals were observed at the water table (10 to 12 ft below the bottom of the infiltration gallery) after approximately 5 days, for an advancement rate of approximately 2 ft/day. This advancement rate is generally consistent with pre-test modeling results that predicted tracer arrival at the water table after approximately 5 days (see Figure 8, bottom left panel). This agreement indicates that hydraulic property values specified in the model for the compacted roadbed materials and underlying Hanford formation sediments, which were based on laboratory-scale measurements, are reasonable estimates of actual field-scale conditions. Additional work is needed to develop a working relationship between resistivity

  9. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    are to advance the fundamental understanding of the hydrodynamics by systematically investigating the effect of design and operating variables, to evaluate the reported dimensionless groups as scaling factors, and to establish a reliable scale-up methodology for the TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters based on hydrodynamic similarity via advanced measurement and computational techniques. An additional objective is to develop an on-line non-invasive measurement technique based on gamma ray densitometry (i.e. Nuclear Gauge Densitometry) that can be installed and used for coater process monitoring to ensure proper performance and operation and to facilitate the developed scale-up methodology. To achieve the objectives set for the project, the work will use optical probes and gamma ray computed tomography (CT) (for the measurements of solids/voidage holdup cross-sectional distribution and radial profiles along the bed height, spouted diameter, and fountain height) and radioactive particle tracking (RPT) (for the measurements of the 3D solids flow field, velocity, turbulent parameters, circulation time, solids lagrangian trajectories, and many other of spouted bed related hydrodynamic parameters). In addition, gas dynamic measurement techniques and pressure transducers will be utilized to complement the obtained information. The measurements obtained by these techniques will be used as benchmark data to evaluate and validate the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models (two fluid model or discrete particle model) and their closures. The validated CFD models and closures will be used to facilitate the developed methodology for scale-up, design and hydrodynamic similarity. Successful execution of this work and the proposed tasks will advance the fundamental understanding of the coater flow field and quantify it for proper and safe design, scale-up, and performance. Such achievements will overcome the barriers to AGR applications and will help assure that the US maintains

  10. Research Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Techniques Research Techniques Print Coming Soon

  11. Demonstration of a novel technique to measure two-photon exchange effects in elastic ep scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moteabbed, Maryam [Florida Institute of Technology; Niroula, Megh [Old Dominion University; Raue, Brian [Florida International University; Weinstein, Lawrence [Old Dominion University

    2013-08-01

    The discrepancy between proton electromagnetic form factors extracted using unpolarized and polarized scattering data is believed to be a consequence of two-photon exchange (TPE) effects. However, the calculations of TPE corrections have significant model dependence, and there is limited direct experimental evidence for such corrections. The TPE contributions depend on the sign of the lepton charge in ep scattering, but the luminosities of secondary positron beams limited past measurement at large scattering angles, where the TPE effects are believe to be most significant. We present the results of a new experimental technique for making direct ep comparisons, which has the potential to make precise measurements over a broad range in Q2 and scattering angles. We use the Jefferson Laboratory electron beam and the Hall B photon tagger to generate a clean but untagged photon beam. The photon beam impinges on a converter foil to generate a mixed beam of electrons, positrons, and photons. A chicane is used to separate and recombine the electron and positron beams while the photon beam is stopped by a photon blocker. This provides a combined electron and positron beam, with energies from 0.5 to 3.2 GeV, which impinges on a liquid hydrogen target. The large acceptance CLAS detector is used to identify and reconstruct elastic scattering events, determining both the initial lepton energy and the sign of the scattered lepton. The data were collected in two days with a primary electron beam energy of only 3.3 GeV, limiting the data from this run to smaller values of Q2 and scattering angle. Nonetheless, this measurement yields a data sample for ep with statistics comparable to those of the best previous measurements. We have shown that we can cleanly identify elastic scattering events and correct for the difference in acceptance for electron and positron scattering. Because we ran with only one polarity for the chicane, we are unable to study the

  12. Demonstration of a novel technique to measure two-photon exchange effects in elastic e±p scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Niroula, Megh; Raue, Brian A.; Weinstein, Lawrence B.

    2013-08-30

    The discrepancy between proton electromagnetic form factors extracted using unpolarized and polarized scattering data is believed to be a consequence of two-photon exchange (TPE) effects. However, the calculations of TPE corrections have significant model dependence, and there is limited direct experimental evidence for such corrections. The TPE contributions depend on the sign of the lepton charge in e±p scattering, but the luminosities of secondary positron beams limited past measurement at large scattering angles, where the TPE effects are believe to be most significant. We present the results of a new experimental technique for making direct e±p comparisons, which has themore » potential to make precise measurements over a broad range in Q2 and scattering angles. We use the Jefferson Laboratory electron beam and the Hall B photon tagger to generate a clean but untagged photon beam. The photon beam impinges on a converter foil to generate a mixed beam of electrons, positrons, and photons. A chicane is used to separate and recombine the electron and positron beams while the photon beam is stopped by a photon blocker. This provides a combined electron and positron beam, with energies from 0.5 to 3.2 GeV, which impinges on a liquid hydrogen target. The large acceptance CLAS detector is used to identify and reconstruct elastic scattering events, determining both the initial lepton energy and the sign of the scattered lepton. The data were collected in two days with a primary electron beam energy of only 3.3 GeV, limiting the data from this run to smaller values of Q2 and scattering angle. Nonetheless, this measurement yields a data sample for e±p with statistics comparable to those of the best previous measurements. We have shown that we can cleanly identify elastic scattering events and correct for the difference in acceptance for electron and positron scattering. Because we ran with only one polarity for the chicane, we are unable to study the difference

  13. Measurement/Evaluation Techniques and Nuclear Data Associated with Fission of 239Pu by Fission Spectrum Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baisden, P; Bauge, E; Ferguson, J; Gilliam, D; Granier, T; Jeanloz, R; McMillan, C; Robertson, D; Thompson, P; Verdon, C; Wilkerson, C; Young, P

    2010-03-16

    both systematic and statistical uncertainties, including correlations, are critical to the assessment of both the experimental measurements (due to variations between experimental techniques, irradiation conditions, calibration procedures, etc.), and the evaluation of those experiments to extract fundamental nuclear data. A clear example of the importance of uncertainty analysis is in the justification for energy-dependent {sup 147}Nd fission product yield, where the magnitude of the effect is comparable to the uncertainties of the individual fission product yield measurements. Both LANL and LLNL are committed to the inclusion of full uncertainty analysis in their evaluations. (6) The Panel reviewed in detail two methods for determining/evaluating fission product yields from which fission assessments can be made: the K factor method and high-resolution gamma spectroscopy (both described more fully in Sections 3 and 4). The panel concluded that fission product yields, and thus fission assessments, derived using either approach are equally valid, provided that the data were obtained from well understood, direct fission measurements and that the key underlying calibrations and/or data are valid for each technique. (7) The Panel found the process of peer review of the two complementary but independent methods to be an extremely useful exercise. Although work is still ongoing and the numbers presented to the Panel may change slightly, both groups are now in much better agreement on not just one, but four key fission product yields. The groups also have a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of each other's methods.

  14. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  15. A loss-based, magnetic field sensor implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candiani, A.; Argyros, A.; Leon-Saval, S. G.; Lwin, R.; Selleri, S.; Pissadakis, S.

    2014-03-17

    We report an in-fiber magnetic field sensor based on magneto-driven optical loss effects, while being implemented in a ferrofluid infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fiber. We demonstrate that magnetic field flux changes up to 2000 gauss can be detected when the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the fiber axis. In addition, the sensor exhibits high polarization sensitivity for the interrogated wavelengths, providing the possibility of both field flux and direction measurements. The underlying physical and guidance mechanisms of this sensing transduction are further investigated using spectrophotometric, light scattering measurements, and numerical simulations, suggesting photonic Hall effect as the dominant physical, transducing mechanism.

  16. Application of a transverse phase-space measurement technique for high-brightness, H{sup {minus}} beams to the GTA H{sup {minus}} beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.F.; Garcia, R.C.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sander, O.R.; Sandoval, D.P.; Shinas, M.A.; Smith, M.; Yuan, V.W.; Connolly, R.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) had the objective Of Producing a high-brightness, high-current H-beam. The major components were a 35 keV injector, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), an intertank matching section (IMS), and a drift tube linac (DTL), consisting of 10 modules. A technique for measuring the transverse phase-space of high-power density beams has been developed and tested. This diagnostic has been applied to the GTA H-beam. Experimental results are compared to the slit and collector technique for transverse phase-space measurements and to simulations.

  17. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.

  18. Measurement of the Top Quark Mass in p anti-p Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV using the Decay Length Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-12-01

    We report the first measurement of the top quark mass using the decay length technique in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. This technique uses the measured flight distance of the b hadron to infer the mass of the top quark in lepton plus jets events with missing transverse energy. It relies solely on tracking and avoids the jet energy scale uncertainty that is common to all other methods used so far. We apply our novel method to a 695 pb{sup -1} data sample recorded by the CDF II detector at Fermilab and extract a measurement of m{sub t} = 180.7{sub -13.4}{sup +15.5}(stat.) {+-} 8.6 (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2}. While the uncertainty of this result is larger than that of other measurements, the dominant uncertainties in the decay length technique are uncorrelated with those in other methods. This result can help reduce the overall uncertainty when combined with other existing measurements of the top quark mass.

  19. Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

    2010-09-01

    A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

  20. New two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique for measurement of hohlraum inner radiation in Shenguang-III prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Kuan; Liu, Shenye Du, Huabing; Hou, Lifei; Jing, Longfei; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Zhiwen; Wei, Minxi; Deng, Keli; Yao, Li; Yang, Guohong; Li, Sanwei; Ding, Yongkun; Lan, Ke; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Xiaoli; Yi, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The space-resolving measurement of X-ray flux from a specific area (laser spot, re-emitting wall, or capsule) inside the hohlraum is an ongoing and critical problem in indirectly driven inertial-confinement fusion experiments. In this work, we developed a new two-dimensional space-resolving flux detection technique to measure the X-ray flux from specific areas inside the hohlraum by using the time- and space-resolving flux detector (SRFD). In two typical hohlraum experiments conducted at the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility, the X-ray flux and radiation temperature from an area 0.2 mm in diameter inside the hohlraum were measured through the laser entrance hole (LEH). The different flux intensities and radiation temperatures detected using the SRFD from the inner area of the LEH were compared with the result measured using the flat-response X-ray detector from the entire LEH. This comparison was also analyzed theoretically. The inner area detected using the SRFD was found to be the re-emitting wall area alone. This important improvement in space-resolving X-ray flux measurement will enhance the current X-ray flux space characterization techniques, thereby furthering the quantitative understanding of X-ray flux space behavior in the hohlraum.

  1. Direct Measurement of Initial Enrichment and Burn-up of Spent Fuel Assembly with a Differential Die-Away Technique Based Instrument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henzl, Vladimir; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-16

    A key objective of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is to utilize non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques to determine the elemental plutonium (Pu) content in a commercial-grade nuclear spent fuel assembly (SFA). In the third year of the NGSI Spent Fuel NDA project, the research focus is on the integration of a few NDA techniques. One of the reoccurring challenges to the accurate determination of Pu content has been the explicit dependence of the measured signal on the presence of neutron absorbers which build up in the assembly in accordance with its operating and irradiation history. The history of any SFA is often summarized by the parameters of burn-up (BU), initial enrichment (IE) and cooling time (CT). While such parameters can typically be provided by the operator, the ability to directly measure and verify them would significantly enhance the autonomy of the IAEA inspectorate. Within this paper, we demonstrate that an instrument based on a Differential Die-Away technique is in principle capable of direct measurement of IE and, should the CT be known, also the BU.

  2. Measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B→D*∓π± decays using a partial reconstruction technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bahinipati, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Kinoshita, K.; Arinstein, K.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Balagura, V.; Barberio, E.; Belous, K.; et al

    2011-07-05

    We report results on time-dependent CP asymmetries in B→D*∓π± decays based on a data sample containing 657×10⁶ BB¯ pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e⁺e⁻ collider at the Υ(4S) resonance. We use a partial reconstruction technique, wherein signal B→D*∓π± events are identified using information only from the fast pion from the B decay and the slow pion from the subsequent decay of the D*∓, where the former (latter) corresponds to D*⁺(D*⁻) final states. We obtain CP violation parameters S⁺=+0.061±0.018 (stat)±0.012 (syst) and S⁻=+0.031±0.019 (stat)±0.015 (syst).

  3. Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature

  4. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  5. Diagnostic techniques for measuring temperature transients and stress transients in the first wall of an ICF reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melamed, N.T.; Taylor, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    The primary challenge in the design of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) power reactor is to make the first wall survive the frequent explosions of the pellets. Westinghouse has proposed a dry wall design consisting of steel tubes coated with tantalum. This report describes the design of a test chamber and two diagnostic procedures for experimentally determining the reliability of the Westinghouse design. The test chamber simulates the x-ray and ion pulse irradiation of the wall due to a pellet explosion. The diagnostics consist of remote temperature sensing and surface deformation measurements. The chamber and diagnostics can also be used to test other first-wall designs.

  6. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-15

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  7. A comprehensive laboratory study on the immersion freezing behavior of illite NX particles: a comparison of 17 ice nucleation measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiranuma, Naruki; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Bingemer, Heinz; Budke, Carsten; Curtius, J.; Danielczok, Anja; Diehl, K.; Dreischmeier, Katharina; Ebert, Martin; Frank, F.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Kandler, Kondrad; Kiselev, Alexei; Koop, Thomas; Leisner, Thomas; Mohler, Ottmar; Nillius, Bjorn; Peckhaus, Andreas; Rose, Diana; Weinbruch, Stephan; Wex, Heike; Boose, Yvonne; DeMott, Paul J.; Hader, John D.; Hill, Thomas; Kanji, Zamin; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Levin, Ezra; McCluskey, Christina; Murakami, Masataka; Murray, Benjamin J.; Niedermeier, Dennis; Petters, Markus D.; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Saito, Atsushi; Schill, Gregory; Tajiri, Takuya; Tolbert, Margaret A.; Welti, Andre; Whale, Thomas; Wright, Timothy; Yamashita, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Immersion freezing is the most relevant heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanism 3 through which ice crystals are formed in mixed-phase clouds. In recent years, an increasing 4 number of laboratory experiments utilizing a variety of instruments have examined immersion 5 freezing activity of atmospherically relevant ice nucleating particles (INPs). However, an 6 inter-comparison of these laboratory results is a difficult task because investigators have used 7 different ice nucleation (IN) measurement methods to produce these results. A remaining 8 challenge is to explore the sensitivity and accuracy of these techniques and to understand how 9 the IN results are potentially influenced or biased by experimental parameters associated with 10 these techniques. 11 Within the framework of INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT), we distributed an 12 illite rich sample (illite NX) as a representative surrogate for atmospheric mineral dust 13 particles to investigators to perform immersion freezing experiments using different IN 14 measurement methods and to obtain IN data as a function of particle concentration, 15 temperature (T), cooling rate and nucleation time. Seventeen measurement methods were 16 involved in the data inter-comparison. Experiments with seven instruments started with the 17 test sample pre-suspended in water before cooling, while ten other instruments employed 18 water vapor condensation onto dry-dispersed particles followed by immersion freezing. The 19 resulting comprehensive immersion freezing dataset was evaluated using the ice nucleation 20 active surface-site density (ns) to develop a representative ns(T) spectrum that spans a wide 21 temperature range (-37 C < T < -11 C) and covers nine orders of magnitude in ns. 22 Our inter-comparison results revealed a discrepancy between suspension and dry-23 dispersed particle measurements for this mineral dust. While the agreement was good below ~-24 26 C, the ice nucleation activity, expressed in ns, was

  8. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Heath, J. T.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  9. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

    2011-07-01

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  10. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  11. LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-31

    To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

  12. A multilevel multiscale mimetic method for an anisotropic infiltration problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Moulton, David; Svyatskiy, Daniil

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed to simulate two-phase flow in porous media. The M{sup 3} method is locally mass conserving at all levels in its hierarchy, it supports unstructured polygonal grids and full tensor permeabilities, and it can achieve large coarsening factors. In this work we consider infiltration of water into a two-dimensional layered medium. The grid is aligned with the layers but not the coordinate axes. We demonstrate that with an efficient temporal updating strategy for the coarsening parameters, fine-scale accuracy of prominent features in the flow is maintained by the M{sup 3} method.

  13. The National Fuel End-Use Efficiency Field Test: Energy Savings and Performance of an Improved Energy Conservation Measure Selection Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The performance of an advanced residential energy conservation measure (ECM) selection technique was tested in Buffalo, New York, to verify the energy savings and program improvements achieved from use of the technique in conservation programs and provide input into determining whether utility investments in residential gas end-use conservation are cost effective. The technique analyzes a house to identify all ECMs that are cost effective in the building envelope, space-heating system, and water-heating system. The benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) for each ECM is determined and cost-effective ECMs (BCR > 1.0) are selected once interactions between ECMs are taken into account. Eighty-nine houses with the following characteristics were monitored for the duration of the field test: occupants were low-income, houses were single-family detached houses but not mobile homes, and primary space- and water-heating systems were gas-fired. Forty-five houses received a mix of ECMs as selected by the measure selection technique (audit houses) and 44 served as a control group. Pre-weatherization data were collected from January to April 1988 and post-weatherization data were collected from December 1988 to April 1989. Space- and waterheating gas consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the two winters. A house energy consumption model and regression analysis were employed to normalize the space-heating energy savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and a 68 F indoor temperature. Space and water-heating energy savings for the audit houses were adjusted by the savings for the control houses. The average savings of 257 therms/year for the audit houses was 17% of the average pre-weatherization house gas consumption and 78% of that predicted. Average space-heating energy savings was 252 therms/year (25% of pre-weatherization space-heating energy consumption and 85% of the predicted value) and average water-heating savings was 5 therms/year (2% of pre

  14. Cs/sup +/ + Cs/sup +/ charge-transfer and ionization cross-section measurements by a plasma-target technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stalder, K.R.

    1982-05-01

    A Q machine plasma target using cesium was constructed to serve as a target for a beam of Cs/sup +/ ions. The sum of charge transfer and ionization cross sections was determined by measuring the growth of the Cs/sup + +/ component of the beam as a function of the plasma radial line density. The measured cross section varies approximately linearly with energy between 50 and 110 keV. This loss cross section is 0.47 +- .11 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/ at 110 keV. These results have been compared to the cross section determined by a crossed-beam technique. The agreement between the results of the experiments is good at energies above 75 keV. A discrepancy between the results at lower energies indicated a systematic error in one of the techniques. Theoretical estimates of the cross section recently have begun to agree with the magnitude of the cross section but have not fully explained the energy dependence.

  15. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  16. Expedient Respiratory and Physical Protection: Does a Wet Towel Work to Prevent Chemical Warfare Agent Vapor Infiltration?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, J.H.

    2002-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of expedient protection strategies to reduce exposure to vapors from chemical warfare agents. This includes an examination of the physical and the psychological effectiveness of measures such as using a wet towel to seal a door jam against the infiltration of chemicals while sheltering in place or to provide expedient respiratory protection. Respiratory protection for civilians has never been considered a viable option for population protection in the CSEPP. Problems of storage, ability to effectively don respirators, and questionable fit have been primary factors in rejecting this option. Expedient respiratory protection seems to offer little benefits for population protection for chemical agent vapors. Furthermore, using wet towels as a vapor barrier at the bottom of a door should be discouraged. The wetted towel provides no vapor filtration and its effectiveness in infiltration reduction is unknown. Taping the bottom of the door will still likely provide greater infiltration reduction and is recommended as the current method for use in sheltering.

  17. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux "invited... a... W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower, and T. Y. Yates Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA ͑Presented 13 May 2008; received 12 May 2008; accepted 16 May 2008; published online 31 October 2008͒ Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial

  18. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  19. In situ measurement of interfacial tension of Fe-S and Fe-P liquids under high pressure using X-ray radiography and tomography techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terasakia, H; Urakawa, S; Funakoshi, K; Nishiyama, N; Wang, Y; Nishida, K; Sakamaki, T; Suzuki, A; Ohtani, E

    2009-09-14

    Interfacial tension is one of the most important properties of the liquid iron alloy that controls the core formation process in the early history of the Earth and planets. In this study, we made high-pressure X-ray radiography and micro-tomography measurements to determine the interfacial tension between liquid iron alloys and silicate melt using the sessile drop method. The measured interfacial tension of liquid Fe-S decreased significantly (802-112 mN/m) with increasing sulphur content (0-40 at%) at 1.5 GPa. In contrast, the phosphorus content of Fe had an almost negligible effect on the interfacial tension of liquid iron. These tendencies in the effects of light elements are consistent with those measured at ambient pressure. Our results suggest that the effect of sulphur content on the interfacial tension of liquid Fe-S (690 mN/m reduction with the addition of 40 at% S) is large compared with the effect of temperature (~273 mN/m reduction with an increase of 200 K). The three-dimensional structure of liquid Fe-S was obtained at ~2 GPa and 1373-1873 K with a high-pressure tomography technique. The Fe-S droplet was quite homogeneous when evaluated in a slice of the three-dimensional image.

  20. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-03-15

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  1. Application of electron stimulated desorption techniques to measure the isotherm and the mean residence time of hydrogen physisorbed on a metal surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arakawa, Ichiro Shimizu, Hideyuki; Kawarabuki, Taku; Yamakawa, Koichiro; Miura, Takashi

    2015-03-15

    Electron stimulated desorption techniques were applied to probe the density of H{sub 2} physisorbed on a cold surface. The adsorption isotherm of H{sub 2} on a copper surface was measured in the equilibrium pressure range between 10{sup ?9} and 10{sup ?4} Pa at surface temperatures of 6.5 and 4.2?K. The mean residence times of H{sub 2} on copper were obtained from the observation of the time development of the surface density in a transitional state approaching equilibrium, and are 50500?s for the coverage between 1 and 0.18 at 4.2?K of the substrate temperature. The adsorption energies of 1.181.27?kJ/mol, and the condensation coefficient of 0.0740.018 were also deduced.

  2. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-09-17

    Platinum electrocatalysts supported on high surface area and Vulcan carbon blacks (Pt/HSC, Pt/V) were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups for electrochemical area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) area specific activity (SA) and mass specific activity (MA) at 0.9 V. Films fabricated using several ink formulations and film-drying techniques were characterized for a statistically significant number of independent samples. The highest quality Pt/HSC films exhibited MA 870 ± 91 mA/mgPt and SA 864 ± 56 μA/cm2 Pt while Pt/V had MA 706 ± 42 mA/mgPt and SA 1120 ± 70 μA/cm2 Pt when measured in 0.1 M HClO4, 20 mV/s, 100 kPa O2 and 23±2°C. An enhancement factor of 2.8 in themeasured SA was observable on eliminating Nafion ionomer and employing extremely thin, uniform films (~4.5 μg/cm2 Pt) of Pt/HSC. The ECA for Pt/HSC (99 ± 7 m2/gPt) and Pt/V (65 ± 5 m2/gPt) were statistically invariant and insensitive to film uniformity/thickness/fabrication technique; accordingly, enhancements in MA are wholly attributable to increases in SA. Impedance measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy were used to de-convolute the losses within the catalyst layer and ascribed to the catalyst layer resistance, oxygen diffusion, and sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. The ramifications of these results for proton exchange membrane fuel cells have also been examined.

  3. Oxygen Reduction Reaction Measurements on Platinum Electrocatalysts Utilizing Rotating Disk Electrode Technique: II. Influence of Ink Formulation, Catalyst Layer Uniformity and Thickness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shinozaki, Kazuma; Zack, Jason W.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Pivovar, Bryan S.; Kocha, Shyam S.

    2015-09-17

    Platinum electrocatalysts supported on high surface area and Vulcan carbon blacks (Pt/HSC, Pt/V) were characterized in rotating disk electrode (RDE) setups for electrochemical area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) area specific activity (SA) and mass specific activity (MA) at 0.9 V. Films fabricated using several ink formulations and film-drying techniques were characterized for a statistically significant number of independent samples. The highest quality Pt/HSC films exhibited MA 870 ± 91 mA/mgPt and SA 864 ± 56 μA/cm2 Pt while Pt/V had MA 706 ± 42 mA/mgPt and SA 1120 ± 70 μA/cm2 Pt when measured in 0.1 M HClO4,more » 20 mV/s, 100 kPa O2 and 23±2°C. An enhancement factor of 2.8 in themeasured SA was observable on eliminating Nafion ionomer and employing extremely thin, uniform films (~4.5 μg/cm2 Pt) of Pt/HSC. The ECA for Pt/HSC (99 ± 7 m2/gPt) and Pt/V (65 ± 5 m2/gPt) were statistically invariant and insensitive to film uniformity/thickness/fabrication technique; accordingly, enhancements in MA are wholly attributable to increases in SA. Impedance measurements coupled with scanning electron microscopy were used to de-convolute the losses within the catalyst layer and ascribed to the catalyst layer resistance, oxygen diffusion, and sulfonate anion adsorption/blocking. The ramifications of these results for proton exchange membrane fuel cells have also been examined.« less

  4. Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Physical Properties See Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic techniques utilize EM induction processes to measure one or more electric or magnetic field components resulting...

  5. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  6. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production by Michael Joseph Wilking B.Ch.E., University of Minnesota, 2001 M.S., University of Colorado, 2007 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Colorado in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Physics 2009 This thesis entitled: Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production written by Michael Joseph Wilking has been

  7. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch * D. J. Den Hartog, †,a) J. T. Chapman, b) D. Craig, G. Fiksel, P. W. Fontana, S. C. Prager, and J. S. Sarff Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 16 November 1998; accepted 20 January 1999͒ Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high-temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus ͑MST͒

  8. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)γ cross section by Ryan P. Fitzgerald A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of the 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)γ cross section (Under the Direction of A. E. Champagne) The fusion

  9. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interpretation of micro benchmark and application energy use on the Cray XC30 Brian Austin, and Nicholas J. Wright ⇤ August 29, 2014 Abstract Understanding patterns of application energy use is key to reaching future HPC e ciency goals. We have measured the sensitivity of en- ergy use to CPU frequency for several microbenchmarks and applications on a Cray XC30. First order fits to the performance and power data are su cient to describe the energy used by these applications. Exam- ination of

  10. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electronegative Contaminants and Drift Electron Lifetime in the MicroBooNE Experiment The MicroBooNE Collaboration May 19, 2016 Abstract High-purity liquid argon is critical for the operation of a liquid argon time projec- tion chamber (LArTPC). At MicroBooNE, we have achieved an electron drift lifetime of at least 6 ms without evacuation of the detector vessel. Measurements of the elec- tronegative contaminants oxygen and water are described and shown as the gas and liquid argon stages of

  11. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Efird, Marty

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  12. Method for producing melt-infiltrated ceramic composites using formed supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corman, Gregory Scot (Ballston Lake, NY); Brun, Milivoj Konstantin (Ballston Lake, NY); McGuigan, Henry Charles (Duanesburg, NY)

    2003-01-01

    A method for producing shaped articles of ceramic composites provides a high degree of dimensional tolerance to these articles. A fiber preform is disposed on a surface of a stable formed support, a surface of which is formed with a plurality of indentations, such as grooves, slots, or channels. Precursors of ceramic matrix materials are provided to the fiber preform to infiltrate from both sides of the fiber preform. The infiltration is conducted under vacuum at a temperature not much greater than a melting point of the precursors. The melt-infiltrated composite article substantially retains its dimension and shape throughout the fabrication process.

  13. Illumination Sufficiency Survey Techniques: In-situ Measurements of Lighting System Performance and a User Preference Survey for Illuminance in an Off-Grid, African Setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-08-26

    Efforts to promote rechargeable electric lighting as a replacement for fuel-based light sources in developing countries are typically predicated on the notion that lighting service levels can be maintained or improved while reducing the costs and environmental impacts of existing practices. However, the extremely low incomes of those who depend on fuel-based lighting create a need to balance the hypothetically possible or desirable levels of light with those that are sufficient and affordable. In a pilot study of four night vendors in Kenya, we document a field technique we developed to simultaneously measure the effectiveness of lighting service provided by a lighting system and conduct a survey of lighting service demand by end-users. We took gridded illuminance measurements across each vendor's working and selling area, with users indicating the sufficiency of light at each point. User light sources included a mix of kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns, pressure lamps, and LED lanterns.We observed illuminance levels ranging from just above zero to 150 lux. The LED systems markedly improved the lighting service levels over those provided by kerosene-fueled hurricane lanterns. Users reported that the minimum acceptable threshold was about 2 lux. The results also indicated that the LED lamps in use by the subjects did not always provide sufficient illumination over the desired retail areas. Our sample size is much too small, however, to reach any conclusions about requirements in the broader population. Given the small number of subjects and very specific type of user, our results should be regarded as indicative rather than conclusive. We recommend replicating the method at larger scales and across a variety of user types and contexts. Policymakers should revisit the subject of recommended illuminance levels regularly as LED technology advances and the price/service balance point evolves.

  14. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  15. An iterative particle filter approach for coupled hydro-geophysical inversion of a controlled infiltration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Rossi, Matteo; Pasetto, Damiano; Deiana, Rita; Ferraris, Stefano; Cassiani, Giorgio; Putti, Mario

    2015-02-15

    The modeling of unsaturated groundwater flow is affected by a high degree of uncertainty related to both measurement and model errors. Geophysical methods such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) can provide useful indirect information on the hydrological processes occurring in the vadose zone. In this paper, we propose and test an iterated particle filter method to solve the coupled hydrogeophysical inverse problem. We focus on an infiltration test monitored by time-lapse ERT and modeled using Richards equation. The goal is to identify hydrological model parameters from ERT electrical potential measurements. Traditional uncoupled inversion relies on the solution of two sequential inverse problems, the first one applied to the ERT measurements, the second one to Richards equation. This approach does not ensure an accurate quantitative description of the physical state, typically violating mass balance. To avoid one of these two inversions and incorporate in the process more physical simulation constraints, we cast the problem within the framework of a SIR (Sequential Importance Resampling) data assimilation approach that uses a Richards equation solver to model the hydrological dynamics and a forward ERT simulator combined with Archie's law to serve as measurement model. ERT observations are then used to update the state of the system as well as to estimate the model parameters and their posterior distribution. The limitations of the traditional sequential Bayesian approach are investigated and an innovative iterative approach is proposed to estimate the model parameters with high accuracy. The numerical properties of the developed algorithm are verified on both homogeneous and heterogeneous synthetic test cases based on a real-world field experiment.

  16. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  17. Estimation of neutrophil infiltration into hairless guinea pig skin treated with 2,2' -dichlorodiethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bongiovanni, R.; Millard, C.B.; Schulz, S.M.; Romano, J.M.

    1993-05-13

    Despite growing acceptance of the hairless guinea pig (HPG) for evaluating sulfur mustard (2,2'dichlorodiethylsulfide, HD) skin injury, there are presently few antivesicant drug assessment endpoints validated in vivo for this model. We measured the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to characterize the dose- and time-dependence of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration during development of the HD lesion. Biopsies were obtained from the dorsal thoracic-lumbar area of HGPs at successive 3 hr time intervals for up to 24 hrs following controlled exposure to either 5, 7, 8 or 10 min HD vapor. The presence of PMNs, as judged by MPO levels, peaked at 9 hrs irrespective of total HD vapor dose. The maximum response was a 20-fold increase compared to unexposed control sites at 9 hrs following 10 min HD vapor. This time period coincides with epidermal detachment characterized previously by electron microscopy in the HGP. By 24 hrs post-exposure, the MPO levels subsided markedly (2-fold compared to controls). These results suggest that PMNs participate in the HGP cutaneous inflammatory response following exposure to HD and that MPO may be a useful biological marker for evaluating putative antivesicants.

  18. Independent Review of Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Review Panel: Soroosh Sorooshian, Ph.D., Panel Chairperson, University of California, Irvine; Jan M. H. Hendrickx, Ph.D., New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology; Binayak P. Mohanty, Ph.D., Texas A&M University; Scott W. Tyler, Ph.D., University of Nevada, Reno; Tian-Chyi Jim Yeh, Ph.D., University of Arizona -- ORISE Review Facilitators: Robert S. Turner, Ph.D., Technical Review Group Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Brian R. Herndon, Project Manager, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education; Russ Manning, Technical Writer /Editor, Haselwood Enterprises, Inc.

    2008-08-30

    The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) tasked Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) with providing an independent expert review of the documented model and prediction results for net infiltration of water into the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. The specific purpose of the model, as documented in the report MDL-NBS-HS-000023, Rev. 01, is “to provide a spatial representation, including epistemic and aleatory uncertainty, of the predicted mean annual net infiltration at the Yucca Mountain site ...” (p. 1-1) The expert review panel assembled by ORISE concluded that the model report does not provide a technically credible spatial representation of net infiltration at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, the ORISE Review Panel found that: • A critical lack of site-specific meteorological, surface, and subsurface information prevents verification of (i) the net infiltration estimates, (ii) the uncertainty estimates of parameters caused by their spatial variability, and (iii) the assumptions used by the modelers (ranges and distributions) for the characterization of parameters. The paucity of site-specific data used by the modeling team for model implementation and validation is a major deficiency in this effort. • The model does not incorporate at least one potentially important hydrologic process. Subsurface lateral flow is not accounted for by the model, and the assumption that the effect of subsurface lateral flow is negligible is not adequately justified. This issue is especially critical for the wetter climate periods. This omission may be one reason the model results appear to underestimate net infiltration beneath wash environments and therefore imprecisely represent the spatial variability of net infiltration. • While the model uses assumptions consistently, such as uniform soil depths and a constant vegetation rooting depth, such assumptions may not be appropriate for this net infiltration simulation because they

  19. Simulates the Forced-Flow Chemical Vapor Infiltration in Steady State

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-12

    GTCVI is a finite volume model for steady-state simulation of forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration in either Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates. The model solves energy and momentum balances simultaneously over a given domain discretized into an array of finite volume elements. The species balances and deposition rates are determined after the energy and momentum balances converge. Density-dependent preform properties are included in the model. Transient average density, backpressure, temperature gradient, and average radial deposition rates canmore » be summarized. Optimal infiltration conditions can be found by varying temperature, flow, and reactant concentration.« less

  20. Synthesis and Stability of a Nanoparticle-Infiltrated Solid OxideFuel Cell Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-11-20

    Nanoparticulate catalysts infiltrated into SOFC (Solid OxideFUel Cell) electrodes can significantly enhance the cell performance, butthe stability of these electrodes has been an open issue. An infiltrationprocedure is reported that leads to a stable scandia-stablized zirconia(SSZ) cathode electrode performance.

  1. Microwave surface resistance of epitaxial YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] thin films at 18. 7 GHz measured by a dielectric resonator technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, N.; Daehne, U.; Poppe, U.; Tellmann, N.; Urban, K. ); Orbach, S.; Hensen, S.; Mueller, G.; Piel, H. )

    1992-04-01

    We used a dielectric resonator technique for highly sensitive measurements of the temperature dependence of the microwave surface resistance R[sub s] of 1 x 1 cm[sup 2] superconducting films at 18.7 GHz. It consists of a sapphire disc positioned on the film under investigation within a copper cavity which is acting as a radiation shield. In the TE[sub 01[delta

  2. The effect of E{sub r} on MSE measurements of q, a new technique for measuring E{sub r}, and a test of the neoclassical electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Levinton, F.M.; Batha, S.H.

    1996-10-01

    Previous analysis of motional-Stark Effect (MSE) data to measure the q-profile ignored contributions from the plasma electric field. The MSE measurements are shown to be sensitive to the electric field and require significant corrections for plasmas with large rotation velocities or pressure gradients. MSE measurements from rotating plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) confirm the significance of these corrections and verify their magnitude. Several attractive configurations are considered for future MSE-based diagnostics for measuring the plasma radial electric field. MSE data from TFTR is analyzed to determine the change in the radial electric field between two plasmas. The measured electric field quantitatively agrees with the predictions of neoclassical theory. These results confirm the utility of a MSE electric field measurement.

  3. Measurement of the top-quark mass in the lepton+jets channel using a matrix element technique with the CDF II detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A

    2011-10-14

    A measurement of the top-quark mass is presented using Tevatron data from proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energy ?s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector. Events are selected from a sample of candidates for production of tt? pairs that decay into the lepton+jets channel. The top-quark mass is measured with an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal and background matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterized jet-to-parton transfer functions. The likelihood function is maximized with respect to the top-quark mass, the signal fraction in the sample, and a correction to the jet energy scale (JES) calibration of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction ({Delta}{sub JES}) amounts to an additional in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using the data sample of 578 lepton+jets candidate events, corresponding to 3.2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, the top-quark mass is measured to be mt = 172.4 1.4 (stat + ?JES) 1.3 (syst) GeV/c2.

  4. Measurement of the top-quark mass in the lepton+jets channel using a matrix element technique with the CDF II detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-10-14

    A measurement of the top-quark mass is presented using Tevatron data from proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energy ?s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector. Events are selected from a sample of candidates for production of tt? pairs that decay into the lepton+jets channel. The top-quark mass is measured with an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal and background matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterized jet-to-parton transfer functions. The likelihood function is maximized with respect to the top-quark mass, the signal fraction in the sample, and amorecorrection to the jet energy scale (JES) calibration of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction ({Delta}{sub JES}) amounts to an additional in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using the data sample of 578 lepton+jets candidate events, corresponding to 3.2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, the top-quark mass is measured to be mt = 172.4 1.4 (stat + ?JES) 1.3 (syst) GeV/c2.less

  5. Measurement of the top-quark mass in the lepton+jets channel using a matrix element technique with the CDF II detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-10-14

    A measurement of the top-quark mass is presented using Tevatron data from proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector. Events are selected from a sample of candidates for production of tt̄ pairs that decay into the lepton+jets channel. The top-quark mass is measured with an unbinned maximum likelihood method where the event probability density functions are calculated using signal and background matrix elements, as well as a set of parameterized jet-to-parton transfer functions. The likelihood function is maximized with respect to the top-quark mass, the signal fraction in the sample, and amore » correction to the jet energy scale (JES) calibration of the calorimeter jets. The simultaneous measurement of the JES correction ({Delta}{sub JES}) amounts to an additional in situ jet energy calibration based on the known mass of the hadronically decaying W boson. Using the data sample of 578 lepton+jets candidate events, corresponding to 3.2 fb-1 of integrated luminosity, the top-quark mass is measured to be mt = 172.4± 1.4 (stat + ΔJES) ± 1.3 (syst) GeV/c2.« less

  6. Measurements of 222Rn, 220Rn, and CO Emissions in Natural CO2 Fields in Wyoming: MVA Techniques for Determining Gas Transport and Caprock Integrity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, John; Sims, Kenneth

    2014-09-30

    An integrated field-laboratory program evaluated the use of radon and CO2 flux measurements to constrain source and timescale of CO2 fluxes in environments proximate to CO2 storage reservoirs. By understanding the type and depth of the gas source, the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir can be assessed and monitored. The concept is based on correlations of radon and CO2 fluxes observed in volcanic systems. This fundamental research is designed to advance the science of Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) and to address the Carbon Storage Program goal of developing and validating technologies to ensure 99 percent storage performance. Graduate and undergraduate students conducted the research under the guidance of the Principal Investigators; in doing so they were provided with training opportunities in skills required for implementing and deploying CCS technologies. Although a final method or “tool” was not developed, significant progress was made. The field program identified issues with measuring radon in environments rich in CO2. Laboratory experiments determined a correction factor to apply to radon measurements made in CO2-bearing environments. The field program also identified issues with radon and CO2-flux measurements in soil gases at a natural CO2 analog. A systematic survey of radon and CO2 flux in soil gases at the LaBarge CO2 Field in Southwest Wyoming indicates that measurements of 222Rn (radon), 220Rn (thoron), and CO2 flux may not be a robust method for monitoring the integrity of a CO2 storage reservoir. The field program was also not able to correlate radon and CO2 flux in the CO2-charged springs of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system. However, this part of the program helped to motivate the aforementioned laboratory experiments that determined correction factors for measuring radon in CO2-rich environments. A graduate student earned a Master of Science degree for this part of the field program; she is currently employed with a

  7. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  8. Metastasis Infiltration: An Investigation of the Postoperative Brain-Tumor Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raore, Bethwel; Schniederjan, Matthew; Prabhu, Roshan; Brat, Daniel J.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate brain infiltration of metastatic tumor cells past the main tumor resection margin to assess the biological basis for the use of stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of the tumor resection cavity and visualized resection edge or clinical target volume. Methods and Materials: Resection margin tissue was obtained after gross total resection of a small group of metastatic lesions from a variety of primary sources. The tissue at the border of the tumor and brain tissue was carefully oriented and processed to evaluate the presence of tumor cells within brain tissue and their distance from the resection margin. Results: Microscopic assessment of the radially oriented tissue samples showed no tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding brain tissue. Among the positive findings were reactive astrocytosis observed on the brain tissue immediately adjacent to the tumor resection bed margin. Conclusions: The lack of evidence of metastatic tumor cell infiltration into surrounding brain suggests the need to target only a narrow depth of the resection cavity margin to minimize normal tissue injury and prevent treatment size-dependent stereotactic radiosurgery complications.

  9. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Industrial Coal Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractory Materials in Slagging Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth; Bennett, James P.; Dridhar, Seetharaman

    2011-12-01

    Infiltration characteristics of industrial coal slag into alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) refractory material with a temperature gradient induced along the slag's penetration direction are compared to those obtained under near-isothermal conditions. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C and a CO/CO{sub 2} ratio of 1.8, which corresponds to an oxygen partial pressure of ~10{sup −8} atm. The refractory under the near-isothermal temperature profile, with higher average temperatures, demonstrated a greater penetration depth than its counterpart that was under the steeper temperature gradient. Slag that did not infiltrate into the refractory due to the induced temperature gradient, pooled and solidified on the top of the sample. Within the pool, a conglomerated mass of troilite (FeS) formed separately from the surrounding slag. Microscopy of the cross-sectioned infiltrated refractories revealed that the slag preferentially corroded the matrix regions closer to the top surface. Furthermore, the formation of a thick layer of hercynite (FeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) at the top of refractory/slag interface significantly depleted the slag of its iron-oxide content with respect to its virgin composition. A qualitative description of the penetration process is provided in this article.

  10. Shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Neutron logging data 1984--1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    To determine site suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, a study was devised to characterize net infiltration. This study involves a detailed data set produced from 99 neutron boreholes that consisted of volumetric water-content readings with depth from 1984 through 1993 at Yucca Mountain. Boreholes were drilled with minimal disturbance to the surrounding soil or rock in order to best represent field conditions. Boreholes were located in topographic positions representing infiltration zones identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels. Through careful field calibration, neutron moisture logs, collected on a monthly basis and representing most of the areal locations at Yucca Mountain, illustrated that the depth of penetration of seasonal moisture, important for escaping loss to evapotranspiration, was influenced by several factors. It was increased (1) by thin soil cover, especially in locations where thin soil is underlain by fractured bedrock; (2) on ridgetops; and (3) during the winter when evapotranspiration is low and runoff is less frequent. This data set helps to provide a seasonal and areal distribution of changes in volumetric water content with which to assess hydrologic processes contributing to net infiltration.

  11. Shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada - neutron logging data 1984-93

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.

    1995-11-01

    To determine site suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, a study was devised to characterize net infiltration. This study involves a detailed data set produced from 99 neutron boreholes that consisted of volumetric water-content readings with depth from 1984 through 1993 at Yucca Mountain. Boreholes were drilled with minimal disturbance to the surrounding soil or rock in order to best represent field conditions. Boreholes were located in topographic positions representing infiltration zones identified as ridge-tops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels. Through careful field calibration, neutron moisture logs, collected on a monthly basis and representing most of the areal locations at Yucca Mountain, illustrated that the depth of penetration of seasonal moisture, important for escaping loss to evapotranspiration, was influenced by several factors. It was increased (1) by thin soil cover, especially in locations where thin soil is underlain by fractured bedrock; (2) on ridgetops; and (3) during the winter when evapotranspiration is low and runoff is less frequent. This data set helps to provide a seasonal and areal distribution of changes in volumetric water content with which to assess hydrologic processes contributing to net infiltration.

  12. Formation of nanometer-size wires using infiltration into latent nuclear tracks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Nanometer-size wires having a cross-sectional dimension of less than 8 nm with controllable lengths and diameters are produced by infiltrating latent nuclear or ion tracks formed in trackable materials with atomic species. The trackable materials and atomic species are essentially insoluble in each other, thus the wires are formed by thermally driven, self-assembly of the atomic species during annealing, or re-crystallization, of the damage in the latent tracks. Unlike conventional ion track lithography, the inventive method does not require etching of the latent tracks.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cells having porous cathodes infiltrated with oxygen-reducing catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Meilin; Liu, Ze; Liu, Mingfei; Nie, Lifang; Mebane, David Spencer; Wilson, Lane Curtis; Surdoval, Wayne

    2014-08-12

    Solid-oxide fuel cells include an electrolyte and an anode electrically coupled to a first surface of the electrolyte. A cathode is provided, which is electrically coupled to a second surface of the electrolyte. The cathode includes a porous backbone having a porosity in a range from about 20% to about 70%. The porous backbone contains a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (MIEC) of a first material infiltrated with an oxygen-reducing catalyst of a second material different from the first material.

  14. Diagnostic techniques used in AVLIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heestand, G.M.; Beeler, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    This is the second part of a general overview talk on the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. In this presentation the authors will discuss the diagnostic techniques used to measure key parameters in their atomic vapor including densities, temperature, velocities charge exchange rates and background ionization levels. Although these techniques have been extensively applied to their uranium program they do have applicability to other systems. Relevant data demonstrating these techniques will be shown.

  15. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    etc.) at X-ray energies between 50 eV to 10 keV. It is a main diagnostics installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. ...

  16. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

    2010-06-01

    The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

  17. Thermal Diffusivity and Specific Heat Measurements of Titanium Potassium Perchlorate Titanium Subhydride Potassium Perchlorate 9013 Glass 7052 Glass SB-14 Glass and C-4000 Muscovite Mica Using the Flash Technique.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Specht, Paul Elliott; Cooper, Marcia A.

    2015-02-01

    The flash technique was used to measure the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of titanium potassium perchlorate (TKP) ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with Ventron sup- plied titanium particles, TKP ignition powder (33wt% Ti - 67wt% KP) with ATK supplied titanium particles, TKP output powder (41wt% Ti - 59wt% KP), and titanium subhydride potassium perchlorate (THKP) (33wt% TiH 1.65 - 67wt% KP) at 25 o C. The influence of density and temperature on the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of TKP with Ventron supplied titanium particles was also investigated. Lastly, the thermal diffusivity and specific heats of 9013 glass, 7052 glass, SB-14 glass, and C-4000 Muscovite mica are presented as a function of temperature up to 300 o C.

  18. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  19. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} fibrous composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Besmann, T.M.

    1997-04-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This process produces high purity matrix TiB{sub 2} without damaging the relatively fragile fibers. The program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and scale the process to provide demonstration components.

  20. Luminescence of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots infiltrated into an opal matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzintsev, A. N. Emelchenko, G. A.; Masalov, V. M.; Yakimov, E. E.; Barthou, C.; Maitre, A.

    2009-02-15

    The effect of the photonic band gap in the photonic crystal, the synthesized SiO{sub 2} opal with embedded CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, on its luminescence in the visible spectral region is studied. It is shown that the position of the photonic band gap in the luminescence and reflectance spectra for the infiltrated opal depends on the diameter of the constituent nanospheres and on the angle of recording the signal. The optimal conditions for embedding the CdSe/ZnS quantum dots from the solution into the opal matrix are determined. It is found that, for the opal-CdSe/ZnS nanocomposites, the emission intensity decreases and the luminescence decay time increases in the spatial directions, in which the spectral positions of the photonic band gap and the luminescence peak of the quantum dots coincide.

  1. Photoluminescence of ZnO infiltrated into a three-dimensional photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzintsev, A. N. Emelchenko, G. A.; Masalov, V. M.

    2009-08-15

    The effect of the photonic band gap (stopband) of the photonic crystal, the synthesized SiO{sub 2} opal with embedded zinc oxide, on its luminescence in the violet spectral region is studied. It is shown that the position of the photonic band gap in the luminescence and reflectance spectra of the infiltrated opal depends on the diameter of the constituent nanoglobules, the volume fraction of zinc oxide, and on the signal's acceptance angle. It is found that, for the ZnO-opal nanocomposites, the emission intensity is decreased and the luminescence decay time is increased in the spatial directions, in which the photonic band gap coincides in spectral position with the luminescence peak of zinc oxide. The change in the decay time can be attributed to the change in the local density of photonic states in the photonic band gap.

  2. Stable isotope evidence for limited fluid infiltration of deep crustal rocks from the Ivrea Zone, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, A.J.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic and petrologic studies of the Ivrea Zone, a segment of deep-crustal high-grade rocks, suggest that metamorphism did not involve the transfer of large quantities of CO/sub 2/ from mantle to crust. High-grade Ivrea Zone calcites may retain high ..delta../sup 18/O (up to 24 per thousand SMOW), indicating little interaction with externally derived fluid. Graphite isotopic compositions (..delta../sup 13/C = -10 per thousand to -25 per thousand PDB) that do not vary with grade are attributed to mixing between carbonate carbon and biogenic noncarbonate carbon. Calcites from high-grade, carbonate-poor amphibolites have ..delta../sup 13/C of about 1 per thousand PDB and sedimentary, not infiltrative, origins. The general lack of carbon and oxygen isotopic homogenization suggests that fluid interactions may be explained in terms of fluid generated internally to the Ivrea Zone metasedimentary rocks.

  3. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction in an experimental periodontitis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lihua; Li, Chengzhang; Cai, Cia; Xiang, Junbo; Cao, Zhengguo

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective: CypA is able to regulate inflammatory responses and MMPs production via interaction with its cell surface receptor, EMMPRIN. This study aimed to address the possible association of CypA with pathological inflammation and destruction of periodontal tissues, and whether CypA-EMMPRIN interaction exists in periodontitis. Materials and methods: Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligation according to our previous method. Histological and radiographic examinations were performed. Western blot was used to detect CypA and EMMPRIN expressions in gingival tissues. Immunohistochemistry was applied for CypA, EMMPRIN, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, as well as cell markers of macrophage, lymphocyte and neutrophil. CypA expression, alveolar bone loss, and inflammatory infiltrations were quantified followed by correlation analyses. Results: Western blot revealed that CypA and EMMRPIN expressions were dramatically elevated in inflamed gingival tissues (ligature group) as compared to healthy gingival tissues (control group). The enhanced CypA and EMMPRIN expressions were highly consistent in cell localization on seriate sections. They were permanently co-localized in infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as osteoclasts and osteoblasts in interradicular bone, but rarely expressed by infiltrating neutrophils. MMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions were also sharply increased in inflamed gingiva. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mainly over-expressed by macrophages, while MMP-1 was over-produced by fibroblasts and infiltrating cells. The number of CypA-positive cells was strongly correlated with the ACJ-AC distance (r = 0.839, p = 0.000), the number of macrophages (r = 0.972, p = 0.000), and the number of lymphocytes (r = 0.951, p = 0.000). Conclusion: CypA is associated with the inflammatory infiltration and alveolar bone destruction of periodontitis. CypA-EMMPRIN interaction may exist in these pathological processes.

  4. Simplified multizone blower door techniques for multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This research focused on the applicability of (a) two-blower-door and (b) single-blower-door multi-zone pressurization techniques for estimating the air leakage characteristics of New York State multi-family apartment buildings. The research also investigated the magnitude of external leakage area in multi-family buildings and used computer simulations to estimate the effect of decreasing external and internal leakage areas on air infiltration rates. This research investigates whether two blower doors can be used to determine the ELA of the exterior envelope and the ELA of partitions. Two multi-zone versions of the single-blower-door pressurization method are also examined.

  5. Tools and techniques for failure analysis and qualification of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; MICROELECTRONICS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; ...

  6. Mobility of heavy metals through granitic soils using mini column infiltration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarime, Nur 'Aishah; Yaacob, W. Z.W.

    2014-09-03

    This study is about the mobility of cadmium through compacted granitic soils. Two granitic soils namely the Broga (BGR) and Kajang (KGR) granitic soils were collected in Selangor, Malaysia. Physical and chemical tests were applied for both granitic soils to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil materials. Physical test results shows granitic soils (BGR and KGR) have high percentage of sand ranging between 54%–63% and 46%–54% respectively, an intermediate and intermediate to high plasticity index as well as high specific gravity ie; 2.50–2.59 and 2.45–2.66 respectively. For chemical test, granitic soils shows acidic pH values ranged from 5.35–5.85 for BGR and pH 5.32–5.54 for KGR. For organic matter, SSA and CEC test, it shows low values ranged from 0.22%–0.34% and 0.39%– 0.50% respectively for organic matter test, 17.96 m{sup 2}/g–21.93 m{sup 2}/g and 25.76 m{sup 2}/g–26.83 m{sup 2}/g respectively for SSA test and 0.79 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g and 1.31 meq/100g–1.35 meq/100g respectively for CEC test. Mini column infiltration test was conducted to determine the retention of cadmium while flowing through granite soils. This test conducted based on the falling head permeability concepts. Different G-force ranging from 231G to 1442G was used in this test. The breakthrough curves show the concentration of Cd becomes higher with the increasing of G-force for both granitic samples (BGR and KGR). The selectivity sorption for both granites ranked in the following decreasing order of; 231G>519G>923G>1442G. Results demonstrated that granitic soils also have low buffering capacity due to low resist of pH changes.

  7. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied ScienceTechniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class...

  8. Magnetization reversal of a Nd-Cu-infiltrated Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet observed with small-angle neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Kotaro Ono, Kanta; Ueno, Tetsuro; Yano, Masao; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Manabe, Akira; Kato, Akira; Harada, Masashi; Keiderling, Uwe

    2015-05-07

    The magnetization reversal process of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnets infiltrated with Nd-Cu alloy was examined using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The magnetic-field dependence of SANS intensity revealed a qualitative difference between Nd-Cu-infiltrated samples and as-deformed samples. Insufficient magnetic isolation along the direction perpendicular to the nominal c-axis is expected from comparable SANS intensities for different ranges of q values along this direction. For small q values near the coercivity field, Nd-Cu-infiltrated samples show a noticeable reduction in SANS intensity along the nominal c-axis, which is parallel to the external magnetic field. This indicates less spatial fluctuation of magnetic moments in Nd-Cu-infiltrated samples, owing to magnetically isolated Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains.

  9. Robust Technique for Measuring and Simulating Silicon Wafer Quality Characteristics that Enable the Prediction of Solar Cell Electrical Performance of MEMC Silicon Wafer. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-438

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2015-12-01

    NREL and MEMC Electronic Materials are interested in developing a robust technique for monitoring material quality of mc-Si and mono-Si wafers -- a technique that can provide relevant data to accurately predict the performance of solar cells fabricated on them. Previous work, performed under two TSAs between NREL and MEMC, has established that dislocation clusters are the dominant performance-limiting factor in MEMC mc-Si solar cells. The work under this CRADA will go further in verifying these results on a larger data set, evaluate possibilities of faster method(s) for mapping dislocations in wafers/ingots, understanding dislocation generation during ingot casting, and helping MEMC to have an internal capability for basic characterization that will provide feedback needed for more accurate crystallization simulations. NREL has already developed dislocation mapping technique and developed a basic electronic model (called Network Model) that uses spatial distribution of dislocations to predict the cell performance. In this CRADA work, we will use these techniques to: (i) establish dislocation, grain size, and grain orientation distributions of the entire ingots (through appropriate DOE) and compare these with theoretical models developed by MEMC, (ii) determine concentrations of some relevant impurities in selected wafers, (iii) evaluate potential of using photoluminescence for dislocation mapping and identification of recombination centers, (iv) evaluate use of diode array analysis as a detailed characterization tool, and (v) establish dislocation mapping as a wafer-quality monitoring tool for commercial mc-Si production.

  10. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  11. Techniques for Bs Mixing at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salamanna, Giuseppe; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2005-12-01

    The techniques used to perform a measurement of the mixing frequency of the B{sub s} meson ({Delta}M{sub s}) with the CDF detector at the TeVatron collider are described. Particular stress is put on CDF techniques for flavor tagging, which is possibly the major issue for mixing measurements at a hadron collider. Also CDF performances on lifetime and final state reconstruction are described. The final result of the amplitude scanning presented at 2005 Winter Conferences is reported.

  12. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes ... The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Laser ...

  13. Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Electromagnetic Techniques Information...

  14. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  15. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsAerosols

  16. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiometric

  17. Electromagnetic Sounding Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  18. Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  19. Binary and ternary niobium-base superconductors by the infiltration process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickus, M.R.; Holthius, J.T.; Rosen, M.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the work on high field superconducting materials and processes performed at the Materials and Molecular Research Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Two major interrelated focal points characterize this research. One was the decision to restrict the effort to A-15 compounds because of their superior critical temperatures and critical fields. The inherent brittleness of these compounds along with the requirement for a filamentary morphology led to the second focal point: a heavy reliance on a powder approach for the fabrication of superconducting tapes and wires. There have been exceptions to the use of powder techniques where special circumstances such as the nature of a particular alloy system suggested on alternative approach. The quench-age technique described herein is an example of a non-powder approach. Here the niobium-aluminum system is involved and the methodology is based on the fact that in a certain composition range a solid solution of aluminum in niobium is the stable phase at elevated temperatures (1950/sup 0/C), whereas at lower temperatures (< 1100/sup 0/C) the stable phase is the desired A-15 compound. Additionally, niobium forms deformation twins which were found to be effective sites for the nucleation of the A-15 phase.

  20. Enhancement of second harmonic generation in NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal photonic crystal using structural light focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaytsev, Kirill I. Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2014-08-04

    Experimental and numerical results for second harmonic generation (SHG) in photonic crystal (PC) based on NaNO{sub 2}-infiltrated opal matrix are presented. SHG is performed in reflection mode; thus, the direction of the SHG maximum is equal to the angle of mirror reflection. The PC was pumped with femtosecond optical pulses at different angles of incidence, allowing the dependence of the SHG efficiency on the location of the fundamental wavelength toward the PC band gap (BG) to be examined. The most efficient SHG was observed when pumping the BG of the PC. To interpret the experimental results, finite-difference time-domain numerical simulations of the light interaction with the PC were conducted. The observed effect of highly efficient SHG is associated with structural light focusing, and, as a consequence, with strong optical field localization within certain near-surface PC regions. Thus, SHG enhancement based on structural light focusing in PC was demonstrated.

  1. CNEEC - Synchrotron Techniques Tutorial by Profs. Pianetta and Toney

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Techniques

  2. Measurement of vibrational, gas, and rotational temperatures of H{sub 2} (X{sup 1} {sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) in radio frequency inductive discharge plasma by multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakhatov, V.A.; De Pascale, O.; Capitelli, M.; Hassouni, K.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.

    2005-02-01

    Translational, rotational, and vibrational temperatures of H{sub 2} in radio frequency inductive discharge plasmas at pressures and power release ranges, respectively, of 0.5-8 torr and 0.5-2 W/cm{sup 3} have been measured by using multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. Computational codes have been developed to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures and to analyze H{sub 2} CARS spectrum for nonequilibrium conditions. The results show a decrease of the vibrational temperature from 4250 to 2800 K by increasing the pressure from 0.5 to 8 torr and a corresponding increase of the rotational temperature from 525 to 750 K.

  3. Development and Practical Applications of Indentation Based Techniques...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Engineering Ceramics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and Practical Applications of Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Stresses in Engineering ...

  4. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsCloud Properties

  5. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsSurface Properties

  6. Project Work Plan: Sequestration of Strontium-90 Subsurface Contamination in the Hanford 100-N Area by Surface Infiltration of an Apatite Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, Jim E.

    2006-04-30

    We propose to develop an infiltration strategy that defines the precipitation rate of an apatite-forming solution and Sr-90 sequestration processes under variably saturated (low water content) conditions. We will develop this understanding through small-scale column studies, intermediate-scale two-dimensional (2-D) experiments, and numerical modeling to quantify individual and coupled processes associated with apatite formation and Sr-90 transport during and after infiltration of the Ca-citrate-PO4 solution. Development of capabilities to simulate these coupled biogeochemical processes during both injection and infiltration will be used to determine the most cost-effective means to emplace an in situ apatite barrier with a longevity of 300 years to permanently sequester Sr-90 until it decays. Biogeochemical processes that will be investigated are citrate biodegradation and apatite precipitation rates at varying water contents as a function of water content. Coupled processes that will be investigated include the influence of apatite precipitation (which occupies pore space) on the hydraulic and transport properties of the porous media during infiltration.

  7. Weld braze technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanne, Jr., William R.; Kelker, Jr., John W.; Alexander, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  8. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  9. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  10. Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature Dictionary.png Electrical Techniques: Electrical techniques aim to image the...

  11. A Serendipitous, Long-Term Infiltration Experiment: Water and Tritium Circulation Beneath the CAMBRIC Ditch at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, R M; Tompson, A B; Kollet, S J

    2008-11-20

    Underground nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site introduced numerous radionuclides that may be used to characterize subsurface hydrologic transport processes in arid climates. A sixteen year pumping experiment designed to examine radionuclide migration away from the CAMBRIC nuclear test, conducted in groundwater beneath Frenchman Flat in 1965, gave rise to an unintended second experiment involving radionuclide infiltration through the vadose zone, as induced by seepage of pumping effluents beneath an unlined discharge trench. The combined experiments have been reanalyzed using a detailed, three-dimensional numerical model of transient, variably saturated flow and mass transport, tailored specifically for large scale and efficient calculations. Simulations have been used to estimate radionuclide travel and residence times in various parts of the system for comparison with observations in wells. Model predictions of mass transport were able to clearly demonstrate radionuclide recycling behavior between the ditch and pumping well previously suggested by isotopic age dating information; match travel time estimates for radionuclides moving between the ditch, the water table, and monitoring wells; and provide more realistic ways in which to interpret the pumping well elution curves. Collectively, the results illustrate the utility of integrating detailed numerical modeling with diverse observational data in developing accurate interpretations and forecasts of contaminant migration processes.

  12. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  13. Metrology Techniques for the Assembly of NCSX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Priniski, T. Dodson, M. Duco, S. Raftopoulos, R. Ellis, and A. Brooks

    2009-09-24

    In support of the National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX), stellerator assembly activities continued this past year at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The construction program saw the completion of the first two Half Field-Period Assemblies (HPA), each consisting of three modular coils. The full machine includes six such sub-assemblies. A single HPA consists of three of the NCSX modular coils wound and assembled at PPPL. These geometrically-complex threedimensional coils were wound using computer-aided metrology and CAD models to tolerances within +/- 0.5mm. The assembly of these coils required similar accuracy on a larger scale with the added complexity of more individual parts and fewer degrees of freedom for correction. Several new potential positioning issues developed for which measurement and control techniques were developed. To accomplish this, CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and software similar to the solutions employed for winding the modular coils was used. Given the size of the assemblies, the primary tools were both interferometeraided and Absolute Distance Measurement (ADM)-only based laser trackers. In addition, portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms and some novel indirect measurement techniques were employed. This paper will detail both the use of CAD coordinate-based metrology technology and the techniques developed and employed for dimensional control of NSCX subassemblies. The results achieved and possible improvements to techniques will be discussed.

  14. Ion source sample preparation techniques for carbon-14 AMS measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balsley, D.R.; Farwell, G.W.; Grootes, P.M.; Schmidt, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for preparing solid graphite, and other types of carbon samples possessing good geometrical characteristics and producing large beams are described. Amorphous carbon, or graphite powder, is encapsulated in tantalum, compressed to approx.14 kilobars, and heated in vacuum to approx.2500/sup 0/C. The end of the capsule is cut off, exposing a smooth and hard graphite surface which provides excellent emittance in a reflection-type sputter source. The powder is prepared from CO/sub 2/ by the hydrogen-iron powder catalyzation method. Silver-carbon mixtures with good geometrical properties can also be prepared with our press. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. A technique for measuring compressive properties of single microballoo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The procedure has thus been termed nanocompression, since the extreme sensitivity of the nanoindentation instrument provided a load resolution of 50 nN and a displacement ...

  16. A technique for measuring compressive properties of single microballoo...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and diameter, was undertaken through quantitative microscopy in an effort to correlate ... Charlotte, NC, March 14-18, 2004 Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory ...

  17. Measurement of surface tension and viscosity by open capillary techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye,Robert R. , Yost,Frederick G.

    1998-01-01

    An open-channel capillary is provided, having preferably a v-shaped groove in a flat wettable surface. The groove has timing marks and a source marker in which the specimen to be tested is deposited. The time of passage between the timing marks is recorded, and the ratio of surface tension .gamma. to viscosity .mu. is determined from the equation given below: ##EQU1## where h.sub.0 is the groove depth, .alpha. is the groove angle, .theta. is the liquid/solid contact angle, and t is the flow time. It has been shown by the

  18. A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Mason, Thomas A 1 ; Dattelbaum, Andrew M 1 ; Mara, Nathan A 1 ; Kaschner, George C 1 ; Johnson, Oliver K 2 ; Seegmiller, Daniel 2 ; Fullwood, David T 2 + ...

  19. Review of air flow measurement techniques (Technical Report)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: McWilliams, Jennifer Publication Date: 2002-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 809884 Report Number(s): LBNL--49747 R&D Project: 474401; B& R EC0903000; TRN: US200308%%292 DOE ...

  20. Use of automatic vehicle identification techniques for measuring...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SYSTEMS; ALGORITHMS; CONTROL SYSTEMS; DETECTION; ENGINEERING; FIELD TESTS; FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS; INFORMATION; MANAGEMENT; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; MINIMIZATION; MONITORING; ...

  1. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  2. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phones electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  3. Development of laser-based resonance ionization techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr measurements in the geosciences, II. December 1, 1994 through December 31, 2000 reporting period. Final technical report for Grant No. DE-FG05-95ER14497

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thonnard, Norbert; McKay, Larry D.; Labotka, Theodore C.

    2001-02-05

    A facility for measurement of rare Kr-81 and Kr-85 isotope concentration in hydrogeologic samples, and isotopic composition of minute quantities of krypton and xenon from extraterrestrial samples, was established, requiring refinement of an emerging mass spectrometric-based analytical technique and securing of laboratory space and equipment. The analytical process consists of (1) collecting a groundwater sample, (2) degassing the water, (3) separating Kr from the recovered gases, (4&5) two isotopic enrichments to reduce interfering isotopes by E9, and (6) detecting the rare krypton isotope in a unique time-of-flight mass spectrometer detecting as few as 100 Kr atoms. All equipment is installed and operating, with only some additional adjustment and testing of the last step (6, above) remaining to be completed. Collaborations have been established with a number of researchers and organizations world wide, and both groundwater and extraterrestrial samples have been collected. Completion of analyses awaits full operation of step 6.

  4. Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  5. Borehole Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  6. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  7. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM's design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  8. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM`s design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  9. Chemometrics/on-line measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, P.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The possible future of on-line analytical-quality measurements for improved process control and more timely safeguards measurements is examined in the light of a current project at Savannah River. A measurement system involving a fiber-optic spectrophotometer and the application of mathematical techniques called chemometrics is described.

  10. Electrochemically influenced cation inter-diffusion and Co3O4 formation on La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 infiltrated into SOFC cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Song, Xueyan; Lee, Shiwoo; Chen, Yun; Gerdes, Kirk

    2015-06-18

    Nanosized LSC electrocatalyst was infiltrated into a porous scaffold cathode composed of Sm2O3-doped CeO2 (SDC) and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) in a commercial button solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). To understand the stability of cathodes infiltrated with LSC, the infiltrated composite cells were subjected to both electrochemical operating and thermal aging states at 750 °C for 1500 h. Nanostructure and local chemistry evolution of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3 (LSC) infiltrated cathodes upon operation and aging were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. After operation, the LSC remained a cubic perovskite, and the crystal grains exhibit comparable size to as-infiltrated LSC grains. Inter-diffusion of Fe from themore » LSCF to a Fe-incorporated LSC layer developed on the LSCF backbone. However, only sharp interfaces were observed between LSC and SDC backbone in the as-infiltrated cathode and such interfaces remain after operation. The infiltrated LSC on the SDC backbone also retains granular particle morphology. Furthermore, newly grown Co3O4 nanocrystals were found in the operated cathode. After thermal aging, on the other hand, cation inter-diffusion across the interfaces of the infiltrate particles and the cathode backbones is less than that from the operated cells. Lastly, the following hypothesis is proposed: Co3O4 forms on LSC arising from local charge balancing between cobalt and oxygen vacancies.« less