National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for inertial fusion energy

  1. Fusion Technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Fusion Technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Authors: Kramer, K J ; Latkowski, J F ; Abbott, R P ; Anklam, T P ; Dunne, A M ; El-Dasher, B S ; Flowers, D L ; ...

  2. Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy American Fusion News Category: National Ignition Facility Link: Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy

  3. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  4. Fusion Technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 7th International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications, Bordeaux, France, Sep 12 - Sep 16, 2011 Research Org: ...

  5. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-06-11

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R&D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work.

  6. Inertial fusion: an energy-production option for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovingh, J.; Pitts, J.H.; Monsler, M.J.; Grow, G.R.

    1982-05-01

    The authors discuss the inertial-confinement approach to fusion energy. After explaining the fundamentals of fusion, they describe the state of the art of fusion experiments, emphasizing the results achieved through the use of neodymium-doped glass lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at other laboratories. They highlight recent experimental results confirming theoretical predictions that short-wavelength lasers have excellent energy absorption on fuel pellets. Compressions of deuterium-tritium fuel of over 100 times liquid density have been measured, only a factor of 10 away from the compression required for a commercial reactor. Finally, it is shown how to exploit the unique characteristics of inertial fusion to design reactor chambers that have a very high power density and a long life, features that the authors believe will eventually lead to fusion power at a competitive cost.

  7. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  8. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  9. Prospects for inertial fusion as an energy source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1989-06-26

    Progress in the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program has been very rapid in the last few years. Target physics experiments with laboratory lasers and in underground nuclear tests have shown that the drive conditions necessary to achieve high gain can be achieved in the laboratory with a pulse-shaped driver of about 10 MJ. Requirements and designs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) have been formulated. Research on driver technology necessary for an ICF reactor is making progress. Prospects for ICF as an energy source are very promising. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial Fusion ...

  11. Optimizing High-Z Coatings for Inertial Fusion Energy Shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Nikroo, Abbas; Goodin, Daniel T.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.

    2003-05-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors require shells with a high-Z coating that is both permeable, for timely filling with deuterium-tritium, and reflective, for survival in the chamber. Previously, gold was deposited on shells while they were agitated to obtain uniform, reproducible coatings. However, these coatings were rather impermeable, resulting in unacceptably long fill times. We report here on an initial study on Pd coatings on shells in the same manner. We have found that these palladium-coated shells are substantially more permeable than gold. Pd coatings on shells remained stable on exposure to deuterium. Pd coatings had lower reflectivity compared to gold that leads to a lower working temperature, and efficiency, of the proposed fusion reactor. Seeking to combine the permeability of Pd coatings and high reflectivity of gold, AuPd-alloy coatings were produced using a cosputtering technique. These alloys demonstrated higher permeability than Au and higher reflectivity than Pd. However, these coatings were still less reflective than the gold coatings. To improve the permeability of gold's coatings, permeation experiments were performed at higher temperatures. With the parameters of composition, thickness, and temperature, we have the ability to comply with a large target design window.

  12. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Betti, R.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Miller, R. L.; Laberge, M.; Delage, M.

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  13. AUDIT REPORT Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Endeavor

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Endeavor OAI-M-16-13 July 2016 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inspector General Office of Audits and Inspections Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 July 7, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR THE ADMINISTRATOR, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FROM: George W. Collard Deputy Inspector General for Audits and Inspections Office of Inspector General SUBJECT: INFORMATION: Audit Report on the "Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Laser Inertial Fusion Energy

  14. Semiconductor Laser Diode Pumps for Inertial Fusion Energy Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deri, R J

    2011-01-03

    Solid-state lasers have been demonstrated as attractive drivers for inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and at the Omega Facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY. For power plant applications, these lasers must be pumped by semiconductor diode lasers to achieve the required laser system efficiency, repetition rate, and lifetime. Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require approximately 40-to-80 GW of peak pump power, and must operate efficiently and with high system availability for decades. These considerations lead to requirements on the efficiency, price, and production capacity of the semiconductor pump sources. This document provides a brief summary of these requirements, and how they can be met by a natural evolution of the current semiconductor laser industry. The detailed technical requirements described in this document flow down from a laser ampl9ifier design described elsewhere. In brief, laser amplifiers comprising multiple Nd:glass gain slabs are face-pumped by two planar diode arrays, each delivering 30 to 40 MW of peak power at 872 nm during a {approx} 200 {micro}s quasi-CW (QCW) pulse with a repetition rate in the range of 10 to 20 Hz. The baseline design of the diode array employs a 2D mosaic of submodules to facilitate manufacturing. As a baseline, they envision that each submodule is an array of vertically stacked, 1 cm wide, edge-emitting diode bars, an industry standard form factor. These stacks are mounted on a common backplane providing cooling and current drive. Stacks are conductively cooled to the backplane, to minimize both diode package cost and the number of fluid interconnects for improved reliability. While the baseline assessment in this document is based on edge-emitting devices, the amplifier design does not preclude future use of surface emitting diodes, which may offer appreciable future cost reductions and

  15. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  16. Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blankets for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overview of Fusion-Fission Hybrid ...

  17. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  18. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  19. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  20. TIMELY DELIVERY OF LASER INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, A M

    2010-11-30

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A key goal of the NIF is to demonstrate fusion ignition for the first time in the laboratory. Its flexibility allows multiple target designs (both indirect and direct drive) to be fielded, offering substantial scope for optimization of a robust target design. In this paper we discuss an approach to generating gigawatt levels of electrical power from a laser-driven source of fusion neutrons based on these demonstration experiments. This 'LIFE' concept enables rapid time-to-market for a commercial power plant, assuming success with ignition and a technology demonstration program that links directly to a facility design and construction project. The LIFE design makes use of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology. It adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units utilized on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. A demonstration LIFE plant based on these design principles is described, along with the areas of technology development required prior to plant construction. A goal-oriented, evidence-based approach has been proposed to allow LIFE power plant rollout on a time scale that meets policy imperatives and is consistent with utility planning horizons. The system-level delivery builds from our prior national investment over many decades and makes full use of the distributed capability in laser technology, the ubiquity of semiconductor diodes, high volume manufacturing markets, and U.S. capability in fusion science and nuclear engineering. The LIFE approach is based on the ignition evidence emerging from NIF and adopts a line-replaceable unit approach to ensure high plant availability and to allow evolution from available technologies and materials. Utilization of a proven physics platform for the ignition

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inertial Confinement Fusion Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) Centered on magnetically driven implosions Alt text Fusion: The ultimate energy source Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2, tells us that a small amount of mass can be converted into a large amount of energy. This powerful equation is at the center of fusion energy - the idea that light nuclei, e.g. deuterium and tritium (isotopes of hydrogen) can be smashed together to form particles, e.g. a neutron and a helium nuclei, of

  2. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility

  3. Inertial fusion energy: A clearer view of the environmental and safety perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1996-11-01

    If fusion energy is to achieve its full potential for safety and environmental (S&E) advantages, the S&E characteristics of fusion power plant designs must be quantified and understood, and the resulting insights must be embodied in the ongoing process of development of fusion energy. As part of this task, the present work compares S&E characteristics of five inertial and two magnetic fusion power plant designs. For each design, a set of radiological hazard indices has been calculated with a system of computer codes and data libraries assembled for this purpose. These indices quantify the radiological hazards associated with the operation of fusion power plants with respect to three classes of hazard: accidents, occupational exposure, and waste disposal. The three classes of hazard have been qualitatively integrated to rank the best and worst fusion power plant designs with respect to S&E characteristics. From these rankings, the specific designs, and other S&E trends, design features that result in S&E advantages have been identified. Additionally, key areas for future fusion research have been identified. Specific experiments needed include the investigation of elemental release rates (expanded to include many more materials) and the verification of sequential charged-particle reactions. Improvements to the calculational methodology are recommended to enable future comparative analyses to represent more accurately the radiological hazards presented by fusion power plants. Finally, future work must consider economic effects. Trade-offs among design features will be decided not by S&E characteristics alone, but also by cost-benefit analyses. 118 refs., 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  4. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or {open_quotes}drive{close_quotes} inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  5. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  6. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  7. Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter ... Blog Home Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion ...

  8. Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thio, Francis Y.C.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) is given in terms of its technical rationale, scientific goals, vision, research plans, needs, and the research facilities currently available in support of the program. Magneto-inertial fusion is an emerging concept for inertial fusion and a pathway to the study of dense plasmas in ultrahigh magnetic fields (magnetic fields in excess of 500 T). The presence of magnetic field in an inertial fusion target suppresses cross-field thermal transport and potentially could enable more attractive inertial fusion energy systems. A vigorous program in magnetized high energy density laboratory plasmas (HED-LP) addressing the scientific basis of magneto-inertial fusion has been initiated by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy involving a number of universities, government laboratories and private institutions.

  9. Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants Citation Details ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  10. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  11. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  12. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant Title: Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant A laser inertial-confinement ...

  13. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  14. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-03

    Here, the quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications to national security and basic sciences. The U.S. is arguably the world leader in the inertial con fment approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it with the objective of establishing the science related tomore » the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Even though significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion.« less

  15. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite; Foord, Mark N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Beg, Farhat N.; Schumacher, Douglass W.

    2013-10-31

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded

  16. Stability of shocks relating to the shock ignition inertial fusion energy scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davie, C. J. Bush, I. A.; Evans, R. G.

    2014-08-15

    Motivated by the shock ignition approach to improve the performance of inertial fusion targets, we make a series of studies of the stability of shock waves in planar and converging geometries. We examine stability of shocks moving through distorted material and driving shocks with non-uniform pressure profiles. We then apply a fully 3D perturbation, following this spherically converging shock through collapse to a distorted plane, bounce and reflection into an outgoing perturbed, broadly spherical shock wave. We find broad shock stability even under quite extreme perturbation.

  17. Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    2014-07-15

    A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.

  18. Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) needs...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) needs a credible demonstration of the key physics principles ... Such an achievement, modeled and understood, would be a clear demonstration of the ...

  19. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion Forty-eight final optic assemblies are symmetrically distributed around the upper and lower hemispheres of the target chamber (National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) The Office of ICF provides experimental capabilities and scientific understanding in high energy density physics (HEDP) necessary to ensure a safe, secure, and effective nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. The demonstration of

  1. Inertial confinement fusion | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (NNSA) Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion Forty-eight final optic assemblies are symmetrically distributed around the upper and lower hemispheres of the target chamber (National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) The Office of ICF provides experimental capabilities and scientific understanding in high energy density physics (HEDP) necessary to ensure a safe, secure, and effective nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. The demonstration of

  2. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm/sup 3/ are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system.

  3. Final optics protection in laser inertial fusion with cryogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A burst of x rays and vaporized debris from high yield targets can damage the final optics in laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants and in laboratory experimental ...

  4. Prospects for inertial fusion energy based on a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver: Overview and development path

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    It is now known with certainty that the type of fusion known as inertial fusion will work with sufficient energy input, so inertial fusion is really beyond the ``scientific breakeven`` point in many respects. The most important question that remains for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is whether this type of fusion can operate with sufficiently low input energy to make it economically feasible for energy production. The constraint for low input energy demands operation near the inertial fusion ignition threshold, and such operation creates enormous challenges to discover a target design that will produce sufficient energy gain. There are also multiple issues relating to the scientific feasibility of using a laboratory-type ``driver`` to energize a target, such as those concerning bandwidth and beam smoothing for ``direct drive,`` and extension of hohlraum plasma physics to the IFE scale for ``indirect drive.`` One driver that appears as though it will be able to meet the IFE requirements, assuming modest development and sufficient target gain, is a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). We give an overview of this type of laser system, and explain what development remains for the economic production of electricity using this type of driver for IFE.

  5. Neutronics Design of a Thorium-Fueled Fission Blanket for LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, J; Abbott, R; Fratoni, M; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Seifried, J; Taylor, J

    2010-03-08

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) project at LLNL includes development of hybrid fusion-fission systems for energy generation. These hybrid LIFE engines use high-energy neutrons from laser-based inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical blanket of fission fuel that surrounds the fusion chamber. The fission blanket contains TRISO fuel particles packed into pebbles in a flowing bed geometry cooled by a molten salt (flibe). LIFE engines using a thorium fuel cycle provide potential improvements in overall fuel cycle performance and resource utilization compared to using depleted uranium (DU) and may minimize waste repository and proliferation concerns. A preliminary engine design with an initial loading of 40 metric tons of thorium can maintain a power level of 2000 MW{sub th} for about 55 years, at which point the fuel reaches an average burnup level of about 75% FIMA. Acceptable performance was achieved without using any zero-flux environment 'cooling periods' to allow {sup 233}Pa to decay to {sup 233}U; thorium undergoes constant irradiation in this LIFE engine design to minimize proliferation risks and fuel inventory. Vast reductions in end-of-life (EOL) transuranic (TRU) inventories compared to those produced by a similar uranium system suggest reduced proliferation risks. Decay heat generation in discharge fuel appears lower for a thorium LIFE engine than a DU engine but differences in radioactive ingestion hazard are less conclusive. Future efforts on development of thorium-fueled LIFE fission blankets engine development will include design optimization, fuel performance analysis work, and further waste disposal and nonproliferation analyses.

  6. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  7. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, James R.; Del Vecchio, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  8. Multishell inertial-confinement-fusion target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, J.R.; Del Vecchio, R.M.

    1981-06-01

    This disclosure relates to fusion targets. It deals particularly with the production of multishell inertial confinement fusion targets. The fuel pellet within such targets is designed to compress isentropically under laser or particle irradiation. When a short pulse at extremely high power density strikes the target containing deuterium-tritium fuel, the resulting plasma is confined briefly by its own inertia. Thermonuclear energy can be released in less time than it takes the fuel pellet to blow apart. However, efficient thermonuclear burn requires that the plasma must remain intact at extremely high temperatures and densities for a time sufficient to allow a large fraction of the nuclei to react. Development of multishell targets has been directed at this problem.

  9. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Inubushi, Yuichi

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  10. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion

  11. Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial ...

  12. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  13. Inertial-confinement-fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1982-08-10

    Much of the research in laser fusion has been done using simple ball on-stalk targets filled with a deuterium-tritium mixture. The targets operated in the exploding pusher mode in which the laser energy was delivered in a very short time (approx. 100 ps or less) and was absorbed by the glass wall of the target. The high energy density in the glass literally exploded the shell with the inward moving glass compressing the DT fuel to high temperatures and moderate densities. Temperatures achieved were high enough to produce DT reactions and accompanying thermonuclear neutrons and alpha particles. The primary criteria imposed on the target builders were: (1) wall thickness, (2) sphere diameter, and (3) fuel in the sphere.

  14. Inertial Fusion Energy reactor design studies: Prometheus-L, Prometheus-H. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Lee, V.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a review of design studies for Inertial Confinement reactor. This second of three volumes discussions is some detail the following: Objectives, requirements, and assumptions; rationale for design option selection; key technical issues and R&D requirements; and conceptual design selection and description.

  15. Status of the US inertial fusion program and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, David H.

    1997-04-15

    Research programs supported by the United States Office of Inertial Fusion and the NIF are summarized. The US inertial fusion program has developed an approach to high energy density physics and fusion ignition in the laboratory relying on the current physics basis of capsule drive by lasers and on the National Ignition Facility which is under construction. (AIP)

  16. Magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [1] is an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) scheme using cylindrical compression of magnetized, preheated DT gas. A 10 - 30 T axial magnetic field reduces electron thermal conductivity allowing near-adiabatic compression at implosion velocities of order 100 km/s, much lower than the 300 km/s or more required for conventional ICF. Preheating to at least 100 eV ensures that keV temperatures are reached with a convergence ratio no greater than 30. The

  17. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  18. Apparatus for an Inertial Fusion Reactor Inventor Abraham Massry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Apparatus for an Inertial Fusion Reactor Inventor Abraham Massry This invention is comprised of a very large vacuum chamber capable of withstanding a very high neutron flux generated by a fusion-fission reaction at the center. A blanket module on the outside of the vacuum chamber captures the neutrons and converts the energy into heat for further conversion into electrical energy. No.: M-820

  19. Status of inertial fusion in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, L.

    1991-10-01

    This report briefly discusses the concept, progress, and direction of inertial confinement fusion in the United States. (LSP)

  20. Inertial Confinement Fusion: How to Make a Star

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    icf Inertial Confinement Fusion: How to Make a Star The idea for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) grew out of the decades-long effort to generate fusion burn and gain in the laboratory. Current nuclear power plants, which use fission, or the splitting of atoms to produce energy, have been pumping out electric power for more than 50 years. But achieving nuclear fusion burn and gain has not yet been demonstrated to be viable for electricity production. For fusion burn and gain to occur, a

  1. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  2. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correll, D

    1998-06-01

    The ICF Annual Report provides documentation of the achievements of the LLNL ICF Program during the fiscal year by the use of two formats: (1) an Overview that is a narrative summary of important results for the fiscal year and (2) a compilation of the articles that previously appeared in the ICF Quarterly Report that year. Both the Overview and Quarterly Report are also on the Web at http://lasers.llnl.gov/lasers/pubs/icfq.html. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1997, the fourth quarter issue of the ICF Quarterly was no longer printed as a separate document but rather included in the ICF Annual. This change provided a more efficient process of documenting our accomplishments with-out unnecessary duplication of printing. In addition we introduced a new document, the ICF Program Monthly Highlights. Starting with the September 1997 issue and each month following, the Monthly Highlights will provide a brief description of noteworthy activities of interest to our DOE sponsors and our stakeholders. The underlying theme for LLNL's ICF Program research continues to be defined within DOE's Defense Programs missions and goals. In support of these missions and goals, the ICF Program advances research and technology development in major interrelated areas that include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology. While in pursuit of its goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application of inertial fusion energy for civilian power production. ICF technologies continue to have spin-off applications for additional government and industrial use. In addition to these topics, the ICF Annual Report covers non-ICF funded, but related, laser research and development and associated applications. We also

  3. Joining techniques for a reduced activation 12Cr steel for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M.; El-Dasher, B.; Choi, B. W.; Torres, S. G.

    2014-10-01

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we are developing a reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel that is based on the ferritic martensitic steel HT-9. As a part of the development of this steel, we tested a series of welding processes for characterization, including conventional welds (electron beam, tungsten inert gas, and laser) as well as solid-state welds (hot isostatic pressing). We also heat treated the joints at various temperatures between 750 °C and 1050 °C to find a suitable normalization scheme. The modified HT-9 reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel appears highly suitable to welding and diffusion bonding. All welds showed good quality fusion zones with insignificant cracking or porosity. Additionally, a heat treatment schedule of 950 °C for one hour caused minimal grain growth while still converging the hardness of the base metal with that of the fusion and heat-affected zones. Also, modified HT-9 diffusion bonds that were created at temperatures of at least 950 °C for two hours at 103 MPa had interface tensile strengths of greater than 600 MPa. The diffusion bonds showed no evidence of increased hardness nor void formation at the diffusion bonded interface.

  4. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  5. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  6. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  7. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  8. Fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.

    2013-01-15

    Results of studies on fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are reviewed. The aspects of the fast ignition concept, which consists in the separation of the processes of target ignition and compression due to the synchronized action of different energy drivers, are considered. Criteria for the compression ratio and heating rate of a fast ignition target, the energy balance, and the thermonuclear gain are discussed. The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the heating of a compressed target by various types of igniting drivers, namely, beams of fast electrons and light ions produced under the action of a petawatt laser pulse on the target, a heavy-ion beam generated in the accelerator, an X-ray pulse, and a hydrodynamic flow of laser-accelerated matter, are analyzed. Requirements to the igniting-driver parameters that depend on the fast ignition criteria under the conditions of specific target heating mechanisms, as well as possibilities of practical implementation of these requirements, are discussed. The experimental programs of various laboratories and the prospects of practical implementation of fast ignition of ICF targets are reviewed. To date, fast ignition is the most promising method for decreasing the ignition energy and increasing the thermonuclear gain of an ICF plasma. A large number of publications have been devoted to investigations of this method and adjacent problems of the physics of igniting drivers and their interaction with plasma. This review presents results of only some of these studies that, in the author's opinion, allow one to discuss in detail the main physical aspects of the fast ignition concept and understand the current state and prospects of studies in this direction.

  9. Using inertial fusion implosions to measure the T+He3 fusion cross section at nucleosynthesis-relevant energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Herrmann, H. W.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Kim, Y. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Hale, G.; Li, C. K.; Rubery, M.; Paris, M.; Bacher, A.; et al

    2016-07-11

    Light nuclei were created during big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Standard BBN theory, using rates inferred from accelerator-beam data, cannot explain high levels of 6Li in low-metallicity stars. Using high energy-density plasmas we measure the T(3He,γ)6Li reaction rate, a candidate for anomalously high 6Li production; we find that the rate is too low to explain the observations, and different than values used in common BBN models. In conclusion, this is the first data directly relevant to BBN, and also the first use of laboratory plasmas, at comparable conditions to astrophysical systems, to address a problem in nuclear astrophysics.

  10. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    experiments (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments This thesis explores the formation of ICF compatible foam layers inside of an ablator shell used for inertial confinement fusion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In particular, the capability of p- DCPD

  11. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; Campbell, Edward Michael; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Kimmel, Mark W.; et al

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  12. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  13. Status of the US inertial fusion program and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    Research programs supported by the United States Office of Inertial Fusion and the NIF are summarized. The US inertial fusion program has developed an approach to high energy density physics and fusion ignition in the laboratory relying on the current physics basis of capsule drive by lasers and on the National Ignition Facility which is under construction. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Generalized Lawson Criteria for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tipton, Robert E.

    2015-08-27

    The Lawson Criterion was proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955 as a general measure of the conditions necessary for a magnetic fusion device to reach thermonuclear ignition. Over the years, similar ignition criteria have been proposed which would be suitable for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. This paper will compare and contrast several ICF ignition criteria based on Lawson’s original ideas. Both analytical and numerical results will be presented which will demonstrate that although the various criteria differ in some details, they are closely related and perform similarly as ignition criteria. A simple approximation will also be presented which allows the inference of each ignition parameter directly from the measured data taken on most shots fired at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with a minimum reliance on computer simulations. Evidence will be presented which indicates that the experimentally inferred ignition parameters on the best NIF shots are very close to the ignition threshold.

  15. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  16. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, Edward L; Latkowski, Jeffrey F; Kramer, Kevin J

    2015-11-05

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  17. Inertial energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Kelly, James J.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1978-01-01

    The inertial energy storage device of the present invention comprises a composite ring formed of circumferentially wound resin-impregnated filament material, a flanged hollow metal hub concentrically disposed in the ring, and a plurality of discrete filament bandsets coupling the hub to the ring. Each bandset is formed of a pair of parallel bands affixed to the hub in a spaced apart relationship with the axis of rotation of the hub being disposed between the bands and with each band being in the configuration of a hoop extending about the ring along a chordal plane thereof. The bandsets are disposed in an angular relationship with one another so as to encircle the ring at spaced-apart circumferential locations while being disposed in an overlapping relationship on the flanges of the hub. The energy storage device of the present invention has the capability of substantial energy storage due to the relationship of the filament bands to the ring and the flanged hub.

  18. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  19. Ignition and Inertial Confinement Fusion at The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most powerful laser system for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and for studying high-energy-density (HED) science, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is now conducting experiments to commission the laser drive, the hohlraum and the capsule and to develop the infrastructure needed to begin the first ignition experiments in FY 2010. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. NIF will achieve this by concentrating the energy from the 192 beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target and igniting a deuterium-tritium mix, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reaction. NIF's ignition program is a national effort managed via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC). The NIC has two major goals: execution of DT ignition experiments starting in FY2010 with the goal of demonstrating ignition and a reliable, repeatable ignition platform by the conclusion of the NIC at the end of FY2012. The NIC will also develop the infrastructure and the processes required to operate NIF as a national user facility. The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on laser fusion as a viable energy option. A laser fusion-based energy concept that builds on NIF, known as LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy), is currently under development. LIFE is inherently safe and can provide a global carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This paper describes recent progress on NIF, NIC, and the LIFE concept.

  20. Inertial fusion target fabrication using polystyrene mandrels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H.; Powers, T.F.; Mason, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    Large-aspect-ratio, plastic-coated, metal shells are useful targets for obtaining valuable information on thermal transport in laser implosion experiments. We have found that by using polystyrene as a leachable mandrel, it is possible to fabricate such complex, inertial-fusion targets. The present fabrication technique offers advantages over previous techniques, including the hemispherical-shell approach, the leachable-metal-mandrel approach, and the coating of a prefabricated metal shell. For fabrication of such diagnostic targets, comprised of a high-aspect-ratio, plastic-coated, metal shell, a polystyrene sphere is mounted on a stalk, then coated with metal and parylene layers. A hole of 5--10 ..mu..m is drilled with a laser pulse through the layers and the polystyrene is then leached out by immersing the system in toluene. The concept of the present technique presents a number of possibilities for the fabrication of complex targets not possible previously.

  1. High-performance inertial confinement fusion target implosions on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R L; Betti, R; Boehly, T R; Casey, D T; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R S; Delettrez, J A; Edgell, D H; Epstein, R; Fletcher, K A; Frenje, J A; Glebov, Y Yu; Goncharov, V N; Harding, D R; Hu, S X; Igumenshchev, I V; Knauer, J P; Li, C K; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Nilson, P M; Padalino, S P; Petrasso, R D; Radha, P B; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Seguin, F H; Seka, W; Short, R W; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Soures, J M; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Yaakobi, B

    2011-04-18

    The Omega Laser Facility is used to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concepts. This paper describes progress in direct-drive central hot-spot (CHS) ICF, shock ignition (SI) and fast ignition (FI) since the 2008 IAEA FEC conference. CHS cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) target implosions on OMEGA have produced the highest DT areal densities yet measured in ICF implosions (~300 mg cm{sup -2}). Integrated FI experiments have shown a significant increase in neutron yield caused by an appropriately timed high-intensity, high-energy laser pulse.

  2. Transmutation of [sup 90]Sr by inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Konashi, Kenji )

    1993-11-01

    Transmutation of [sup 90]Sr by inertial confinement fusion is discussed. A pellet composed of deuterium-tritium fuel surrounded by [sup 90]Sr is compressed by a laser or a particle beam. It is shown that a high transmutation rate and a small transmutation energy are obtained because of the highly compressed [sup 90]Sr, which has a large probability of a transmutation reaction. The number of cycles, including recovering and refabrication of the target, is also discussed. 16 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-02

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  4. Fusion energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-23

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  5. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, S. B. Gomez, M. R.; Sefkow, A. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Harding, E. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Awe, T. J.; McBride, R. D.; Jennings, C. A.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, D. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hess, M. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (∼10{sup 12} DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmas inertially confined by slow (∼10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 10{sup 10}. Analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopic x-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ∼3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  6. Development of KrF lasers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J.A.; Harris, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Recent reviews of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program have resulted in recommendations that promise to focus the research effort on the examination of the feasibility of pellet ignition at 1 MJ of energy on target. If successful, the next major step in the program has been defined to be the construction of an Ignition Facility. Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a plan to reach single-pulse multimegajoule ICF facilities using the electron-beam-pumped KrF laser. The Los Alamos plan, its relation to the development of ICF for energy production, and the major features and design issues associated with ICF drivers will be covered in this presentation. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourque, R.F.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Three areas of innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design are given. First, issues pertaining to the Cascade reactor concept are discussed. Then, several innovative concepts are presented which attempt to directly recover the blast energy from a fusion target. Finally, the Turbostar concept for direct recovery of that energy is evaluated. The Cascade issues discussed are combustion of the carbon granules in the event of air ingress, the use of alternate granule materials, and the effect of changes in carbon flow on details of the heat exchanger. Carbon combustion turns out to be a minor problem. Four ICF innovative concepts were considered: a turbine with ablating surfaces, a liquid piston system, a wave generator, and a resonating pump. In the final analysis, none show any real promise. The Turbostar concept of direct recovery is a very interesting idea and appeared technically viable. However, it shows no efficiency gain or any decrease in capital cost compared to reactors with conventional thermal conversion systems. Attempts to improve it by placing a close-in lithium sphere around the target to increase gas generation increased efficiency only slightly. It is concluded that these direct conversion techniques require thermalization of the x-ray and debris energy, and are Carnot limited. They therefore offer no advantage over existing and proposed methods of thermal energy conversion or direct electrical conversion.

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion: Quarterly report, April-June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correll, D.

    1996-06-01

    The lead article, `Ion-beam propagation in a low-density reactor chamber for heavy-ion inertial fusion` (p. 89), explores the ability of heavy-ion beams to be adequately transported and focused in an IFE reactor. The next article, `Efficient production and applications of 2- to 10-keV x rays by laser-heated underdense radiators` (p. 96), explores the ability of the NIF to produce sufficient high-energy x rays for diagnostic backlighting, target preheating, or uniform irradiation of large test objects for Nuclear Weapons Effects Testing. For capsule implosion experiments, the increasing energies and distances involved in the NIF compared to Nova require the development of new diagnostics methods. The article `Fusion reaction-rate measurements--Nova and NIF` (p. 115) first reviews the use of time-resolved neutron measurements on Nova to monitor fusion burn histories and then explores the limitations of that technique, principally Doppler broadening, for the proposed NIF. It also explores the use of gamma rays on Nova, thereby providing a proof-of-principle for using gamma rays for monitoring fusion burn histories on the NIF. The articles `The energetics of gas-filled hohlraums` (p. 110) and `Measurements of laser- speckle-induced perturbations in laser-driven foils` (p. 123) report measurements on Nova of two important aspects of implosion experiments. The first characterizes the amount of energy lost from a hohlraum by stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering as a function of gas fill and laser-beam uniformity. The second of these articles shows that the growth of density nonuniformities implanted on smooth capsule surfaces by laser speckle can be correlated with the effects of physical surface roughness. The article `Laser-tissue interaction modeling with the LATIS computer program` (p. 103) explores the use of modeling to enhance the effectiveness--maximize desired effects and minimize collateral damage--of lasers for medical purposes.

  9. Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S.X.; Militzer, B.; Goncharov, V.N.; Skupsky, S.

    2010-06-10

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of rho = 0.002–1596 g/cm^3 and T = 1.35 eV–5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density, and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  10. Strong Coupling and Degeneracy Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.; Militzer, B.

    2010-06-11

    Accurate knowledge about the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium is critical to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Low-adiabat ICF implosions routinely access strongly coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. Using the path integral Monte Carlo method, we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium. It is the first ab initio EOS table which completely covers typical ICF implosion trajectory in the density and temperature ranges of {rho}=0.002-1596 g/cm{sup 3} and T=1.35 eV-5.5 keV. Discrepancies in internal energy and pressure have been found in strongly coupled and degenerate regimes with respect to SESAME EOS. Hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table have indicated significant differences in peak density, areal density ({rho}R), and neutron yield relative to SESAME simulations.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari, S. Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Mehdian, H.

    2014-10-15

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  12. Compressing turbulence to improve inertial confinement fusion experiments |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Compressing turbulence to improve inertial confinement fusion experiments By John Greenwald March 15, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Compression of a turbulent plasma. Image by Seth Davidovits Compression of a turbulent plasma. Image by Seth Davidovits Physicists have long regarded plasma turbulence as unruly behavior that can limit the performance of fusion experiments. But new findings by researchers associated with the U.S. Department of

  13. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  14. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Hahn, Kelly; Harding, Eric; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Awe, Thomas James; McBride, Ryan D.; Jennings, Christopher; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, Dean C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Herrmann, Mark C.; Mark Harry Hess; Johns, Owen; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew; Porter, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Blue, B. E.; Ryutov, D.; Schroen, Diana; Tomlinson, K.

    2015-05-14

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (~1012 DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmasinertially confined by slow (~10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Moreover, effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 1010. Further analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopicx-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ~3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm3 densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  15. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Hahn, Kelly; Harding, Eric; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Awe, Thomas James; et al

    2015-05-14

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (~1012 DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmasinertially confined by slow (~10 cm/μs), stable, cylindrical implosions. Moreover, effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 1010. Further analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopicx-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ~3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm3 densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 1–2 ns stagnation duration.

  16. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Hahn, Kelly; Harding, Eric; Knapp, Patrick; Schmit, Paul; Awe, Thomas James; McBride, Ryan D.; Jennings, Christopher; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Peterson, K. J.; Rovang, Dean C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Herrmann, Mark C.; Mark Harry Hess; Johns, Owen; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew; Porter, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Savage, M. E.; Smith, I. C.; Stygar, W. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Blue, B. E.; Ryutov, D.; Schroen, Diana; Tomlinson, K.

    2015-05-14

    The Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments performed at Sandia's Z facility have demonstrated significant thermonuclear fusion neutron yields (~1012 DD neutrons) from multi-keV deuterium plasmasinertially confined by slow (~10 cm/?s), stable, cylindrical implosions. Moreover, effective magnetic confinement of charged fusion reactants and products is signaled by high secondary DT neutron yields above 1010. Further analysis of extensive power, imaging, and spectroscopicx-ray measurements provides a detailed picture of ~3 keV temperatures, 0.3 g/cm3 densities, gradients, and mix in the fuel and liner over the 12 ns stagnation duration.

  17. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McKenty, P. W.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; and others

    2015-11-15

    The direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 μm—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 μm (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for mainline

  18. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; et al

    2015-11-25

    In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. Themore » problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser

  19. Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craxton, R. S.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Knauer, J. P.; McCrory, R. L.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J. F.; Schmitt, A. J.; Sethian, J. D.; Short, R. W.; Skupsky, S.; Theobald, W.; Kruer, W. L.; Tanaka, K.; Betti, R.; Collins, T. J. B.; Delettrez, J. A.; Hu, S. X.; Marozas, J. A.; Maximov, A. V.; Michel, D. T.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Solodov, A. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-25

    In this study, the direct-drive, laser-based approach to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is reviewed from its inception following the demonstration of the first laser to its implementation on the present generation of high-power lasers. The review focuses on the evolution of scientific understanding gained from target-physics experiments in many areas, identifying problems that were demonstrated and the solutions implemented. The review starts with the basic understanding of laser–plasma interactions that was obtained before the declassification of laser-induced compression in the early 1970s and continues with the compression experiments using infrared lasers in the late 1970s that produced thermonuclear neutrons. The problem of suprathermal electrons and the target preheat that they caused, associated with the infrared laser wavelength, led to lasers being built after 1980 to operate at shorter wavelengths, especially 0.35 um—the third harmonic of the Nd:glass laser—and 0.248 um (the KrF gas laser). The main physics areas relevant to direct drive are reviewed. The primary absorption mechanism at short wavelengths is classical inverse bremsstrahlung. Nonuniformities imprinted on the target by laser irradiation have been addressed by the development of a number of beam-smoothing techniques and imprint-mitigation strategies. The effects of hydrodynamic instabilities are mitigated by a combination of imprint reduction and target designs that minimize the instability growth rates. Several coronal plasma physics processes are reviewed. The two-plasmon–decay instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (together with cross-beam energy transfer), and (possibly) stimulated Raman scattering are identified as potential concerns, placing constraints on the laser intensities used in target designs, while other processes (self-focusing and filamentation, the parametric decay instability, and magnetic fields), once considered important, are now of lesser concern for

  20. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Velikovich, A. L.

    2014-03-15

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100?ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  1. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  2. Z-Pinch Driven Isentropic Compression for Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Holland, K.G.; Slutz, S.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.

    1999-02-01

    The achievement of high gain with inertial fusion requires the compression of hydrogen isotopes to high density and temperatures. High densities can be achieved most efficiently by isentropic compression. This requires relatively slow pressure pulses on the order of 10-20 nanoseconds; however, the pressure profile must have the appropriate time. We present 1-D numerical simulations that indicate such a pressure profile can be generated by using pulsed power driven z pinches. Although high compression is calculated, the initial temperature is too low for ignition. Ignition could be achieved by heating a small portion of this compressed fuel with a short (-10 ps) high power laser pulse as previously described. Our 1-D calculations indicate that the existing Z-accelerator could provide the driving current (-20 MA) necessary to compress fuel to roughly 1500 times solid density. At this density the required laser energy is approximately 10 kJ. Multidimensional effects such as the Rayleigh-Taylor were not addressed in this brief numerical study. These effects will undoubtedly lower fuel compression for a given chive current. Therefore it is necessary to perform z-pinch driven compression experiments. Finally, we present preliminary experimental data from the Z-accelerator indicating that current can be efficiently delivered to appropriately small loads (- 5 mm radius) and that VISAR can be used measure high pressure during isentropic compression.

  3. Adiabat-shaping in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K. L.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J. L.; Jones, O. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Landen, O. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Weber, C. R.; Haan, S. W.; Dppner, T. D.; Dixit, S.; Hamza, A. V.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Kroll, J. J.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Adiabat-shaping techniques were investigated in indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility as a means to improve implosion stability, while still maintaining a low adiabat in the fuel. Adiabat-shaping was accomplished in these indirect drive experiments by altering the ratio of the picket and trough energies in the laser pulse shape, thus driving a decaying first shock in the ablator. This decaying first shock is designed to place the ablation front on a high adiabat while keeping the fuel on a low adiabat. These experiments were conducted using the keyhole experimental platform for both three and four shock laser pulses. This platform enabled direct measurement of the shock velocities driven in the glow-discharge polymer capsule and in the liquid deuterium, the surrogate fuel for a DT ignition target. The measured shock velocities and radiation drive histories are compared to previous three and four shock laser pulses. This comparison indicates that in the case of adiabat shaping the ablation front initially drives a high shock velocity, and therefore, a high shock pressure and adiabat. The shock then decays as it travels through the ablator to pressures similar to the original low-adiabat pulses when it reaches the fuel. This approach takes advantage of initial high ablation velocity, which favors stability, and high-compression, which favors high stagnation pressures.

  4. Fusion Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Energy Sciences Fusion Energy Sciences Expanding the fundamental understanding of matter at very high temperatures and densities and to build the scientific foundation ...

  5. Interplanetary space transport using inertial fusion propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, C.D.

    1998-04-20

    In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for interplanetary propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts.

  6. Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS * W. M. Sharp # , A. Friedman, D. P. Grote, J. J. Barnard, R. H. Cohen, M. A. Dorf, S. M. Lund, L. J. Perkins, M. R. Terry, LLNL, Livermore, CA, USA B. G. Logan, F. M. Bieniosek, A. Faltens, E. Henestroza, J.-Y. Jung, J. W. Kwan, E. P. Lee, S. M. Lidia, P. A. Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa, J.-L. Vay, W. L. Waldron, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, USA R. C. Davidson, E. P. Gilson, I. D. Kaganovich, H. Qin, E. Startsev, PPPL,

  7. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  8. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  9. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2014-10-15

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  10. Octahedral spherical hohlraum and its laser arrangement for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, Ke; He, Xian-Tu; Liu, Jie; Zheng, Wudi; Lai, Dongxian

    2014-05-15

    A recent publication [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014)] proposed a spherical hohlraum with six laser entrance holes of octahedral symmetry at a specific hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio of 5.14 for inertial fusion study, which has robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion and superiority on low backscatter without supplementary technology. This paper extends the previous one by studying the laser arrangement and constraints of octahedral hohlraum in detail. As a result, it has serious beam crossing at θ{sub L}≤45°, and θ{sub L}=50° to 60° is proposed as the optimum candidate range for the golden octahedral hohlraum, here θ{sub L} is the opening angle that the laser quad beam makes with the Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) normal direction. In addition, the design of the LEH azimuthal angle should avoid laser spot overlapping on hohlraum wall and laser beam transferring outside hohlraum from a neighbor LEH. The octahedral hohlraums are flexible and can be applicable to diverse inertial fusion drive approaches. This paper also applies the octahedral hohlraum to the recent proposed hybrid indirect-direct drive approach.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion. 1995 ICF annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is a Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program research and advanced technology development program focused on the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. During FY 1995, the ICF Program continued to conduct ignition target physics optimization studies and weapons physics experiments in support of the Defense Program`s stockpile stewardship goals. It also continued to develop technologies in support of the performance, cost, and schedule goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The NIF is a key element of the DOE`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition to its primary Defense Program goals, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application to inertial fusion energy (IFE). Also, ICF technologies have had spin-off applications for industrial and governmental use. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Electromagnetic pumping of liquid lithium in inertial confinement fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.S.; Blink, J.A.; Tessier, M.J.

    1983-03-01

    The basic operating principles and geometries of ten electromagnetic pumps are described. Two candidate pumps, the annular-linear-induction pump and the helical-rotor electromagnetic pump, are compared for possible use in a full-scale liquid-lithium inertial confinement fusion reactor. A parametric design study completed for the helical-rotor pump is shown to be valid when applied to an experimental sodium pump. Based upon the preliminary HYLIFE requirements for a lithium flow rate per pump of 8.08 m/sup 3//s at a head of 82.5 kPa, a complete set of 70 variables are specified for a helical-rotor pump with either a normally conducting or a superconducting winding. The two alternative designs are expected to perform with efficiencies of 50 and 60%, respectively.

  13. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Harding, Eric C.; Jennings, Christopher A.; Awe, Thomas James; Geissel, Matthias; Rovang, Dean C.; Smith, Ian C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Herrmann, Mark C.; Hess, Mark Harry; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew R.; McBride, Ryan D.; Peterson, Kyle J.; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Savage, Mark E.; Schroen, Diana G.; Stygar, William A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2015-04-29

    In this study, the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 1012 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 ?m over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (68 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.20.4 g/cm3. In these experiments, up to 5 1010 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 12 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 1010. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.

  14. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Harding, Eric C.; et al

    2015-04-29

    In this study, the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as highmore » as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 1012 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm3. In these experiments, up to 5 ×1010 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 1010. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.« less

  15. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.

    2015-05-15

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized α-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original MagLIF paper [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. We also discuss some important physics insights gained as a result of developing this model, such as the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated.

  16. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  17. Multiple-beam laserplasma interactions in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myatt, J. F. Zhang, J.; Maximov, A. V.; Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Froula, D. H.; Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.

    2014-05-15

    The experimental evidence for multiple-beam laser-plasma instabilities of relevance to laser driven inertial confinement fusion at the ignition scale is reviewed, in both the indirect and direct-drive approaches. The instabilities described are cross-beam energy transfer (in both indirectly driven targets on the NIF and in direct-drive targets), multiple-beam stimulated Raman scattering (for indirect-drive), and multiple-beam two-plasmon decay instability (in direct drive). Advances in theoretical understanding and in the numerical modeling of these multiple beam instabilities are presented.

  18. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Harding, Eric C.; Jennings, Christopher A.; Awe, Thomas James; Geissel, Matthias; Rovang, Dean C.; Smith, Ian C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Herrmann, Mark C.; Mark Harry Hess; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew R.; McBride, Ryan D.; Peterson, Kyle J.; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Savage, Mark E.; Schroen, Diana G.; Stygar, William A.; Vesey, Roger Alan

    2015-04-29

    In this study, the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 1012 have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm3. In these experiments, up to 5 ×1010 secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm2, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 1010. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.

  19. Demonstration of thermonuclear conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hahn, K. D.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sinars, D. B.; Harding, E. C.; Jennings, C. A.; Awe, T. J.; Geissel, M.; Rovang, D. C.; Smith, I. C.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hess, M. H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] utilizes a magnetic field and laser heating to relax the pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion. The first experiments to test the concept [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)] were conducted utilizing the 19 MA, 100 ns Z machine, the 2.5 kJ, 1 TW Z Beamlet laser, and the 10 T Applied B-field on Z system. Despite an estimated implosion velocity of only 70 km/s in these experiments, electron and ion temperatures at stagnation were as high as 3 keV, and thermonuclear deuterium-deuterium neutron yields up to 2 × 10{sup 12} have been produced. X-ray emission from the fuel at stagnation had widths ranging from 50 to 110 μm over a roughly 80% of the axial extent of the target (6–8 mm) and lasted approximately 2 ns. X-ray yields from these experiments are consistent with a stagnation density of the hot fuel equal to 0.2–0.4 g/cm{sup 3}. In these experiments, up to 5 × 10{sup 10} secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons were produced. Given that the areal density of the plasma was approximately 1–2 mg/cm{sup 2}, this indicates the stagnation plasma was significantly magnetized, which is consistent with the anisotropy observed in the deuterium-tritium neutron spectra. Control experiments where the laser and/or magnetic field were not utilized failed to produce stagnation temperatures greater than 1 keV and primary deuterium-deuterium yields greater than 10{sup 10}. An additional control experiment where the fuel contained a sufficient dopant fraction to substantially increase radiative losses also failed to produce a relevant stagnation temperature. The results of these experiments are consistent with a thermonuclear neutron source.

  20. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Progress at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements to LASL's two-beam system, Gemini, are outlined and experimental results are discussed. Our eight-beam system, Helios, was fired successfully on target for the first time, and became the world's most powerful gas laser for laser fusion studies. Work on Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is summarized, indicating that design work and building construction are 70 and 48% complete, respectively. A baseline design for automatic centering of laser beams onto the various relay mirrors and the optical design of the Antares front end are discussed. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, as well as investigations of synthetic-fuel production through application of fusion energy to hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting. Studies on increased efficiency of energy extraction in CO/sub 2/ lasers and on lifetimes of cryogenic pellets in a reactor environment are summarized, as well as the results of studies on pellet injection, tracking, and beam synchronization.

  1. Pre-Amplifier Module for Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heebner, J E; Bowers, M W

    2008-02-06

    The Pre-Amplifier Modules (PAMs) are the heart of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), providing most of the energy gain for the most energetic laser in the world. Upon completion, NIF will be the only laboratory in which scientists can examine the fusion processes that occur inside stars, supernovae, and exploding nuclear weapons and that may someday serve as a virtually inexhaustible energy source for electricity. Consider that in a fusion power plant 50 cups of water could provide the energy comparable to 2 tons of coal. Of paramount importance for achieving laser-driven fusion ignition with the least energy input is the synchronous and symmetric compression of the target fuel--a condition known as laser power balance. NIF's 48 PAMs thus must provide energy gain in an exquisitely stable and consistent manner. While building one module that meets performance requirements is challenging enough, our design has already enabled the construction and fielding of 48 PAMs that are stable, uniform, and interchangeable. PAM systems are being tested at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and the Atomic Weapons Enterprise of Great Britain has purchased the PAM power system.

  2. Inertial fusion program, January 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoberne, F.

    1981-06-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements are outlined for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Gemini System, which permitted over 500 shots in support of 10 different target experiments; the transformation of our eight-beam system, Helios, from a developmental to an operational facility that is capable of irradiating targets on a routine basis is described; and progress made toward completion of Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is detailed. Investigations of phenomena such as phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion systems, and frequency multiplexing as a means toward multipulse energy extraction are summarized. Also discussed are experiments with targets designed for adiabatic compression. Progress is reported in the development of accurate diagnostics, especially for the detection of expanding ions, of neutron yield, and of x-ray emission. Significant advances in our theoretical efforts are summarized, such as the adaptation of our target design codes for use with the CRAY-1 computer, and new results leading to a better understanding of implosion phenomena are reported. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, including the development of an ICF reactor blanket that offers a promising alternative to the usual lithium blanket, and the formulation of a capital-cost data base for laser fusion reactors to permit meaningful comparisons with other technologies.

  3. Direct Drive Heavy-Ion-Beam Inertial Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B. Grant; Logan, B. Grant; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2007-06-25

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry and Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX ICF target physics code shows the ion range increasing four-fold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16 to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  4. Alpha heating and burning plasmas in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Spears, B. K.; Nora, R.; Bose, A.; Howard, J.; Woo, K. M.; Edwards, M. J.; Sanz, J.

    2015-06-01

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  5. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  6. How Fusion Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 likes How Fusion Energy Works Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. In fusion, two light atomic nuclei are fused together to create energy (as ...

  7. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M.; Abbott, R. P.; Havstad, M. A.; Dunne, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80100 ?m into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 ?m without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  8. Exploring magnetized liner inertial fusion with a semi-analytic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Harding, Eric C.; Awe, Thomas James; Rovang, Dean C.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Martin, Matthew R.; Cochrane, Kyle R.; Peterson, Kyle J.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Porter, John L.; Stygar, William A.; Campbell, Edward Michael; Nakhleh, Charles W.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Sinars, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] using a semi-analytic model [R. D. McBride and S. A. Slutz, Phys. Plasmas 22, 052708 (2015)]. Specifically, we present simulation results from this model that: (a) illustrate the parameter space, energetics, and overall system efficiencies of MagLIF; (b) demonstrate the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated; (c) explore some of the recent experimental results of the MagLIF program at Sandia National Laboratories [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 155003 (2014)]; (d) highlight the experimental challenges presently facing the MagLIF program; and (e) demonstrate how increases to the preheat energy, fuel density, axial magnetic field, and drive current could affect future MagLIF performance.

  9. Exploring magnetized liner inertial fusion with a semi-analytic model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; et al

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [S. A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] using a semi-analytic model [R. D. McBride and S. A. Slutz, Phys. Plasmas 22, 052708 (2015)]. Specifically, we present simulation results from this model that: (a) illustrate the parameter space, energetics, and overall system efficiencies of MagLIF; (b) demonstrate the dependence of radiative loss rates on the radial fraction of the fuel that is preheated; (c) explore some of the recent experimental results of the MagLIF program at Sandia National Laboratories [M. R. Gomez et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113,more » 155003 (2014)]; (d) highlight the experimental challenges presently facing the MagLIF program; and (e) demonstrate how increases to the preheat energy, fuel density, axial magnetic field, and drive current could affect future MagLIF performance.« less

  10. Thin Shell, High Velocity Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, T.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Barrios, M. A.; Casey, D. T.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Doppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Le Pape, S.; MacPhee, A. G.; Pak, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Springer, P. T.; Tommasini, R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Celliers, P.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Dixit, S.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hsing, W. W.; Izumi, N.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J.; Kohut, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Parham, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R.P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.

    2015-04-06

    Experiments have recently been conducted at the National Ignition Facility utilizing inertial confinement fusion capsule ablators that are 175 and 165 μm in thickness, 10% and 15% thinner, respectively, than the nominal thickness capsule used throughout the high foot and most of the National Ignition Campaign. These three-shock, high-adiabat, high-foot implosions have demonstrated good performance, with higher velocity and better symmetry control at lower laser powers and energies than their nominal thickness ablator counterparts. Little to no hydrodynamic mix into the DT hot spot has been observed despite the higher velocities and reduced depth for possible instability feedthrough. Earlier results have shown good repeatability, with up to 1/2 the neutron yield coming from α-particle self-heating.

  11. Progress in laboratory high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion): Prospects for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, E.; Lindl, J.D.; Campbell, E.M.; Bernat, T.P.; Coleman, L.W.; Emmett, J.L.; Hogan, W.J.; Hunt, J.T.; Krupke, W.F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF), a thermonuclear reaction in a small (/approximately/5 mm diameter) fuel capsule filled with a few milligrams of deuterium and tritium, has been the subject of very fruitful experimentation since the early 1970's. High gain ICF is now on the threshold of practical applications. With a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), these applications will have major implications for national defense, basic and applied science, and power production. With a driver capable of delivering about 10 MJ in a 10-ns pulse at an intensity of /approximately/3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/, an appropriately configured cryogenic capsule could be compressed to a density of about 200 g/cm/sup 3/ and a temperature of 3--5 keV. Under these conditions, up to 10 mg of DT could be ignited, and with a burn efficiency of about 30%, release up to 1000 MJ of fusion energy, an energy gain of about 100. A thousand megajoules is equivalent to about one quarter ton of TNT, or about 7 gallons of oil--an amount of energy tractable under laboratory conditions and potentially very useful for a variety of applications. 61 refs., 33 figs.

  12. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  13. A measurable Lawson criterion and hydro-equivalent curves for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, C. D.; Betti, R.

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates how the ignition condition (Lawson criterion) for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) can be cast in a form depending on the only two parameters of the compressed fuel assembly that can be measured with methods already in existence: the hot spot ion temperature and the total areal density.

  14. Comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF (Inertial-Confinement-Fusion) driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    This report compares two physics designs of the low energy end of an induction linac-ICF driver: one using electric quadrupole focusing of many parallel beams followed by transverse combining; the other using magnetic quadrupole focusing of fewer beams without beam combining. Because of larger head-to-tail velocity spread and a consequent rapid current amplification in a magnetic focusing channel, the overall accelerator size of the design using magnetic focusing is comparable to that using electric focusing.

  15. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.; Knutson, B.; Dunne, A. M.; Kasper, J.; Sheehan, T.; Lang, D.; Roberts, V.; Mau, D.

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  16. Experimental demonstration of fusion-relevant conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A..; Sefkow, Adam B.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Harding, Eric C.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Jennings, Christopher A.; Awe, Thomas James; Geissel, Matthias; Rovang, Dean C.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Herrmann, Mark; Hess, M. H.; Johns, Owen; Lamppa, Derek C.; Martin, Matthew R.; McBride, Ryan D.; Peterson, Kyle J.; Porter, John L.; Robertson, Grafton Kincannon; Rochau, Gregory A.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Vesey, Roger A.

    2014-10-06

    This Letter presents results from the first fully integrated experiments testing the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], in which a cylinder of deuterium gas with a preimposed axial magnetic field of 10 T is heated by Z beamlet, a 2.5 kJ, 1 TW laser, and magnetically imploded by a 19 MA current with 100 ns rise time on the Z facility. Despite a predicted peak implosion velocity of only 70 km/s, the fuel reaches a stagnation temperature of approximately 3 keV, with Te ≈ Ti, and produces up to 2e12 thermonuclear DD neutrons. In this study, X-ray emission indicates a hot fuel region with full width at half maximum ranging from 60 to 120 μm over a 6 mm height and lasting approximately 2 ns. The number of secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons observed was greater than 1010, indicating significant fuel magnetization given that the estimated radial areal density of the plasma is only 2 mg/cm2.

  17. Experimental demonstration of fusion-relevant conditions in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gomez, Matthew R.; Slutz, Stephen A..; Sefkow, Adam B.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Harding, Eric C.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Jennings, Christopher A.; et al

    2014-10-06

    This Letter presents results from the first fully integrated experiments testing the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept [S.A. Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], in which a cylinder of deuterium gas with a preimposed axial magnetic field of 10 T is heated by Z beamlet, a 2.5 kJ, 1 TW laser, and magnetically imploded by a 19 MA current with 100 ns rise time on the Z facility. Despite a predicted peak implosion velocity of only 70 km/s, the fuel reaches a stagnation temperature of approximately 3 keV, with Te ≈ Ti, and produces up to 2e12 thermonuclearmore » DD neutrons. In this study, X-ray emission indicates a hot fuel region with full width at half maximum ranging from 60 to 120 μm over a 6 mm height and lasting approximately 2 ns. The number of secondary deuterium-tritium neutrons observed was greater than 1010, indicating significant fuel magnetization given that the estimated radial areal density of the plasma is only 2 mg/cm2.« less

  18. Fusion-neutron measurements for magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on the Z accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hahn, K. D.; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Cooper, G. W.; Gomez, M. R.; Slutz, S.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Knapp, P. F.; et al

    2016-05-01

    Several magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) experiments have been conducted on the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories since late 2013. Measurements of the primary DD (2.45 MeV) neutrons for these experiments suggest that the neutron production is thermonuclear. Primary DD yields up to 3e12 with ion temperatures ~2-3 keV have been achieved. Measurements of the secondary DT (14 MeV) neutrons indicate that the fuel is significantly magnetized. Measurements of down-scattered neutrons from the beryllium liner suggest ρRliner ~ 1g/cm2. Neutron bang times, estimated from neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) measurements, coincide with peak x-ray production. Furthermore, plans to improve and expandmore » the Z neutron diagnostic suite include neutron burn-history diagnostics, increased sensitivity and higher precision nTOF detectors, and neutron recoil-based yield and spectral measurements.« less

  19. Fast ignition of a compressed inertial confinement fusion hemispherical capsule by two proton beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temporal, Mauro

    2006-12-15

    A hemispherical conically guided indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion capsule has been considered. The fast ignition of the precompressed capsule driven by one or two laser-accelerated proton beams has been numerically investigated. The energy distribution of the protons is Gaussian with a mean energy of 12 MeV and a full width at half maximum of 1 MeV. A new scheme that uses two laser-accelerated proton beams is proposed. It is found that the energy deposition of 1 kJ provided by a first proton beam generates a low-density cylindrical channel and launches a forward shock. A second proton beam, delayed by a few tens of ps and driving the energy of 6 kJ, crosses the low-density channel and heats the dense shocked region where the ignition of the deuterium-tritium nuclear fuel is achieved. For the considered capsule, this new two-beam configuration reduces the ignition energy threshold to 7 kJ.

  20. Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.

    1994-06-01

    We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS{sub 2}. The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of {plus_minus}0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification.

  1. Fast ignition of an inertial fusion target with a solid noncryogenic fuel by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2015-09-15

    The burning efficiency of a preliminarily compressed inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target with a solid noncryogenic fuel (deuterium-tritium beryllium hydride) upon fast central ignition by a fast ion beam is studied. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the spatial temperature distribution formed under the heating of an ICF target by ion beams with different particle energy spectra affects the thermonuclear gain. The study is based on a complex numerical modeling including computer simulations of (i) the heating of a compressed target with a spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a fast ion beam and (ii) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum compression of the target and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of heating of the compressed target by the ion beam. The threshold energy of the igniting ion beam and the dependence of the thermonuclear gain on the energy deposited in the target are determined.

  2. Simulations of Inertial Confinement Fusion Driven by a Novel Synchrotron Radiation-Based X-Ray Igniter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlyaptsev, V; Tatchyn, R

    2004-01-13

    The advantages and challenges of using a powerful x-ray source for the fast ignition of compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets have been considered. The requirements for such a source together with the optics to focus the x-rays onto compressed DT cores lead to a conceptual design based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) and long wigglers to produce x-ray pulses with the appropriate phase space properties. A comparative assessment of the parameters of the igniter system indicates that the technologies for building it, although expensive, are physically achievable. Our x-ray fast ignition (XFI) scheme requires substantially smaller energy for the initiation of nuclear fusion reactions than other methods.

  3. Mode 1 drive asymmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, Brian K. Edwards, M. J.; Hatchett, S.; Kritcher, A.; Lindl, J.; Munro, D.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Town, R. P. J.; Kilkenny, J.; Knauer, J.

    2014-04-15

    Mode 1 radiation drive asymmetry (pole-to-pole imbalance) at significant levels can have a large impact on inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This asymmetry distorts the cold confining shell and drives a high-speed jet through the hot spot. The perturbed hot spot shows increased residual kinetic energy and reduced internal energy, and it achieves reduced pressure and neutron yield. The altered implosion physics manifests itself in observable diagnostic signatures, especially the neutron spectrum which can be used to measure the neutron-weighted flow velocity, apparent ion temperature, and neutron downscattering. Numerical simulations of implosions with mode 1 asymmetry show that the resultant simulated diagnostic signatures are moved toward the values observed in many NIF experiments. The diagnostic output can also be used to build a set of integrated implosion performance metrics. The metrics indicate that P{sub 1} has a significant impact on implosion performance and must be carefully controlled in NIF implosions.

  4. Index of light ion inertial confinement fusion publications and presentations January 1989 through December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report lists publications and presentations that are related to inertial confinement fusion and were authored or coauthored by Sandians in the Pulsed Power Sciences Center from 1989 through 1993. The 661 publications and presentations are categorized into the following general topics: (1) reviews, (2) ion sources, (3) ion diodes, (4) plasma opening switches, (5) ion beam transport, (6) targets and deposition physics, (7) advanced driver and pulsed power technology development, (8) diagnostics, and (9) code development. Research in these areas is arranged by topic in chronological order, with the early efforts under each topic presented first. The work is also categorized alphabetically by first author. A list of acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions of use in understanding light ion inertial confinement fusion research is also included.

  5. Investigating inertial confinement fusion target fuel conditions through x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2012-05-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are designed to produce hot, dense fuel in a neutron-producing core that is surrounded by a shell of compressing material. The x-rays emitted from ICF plasmas can be analyzed to reveal details of the temperatures, densities, gradients, velocities, and mix characteristics of ICF targets. Such diagnostics are critical to understand the target performance and to improve the predictive power of simulation codes.

  6. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kagan, Grigory; Svyatskiy, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Huang, C. -K.; McDevitt, C. J.

    2015-09-03

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydrodynamic instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. Thus, the ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT at the National Ignition Facility.

  7. Spallation as a dominant source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot mix in inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orth, Charles D.

    2016-02-23

    We suggest that a potentially dominant but previously neglected source of pusher-fuel and hot-spot “mix” may have been the main degradation mechanism for fusion energy yields of modern inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed and fielded to achieve high yields — not hydrodynamic instabilities. This potentially dominant mix source is the spallation of small chunks or “grains” of pusher material into the fuel regions whenever (1) the solid material adjacent to the fuel changes its phase by nucleation, and (2) this solid material spalls under shock loading and sudden decompression. Finally, we describe this mix mechanism, support it with simulationsmore » and experimental evidence, and explain how to eliminate it and thereby allow higher yields for ICF capsules and possibly ignition at the National Ignition Facility.« less

  8. Sensitivity of inertial confinement fusion hot spot properties to the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melvin, J.; Lim, H.; Rana, V.; Glimm, J.; Cheng, B.; Sharp, D. H.; Wilson, D. C.

    2015-02-15

    We determine the dependence of key Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) hot spot simulation properties on the deuterium-tritium fuel adiabat, here modified by addition of energy to the cold shell. Variation of this parameter reduces the simulation to experiment discrepancy in some, but not all, experimentally inferred quantities. Using simulations with radiation drives tuned to match experimental shots N120321 and N120405 from the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), we carry out sets of simulations with varying amounts of added entropy and examine the sensitivities of important experimental quantities. Neutron yields, burn widths, hot spot densities, and pressures follow a trend approaching their experimentally inferred quantities. Ion temperatures and areal densities are sensitive to the adiabat changes, but do not necessarily converge to their experimental quantities with the added entropy. This suggests that a modification to the simulation adiabat is one of, but not the only explanation of the observed simulation to experiment discrepancies. In addition, we use a theoretical model to predict 3D mix and observe a slight trend toward less mixing as the entropy is enhanced. Instantaneous quantities are assessed at the time of maximum neutron production, determined dynamically within each simulation. These trends contribute to ICF science, as an effort to understand the NIC simulation to experiment discrepancy, and in their relation to the high foot experiments, which features a higher adiabat in the experimental design and an improved neutron yield in the experimental results.

  9. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Justin, Terence Davies, Frans Janson, Bruce Marshall, Perry Bell, Daniel Kalantar, Joseph Kimbrough, Stephen Vernon, Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-09-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called “comb” pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber.

  10. Real viscosity effects in inertial confinement fusion target deuterium–tritium micro-implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, R. J. Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Faehl, R. J.

    2014-02-15

    We report on numerical studies of real viscous effects on the implosion characteristics of imploded DT micro-targets. We use the implicit ePLAS code to perform 2D simulations of spherical and slightly ellipsoidal DT shells on DT gas filled ∼40 μm diameter voids. Before their final implosions the shells have been nearly adiabatically compressed up to 10{sup 2} or 10{sup 3} g/cm{sup 3} densities. While the use of conventional artificial viscosity can lead to high central densities for initially spherical shells, we find that a real physical viscosity from ion-ion collisions can give a high (>20 keV) central temperature but severely reduced central density (<200 g/cm{sup 3}), while the elliptical shells evidence p = 2 distortion of the heated central fuel region. These results suggest that the general use of artificial viscosities in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) modeling may have lead to overly optimistic yields for current NIF targets and that polar direct drive with more energy for the imploding capsule may be needed for ultimate ICF success.

  11. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2014-10-15

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  12. The interaction of quasi-monoenergetic protons with pre-compressed inertial fusion fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahdavi, M.; Koohrokhi, T.; Azadifar, R.

    2012-08-15

    The interaction of a quasi-monoenergetic proton beam with a pre-compressed plasma is studied in the context of inertial fusion fast ignition (FI). Based on fundamental principles, a kinetic model is developed by considering hard collisions, nuclear scattering, and the contribution due to collective processes. The penetration depth, longitudinal straggling, and the transverse blooming are evaluated by solving the Boltzmann transport equation using the multiple scattering theory. The stopping power, transport scattering cross sections, and convenient expressions for the angular moments of the proton distribution function have been used in modeling the collisional proton transport in a three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo code. The transport of a proton beam with a quasi-monoenergetic energy =10 MeV is studied for pre-compressed deuterium-tritium plasma with an average density of {rho}=400 g cm{sup -3} and temperatures T=1 keV, 5 keV, and 10 keV. The net effects of multiple scattering are to reduce the penetration from 1.028 to 0.828 g cm{sup -2} with range straggling {rho}{Sigma}{sub R}=0.044 g cm{sup -2} and beam blooming {rho}{Sigma}{sub B}=0.272 g cm{sup -2}, for 10 MeV protons in a {rho}=400 g cm{sup -3} plasma at T = 5 keV. This model can be used for quantitatively assessing ignition requirements for proton fast ignition.

  13. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  14. The mitigating effect of magnetic fields on Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2013-05-15

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces of disparate mass densities have long been known to generate magnetic fields during inertial confinement fusion implosions. An externally applied magnetic field can also be efficiently amplified by RT instabilities. The focus here is on magnetic field generation and amplification at the gas-ice interface which is RT unstable during the deceleration phase of the implosion. RT instabilities lead to undesirable mix of hot and cold plasmas which enhances thermal energy loss and tends to produce a more massive warm-spot instead of a hot-spot. Two mechanisms are shown here to mitigate the thermal energy loss from the hot-spot. The first mechanism is the reduction of electron thermal conductivity with interface-aligned magnetic fields. This can occur through self-generated magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect as well as through externally applied magnetic fields that undergo an exponential growth via the stretch-and-fold magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Self-generated magnetic fields during RT evolution can result in a factor of 2−10 decrease in the electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface, while externally applied magnetic fields that are compressed to 6–1000 T at the onset of deceleration (corresponding to pre-implosion external fields of 0.06–10 T) could result in a factor of 2–500 reduction in electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface. The second mechanism to mitigate thermal energy loss from the hot-spot is to decrease the interface mixing area between the hot and cold plasmas. This is achieved through large external magnetic fields of 1000 T at the onset of deceleration which damp short-wavelength RT modes and long-wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz modes thus significantly slowing the RT growth and reducing mix.

  15. First-principles equation-of-state table of deuterium for inertial confinement fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Skupsky, S.; Militzer, B.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through radiation-hydrodynamics simulations relies on the accurate knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of the deuterium and tritium fuels. To minimize the drive energy for ignition, the imploding shell of DT fuel must be kept as cold as possible. Such low-adiabat ICF implosions can access to coupled and degenerate plasma conditions, in which the analytical EOS models become inaccurate due to many-body effects. Using the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations we have derived a first-principles EOS (FPEOS) table of deuterium that covers typical ICF fuel conditions at densities ranging from 0.002 to 1596 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of 1.35 eV to 5.5 keV. We report the internal energy and the pressure and discuss the structure of the plasma in terms of pair-correlation functions. When compared with the widely used SESAME table and the revised Kerley03 table, discrepancies in the internal energy and in the pressure are identified for moderately coupled and degenerate plasma conditions. In contrast to the SESAME table, the revised Kerley03 table is in better agreement with our FPEOS results over a wide range of densities and temperatures. Although subtle differences still exist for lower temperatures (T < 10 eV) and moderate densities (1 to 10 g/cm{sup 3}), hydrodynamics simulations of cryogenic ICF implosions using the FPEOS table and the Kerley03 table have resulted in similar results for the peak density, areal density ({rho}R), and neutron yield, which differ significantly from the SESAME simulations.

  16. D-T gamma-to-neutron branching ratio determined from inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.; Mack, J. M.; Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Hale, G. M.; Caldwell, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Evans, S. C.; Sedillo, T. J.; McEvoy, A.; Langenbrunner, J.; Hsu, H. H.; Huff, M. A.; Batha, S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Garbett, W. J.; Stoeffl, W.; Grafil, E.; Bernstein, L.; and others

    2012-05-15

    A new deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion gamma-to-neutron branching ratio [{sup 3}H(d,{gamma}){sup 5}He/{sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He] value of (4.2 {+-} 2.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} was recently reported by this group [Y. Kim et al. Phys. Rev. C (submitted)]. This measurement, conducted at the OMEGA laser facility located at the University of Rochester, was made for the first time using inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasmas. Neutron-induced backgrounds are significantly reduced in these experiments as compared to traditional beam-target accelerator-based experiments due to the short pulse nature of ICF implosions and the use of gas Cherenkov {gamma}-ray detectors with fast temporal responses and inherent energy thresholds. It is expected that this ICF-based measurement will help resolve the large and long-standing inconsistencies in previously reported accelerator-based values, which vary by a factor of approximately 30. The reported value at ICF conditions was determined by averaging the results of two methods: (1) a direct measurement of ICF D-T {gamma}-ray and neutron emissions using absolutely calibrated detectors and (2) a separate cross-calibration against the better known D-{sup 3}He gamma-to-proton branching ratio [{sup 3}He(d, {gamma}){sup 5}Li/{sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He]. Here we include a detailed explanation of these results, and introduce as a corroborative method an in-situ{gamma}-ray detector calibration using neutron-induced {gamma}-rays. Also, by extending the established techniques to two additional series of implosions with significantly different ion temperatures, we test the branching ratio dependence on ion temperature. The data show a D-T branching ratio is nearly constant over the temperature range 2-9 keV. These studies motivate further investigation into the {sup 5}He and {sup 5}Li systems resulting from D-T and D-{sup 3}He fusion, respectively, and result in improved ICF {gamma}-ray reaction history diagnosis at the National Ignition

  17. Heavy ion induction linac drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.P.; Hovingh, J.

    1988-10-01

    Intense beams of high energy heavy ions (e.g., 10 GeV Hg) are an attractive option for an ICF driver because of their favorable energy deposition characteristics. The accelerator systems to produce the beams at the required power level are a development from existing technologies of the induction linac, rf linac/storage ring, and synchrotron. The high repetition rate of the accelerator systems, and the high efficiency which can be realized at high current make this approach especially suitable for commercial ICF. The present report gives a summary of the main features of the induction linac driver system, which is the approach now pursued in the USA. The main subsystems, consisting of injector, multiple beam accelerator at low and high energy, transport and pulse compression lines, and final focus are described. Scale relations are given for the current limits and other features of these subsystems. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honrubia, J. J.; Murakami, M.

    2015-01-15

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects, such as ion beam divergence, not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core, ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point has been analyzed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  19. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  20. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  1. A Concept Exploration Program in Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion — Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richarad Burnite; Freeman, Richard R.; Van Woekom, L. D.; Key, M.; MacKinnon, Andrew J.; Wei, Mingsheng

    2014-02-27

    The Fast Ignition (FI) approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) holds particular promise for fusion energy because the independently generated compression and ignition pulses allow ignition with less compression, resulting in (potentially) higher gain. Exploiting this concept effectively requires an understanding of the transport of electrons in prototypical geometries and at relevant densities and temperatures. Our consortium, which included General Atomics (GA), The Ohio State University (OSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), University of California, Davis (UC-Davis), and Princeton University under this grant (~$850K/yr) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under a companion grant, won awards in 2000, renewed in 2005, to investigate the physics of electron injection and transport relevant to the FI concept, which is crucial to understand electron transport in integral FI targets. In the last two years we have also been preparing diagnostics and starting to extend the work to electron transport into hot targets. A complementary effort, the Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program for Fast Ignition, was funded starting in 2006 to integrate this understanding into ignition schemes specifically suitable for the initial fast ignition attempts on OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF), and during that time these two programs have been managed as a coordinated effort. This result of our 7+ years of effort has been substantial. Utilizing collaborations to access the most capable laser facilities around the world, we have developed an understanding that was summarized in a Fusion Science & Technology 2006, Special Issue on Fast Ignition. The author lists in the 20 articles in that issue are dominated by our group (we are first authors in four of them). Our group has published, or submitted 67 articles, including 1 in Nature, 2 Nature Physics, 10 Physical Review Letters, 8 Review of Scientific Instruments, and has been invited to

  2. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Albright, B. J.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Sio, Hong; Zylstra, Alex B.; Johnson, Maria Gatu; et al

    2015-05-19

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method describedmore » here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple

  3. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Albright, B. J.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Sio, Hong; Zylstra, Alex B.; Johnson, Maria Gatu; Séguin, Fredrick H.; Frenje, Johan A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, Richard D.; Higdon, David M.; Srinivasan, Gowri; Glebov, Vladimir Yu.; Stoeckl, Christian; Seka, Wolf; Sangster, T. Craig

    2015-05-19

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method described here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach

  4. Inertial confinement fusion reaction chamber and power conversion system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maya, I.; Schultz, K.R.; Battaglia, J.M.; Buksa, J.J.; Creedson, R.L.; Erlandson, O.D.; Levine, H.E.; Roelant, D.F.; Sanchez, H.W.; Schrader, S.A.

    1984-09-01

    GA Technologies has developed a conceptual ICF reactor system based on the Cascade rotating-bed reaction chamber concept. Unique features of the system design include the use of low activation SiC in a reaction chamber constructed of box-shaped tiles held together in compression by prestressing tendons to the vacuum chamber. Circulating Li/sub 2/O granules serve as the tritium breeding and energy transport material, cascading down the sides of the reaction chamber to the power conversion system. The total tritium inventory of the system is 6 kg; tritium recovery is accomplished directly from the granules via the vacuum system. A system for centrifugal throw transport of the hot Li/sub 2/O granules from the reaction chamber to the power conversion system has been developed. A number of issues were evaluated during the course of this study. These include the response of first-layer granules to the intense microexplosion surface heat flux, cost effective fabrication of Li/sub 2/O granules, tritium inventory and recovery issues, the thermodynamics of solids-flow options, vacuum versus helium-medium heat transfer, and the tradeoffs of capital cost versus efficiency for alternate heat exchange and power conversion system option. The resultant design options appear to be economically competitive, safe, and environmentally attractive.

  5. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup ...

  6. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan G. Gilmore, Mark

    2014-11-15

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ∼10{sup 4} T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (∼10{sup −10}m{sup 3}) at high plasma densities (∼10{sup 28}m{sup −3}) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  7. Magnetic Probe to Study Plasma Jets for Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, Daniel; Hsu, Scott C.

    2012-08-16

    A probe has been constructed to measure the magnetic field of a plasma jet generated by a pulsed plasma rail-gun. The probe consists of two sets of three orthogonally-oriented commercial chip inductors to measure the three-dimensional magnetic field vector at two separate positions in order to give information about the magnetic field evolution within the jet. The strength and evolution of the magnetic field is one of many factors important in evaluating the use of supersonic plasma jets for forming imploding spherical plasma liners as a standoff driver for magneto-inertial fusion.

  8. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  9. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knauer, J. P.; et al

    2015-11-12

    For a long time, neutron time-of-flight diagnostics been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d+t→n+α (DT) and d+d→n+³He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, which is also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We explain such novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion and DSR.

  10. Analysis of the neutron time-of-flight spectra from inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Caggiano, J. A.; Phillips, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Bond, E. J.; Cerjan, C.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Knauer, J. P.; Mcnaney, J. M.; Munro, D. H.

    2015-11-12

    For a long time, neutron time-of-flight diagnostics been used to characterize the neutron spectrum produced by inertial confinement fusion experiments. The primary diagnostic goals are to extract the d+t→n+α (DT) and d+d→n+³He (DD) neutron yields and peak widths, and the amount DT scattering relative to its unscattered yield, which is also known as the down-scatter ratio (DSR). These quantities are used to infer yield weighted plasma conditions, such as ion temperature (Tion) and cold fuel areal density. We explain such novel methodologies used to determine neutron yield, apparent Tion and DSR.

  11. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-02

    The effects of an imposed, axial magnetic fieldmore » $$B_{z0}$$ on hydrodynamics and energetic electrons in inertial confinement fusion indirect-drive hohlraums are studied. We present simulations from the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility, with and without $$B_{z0}=70~\\text{T}$$. The field’s main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or ‘hot’, electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium–tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. Furthermore, the effect of the field on deuterium–tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.« less

  12. Imposed magnetic field and hot electron propagation in inertial fusion hohlraums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strozzi, David J.; Perkins, L. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Larson, D. J.; Koning, J. M.; Logan, B. G.

    2015-12-02

    The effects of an imposed, axial magnetic field $B_{z0}$ on hydrodynamics and energetic electrons in inertial confinement fusion indirect-drive hohlraums are studied. We present simulations from the radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA of a low-adiabat ignition design for the National Ignition Facility, with and without $B_{z0}=70~\\text{T}$. The field’s main hydrodynamic effect is to significantly reduce electron thermal conduction perpendicular to the field. This results in hotter and less dense plasma on the equator between the capsule and hohlraum wall. The inner laser beams experience less inverse bremsstrahlung absorption before reaching the wall. The X-ray drive is thus stronger from the equator with the imposed field. We study superthermal, or ‘hot’, electron dynamics with the particle-in-cell code ZUMA, using plasma conditions from HYDRA. During the early-time laser picket, hot electrons based on two-plasmon decay in the laser entrance hole (Regan et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17(2), 2010, 020703) are guided to the capsule by a 70 T field. Twelve times more energy deposits in the deuterium–tritium fuel. For plasma conditions early in peak laser power, we present mono-energetic test-case studies with ZUMA as well as sources based on inner-beam stimulated Raman scattering. Furthermore, the effect of the field on deuterium–tritium deposition depends strongly on the source location, namely whether hot electrons are generated on field lines that connect to the capsule.

  13. Magnetic-compression/magnetized-target fusion (MAGO/MTF): A marriage of inertial and magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    Intermediate between magnetic confinement (MFE) and inertial confinement (ICF) in time and density scales is an area of research now known in the US as magnetized target fusion (MTF) and in Russian as MAGO (MAGnitnoye Obzhatiye--magnetic compression). MAGO/MTF uses a magnetic field and preheated, wall-confined plasma fusion fuel within an implodable fusion target. The magnetic field suppresses thermal conduction losses in the fuel during the target implosion and hydrodynamic compression heating process. In contrast to direct, hydrodynamic compression of initially ambient-temperature fuel (i.e., ICF), MAGO/MTF involves two steps: (a) formation of a warm (e.g., 100 eV or higher), magnetized (e.g., 100 kG) plasma within a fusion target prior to implosion; (b) subsequent quasi-adiabatic compression by an imploding pusher, of which a magnetically driven imploding liner is one example. In this paper, the authors present ongoing activities and potential future activities in this relatively unexplored area of controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  14. A Pilot Plant: The Fastest Path to Commercial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Considerable effort has been dedicated to determining the possible properties of a magneticconfinement fusion power plant, particularly in the U.S.1, Europe2 and Japan3. There has also been some effort to detail the development path to fusion energy, particularly in the U.S.4 Only limited attention has been given, in Japan5 and in China6, to the options for a specific device to form the bridge from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, ITER, to commercial fusion energy. Nor has much attention been paid, since 2003, to the synergies between magnetic and inertial fusion energy development. Here we consider, at a very high level, the possibility of a Qeng ? 1 Pilot Plant, with linear dimensions ~ 2/3 the linear dimensions of a commercial fusion power plant, as the needed bridge. As we examine the R&D needs for such a system we find significant synergies between the needs for the development of magnetic and inertial fusion energy.

  15. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orth, C D

    2005-03-31

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree to

  16. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kagan, Grigory; Svyatskiy, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Huang, C. -K.; McDevitt, C. J.

    2015-09-03

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydrodynamic instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. Thus, the ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT atmore » the National Ignition Facility.« less

  17. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, April--June 1994. Volume 4, Number 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, M.J.

    1994-06-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains six articles covering a wide range of activities within the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. It concentrates on target design; theoretical spectral analysis of ICF capsule surfaces; laser fusion experimental methods; and an alternative ICF design, based on ultrafast, ultrapowerful lasers. A key issue for the success of the ICF process is the hydrodynamic stability of the imploding capsule. There are two primary sources of instability growth in the ICF process: (1) asymmetries in the x-ray flux that drive the compression lead to asymmetric in the imploding surface; (2) imperfections on the capsule surface can grow into large perturbations, degrading the capsule performance. In recent years, a great deal of effort, both experimentally and theoretically, has been spent to enhance the Program`s ability to measure, model, and minimize instability growth during an implosion. Four the articles in this issue discuss this subject.

  18. Manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional Euler equations with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, J.; Canfield, T.R.; Morgan, N.R.; Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G.

    2014-06-15

    We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.

  19. How Fusion Energy Works | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 likes How Fusion Energy Works Fusion energy is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. In fusion, two light atomic nuclei are fused together to create energy (as opposed to fission where the nucleus of an atom is split apart). The scientific basis underlying fusion energy is known as plasma physics. Plasma is one of the one of the four fundamental states of matter and makes up 99 percent of the visible universe. On a basic level, a plasma is a hot ionized gas. The ultimate goal of

  20. Glossary of fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    This glossary gives brief descriptions of approximately 400 terms used by the fusion community. Schematic diagrams and photographs of the major US experiments are also included. (MOW)

  1. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore » of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  2. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; Delettrez, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Betti, R.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Nikroo, A.

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  3. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions using fusion burn imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J. Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C.; Pino, J.; Atzeni, S.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Stoeckl, C.; Seka, W.; Marshall, F. J.; and others

    2015-06-15

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  4. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (IFC) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Sguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-02

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in DHe-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmoreof the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.less

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support. Annual report, January 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinman, D.

    1993-03-01

    On December 31, 1990, the US Department of Energy entered into a contract with General Atomics (GA) to be the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Target Component Fabrication and Technology Development Support contractor. This report documents the technical activities of the period January 1, 1991 through September 30, 1992. During this period, GA was assigned 15 tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program and its laboratories. These tasks included Facilities Activation, Staff Development, and Capabilities Validation to establish facilities and equipment, and demonstrate capability to perform ICF target fabrication research, development and production activities. The capabilities developed and demonstrated are those needed for fabrication and precise characterization of polymer shells and polymer coatings. We made progress toward production capability for glass shells, barrier layer coatings, and gas idling of shells. We fabricated over 1000 beam diagnostic foil targets for Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque and provided full-time on-site engineering support for target fabrication and characterization. We initiated development of methods to fabricate polymer shells by a controlled mass microencapsulation technique, and performed chemical syntheses of several chlorine- and silicon-doped polymer materials for the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). We performed the conceptual design of a cryogenic target handling system for UR/LLE that will fill, transport, layer, and characterize targets filled with cryogenic deuterium or deuterium-tritium fuel, and insert these cryogenic targets into the OMEGA-Upgrade target chamber for laser implosion experiments. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  6. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designsa)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militizer, B.

    2015-04-20

    In this study, a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximatelymore » taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of –2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro

  7. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Suxing X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, Lee A.; Kress, Joel David; Militzer, B.

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydrocodes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken intomore » account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the pathintegral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state (FPEOS) table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table (FPOT) of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of ~2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro

  8. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militizer, B.

    2015-04-20

    In this study, a comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximatelymore » taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of –2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro

  9. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S. X. Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, L. A.; Kress, J. D.; Militzer, B.

    2015-05-15

    A comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state, thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydro-codes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state table, thermal conductivities (κ{sub QMD}), and first principles opacity table of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of ∼2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro-simulations. The FP

  10. Impact of first-principles properties of deuterium–tritium on inertial confinement fusion target designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Suxing X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Boehly, T. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.; Collins, Lee A.; Kress, Joel David; Militzer, B.

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the properties of high-energy-density plasmas is crucial to understanding and designing low-adiabat, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions through hydrodynamic simulations. Warm-dense-matter (WDM) conditions are routinely accessed by low-adiabat ICF implosions, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy often play an important role in determining the properties of warm dense plasmas. The WDM properties of deuterium–tritium (DT) mixtures and ablator materials, such as the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, opacity, and stopping power, were usually estimated by models in hydrocodes used for ICF simulations. In these models, many-body and quantum effects were only approximately taken into account in the WMD regime. Moreover, the self-consistency among these models was often missing. To examine the accuracy of these models, we have systematically calculated the static, transport, and optical properties of warm dense DT plasmas, using first-principles (FP) methods over a wide range of densities and temperatures that cover the ICF “path” to ignition. These FP methods include the pathintegral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and quantum-molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, which treat electrons with many-body quantum theory. The first-principles equation-of-state (FPEOS) table, thermal conductivities (KQMD), and first principles opacity table (FPOT) of DT have been self-consistently derived from the combined PIMC and QMD calculations. They have been compared with the typical models, and their effects to ICF simulations have been separately examined in previous publications. In this paper, we focus on their combined effects to ICF implosions through hydro-simulations using these FP-based properties of DT in comparison with the usual model simulations. We found that the predictions of ICF neutron yield could change by up to a factor of ~2.5; the lower the adiabat of DT capsules, the more variations in hydro

  11. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.

  12. Diagnosing laser-preheated magnetized plasmas relevant to magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Sefkow, Adam B.; Nagayama, Taisuke N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Campbell, Edward Michael; Fiksel, Gennady; Chang, Po -Yu; Davies, Jonathan R.; Barnak, Daniel H.; Glebov, Vladimir Y.; Fitzsimmons, Paul; Fooks, Julie; Blue, Brent E.

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a platform on the OMEGA EP Laser Facility that creates and diagnoses the conditions present during the preheat stage of the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. Experiments were conducted using 9 kJ of 3ω (355 nm) light to heat an underdense deuterium gas (electron density: 2.5 × 1020 cm-3 = 0.025 of critical density) magnetized with a 10 T axial field. Results show that the deuterium plasma reached a peak electron temperature of 670 ± 140 eV, diagnosed using streaked spectroscopy of an argon dopant. The results demonstrate that plasmas relevant to the preheat stage of MagLIF can be produced at multiple laser facilities, thereby enabling more rapid progress in understanding magnetized preheat. Results are compared with magneto-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, and plans for future experiments are described.

  13. Interactive tools designed to study mix in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welser-sherrill, Leslie; Cooley, James H; Wilson, Doug C

    2008-01-01

    Graphical user interface tools have been built in IDL to study mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion cores. FLAME (Fall-Line Analysis Mix Evaluator), a code which investigates yield degradation due to mix , was designed to post-process 1D hydrodynamic simulation output by implementing a variety of mix models. Three of these mix models are based on the physics of the fall-line. In addition, mixing data from other sources can be incorporated into the yield degradation analysis. Two independent tools called HAME (Haan Analysis Mix Evaluator) and YAME (Youngs Analysis Mix Evaluator) were developed to calculate the spatial extent of the mix region according to the Haan saturation model and Youngs' phenomenological model, respectively. FLAME facilitates a direct comparison to experimental data. The FLAME, HAME, and YAME interfaces are user-friendly, flexible, and platform-independent.

  14. Solid Deuterium-Tritium Surface Roughness In A Beryllium Inertial Confinement Fusion Shell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozioziemski, B J; Sater, J D; Moody, J D; Montgomery, D S; Gautier, C

    2006-04-19

    Solid deuterium-tritium (D-T) fuel layers for inertial confinement fusion experiments were formed inside of a 2 mm diameter beryllium shell and were characterized using phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging. The solid D-T surface roughness is found to be 0.4 {micro}m for modes 7-128 at 1.5 K below the melting temperature. The layer roughness is found to increase with decreasing temperature, in agreement with previous visible light characterization studies. However, phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging provides a more robust surface roughness measurement than visible light methods. The new x-ray imaging results demonstrate clearly that the surface roughness decreases with time for solid D-T layers held at 1.5 K below the melting temperature.

  15. Diagnosing laser-preheated magnetized plasmas relevant to magnetized liner inertial fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Sefkow, Adam B.; Nagayama, Taisuke N.; Wei, Mingsheng; Campbell, Edward Michael; Fiksel, Gennady; Chang, Po -Yu; Davies, Jonathan R.; Barnak, Daniel H.; Glebov, Vladimir Y.; et al

    2015-12-22

    In this paper, we present a platform on the OMEGA EP Laser Facility that creates and diagnoses the conditions present during the preheat stage of the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. Experiments were conducted using 9 kJ of 3ω (355 nm) light to heat an underdense deuterium gas (electron density: 2.5 × 1020 cm-3 = 0.025 of critical density) magnetized with a 10 T axial field. Results show that the deuterium plasma reached a peak electron temperature of 670 ± 140 eV, diagnosed using streaked spectroscopy of an argon dopant. The results demonstrate that plasmas relevant to the preheatmore » stage of MagLIF can be produced at multiple laser facilities, thereby enabling more rapid progress in understanding magnetized preheat. Results are compared with magneto-radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, and plans for future experiments are described.« less

  16. Dynamic response of materials on subnanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, Damian C.; Tierney, Thomas E.; Luo Shengnian; Paisley, Dennis L.; Kyrala, George A.; Hauer, Allan; Greenfield, Scott R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; McClellan, Kenneth J.; Lorenzana, Hector E.; Kalantar, Daniel; Remington, Bruce A.; Peralta, Pedro; Loomis, Eric

    2005-05-15

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. These relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser-induced ablation can be particularly convenient: this technique has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200 GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including line imaging surface velocimetry, surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response from the polycrystalline microstructure. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1 TPa.

  17. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  18. Fusion Energy Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  19. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  20. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Zhang, L.

    2012-10-15

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  1. U. S. Fusion Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John A. Schmidt; Dan Jassby; Scott Larson; Maria Pueyo; Paul H. Rutherford

    2000-10-12

    Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The waste production and resource (including tritium) needs have been assessed. The conclusion that can be drawn from these studies is that it is challenging to make a significant impact on energy production during this century. However, the rapid deployment of fission reactors in Canada and France support fusion implementation scenarios for the US with significant power production during this century. If the country can meet the schedule requirements then the resource needs and waste production are found to be manageable problems.

  2. Two decades of progress in understanding and control of laser plasma instabilities in indirect drive inertial fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Montgomery, David S.

    2016-05-01

    Here, our understanding of laser-plasma instability (LPI) physics has improved dramatically over the past two decades through advancements in experimental techniques, diagnostics, and theoretical and modeling approaches. We have progressed from single-beam experiments—ns pulses with ~kJ energy incident on hundred-micron-scale target plasmas with ~keV electron temperatures—to ones involving nearly 2 MJ energy in 192 beams onto multi-mm-scale plasmas with temperatures ~4 keV. At the same time, we have also been able to use smaller-scale laser facilities to substantially improve our understanding of LPI physics and evaluate novel approaches to their control. These efforts have led to a change in paradigmmore » for LPI research, ushering in an era of engineering LPI to accomplish specific objectives, from tuning capsule implosion symmetry to fixing nonlinear saturation of LPI processes at acceptable levels to enable the exploration of high energy density physics in novel plasma regimes. A tutorial is provided that reviews the progress in the field from the vantage of the foundational LPI experimental results. The pedagogical framework of the simplest models of LPI will be employed, but attention will also be paid to settings where more sophisticated models are needed to understand the observations. Prospects for the application of our improved understanding for inertial fusion (both indirect- and direct-drive) and other applications will also be discussed.« less

  3. The impact of laser plasma interactions on three-dimensional drive symmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J. L. Michel, P.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J.

    2014-07-15

    Achieving symmetric hohlraum radiation drive is an important aspect of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, when experimentally delivered laser powers deviate from ideal conditions, the resultant radiation field can become asymmetric. Two situations in which this may arise are random uncorrelated fluctuations, in as-delivered laser power and laser beams that do not participate in the implosion (either intentionally or unintentionally). Furthermore, laser plasma interactions in the hohlraum obfuscate the connection between laser powers and radiation drive. To study the effect of these situations on drive symmetry, we develop a simplified model for crossed-beam energy transfer, laser backscatter, and plasma absorption that can be used in conjunction with view factor calculations to expediently translate laser powers into three-dimensional capsule flux symmetries. We find that crossed-beam energy transfer can alter both the statistical properties of uncorrelated laser fluctuations and the impact of missing laser beams on radiation symmetry. A method is proposed to mitigate the effects of missing laser beams.

  4. Theory of hydro-equivalent ignition for inertial fusion and its applications to OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; McCrory, R. L.

    2014-05-15

    The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8?MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6??10{sup 13} and ?0.3?g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.

  5. Advanced energy conversion methods for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prelas, M.A. )

    1989-09-01

    If cold fusion is verified, then the next important question deals with how it can be used to produce energy. Several direct energy conversion concepts for use with cold fusion are discussed.

  6. Effects of fuel-capsule shimming and drive asymmetry on inertial-confinement-fusion symmetry and yield

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; DeCiantis, J. L.; Frenje, J. A.; Rygg, J. R.; Petrasso, R. D.; Marshall, F. J.; Smalyuk, V.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Knauer, J. P.; et al

    2016-03-22

    Three orthogonal proton emission imaging cameras were used to study the 3D effects of low-mode drive asymmetries and target asymmetries on nuclear burn symmetry and yield in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments. The fusion yield decreased quickly as the burn region became asymmetric due to either drive or capsule asymmetry. Here, measurements and analytic scaling are used to predict how intentionally asymmetric capsule shells could improve performance by compensating for drive asymmetry when it cannot be avoided (such as with indirect drive or with polar direct drive).

  7. Collection of solid and gaseous samples to diagnose inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoyer, M. A.; Velsko, C. A.; Spears, B. K.; Hicks, D. G.; Hudson, G. B.; Sangster, T. C.; Freeman, C. G.

    2012-02-15

    Collection of representative samples of debris following inertial confinement fusion implosions in order to diagnose implosion conditions and efficacy is a challenging endeavor because of the unique conditions within the target chamber such as unconverted laser light, intense pulse of x-rays, physical chunks of debris, and other ablative effects. We present collection of gas samples following an implosion for the first time. High collection fractions for noble gases were achieved. We also present collection of solid debris samples on flat plate collectors. Geometrical collection efficiencies for Au hohlraum material were achieved and collection of capsule debris (Be and Cu) was also observed. Asymmetric debris distributions were observed for Au and Be samples. Collection of Be capsule debris was higher for solid collectors viewing the capsule through the laser entrance hole in the hohlraum than for solid collectors viewing the capsule around the waist of the hohlraum. Collection of Au hohlraum material showed the opposite pattern: more Au debris was collected around the waist than through the laser entrance hole. The solid debris collectors were not optimized for minimal Cu backgrounds, which limited the conclusions about the symmetry of the Cu debris. The quality of the data limited conclusions on chemical fractionation effects within the burning, expanding, and then cooling plasma.

  8. First-principles investigations on ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene for inertial confinement fusion applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-04-14

    Using quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) methods based on the density functional theory, we have performed first-principles investigations on the ionization and thermal conductivity of polystyrene (CH) over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.5 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 15,625 to 500,000 K). The ionization data from orbital-free molecular-dynamics calculations have been fitted with a “Saha-type” model as a function of the CH plasma density and temperature, which exhibits the correct behaviors of continuum lowering and pressure ionization. The thermal conductivities (κQMD) of CH, derived directly from the Kohn–Sham molecular-dynamics calculations, are then analytically fitted with a generalizedmore » Coulomb logarithm [(lnΛ)QMD] over a wide range of plasma conditions. When compared with the traditional ionization and thermal conductivity models used in radiation–hydrodynamics codes for inertial confinement fusion simulations, the QMD results show a large difference in the low-temperature regime in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Furthermore, hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic deuterium–tritium targets with CH ablators on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility using the QMD-derived ionization and thermal conductivity of CH have predicted –20% variation in target performance in terms of hot-spot pressure and neutron yield (gain) with respect to traditional model simulations.« less

  9. Investigation of radial wire arrays for inertial confinement fusion and radiation effects science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrano, Jason Dimitri; Bland, Simon Nicholas; McBride, Ryan D.; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Suzuki-Vidal, Francisco Andres; Jennings, Christopher A.; Hall, Gareth Neville; Ampleford, David J.; Peyton, Bradley Philip; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Cleveland, Monica; Rogers, Thomas John; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Jones, Michael C.

    2010-02-01

    Radial wire arrays provide an alternative x-ray source for Z-pinch driven Inertial Confinement Fusion. These arrays, where wires are positioned radially outwards from a central cathode to a concentric anode, have the potential to drive a more compact ICF hohlraum. A number of experiments were performed on the 7MA Saturn Generator. These experiments studied a number of potential risks in scaling radial wire arrays up from the 1MA level, where they have been shown to provide similar x-ray outputs to larger diameter cylindrical arrays, to the higher current levels required for ICF. Data indicates that at 7MA radial arrays can obtain higher power densities than cylindrical wire arrays, so may be of use for x-ray driven ICF on future facilities. Even at the 7MA level, data using Saturn's short pulse mode indicates that a radial array should be able to drive a compact hohlraum to temperatures {approx}92eV, which may be of interest for opacity experiments. These arrays are also shown to have applications to jet production for laboratory astrophysics. MHD simulations require additional physics to match the observed behavior.

  10. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosions on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.

  11. Development of the large neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Briat, M.; Kime, S.; Rosse, B.; Thfoin, I.; Bourgade, J. L.; Disdier, L.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C.

    2012-03-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) requires a high resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m) neutron imaging system to observe deuterium and tritium (DT) core implosion asymmetries. A new large (150 mm entrance diameter: scaled for Laser MegaJoule [P. A. Holstein, F. Chaland, C. Charpin, J. M. Dufour, H. Dumont, J. Giorla, L. Hallo, S. Laffite, G. Malinie, Y. Saillard, G. Schurtz, M. Vandenboomgaerde, and F. Wagon, Laser and Particle Beams 17, 403 (1999)]) neutron imaging detector has been developed for such ICF experiments. The detector has been fully characterized using a linear accelerator and a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray source. A penumbral aperture was used to observe DT-gas-filled target implosions performed on the OMEGA laser facility. [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton, R. L. Keck, J. P. Knauer, J. H. Kelly, T. J. Kessler, S. A. Kumpan, S. J. Loucks, S. A. Letzring, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, S. F. B. Morse, W. Seka, J. M. Soures, and C. P. Verdon, Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] Neutron core images of 14 MeV with a resolution of 15 {mu}m were obtained and are compared to x-ray images of comparable resolution.

  12. Effects of electron-ion temperature equilibration on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Barry; Hu, S. X.

    2011-07-15

    The electron-ion temperature relaxation essentially affects both the laser absorption in coronal plasmas and the hot-spot formation in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It has recently been reexamined for plasma conditions closely relevant to ICF implosions using either classical molecular-dynamics simulations or analytical methods. To explore the electron-ion temperature equilibration effects on ICF implosion performance, we have examined two Coulomb logarithm models by implementing them into our hydrocodes, and we have carried out hydrosimulations for ICF implosions. Compared to the Lee-More model that is currently used in our standard hydrocodes, the two models predict substantial differences in laser absorption, coronal temperatures, and neutron yields for ICF implosions at the OMEGA Laser Facility [Boehly et al. Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. Such effects on the triple-picket direct-drive design at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have also been explored. Based on the validity of the two models, we have proposed a combined model of the electron-ion temperature-relaxation rate for the overall ICF plasma conditions. The hydrosimulations using the combined model for OMEGA implosions have shown {approx}6% more laser absorption, {approx}6%-15% higher coronal temperatures, and {approx}10% more neutron yield, when compared to the Lee-More model prediction. It is also noticed that the gain for the NIF direct-drive design can be varied by {approx}10% among the different electron-ion temperature-relaxation models.

  13. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics of the deceleration stage in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, C. R. Clark, D. S.; Cook, A. W.; Eder, D. C.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Milovich, J. L.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sepke, S. M.; Thomas, C. A.

    2015-03-15

    The deceleration stage of inertial confinement fusion implosions is modeled in detail using three-dimensional simulations designed to match experiments at the National Ignition Facility. In this final stage of the implosion, shocks rebound from the center of the capsule, forming the high-temperature, low-density hot spot and slowing the incoming fuel. The flow field that results from this process is highly three-dimensional and influences many aspects of the implosion. The interior of the capsule has high-velocity motion, but viscous effects limit the range of scales that develop. The bulk motion of the hot spot shows qualitative agreement with experimental velocity measurements, while the variance of the hot spot velocity would broaden the DT neutron spectrum, increasing the inferred temperature by 400800?eV. Jets of ablator material are broken apart and redirected as they enter this dynamic hot spot. Deceleration stage simulations using two fundamentally different rad-hydro codes are compared and the flow field is found to be in good agreement.

  14. Angular radiation temperature simulation for time-dependent capsule drive prediction in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jing, Longfei; Yang, Dong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Liling; Kuang, Longyu; Jiang, Shaoen Ding, Yongkun; Huang, Yunbao

    2015-02-15

    The x-ray drive on a capsule in an inertial confinement fusion setup is crucial for ignition. Unfortunately, a direct measurement has not been possible so far. We propose an angular radiation temperature simulation to predict the time-dependent drive on the capsule. A simple model, based on the view-factor method for the simulation of the radiation temperature, is presented and compared with the experimental data obtained using the OMEGA laser facility and the simulation results acquired with VISRAD code. We found a good agreement between the time-dependent measurements and the simulation results obtained using this model. The validated model was then used to analyze the experimental results from the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. More specifically, the variations of the peak radiation temperatures at different view angles with the albedo of the hohlraum, the motion of the laser spots, the closure of the laser entrance holes, and the deviation of the laser power were investigated. Furthermore, the time-dependent radiation temperature at different orientations and the drive history on the capsule were calculated. The results indicate that the radiation temperature from “U20W112” (named according to the diagnostic hole ID on the target chamber) can be used to approximately predict the drive temperature on the capsule. In addition, the influence of the capsule on the peak radiation temperature is also presented.

  15. First-principles equation of state of polystyrene and its effect on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2015-10-14

    Obtaining an accurate equation of state (EOS) of polystyrene (CH) is crucial to reliably design inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules using CH/CH-based ablators. Thus, with first-principles calculations, we have investigated the extended EOS of CH over a wide range of plasma conditions (ρ = 0.1 to 100 g/cm3 and T = 1,000 to 4,000,000 K). When compared with the widely used SESAME-EOS table, the first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) of CH has shown significant differences in the low-temperature regime, in which strong coupling and electron degeneracy play an essential role in determining plasma properties. Hydrodynamic simulations of cryogenic target implosionsmore » on OMEGA using the FPEOS table of CH have predicted ~5% reduction in implosion velocity and ~30% decrease in neutron yield in comparison with the usual SESAME simulations. This is attributed to the ~10% lower mass ablation rate of CH predicted by FPEOS. Simulations using CH-FPEOS show better agreement with measurements of Hugoniot temperature and scattered lights from ICF implosions.« less

  16. The LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Program: Progress toward ignition in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, E.; Batha, S.H.; Bernat, T.P.; Bibeau, C.; Cable, M.D.; Caird, J.A.; Campbell, E.M.; Campbell, J.H.; Coleman, L.W.; Cook, R.C.; Correll, D.L.; Darrow, C.B.; Davis, J.I.; Drake, R.P.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Ellis, R.J.; Glendinning, S.G.; Haan, S.W.; Haendler, B.L.; Hatcher, C.W.; Hatchett, S.P.; Hermes, G.L.; Hunt, J.P.; Kania, D.R.; Kauffman, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Kornblum, H.N.; Kruer, W.L.; Kyrazis, D.T.; Lane, S.M.; Laumann

    1990-10-02

    The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has made substantial progress in target physics, target diagnostics, and laser science and technology. In each area, progress required the development of experimental techniques and computational modeling. The objectives of the target physics experiments in the Nova laser facility are to address and understand critical physics issues that determine the conditions required to achieve ignition and gain in an ICF capsule. The LLNL experimental program primarily addresses indirect-drive implosions, in which the capsule is driven by x rays produced by the interaction of the laser light with a high-Z plasma. Experiments address both the physics of generating the radiation environment in a laser-driven hohlraum and the physics associated with imploding ICF capsules to ignition and high-gain conditions in the absence of alpha deposition. Recent experiments and modeling have established much of the physics necessary to validate the basic concept of ignition and ICF target gain in the laboratory. The rapid progress made in the past several years, and in particular, recent results showing higher radiation drive temperatures and implosion velocities than previously obtained and assumed for high-gain target designs, has led LLNL to propose an upgrade of the Nova laser to 1.5 to 2 MJ (at 0.35 {mu}m) to demonstrate ignition and energy gains of 10 to 20 -- the Nova Upgrade.

  17. Applying physics, teamwork to fusion energy science | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab Applying physics, teamwork to fusion energy science American Fusion News Category: Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Link: Applying physics, teamwork to fusion energy science

  18. Background: Energy's holy grail. [The quest for controlled fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-22

    This article presents a brief history of the pursuit and development of fusion as a power source. Starting with the 1950s through the present, the research efforts of the US and other countries is highlighted, including a chronology of hey developments. Other topics discussed include cold fusion and magnetic versus inertial fusion issues.

  19. Macron Formed Liner Compression as a Practical Method for Enabling Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slough, John

    2011-12-10

    The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. The main impediment for current nuclear fusion concepts is the complexity and large mass associated with the confinement systems. To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of magnetic fusion, an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. The very compact, high energy density plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) provides for an ideal target for this purpose. To make fusion with the FRC practical, an efficient method for repetitively compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. A novel approach to be explored in this endeavor is to remotely launch a converging array of small macro-particles (macrons) that merge and form a more massive liner inside the reactor which then radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target FRC plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining liner significantly lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. With the momentum flux being delivered by an assemblage of low mass, but high velocity macrons, many of the difficulties encountered with the liner implosion power technology are eliminated. The undertaking to be described in this proposal is to evaluate the feasibility achieving fusion conditions from this simple and low cost approach to fusion. During phase I the design and testing of the key components for the creation of the macron formed liner have been successfully carried out. Detailed numerical calculations of the merging, formation and radial implosion of the Macron Formed Liner (MFL) were also performed. The phase II effort will focus on an experimental demonstration of the macron launcher at full power, and the demonstration

  20. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  1. Development of a neutron imaging diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G. L.; Berggren, R. R.; Bradley, P. A.; Cverna, F. H.; Faulkner, J. R.; Gobby, P. L.; Oertel, J. A.; Swenson, F. J.; Tegtmeier, J. A.; Walton, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Pinhole imaging of the neutron production in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion experiments can provide important information about the performance of various capsule designs. This requires the development of systems capable of spatial resolutions on the order of 5 {mu}m or less for source strengths of 10{sup 15} and greater. We have initiated a program which will lead to the achievement of such a system to be employed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) facility. Calculated neutron output distributions for various capsule designs will be presented to illustrate the information which can be gained from neutron imaging and to demonstrate the requirements for a useful system. We will describe the lines-of-sight available at NIF for neutron imaging and explain how these can be utilized to reach the required parameters for neutron imaging. We will describe initial development work to be carried out at the Omega facility and the path which will lead to systems to be implemented at NIF. Beginning this year, preliminary experiments will be aimed at achieving resolutions of 30--60 {mu}m for direct-drive capsules with neutron outputs of about 10{sup 14}. The main thrust of these experiments will be to understand issues related to the fabrication and alignment of small diameter pinhole systems as well as the problems associated with signal-to-background ratios at the image plane. Subsequent experiments at Omega will be described. These efforts will be aimed at achieving resolutions of about 10 {mu}m. Proposed developments for new imaging systems as well as further refinement of pinhole techniques will be presented.

  2. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  3. The National Ignition Facility and the Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-07-26

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is operational and conducting experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental facility with 192 beams capable of delivering 1.8 megajoules of 500-terawatt ultraviolet laser energy, over 60 times more energy than any previous laser system. The NIF can create temperatures of more than 100 million degrees and pressures more than 100 billion times Earth's atmospheric pressure. These conditions, similar to those at the center of the sun, have never been created in the laboratory and will allow scientists to probe the physics of planetary interiors, supernovae, black holes, and other phenomena. The NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to the conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. Experiments on the NIF are focusing on demonstrating fusion ignition and burn via inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ignition program is conducted via the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) - a partnership among LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics, and General Atomics. The NIC program has also established collaborations with the Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom, Commissariat a Energie Atomique in France, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and many others. Ignition experiments have begun that form the basis of the overall NIF strategy for achieving ignition. Accomplishing this goal will demonstrate the feasibility of fusion as a source of limitless, clean energy for the future. This paper discusses the current status of the NIC, the experimental steps needed toward achieving ignition and the steps required to demonstrate and enable the delivery of fusion energy as a viable carbon-free energy source.

  4. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Amy; Callis, Richard; Efthimion, Philip; Foster, John; Keane, Christopher; Onsager, Terry; O'Shea, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    laboratory plasmas and inertial fusion energy; Particle accelerator technology; Fusion nuclear science; and Magnetically confined plasmas. Individual sections within the report summarize applications associated with each of these areas. These sections were also informed by a survey that went out to the community, and the subcommittee wishes to thank those who responded, as well as to the national labs and universities that contributed photographs.

  5. Core conditions for alpha heating attained in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Betti, R.; Campbell, E. M.; Mangino, D.; Christopherson, A. R.; McCrory, R. L.; Nora, R.; Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; et al

    2016-07-07

    Here, it is shown that direct-drive implosions on the OMEGA laser have achieved core conditions that would lead to significant alpha heating at incident energies available on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) scale. The extrapolation of the experimental results from OMEGA to NIF energy assumes only that the implosion hydrodynamic efficiency is unchanged at higher energies. This approach is independent of the uncertainties in the physical mechanism that degrade implosions on OMEGA, and relies solely on a volumetric scaling of the experimentally observed core conditions. It is estimated that the current best-performing OMEGA implosion [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.more » 117, 025001 (2016)] extrapolated to a 1.9 MJ laser driver with the same illumination configuration and laser-target coupling would produce 125 kJ of fusion energy with similar levels of alpha heating observed in current highest performing indirect-drive NIF implosions.« less

  6. Rim for rotary inertial energy storage device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Jr., Charles E.; Pollard, Roy E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved rim or a high-performance rotary inertial energy storage device (flywheel). The improved rim is fabricated from resin impregnated filamentary material which is circumferentially wound in a side-by-side relationship to form a plurality of discretely and sequentially formed concentric layers of filamentary material that are bound together in a resin matrix. The improved rim is provided by prestressing the filamentary material in each successive layer to a prescribed tension loading in accordance with a predetermined schedule during the winding thereof and then curing the resin in each layer prior to forming the next layer for providing a prestress distribution within the rim to effect a self-equilibrating compressive prestress within the windings which counterbalances the transverse or radial tensile stresses generated during rotation of the rim for inhibiting deleterious delamination problems.

  7. Direct asymmetry measurement of temperature and density spatial distributions in inertial confinement fusion plasmas from pinhole space-resolved spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Florido, R.; Mayes, D.; Tommasini, R.; Koch, J. A.; Delettrez, J. A.; Regan, S. P.; Smalyuk, V. A.

    2014-05-15

    Two-dimensional space-resolved temperature and density images of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion core have been diagnosed for the first time. Argon-doped, direct-drive ICF experiments were performed at the Omega Laser Facility and a collection of two-dimensional space-resolved spectra were obtained from an array of gated, spectrally resolved pinhole images recorded by a multi-monochromatic x-ray imager. Detailed spectral analysis revealed asymmetries of the core not just in shape and size but in the temperature and density spatial distributions, thus characterizing the core with an unprecedented level of detail.

  8. Ion kinetic effects on the ignition and burn of inertial confinement fusion targets: A multi-scale approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peigney, B. E.; Larroche, O.

    2014-12-15

    In this article, we study the hydrodynamics and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level. The analysis is based on a two-velocity-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck kinetic model that is specially tailored to treat fusion products (suprathermal α-particles) in a self-consistent manner with the thermal bulk. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A typical hot-spot ignition design is considered. Compared with fluid simulations where a multi-group diffusion scheme is applied to model α transport, the full ion-kinetic approach reveals significant non-local effects on the transport of energetic α-particles. This has a direct impact on hydrodynamic spatial profiles during combustion: the hot spot reactivity is reduced, while the inner dense fuel layers are pre-heated by the escaping α-suprathermal particles, which are transported farther out of the hot spot. We show how the kinetic transport enhancement of fusion products leads to a significant reduction of the fusion yield.

  9. Inertial fusion energy power reactor fuel recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, C. A.; Kozub, T.; Langish, S. W.; Ciebiera, L. P.; Nobile, A.; Wermer, J.; Sessions, K.

    2008-07-15

    A conceptual design is proposed to support the recovery of un-expended fuel, ash, and associated post-detonation products resident in plasma exhaust from a {approx}2 GWIFE direct drive power reactor. The design includes systems for the safe and efficient collection, processing, and purification of plasma exhaust fuel components. The system has been conceptually designed and sized such that tritium bred within blankets, lining the reactor target chamber, can also be collected, processed, and introduced into the fuel cycle. The system will nominally be sized to process {approx}2 kg of tritium per day and is designed to link directly to the target chamber vacuum pumping system. An effort to model the fuel recovery system (FRS) using the Aspen Plus engineering code has commenced. The system design supports processing effluent gases from the reactor directly from the exhaust of the vacuum pumping system or in batch mode, via a buffer vessel in the Receiving and Analysis System. Emphasis is on nuclear safety, reliability, and redundancy as to maximize availability. The primary goal of the fuel recovery system design is to economically recycle components of direct drive IFE fuel. The FRS design is presented as a facility sub-system in the context of supporting the larger goal of producing safe and economical IFE power. (authors)

  10. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  11. Status of target physics for inertial confinement fusion: Report on the review at DOE Headquarters, Germantown, MD on November 14--17, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-09

    A four day review to assess the status of target physics of inertial confinement fusion was held at US Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters on November 14--17, 1988. This review completes the current series of reviews of the inertial fusion program elements to assess the status of the data base for a decision to proceed with the proposed Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) that is being planned. In addition to target physics, the program elements that have been reviewed previously include the driver technology development for KrF and solid-state lasers, and the light-on beam pulsed power system. This series of reviews was undertaken for internal DOE assessment in anticipation of the ICF program review mandated by the Congress in 1988 to be completed in 1990 to assess the significance and implications of the progress that has been realized in the laboratory and the underground Halite/Centurion experiments. For this target physics review, both the direct and the indirect drive approaches were considered. The principal issues addressed in this review were: Is the present target physics data base adequate for a decision to proceed with design and construction of LMF now as opposed to continue planning activities at this time What specific additional target physics data are desirable to reduce the risk for a DOE decision to construct an LMF What is the role for continuation of Halite/Centurion experiments What priority should be given to the direct drive approach Are the program elements optimally structured to resolve the critical issues for an LMF decision Specific findings relating to these five issues are summarized in the following.

  12. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy ...

  13. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick Liquid-Walls Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant with Thick ...

  14. Review of the Strategic Plan for International Collaboration on Fusion Science and Technology Research. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-01-23

    The United States Government has employed international collaborations in magnetic fusion energy research since the program was declassified in 1958. These collaborations have been successful not only in producing high quality scientific results that have contributed to the advancement of fusion science and technology, they have also allowed us to highly leverage our funding. Thus, in the 1980s, when the funding situation made it necessary to reduce the technical breadth of the U.S. domestic program, these highly leveraged collaborations became key strategic elements of the U.S. program, allowing us to maintain some degree of technical breadth. With the recent, nearly complete declassification of inertial confinement fusion, the use of some international collaboration is expected to be introduced in the related inertial fusion energy research activities as well. The United States has been a leader in establishing and fostering collaborations that have involved scientific and technological exchanges, joint planning, and joint work at fusion facilities in the U.S. and worldwide. These collaborative efforts have proven mutually beneficial to the United States and our partners. International collaborations are a tool that allows us to meet fusion program goals in the most effective way possible. Working with highly qualified people from other countries and other cultures provides the collaborators with an opportunity to see problems from new and different perspectives, allows solutions to arise from the diversity of the participants, and promotes both collaboration and friendly competition. In short, it provides an exciting and stimulating environment resulting in a synergistic effect that is good for science and good for the people of the world.

  15. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  16. Two-plasmon decay mitigation in direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments using multilayer targets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Follett, R. K.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Goncharov, V. N.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Michel, D. T.; Myatt, J. F.; Shaw, J.; Solodov, A. A.; et al

    2016-04-15

    Multilayer direct-drive inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) targets are shown to significantly reduce two-plasmon-decay (TPD) driven hot-electron production while maintaining high hydrodynamic efficiency. Implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser used targets with silicon layered between an inner beryllium and outer silicon-doped plastic ablator. A factor of five reduction in hot-electron generation (> 50 keV) was observed in the multilayer targets relative to pure CH targets. Three-dimensional simulations of the TPD driven hot-electron production using a laser-plasma interaction code (LPSE) that includes nonlinear and kinetic effects show excellent agreement with the measurements. As a result, the simulations suggest that the reduction in hot-electron productionmore » observed in the multilayer targets is primarily due to increased electron-ion collisional damping.« less

  17. Refraction-Enhanced X-ray Radiography for Inertial Confinement Fusion and Laser-Produced Plasma Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Kozioziemski, B J; Izumi, N; Dewald, E L; Salmonson, J D; Hammel, B A

    2008-08-26

    We explore various laser-produced plasma and inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) applications of phase-contrast x-ray radiography, and we show how the main features of these enhancements can be considered from a geometrical optics perspective as refraction enhancements. This perspective simplifies the analysis, and often permits simple analytical formulae to be derived that predict the enhancements. We explore a raytrace approach to various material interface applications, and we explore a more general example of refractive bending of x-rays by an implosion plasma. We find that refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography of implosions may provide a means to quantify density differences across shock fronts as well as density variations caused by local heating due to high-Z dopants. We also point out that refractive bending by implosions plasmas can blur fine radiograph features, and can also provide misleading contrast information in area-backlit pinhole imaging experiments unless its effects are taken into consideration.

  18. Dynamic response of materials on sub-nanosecond time scales, and beryllium properties for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, D C; Tierney, T E; Luo, S N; Paisley, D L; Kyrala, G A; Hauer, A; Greenfield, S R; Koskelo, A C; McClellan, K J; Lorenzana, H E; Knudson, M D; Peralta, P P; Loomis, E

    2004-12-09

    During the past few years, substantial progress has been made in developing experimental techniques capable of investigating the response of materials to dynamic loading on nanosecond time scales and shorter, with multiple diagnostics probing different aspects of the behavior. these relatively short time scales are scientifically interesting because plastic flow and phase changes in common materials with simple crystal structures--such as iron--may be suppressed, allowing unusual states to be induced and the dynamics of plasticity and polymorphism to be explored. Loading by laser ablation can be particularly convenient. The TRIDENT laser has been used to impart shocks and isentropic compression waves from {approx}1 to 200GPa in a range of elements and alloys, with diagnostics including surface velocimetry (line-imaging VISAR), surface displacement (framed area imaging), x-ray diffraction (single crystal and polycrystal), ellipsometry, and Raman spectroscopy. A major motivation has been the study of the properties of beryllium under conditions relevant to the fuel capsule in inertial confinement fusion: magnetically-driven shock and isentropic compression shots at Z were used to investigate the equation of state and shock melting characteristics, complemented by laser ablation experiments to investigate plasticity and heterogeneous response. These results will help to constrain acceptable tolerances on manufacturing, and possible loading paths, for inertial fusion ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Laser-based techniques are being developed further for future material dynamics experiments, where it should be possible to obtain high quality data on strength and phase changes up to at least 1TPa.

  19. Fusion energy development: Breakeven and beyond: Keynote address

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-02-01

    The scientific feasibility, technological inevitability, and economic necessity of fusion as an energy source are discussed.

  20. HEDP and new directions for fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, Ronald C

    2009-01-01

    The Quest for fusion energy has a long history and the demonstration of thermonuclear energy release in 1951 represented a record achievement for high energy density. While this first demonstration was in response to the extreme fears of mankind, it also marked the beginning of a great hope that it would usher in an era of boundless cheap energy. In fact, fusion still promises to be an enabling technology that can be compared to the prehistoric utilization of fire. Why has the quest for fusion energy been so long on promises and so short in fulfillment? This paper briefly reviews past approaches to fusion energy and suggests new directions. By putting aside the old thinking and vigorously applying our experimental, computational and theoretical tools developed over the past decades we should be able to make rapid progress toward satisfying an urgent need. Fusion not only holds the key to abundant green energy, but also promises to enable deep space missions and the creation of rare elements and isotopes for wide-ranging industrial applications and medical diagnostics.

  1. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size, and

  2. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  3. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy densityphysics and heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Coleman, J.; Greenway, W.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy,P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Sharp, W.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, Qin H.; Sefkow, A.B.; Startsev,E.A.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.

    2006-07-05

    During the past two years, significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the US heavy ion fusion science program in longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter, beam acceleration, high brightness beam transport; and advanced theory and numerical simulations. Innovations in longitudinal compression of intense ion beams by > 50 X propagating through background plasma enable initial beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin within the next two years. They are assessing how these new techniques might apply to heavy ion fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy.

  4. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masnari, Nino A.; Rensel, Walter B.; Robinson, Merrill G.; Solomon, David E.; Wise, Kensall D.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1982-01-01

    An ICF target comprising a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a concentric shell; and a process for manufacturing the same which includes the steps of forming hemispheric shells of a silicon or other substrate material, adhering the shell segments to each other with a fuel pellet contained concentrically therein, then separating the individual targets from the parent substrate. Formation of hemispheric cavities by deposition or coating of a mold substrate is also described. Coatings or membranes may also be applied to the interior of the hemispheric segments prior to joining.

  5. Instability growth for magnetized liner inertial fusion seeded by electro-thermal, electro-choric, and material strength effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecover, J. D.; Chittenden, J. P.

    2015-10-15

    A critical limitation of magnetically imploded systems such as magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] is the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability which primarily disrupts the outer surface of the liner. MagLIF-relevant experiments have showed large amplitude multi-mode MRT instability growth growing from surface roughness [McBride et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 135004 (2012)], which is only reproduced by 3D simulations using our MHD code Gorgon when an artificially azimuthally correlated initialisation is added. We have shown that the missing azimuthal correlation could be provided by a combination of the electro-thermal instability (ETI) and an “electro-choric” instability (ECI); describing, respectively, the tendency of current to correlate azimuthally early in time due to temperature dependent Ohmic heating; and an amplification of the ETI driven by density dependent resistivity around vapourisation. We developed and implemented a material strength model in Gorgon to improve simulation of the solid phase of liner implosions which, when applied to simulations exhibiting the ETI and ECI, gave a significant increase in wavelength and amplitude. Full circumference simulations of the MRT instability provided a significant improvement on previous randomly initialised results and approached agreement with experiment.

  6. Simultaneous neutron and x-ray imaging of inertial confinement fusion experiments along a single line of sight at Omega

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Danly, C. R.; Day, T. H.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Herrmann, H.; Izumi, N.; Kim, Y. H.; Martinez, J. I.; Merrill, F. E.; Schmidt, D. W.; Simpson, R. A.; et al

    2015-04-16

    Neutron and x-ray imaging provide critical information about the geometry and hydrodynamics of inertial confinement fusion implosions. However, existing diagnostics at Omega and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) cannot produce images in both neutrons and x-rays along the same line of sight. This leads to difficulty comparing these images, which capture different parts of the plasma geometry, for the asymmetric implosions seen in present experiments. Further, even when opposing port neutron and x-ray images are available, they use different detectors and cannot provide positive information about the relative positions of the neutron and x-ray sources. A technique has been demonstratedmore » on implosions at Omega that can capture x-ray images along the same line of sight as the neutron images. Thus, the technique is described, and data from a set of experiments are presented, along with a discussion of techniques for coregistration of the various images. It is concluded that the technique is viable and could provide valuable information if implemented on NIF in the near future.« less

  7. Investigations into the seeding of instabilities due to x-ray preheat in beryllium-based inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, E. N.; Greenfield, S. R.; Johnson, R. P.; Cobble, J. A.; Luo, S. N.; Montgomery, D. S.; Marinak, M. M.

    2010-05-15

    The geometry of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules makes them susceptible to various types of hydrodynamic instabilities at different stages during an ICF implosion. From the beginnings of ICF research, it has been known that grain-level anisotropy and defects could be a significant source of instability seeding in solid beryllium capsules. We report on experiments conducted at the Trident laser facility [S. H. Batha et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 10F305 (2008)] to measure dynamic surface roughening from hard x-ray preheat due to anisotropic thermal expansion. M-band emission from laser-produced gold plasma was used to heat beryllium targets with different amounts of copper doping to temperatures comparable to ICF ignition preheat levels. Dynamic roughening measurements were made on the surface away from the plasma at discrete times up to 8 ns after the beginning of the drive pulse using a surface displacement interferometer with nanometer scale sensitivity. Undoped large-grained targets were measured to roughen between 15 and 50 nm rms. Fine-grained, copper-doped targets were observed to roughen near the sensitivity limit of the interferometer. The results of this work have shed light on the effects of high-Z doping and microstructural refinement on the dynamics of differential thermal expansion and have shown that current ICF capsule designs using beryllium are very effective in reducing preheat related roughening ahead of the first shock.

  8. How Does Fusion Energy Work? | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Does Fusion Energy Work? How Does Fusion Energy Work? July 29, 2016 - 1:27pm Addthis How Does Fusion Energy Work? Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer A plain building in Plainsboro, New Jersey houses a machine that can produce plasma -- superheated, charged gas -- hotter than the center of the sun. We're talking 100 million degrees Fahrenheit...in a building...in New Jersey. It's the NSTX-U, the National

  9. Flibe Coolant Cleanup and Processing in the HYLIFE-II Inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flibe Coolant Cleanup and Processing in the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flibe Coolant Cleanup and Processing in the ...

  10. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  11. 10 Facts You Should Know About Fusion Energy | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Facts You Should Know About Fusion Energy By Larry Bernard January 25, 2016 Tweet ... Stars - and there are billions and billions of them - produce energy by fusion of light ...

  12. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  13. Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2001-05-01

    An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.

  14. Inertial confinement fusion target component fabrication and technology development support: Annual report, October 1, 1997--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, J. [ed.

    1998-12-01

    During this period, General Atomics (GA) and their partner Schafer Corporation were assigned 17 formal tasks in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and its five laboratories. A portion of the effort on these tasks included providing direct ``On-site Support`` at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Sandia National Laboratory Albuquerque (SNLA). They fabricated and delivered over 1,200 hohlraum mandrels and numerous other micromachined components to LLNL, LANL, and SNLA. They produced more than 1,300 glass and plastic target capsules for LLNL, LANL, SNLA, and the University of Rochester/Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE). They also delivered nearly 2,000 various target foils and films for Naval Research Lab (NRL) and UR/LLE in FY98. This report describes these target fabrication activities and the target fabrication and characterization development activities that made the deliveries possible. During FY98, great progress was made by the GA/Schafer-UR/LLE-LANL team in the design, procurement, installation, and testing of the OMEGA Cryogenic Target System (OCTS) that will field cryogenic targets on OMEGA. The design phase was concluded for all components of the OCTS and all major components were procured and nearly all were fabricated. Many of the components were assembled and tested, and some have been shipped to UR/LLE. The ICF program is anticipating experiments at the OMEGA laser and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which will require targets containing cryogenic layered D{sub 2} or deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel. They are part of the National Cryogenic Target Program and support experiments at LLNL and LANL to generate and characterize cryogenic layers for these targets. They also contributed cryogenic support and developed concepts for NIF cryogenic targets. This report summarizes and documents the technical progress made on these tasks.

  15. Questions and answers about ITER and fusion energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    QA & What is fusion? Fusion, the energy source of the sun and stars, is the most efficient process for converting mass into energy (E = mc 2 ). The fusion process is environmentally benign and does not emit gases that contribute to global warming or acid rain. Abundant fuel supplies for fusion are available that could meet the needs of the world's population for more than 10,000 years if the fusion process is harnessed successfully. When will fusion successfully produce useable energy? The

  16. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Zylstra, A. B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rinderknecht, H. G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Waugh, C. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sinenian, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Hohenberger, M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mackinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Talison, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zacharias, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (?R) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are <10% in yield and 120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF

  17. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B.; Casey, D. T.; Landen, O. L.; Moran, M. J.; Zacharias, R. A.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF

  18. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  19. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-01

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to 15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~25-40 km/s.

  20. Fusion energy | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy Subscribe to RSS - Fusion energy The energy released when two atomic nuclei fuse together. This process powers the sun and stars. Read more Stewart Prager Stewart Prager is the sixth director of PPPL. He joined the Laboratory in 2009 after a long career at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. At Wisconsin, he led research on the "Madison Symmetric Torus" (MST) experiment and headed a center that studied plasmas in both the laboratory and the cosmos. He also co-discovered the

  1. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; et al

    2014-06-04

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energymore » uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.« less

  2. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  3. Vintage DOE: What is Fusion | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Vintage DOE: What is Fusion Vintage DOE: What is Fusion January 10, 2011 - 12:45pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor for Energy.gov, Office of Public ...

  4. Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences: Target 2017 Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017 The NERSC Program Requirements Review "Large Scale Production Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences" is organized by the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The review's goal is to

  5. How Does Fusion Energy Work? | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Does Fusion Energy Work? By Raphael Rosen August 25, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Fusion is the energy source of the sun and stars. (Photo by U.S. Department of Energy) Fusion is the energy source of the sun and stars. Click here to view a cool infographic about fusion energy from the U.S. Department of Energy. Contact Info PPPL Office of Communications Email: PPPL_OOC@pppl.gov Phone: 609-243-2755 Download Select and View High Resolution Images to Download Learn More

  6. Overview of US Fusion Energy Programs: January 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    The US Fusion Program is in {open_quotes}Transition.{close_quotes} This happens so infrequently that no one knows exactly what to expect; it makes everyone a little skittish. Program leadership does make a difference; Secretary Watkins was a positive force for fusion. Energy Research Director Happer remains in his position and is a positive force for scientific quality. Secretary O`Leary has stated that {open_quotes}Fusion energy holds great promise as an element of the nation`s long-term energy supply.{close_quotes} While new leaders may seek new directions with important implications for fusion, it seems reasonable to expect that, for fusion, such changes are likely to emerge slowly. Thus the assumption now is that the fusion priorities remain unchanged. In the spirit of optimism surrounding the new administration, the Fusion Energy Program`s intention is to make as much progress as possible on the course presently established.

  7. Princeton University Energy Scholars report focuses on fusion energy |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton University Energy Scholars report focuses on fusion energy By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe July 28, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Adam Cohen, at left, former deputy director for operations at PPPL, with Princeton Energy Scholars in the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade Control Room during a tour of PPPL in June 2014. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Adam Cohen, at left, former deputy director for operations

  8. Fiscal year 1984 Department of Energy authorization (magnetic fusion energy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume V of the hearing record covers two days of testimony by representatives of laboratories and industries involved in fusion energy research, followed by Alvin W. Trivelpiece and others of DOE, on the need to encourage industrial involvement and responsibility in the fusion energy effort. The fusion community expressed optimism for the program, but noted the limitations in program imposed by DOE budgets. Trivelpiece responded that the $467 million budget reflects strong support from the administration. There was disagreement among the witnesses on the direction that engineering efforts should take and whether DOE offices are guilty of meddling in the program. Appendices with additional material and statements for the record follow each day's testimony. (DCK)

  9. Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spherical strong-shock generation for shock-ignition inertial fusion ...

  10. Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser fusion experiment yields record energy at NIF | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  11. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  12. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  13. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, A. J.; Cooper, G. W. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; Smelser, R.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode for inertial confinement fusion experiments has been applied to the on-axis nTOF detectors located in the basement of the Z-Facility. It will be shown that this method can identify sources of neutron scattering, and is useful for predicting detector responses in future experimental configurations, and for identifying potential sources of neutron scattering when experimental set-ups change. This method can also provide insight on how much broadening neutron scattering contributes to the primary signals, which is then subtracted from them. Detector time responses are deconvolved from the signals, allowing a transformation from dN/dt to dN/dE, extracting neutron spectra at each detector location; these spectra are proportional to the absolute yield.

  14. Energy Secretary Moniz Launches the Nation's Newest Fusion Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Secretary Moniz Launches the Nation's Newest Fusion Experiment at PPPL National ... One Share on Facebook U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, center, in the NSTX-U test cell. ...

  15. Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion Energy |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Plasma Turbulence Simulations Reveal Promising Insight for Fusion Energy By Argonne National Laboratory March 31, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Simulation of microturbulence in a tokamak fusion device. (Credit: Chad Jones and Kwan-Liu Ma, University of California, Davis; Stephane Ethier, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) Simulation of microturbulence in a tokamak fusion device. (Credit: Chad Jones and Kwan-Liu Ma, University of

  16. The Effects of Neutron Transfer on Nuclear Fusion at Low Energies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Neutron Transfer on Nuclear Fusion at Low Energies Nuclear fusion produces heavier nuclei in stars and in laboratories. At energies so low that a classical particle ...

  17. Energy Secretary Moniz Launches the Nation's Newest Fusion Experiment at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Energy Secretary Moniz Launches the Nation's Newest Fusion Experiment at PPPL National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade will help determine the course of fusion energy for years to come By Larry Bernard May 20, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook U.S. Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, center, in the NSTX-U test cell. From left: PPPL physicist Stefan Gerhardt; Princeton University President Christopher L. Eisgruber; Princeton University

  18. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Target 2014 High Energy Physics (HEP) Nuclear Physics (NP) Overview Published Reports Case Study FAQs NERSC HPC Achievement Awards Share Your Research User Submitted Research Citations NERSC Citations Home » Science at NERSC » HPC Requirements Reviews » Requirements Reviews: Target 2014 » Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2014 FESFrontcover.png An FES / ASCR / NERSC Workshop August 3-4, 2010 Final Report Large

  19. Fusion Energy Greg Hammett & Russell Kulsred Princeton University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spitzer's 100th: Founding PPPL & Pioneering Work in Fusion Energy Greg Hammett & Russell Kulsred Princeton University Wednesday, Dec 4, 2013 - 4:15PM MBG AUDITORIUM Refreshments at 4:00PM The PrinceTon Plasma Physics laboraTory is a U.s. DeParTmenT of energy faciliTy Lyman Spitzer, Jr. made major contributions in several fields of astrophysics, plasma physics, and fusion energy. He invented the novel stellarator concept for confining plasmas for fusion, and was an early proponent of

  20. How Does Fusion Energy Work? | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How Does Fusion Energy Work? How Does Fusion Energy Work? July 29, 2016 - 1:27pm Addthis How Does Fusion Energy Work? Pat Adams Pat Adams Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Carly Wilkins Carly Wilkins Multimedia Designer A plain building in Plainsboro, New Jersey houses a machine that can produce plasma -- superheated, charged gas -- hotter than the center of the sun. We're talking 100 million degrees Fahrenheit...in a building...in New Jersey. It's the NSTX-U, the National

  1. Women @ Energy: Debra Callahan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Debra Callahan Women @ Energy: Debra Callahan March 11, 2013 - 5:28pm Addthis Women @ Energy: Debra Callahan Debbie Callahan is a group leader for Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Design at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Debbie Callahan is a group leader for Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Design at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Women @ Energy: Debra Callahan Check out other profiles in the Women @ Energy series and share your favorites on Pinterest. Debbie Callahan is a

  2. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2014-10-10

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (ρR) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in themore » filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF« less

  3. LLE 1998 annual report, October 1997--September 1998. Inertial fusion program and National Laser Users` Facility program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and programs involving the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students for FY98. Research summaries cover: progress in laser fusion; diagnostic development; laser and optical technology; and advanced technology for laser targets.

  4. Scientists discuss progress toward magnetic fusion energy at 2013 AAAS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual meeting | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Scientists discuss progress toward magnetic fusion energy at 2013 AAAS annual meeting February 21, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Scientists participating in the worldwide effort to develop magnetic fusion energy for generating electricity gave progress reports to the 2013 annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston. Speaking were physicists George "Hutch" Neilson of the U.S.

  5. Kinetic Simulations of Fusion Energy Dynamics at the Extreme Scale |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Kinetic Simulations of Fusion Energy Dynamics at the Extreme Scale PI Name: William Tang PI Email: tang@pppl.gov Institution: Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 40 Million Year: 2013 Research Domain: Physics To build the scientific foundations needed to develop fusion power as a clean and sustainable energy source, the timely development of a high-physics-fidelity predictive simulation capability for

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency holds conference on fusion roadmap |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab International Atomic Energy Agency holds conference on fusion roadmap By John Greenwald November 8, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Hutch Neilson, third from left, chaired the four-day International Atomic Energy Agency Conference at the University of California at Los Angeles in mid-October, which drew 70 participants from 16 countries and international groups. Pictured here from left to right are Keeman Kim, National Fusion Research

  7. U.S. Signs International Fusion Energy Agreement | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Signs International Fusion Energy Agreement U.S. Signs International Fusion Energy Agreement November 21, 2006 - 9:25am Addthis Large-Scale, Clean Fusion Energy Project to Begin Construction PARIS, FRANCE - Representing the United States, Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, Under Secretary for Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), today joined counterparts from China, the European Union, India, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation to sign an agreement to build the international

  8. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangerter, R.O.

    2000-03-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established a new, larger inertial fusion energy program. To manage program growth, we have developed a new inertial fusion energy research and we have established a Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion. There has been significant technical progress. Improvements in target design have reduced the predicted energy requirements by approximately a factor of two. There have also been important experiments on chamber dynamics and other inertial fusion technologies. The accelerator program has completed a number of small-scale experiments. Experiments with driver-scale beams are being designed -- including experiments with driver-scale ion sources and injectors. Finally we are developing the technologies needed to build a major research facility known as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)

  9. PPPL to launch major upgrade of key fusion energy test facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to launch major upgrade of key fusion energy test facility NSTX project will produce most ... of nuclear fusion as a clean, safe and abundant fuel for generating electricity. ...

  10. Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Living on the edge Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy By ... Researchers working on an advanced experimental fusion reactor are readying experiments ...

  11. An experimental investigation of stimulated Brillouin scattering in laser-produced plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, K.S.

    1993-02-11

    Despite the apparent simplicity of controlled fusion, there are many phenomena which have prevented its achievement. One phenomenon is laser-plasma instabilities. An investigation of one such instability, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), is reported here. SBS is a parametric process whereby an electromagnetic wave (the parent wave) decays into another electromagnetic wave and an ion acoustic wave (the daughter waves). SBS impedes controlled fusion since it can scatter much or all of the incident laser light, resulting in poor drive symmetry and inefficient laser-plasma coupling. It is widely believed that SBS becomes convectively unstable--that is, it grows as it traverses the plasma. Though it has yet to be definitively tested, convective theory is often invoked to explain experimental observations, even when one or more of the theory`s assumptions are violated. In contrast, the experiments reported here not only obeyed the assumptions of the theory, but were also conducted in plasmas with peak densities well below quarter-critical density. This prevented other competing or coexisting phenomena from occurring, thereby providing clearly interpretable results. These are the first SBS experiments that were designed to be both a clear test of linear convective theory and pertinent to controlled fusion research. A crucial part of this series of experiments was the development of a new instrument, the Multiple Angle Time Resolving Spectrometer (MATRS). MATRS has the unique capability of both spectrally and temporally resolving absolute levels of scattered light at many angles simultaneously, and is the first of its kind used in laser-plasma experiments. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and the experimental observations is made.

  12. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.

    2014-07-15

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure RayleighTaylor and RichtmyerMeshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a low-foot drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  13. Photons & Fusion Newsletter - 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery Science on NIF: Exploring the Physics of Star Formation Article on MOIRE Optics on Cover of Applied Optics Mode 1 Drive Asymmetry in NIF Inertial Confinement Fusion...

  14. A New Vision for Fusion Energy Research: Fusion Rocket Engines for Planetary Defense

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; Parks, P. B.; Evans, T. E.; Cohen, S. A.; Cassibry, J. T.; Campbell, E. M.

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We also lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. Deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass is also be possible.

  15. A new vision for fusion energy research: Fusion rocket engines for planetary defense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.; Turchi, P. J.; Parks, P. B.; Evans, T. E.; Cohen, S. A.; Cassibry, J. T.; Campbell, E. M.

    2015-11-16

    Here, we argue that it is essential for the fusion energy program to identify an imagination-capturing critical mission by developing a unique product which could command the marketplace. We lay out the logic that this product is a fusion rocket engine, to enable a rapid response capable of deflecting an incoming comet, to prevent its impact on the planet Earth, in defense of our population, infrastructure, and civilization. As a side benefit, deep space solar system exploration, with greater speed and orders-of-magnitude greater payload mass would also be possible.

  16. A Fusion Development Facility on the Critical Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, V. S.; Stambaugh, R

    2011-01-01

    A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF's nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

  17. A fusion development facility on the critical path to fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Dr. Vincent; Canik, John; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2011-01-01

    A fusion development facility (FDF) based on the tokamak approach with normal conducting magnetic field coils is presented. FDF is envisioned as a facility with the dual objective of carrying forward advanced tokamak (AT) physics and enabling the development of fusion energy applications. AT physics enables the design of a compact steady-state machine of moderate gain that can provide the neutron fluence required for FDF s nuclear science development objective. A compact device offers a uniquely viable path for research and development in closing the fusion fuel cycle because of the demand to consume only a moderate quantity of the limited supply of tritium fuel before the technology is in hand for breeding tritium.

  18. Fusion: A necessary component of US energy policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Correll, D.L. Jr.

    1989-01-11

    US energy policy must ensure that its security, its economy, or its world leadership in technology development are not compromised by failure to meet the nation's electrical energy needs. Increased concerns over the greenhouse effect from fossil-fuel combustion mean that US energy policy must consider how electrical energy dependence on oil and coal can be lessened by conservation, renewable energy sources, and advanced energy options (nuclear fission, solar energy, and thermonuclear fusion). In determining how US energy policy is to respond to these issues, it will be necessary to consider what role each of the three advanced energy options might play, and to determine how these options can complement one another. This paper reviews and comments on the principal US studies and legislation that have addressed fusion since 1980, and then suggests a research, development, and demonstration program that is consistent with the conclusions of those prior authorities and that will allow us to determine how fusion technology can fit into a US energy policy that takes a balanced, long term view of US needs. 17 refs.

  19. ICENES '91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, [mu]-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  20. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments Braun, T 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE Abstract not provided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA...

  1. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of aerogel-lined ...

  2. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  3. Demonstration of a time-integrated short line of sight neutron imaging system for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, R. Danly, C.; Fatherley, V. E.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P.; Wilde, C.; Christensen, K.; Fittinghoff, D.; Grim, G. P.; Izumi, N.; Jedlovec, D.; Skulina, K.

    2015-12-15

    The Neutron Imaging System (NIS) is an important diagnostic for understanding implosions of deuterium-tritium capsules at the National Ignition Facility. While the detectors for the existing system must be positioned 28 m from the source to produce sufficient imaging magnification and resolution, recent testing of a new short line of sight neutron imaging system has shown sufficient resolution to allow reconstruction of the source image with quality similar to that of the existing NIS on a 11.6 m line of sight. The new system used the existing pinhole aperture array and a stack of detectors composed of 2 mm thick high-density polyethylene converter material followed by an image plate. In these detectors, neutrons enter the converter material and interact with protons, which recoil and deposit energy within the thin active layer of the image plate through ionization losses. The described system produces time-integrated images for all neutron energies passing through the pinhole. We present details of the measurement scheme for this novel technique to produce energy-integrated neutron images as well as source reconstruction results from recent experiments at NIF.

  4. ReNeW: Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Needs for the ITER Era...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ReNeW: Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Needs for the ITER Era Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ReNeW: Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Needs for the ITER Era Authors: ...

  5. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Petti; Susana Reyes; Lee C. Cadwallader; Jeffery F. Latkowski

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  6. NERSC Role in Fusion Energy Science Research Katherine Yelick

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Energy Science Research Katherine Yelick NERSC Director Requirements Workshop NERSC Mission The mission of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is to accelerate the pace of scientific discovery by providing high performance computing, information, data, and communications services for all DOE Office of Science (SC) research. New Type of Nonlinear Plasma Instability Discovered Objective: Study large periodic instabilities called Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in

  7. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J.

    2013-07-15

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  8. Stauts of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Hohlraum Point Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lasinski, B; Meeker, D; Ross, J S

    2012-04-10

    Progress on the hohlraum point design for the LIFE engine is described. New features in the original design [Amendt et al., Fus. Sci. Technol. 60, 49 (2011)] are incorporated that address the imperatives of low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, efficient and prompt material recycling, an ability for near-term testing of key target design uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility, and robustness to target chamber environment and injection insults. To this end, the novel use of Pb hohlraums and aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel loading within a high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator is implemented in the hohlraum point design.

  9. The National Ignition Facility: inertial fusion energy applications, waste management, and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchner, F.R.; Lazaro, M.A.; Miley, G.H.; Petra, M.

    1996-10-01

    Proposed design of NIF is reviewed from the standpoint of radioactive and hazardous materials. Detailed analyses of these factors indicated that minimal environmental impacts are expected to occur, and very low exposures are predicted for both workers and the general public.

  10. ICENES `91:Sixth international conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the program and abstracts of the sessions at the Sixth International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems held June 16--21, 1991 at Monterey, California. These sessions included: The plenary session, fission session, fission and nonelectric session, poster session 1P; (space propulsion, space nuclear power, electrostatic confined fusion, fusion miscellaneous, inertial confinement fusion, {mu}-catalyzed fusion, and cold fusion); Advanced fusion session, space nuclear session, poster session 2P, (nuclear reactions/data, isotope separation, direct energy conversion and exotic concepts, fusion-fission hybrids, nuclear desalting, accelerator waste-transmutation, and fusion-based chemical recycling); energy policy session, poster session 3P (energy policy, magnetic fusion reactors, fission reactors, magnetically insulated inertial fusion, and nuclear explosives for power generation); exotic energy storage and conversion session; and exotic energy storage and conversion; review and closing session.

  11. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  12. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee: Advice and recommendations to the US Department of Energy in response to the charge letter of September 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This document is a compilation of the written records that relate to the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee`s deliberations with regard to the Letter of Charge received from the Director of Energy Research, dated September 1, 1992. During its sixth meeting, held in March 1993, FEAC provided a detailed response to the charge contained in the letter of September 1, 1992. In particular, it responded to the paragraph: ``I would like the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) to evaluate the Neutron Interactive Materials Program of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). Materials are required that will satisfy the service requirements of components in both inertial and magnetic fusion reactors -- including the performance, safety, economic, environmental, and recycle/waste management requirements. Given budget constraints, is our program optimized to achieve these goals for DEMO, as well as to support the near-term ITER program?`` Before FEAC could generate its response to the charge in the form of a letter report, one member, Dr. Parker, expressed severe concerns over one of the conclusions that the committee had reached during the meeting. It proved necessary to resolve the issue in public debate, and the matter was reviewed by FEAC for a second time, during its seventh meeting, held in mid-April, 1993. In order to help it to respond to this charge in a timely manner, FEAC established a working group, designated Panel No. 6, which reviewed the depth and breadth of the US materials program, and its interactions and collaborations with international programs. The panel prepared background material, included in this report as Appendix I, to help FEAC in its deliberations.

  13. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  14. Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Homepage | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Programs » FES Home Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information » Modeled trajectories of energetic particles as they interact with

  15. Response to FESAC survey, Non-Fusion Connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Long Duration Directional Drives for Star Formation and Photoionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, J. O.; Martinez, D. A.; Pound, M. W.; Heeter, R. F.; Villette, B.; Casner, A.; Mancini, R. C.

    2015-06-19

    Due to the iconic status of the pillars of the Eagle Nebula, this research will bring popular attention to plasma physics, HED laboratory physics, and fundamental science at NIF and other experimental facilities. The result will be to both to bring new perspectives to the studies of hydrodynamics in inertial confinement fusion and HED scenarios in general, and to promote interest in the STEM disciplines.

  16. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Vay, J. L.

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  17. Fusion materials high energy-neutron studies. A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doran, D.G.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are (1) to provide background information on the US Magnetic Fusion Reactor Materials Program, (2) to provide a framework for evaluating nuclear data needs associated with high energy neutron irradiations, and (3) to show the current status of relevant high energy neutron studies. Since the last symposium, the greatest strides in cross section development have been taken in those areas providing FMIT design data, e.g., source description, shielding, and activation. In addition, many dosimetry cross sections have been tentatively extrapolated to 40 MeV and integral testing begun. Extensive total helium measurements have been made in a variety of neutron spectra. Additional calculations are needed to assist in determining energy dependent cross sections.

  18. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  19. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-11-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for base-load electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  20. DOE Science Showcase - Clean Fusion Power | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Scientific and Technical Information Clean Fusion Power Search Results from DOE Databases View research documents, citations, accomplishments, projects, and scientific research data related to advanced systems for fusion energy and nuclear power, primary scientific challenges addressed through the Incite Program. Fusion Energy and Advanced Systems Information Bridge Energy Citations Database DOE R&D Accomplishments DOE R&D Project Summaries DOE Data Explorer Nuclear Power and

  1. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  3. Interim report of the Cold Fusion Panel of the Energy Research Advisory Board

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and makes some preliminary conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  4. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  5. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  6. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  7. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  8. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-30

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  9. Opportunities in the Fusion Energy Sciences Program [Includes Appendix C: Topical Areas Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    Recent years have brought dramatic advances in the scientific understanding of fusion plasmas and in the generation of fusion power in the laboratory. Today, there is little doubt that fusion energy production is feasible. The challenge is to make fusion energy practical. As a result of the advances of the last few years, there are now exciting opportunities to optimize fusion systems so that an attractive new energy source will be available when it may be needed in the middle of the next century. The risk of conflicts arising from energy shortages and supply cutoffs, as well as the risk of severe environmental impacts from existing methods of energy production, are among the reasons to pursue these opportunities.

  10. Response to FESAC survey, Non-Fusion Connections to Fusion Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Response to FESAC survey, Non-Fusion ... Due to the iconic status of the pillars of the Eagle Nebula, this research will bring ...

  11. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  12. AVTA: 2010 Ford Fusion HEV Testing Results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ford Fusion HEV Testing Results AVTA: 2010 Ford Fusion HEV Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following reports describe results of testing done on a 2010 Ford Fusion hybrid-electric

  13. Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror Magnetic Fusion Energy Power Plant...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A fusion power plant is described that utilizes a new version of the tandem mirror device including spinning liquid walls. The magnetic configuration is evaluated with an ...

  14. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research: A Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    1986-12-01

    Some of the more important contributions of the research program needed to establish the scientific and technical base for fusion power production are discussed. (MOW)

  15. Magnetic fusion energy research: A summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Some of the more important contributions of the research program needed to establish the scientific and technical base for fusion power production are discussed. (MOW)

  16. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  17. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, R J

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  18. Laboratory for Laser Energetics annual report, 1 October 1991--30 September 1992. Inertial Fusion Program and National Laser Users Facility Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This is an annual report covering research progress on laser fusion and the OMEGA Upgrade design and development. In laser fusion, line-spectroscopy methods were demonstrated to be useful in diagnosing the core temperature and densities of polymer-shell targets; a theoretical analysis of nonlocal heat transport effects on filamentation of light in plasmas confirms that the principle mechanism driving filamentation is kinetic thermal rather than ponderomotive; a new method (spatial beam deflection) to produce laser pulses of arbitrary shape was developed; laser-plasma x-ray emission was measured using photodiode arrays; experiments on long-scale-length plasmas have shown that smoothing by spectral dispersion has proven effective in reducing Raman scattering; a method for increasing the gas-retention time of polymer shell targets was developed by overcoating them with aluminum. Experiments relating to the OMEGA Upgrade are described.

  19. DOE's Ed Synakowski traces key discoveries in the quest for fusion energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab DOE's Ed Synakowski traces key discoveries in the quest for fusion energy By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe March 9, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook The DOE's Associate Director of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences Ed Synakowski discusses the "aha" moments in the development of fusion energy at a March 5 Ronald E. Hatcher Science on Saturday lecture. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) The DOE's Associate Director of

  20. Physicists are a new kind of superhero in comic book on fusion energy |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Physicists are a new kind of superhero in comic book on fusion energy By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe November 9, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook PPPL has a new comic book on fusion energy. PPPL has a new comic book on fusion energy. Gallery: Sajan Saini (Photo by Massimo Licata) (Photo by Photo by Massimo Licata ) Sajan Saini (Photo by Massimo Licata) Frank Espinosa (Photo by Ilaria D'Uva) (Photo by Photo by Ilaria D'Uva ) Frank Espinosa (Photo by

  1. "Mug Handles" Help Get a Grip on Lower-Cost, Controllable Fusion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab "Mug Handles" Help Get a Grip on Lower-Cost, Controllable Fusion Energy American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: "Mug Handles" Help Get a Grip on Lower-Cost, Controllable Fusion Energy

  2. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimaoka, T. Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Isobe, M.; Sato, Y.; Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S.

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% 0.8% and 97.1% 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 0.4 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 0.3 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.51 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  3. Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. A ten-year perspective (2015-2025)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-01

    The vision described here builds on the present U.S. activities in fusion plasma and materials science relevant to the energy goal and extends plasma science at the frontier of discovery. The plan is founded on recommendations made by the National Academies, a number of recent studies by the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC), and the Administration’s views on the greatest opportunities for U.S. scientific leadership.This report highlights five areas of critical importance for the U.S. fusion energy sciences enterprise over the next decade: 1) Massively parallel computing with the goal of validated whole-fusion-device modeling will enable a transformation in predictive power, which is required to minimize risk in future fusion energy development steps; 2) Materials science as it relates to plasma and fusion sciences will provide the scientific foundations for greatly improved plasma confinement and heat exhaust; 3) Research in the prediction and control of transient events that can be deleterious to toroidal fusion plasma confinement will provide greater confidence in machine designs and operation with stable plasmas; 4) Continued stewardship of discovery in plasma science that is not expressly driven by the energy goal will address frontier science issues underpinning great mysteries of the visible universe and help attract and retain a new generation of plasma/fusion science leaders; 5) FES user facilities will be kept world-leading through robust operations support and regular upgrades. Finally, we will continue leveraging resources among agencies and institutions and strengthening our partnerships with international research facilities.

  4. Intense fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-15

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 10{sup 15}-10{sup 21} neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 10{sup 20} neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the

  5. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen A.

    2012-08-24

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  6. Photo of the Week: Repurposing the Xbox | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Both! The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large research device located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NIF uses powerful lasers to heat and compress hydrogen fuel to the point where nuclear fusion reactions take place. It is currently the largest and most energetic inertial confinement fusion device in the world. Researchers use the NIF to ensure the safety of nuclear weapons, explore the potential of fusion as a safe energy source, and understand how the

  7. Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Living on the edge Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy By Kitta MacPherson March 30, 2011 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Researchers working on an advanced experimental fusion machine are readying experiments that will investigate a host of scientific puzzles, including how heat escapes as hot magnetized plasma, and what materials are best for handling intense plasma powers. Scientists conducting research on the National

  8. Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab Living on the edge Fusion scientists gear up to learn how to harness plasma energy By Kitta MacPherson March 28, 2011 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Researchers working on an advanced experimental fusion reactor are readying experiments that will investigate a host of scientific puzzles, including how heat escapes as hot magnetized plasma, and what materials are best for handling intense plasma powers. Scientists conducting research on the National

  9. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    The Fusion Program carries out work in a number of areas: (1) experimental and theoretical research on two magnetic confinement concepts - the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) and the tokamak, (2) theoretical and engineering studies on a third concept - the stellarator, (3) engineering and physics of present-generation fusion devices, (4) development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques, (5) development and testing of materials for fusion devices, (6) development and testing of the essential technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, (7) development and testing of the superconducting magnets that will be needed to confine these plasmas, (8) design of future devices, (9) assessment of the environmental impact of fusion energy, and (10) assembly and distribution to the fusion community of data bases on atomic physics and radiation effects. The interactions between these activities and their integration into a unified program are major factors in the success of the individual activities, and the ORNL Fusion Program strives to maintain a balance among these activities that will lead to continued growth.

  10. Kinetic Simulations of Fusion Energy Dynamics at the Extreme Scale |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Electrostatic potential in a particle-in-cell simulation of a tokamak plasma. The tokamak fusion device uses magnetic fields to contain a heated plasma in a toroidal shape. Pictured is the electrostatic potential in the simulated tokamak. The plasma, being made up of charged particles, is driven by the potential; the two evolve self-consistently. Chad Jones and Kwan-Liu Ma, University of California, Davis; Stephane Ethier, Princeton Plasma Physics

  11. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation.

  12. Fusion energy division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The ORNL Program encompasses most aspects of magnetic fusion research including research on two magnetic confinement programs (tokamaks and ELMO bumpy tori); the development of the essential technologies for plasma heating, fueling, superconducting magnets, and materials; the development of diagnostics; the development of atomic physics and radiation effect data bases; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; the physics and engineering of present-generation devices; and the design of future devices. The integration of all of these activities into one program is a major factor in the success of each activity. An excellent example of this integration is the extremely successful application of neutral injection heating systems developed at ORNL to tokamaks both in the Fusion Energy Division and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The goal of the ORNL Fusion Program is to maintain this balance between plasma confinement, technology, and engineering activities.

  13. Proliferation Risks of Magneetic Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production and Breakout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Glaser and R.J. Goldston

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to weapon-usable materials can be divided into three main categories: (1) clandestine production of weapon-usable material in an undeclared facility, (2) covert production of such material inn a declared facility, and (3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risks from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if the fusion system is designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  14. Fusion in the Era of Burning Plasma Studies: Workforce Planning for 2004 to 2014. Final report to FESA C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    This report has been prepared in response to Dr. R. Orbach’s request of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) to “address the issue of workforce development in the U.S. fusion program.” The report addresses three key questions: what is the current status of the fusion science, technology, and engineering workforce; what is the workforce that will be needed and when it will be needed to ensure that the U.S. is an effective partner in ITER and to enable the U.S. to successfully carry out the fusion program; and, what can be done to ensure a qualified, diversified, and sufficiently large workforce and a pipeline to maintain that workforce? In addressing the charge, the Panel considers a workforce that allows for a vigorous national program of fusion energy research that includes participation in magnetic fusion (ITER) and inertial fusion (NIF) burning plasma experiments.

  15. Energy Secretary Moniz Launches the Nation's Newest Fusion Experiment at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Francisco to Advance Technology Solutions, Accelerate Clean Energy Deployment | Department of Energy Hosts Gathering of World's Energy Ministers in San Francisco to Advance Technology Solutions, Accelerate Clean Energy Deployment Energy Secretary Moniz Hosts Gathering of World's Energy Ministers in San Francisco to Advance Technology Solutions, Accelerate Clean Energy Deployment June 2, 2016 - 5:47pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov 21 Major Governments and the

  16. U.S. Signs International Fusion Energy Agreement; Large-Scale, Clean Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays Review of Emerging Resources: July 2011 www.eia.gov U.S. Depa rtment of Energy W ashington, DC 20585 This page inTenTionally lefT blank The information presented in this overview is based on the report Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays, which was prepared by INTEK, Inc. for the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The full report is attached. By law,

  17. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  18. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Homepage | U.S. DOE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Science (SC) FESAC Home Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) FESAC Home Meetings Members Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (266KB) FES Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees FES Home Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) has been Chartered .pdf file (266KB) pursuant to Section 14(a)(2)(A) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act Public Law 92-463, and Section 101-6.1015, title 41 Code of Federal

  19. Fokker–Planck kinetic modeling of suprathermal α-particles in a fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peigney, B.E.

    2014-12-01

    We present an ion kinetic model describing the transport of suprathermal α-particles in inertial fusion targets. The analysis of the underlying physical model enables us to develop efficient numerical methods to simulate the creation, transport and collisional relaxation of fusion reaction products (α-particles) at a kinetic level. The model assumes spherical symmetry in configuration space and axial symmetry in velocity space around the mean flow velocity. A two-energy-scale approach leads to a self-consistent modeling of the coupling between suprathermal α-particles and the thermal bulk of the imploding plasma. This method provides an accurate numerical treatment of energy deposition and transport processes involving suprathermal particles. The numerical tools presented here are then validated against known analytical results. This enables us to investigate the potential role of ion kinetic effects on the physics of ignition and thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion schemes.

  20. Complete Fusion and Break-up Fusion Reactions in Light Ion Interactions at Low Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Foertsch, S. V.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Fujita, H.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Dlamini, J.; Cowley, A. A.; Connell, S. H.

    2007-10-26

    Experimental spectra of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs) produced in the interaction of two {sup 12}C ions at incident energy of 200 MeV and their reproduction by a binary fragmentation model and the Boltzmann Master Equation theory as implemented into the Monte Carlo transport and interaction code FLUKA are shown.

  1. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Alan J.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Fehl, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Smelser, Ruth Marie; Torres, Jose A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several machines in this country that produce short bursts of neutrons for various applications. A few examples are the Zmachine, operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM; the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY; and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) operated by the Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. They all incorporate neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors which measure neutron yield, and the shapes of the waveforms from these detectors contain germane information about the plasma conditions that produce the neutrons. However, the signals can also be %E2%80%9Cclouded%E2%80%9D by a certain fraction of neutrons that scatter off structural components and also arrive at the detectors, thereby making analysis of the plasma conditions more difficult. These detectors operate in current mode - i.e., they have no discrimination, and all the photomultiplier anode charges are integrated rather than counted individually as they are in single event counting. Up to now, there has not been a method for modeling an nTOF detector operating in current mode. MCNPPoliMiwas developed in 2002 to simulate neutron and gammaray detection in a plastic scintillator, which produces a collision data output table about each neutron and photon interaction occurring within the scintillator; however, the postprocessing code which accompanies MCNPPoliMi assumes a detector operating in singleevent counting mode and not current mode. Therefore, the idea for this work had been born: could a new postprocessing code be written to simulate an nTOF detector operating in current mode? And if so, could this process be used to address such issues as the impact of neutron scattering on the primary signal? Also, could it possibly even identify sources of scattering (i.e., structural materials) that

  2. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the...

  3. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  4. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  5. Quality assurance in the Antares laser fusion construction project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichelt, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Antares CO/sub 2/ laser facility came on line in November 1983 as an experimental physics facility; it is the world's largest CO/sub 2/ laser fusion system. Antares is a major component of the Department of Energy's Inertial Confinement Fusion Program. Antares is a one-of-a-kind laser system that is used in an experimental environment. Given limited project funds and tight schedules, the quality assurance program was tailored to achieve project goals without imposing oppressive constraints. The discussion will review the Antares quality assurance program and the utility of various portions to completion of the project.

  6. New heavy-ion-fusion accelerator research program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1983-05-01

    This paper will briefly summarize the concepts of Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), especially those aspects that are important to its potential for generating electrical power. It will also note highlights of the various HIF programs throughout the world. Especially significant is that the US Department of Energy (DOE) plans a program, beginning in 1984, aimed at determining the feasibility of using heavy ion accelerators as drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The new program concentrates on the aspects of accelerator design that are important to ICF, and for this reason is called HIF Accelerator Research.

  7. US ITER | Why Fusion?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Fusion? US Fusion Research Educational Resources Why Fusion? Home > Why Fusion? What is Fusion? Fusion is a key element in long-term US energy plans. ITER will allow scientists to explore the physics of a burning plasma at energy densities close to that of a commercial power plant. This is a critical step towards producing and delivering electricity from fusion to the grid. Nuclear fusion occurs naturally in stars, like our sun. When hydrogen gets hot enough, the process of fusion

  8. Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    is filled with a mixture of two isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium (D) and tritium (T)) and is subjected to a sudden application of intense pressure and high temperature (Figure 1a). ...

  9. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Inertial confinement fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p>

    Thomas and Brunner, who were at the Lab in November, worked with engineer Bob Ellis, physicist Gary Taylor and technicians to install the system and gave talks on it to...

  10. Compressing turbulence to improve inertial confinement fusion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conducted by Professor Yitzhak Maron at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. ... Recently, the National Science Foundation and the Israel Binational Science Foundation ...

  11. A lower cost development path for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1993-05-19

    If two features of the inertial fusion process are exploited successfully, they can lead to significantly lower costs for demonstrating the feasibility of commercial electric power production from this source of energy. First, fusion capsule ignition and burn physics is independent of reaction chamber size and hydrodynamically-equivalent capsules can be designed to perform at small yield, exactly as they do at large yield. This means that an integrated test of all power plant components and feasibility tests of various reaction chamber concepts can be done at much smaller sizes (about 1--2 m first wall radius) and much lower powers (tens of MWs) than magnetic fusion development facilities such as ITER. Second, the driver, which is the most expensive component of currently conceived IFE development facilities, can be used to support more than one experiment target chamber/reactor (simultaneously and/or sequentially). These two factors lead to lower development facility costs, modular facilities, and the planning flexibility to spread costs over time or do several things in parallel and thus shorten the total time needed for development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). In this paper the authors describe the general feature of a heavy ion fusion development plan that takes advantage of upgradable accelerators and the ability to test chambers and reactor systems at small scale in order to reduce development time and costs.

  12. The search for solid state fusion lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research puts severe demands on the laser driver. In recent years large, multibeam Nd:glass lasers have provided a flexible experimental tool for exploring fusion target physics because of their high powers, variable pulse length and shape, wavelength flexibility using harmonic generation, and adjustable that Nd:glass lasers can be scaled up to provide a single-phase, multi-megajoule, high-gain laboratory microfusion facility, and gas-cooled slab amplifiers with laser diode pump sources are viable candidates for an efficient, high repetition rate, megawatt driver for an ICF reactor. In both applications requirements for energy storage and energy extraction drastically limit the choice of lasing media. Nonlinear optical effects and optical damage are additional design constraints. New laser architectures applicable to ICF drivers and possible laser materials, both crystals and glasses, are surveyed. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  13. A review of research in ``cold fusion`` and its impact on energy conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurtak, J.J.; Bailey, P.G.

    1995-12-31

    During the past six years, cold fusion enhancement through a variety of research techniques has grown at a rapid rate to the point where it now can be regarded as a major field of endeavor, a second generation heat transfer technology. Observations have been made of deuteron-deuteron (d-d) fusion at room temperature during low voltage electrolytic infusion of deuterons into metallic titanium or palladium electrodes. Neutrons with and energy of approximately 2.5 MeV were with a sensitive neutron spectrometer at a rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} n/s, which cannot be accounted for by ambient-neutron background variations. These reactions have been known to yield an excited helium nucleus ({sup 4} He) with approximately 23.8 MeV excess energy, where d+d= {sup 4}He + energy. In most successful experiments, 1% to 50% more heat than the input of electric power into the electrolytic cells has been recorded. These experiments are being successfully repeated on an international basis. Some of these results and various theories proposed to explain this phenomena are presented. Possible applications of ``cold fusion`` technology are given, and its impact on energy conservation is discussed.

  14. Summary of the report of the Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdren, J.P.; Berwald, D.H.; Budnitz, R.J.; Crocker, J.G.; Delene, J.G.; Endicott, R.D.; Kazimi, M.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Logan, B.G.; Schultz, K.R.

    1987-09-10

    The Senior Committee on Environmental, Safety, and Economic Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy (ESECOM) has assessed magnetic fusion energy's prospects for providing energy with economic, environmental, and safety characteristics that would be attractive compared with other energy sources (mainly fission) available in the year 2015 and beyond. ESECOM gives particular attention to the interaction of environmental, safety, and economic characteristics of a variety of magnetic fusion reactors, and compares them with a variety of fission cases. Eight fusion cases, two fusion-fission hybrid cases, and four fission cases are examined, using consistent economic and safety models. These models permit exploration of the environmental, safety, and economic potential of fusion concepts using a wide range of possible materials choices, power densities, power conversion schemes, and fuel cycles. The ESECOM analysis indicates that magnetic fusion energy systems have the potential to achieve costs-of-electricity comparable to those of present and future fission systems, coupled with significant safety and environmental advantages. 75 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. PPPL to launch major upgrade of key fusion energy test facility | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasma Physics Lab to launch major upgrade of key fusion energy test facility NSTX project will produce most powerful spherical torus in the world By John Greenwald January 9, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook NSTX-U cross section. NSTX-U cross section. Gallery: (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of

  16. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-05-16

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  17. Fusion Simulation Project. Workshop Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Rockville, MD, May 16-18, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritz, A.; Keyes, D.

    2007-05-18

    The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved forty-six physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from twenty-one institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a three-day workshop in May 2007.

  18. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Herrmann, Mark

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ?R, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ? 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG cm, a ~ 14 increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  19. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Schmit, P. F.; Hansen, S. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Hahn, K. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Harding, E.; Jennings, C. A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, G. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Geissel, M.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Porter, J. L.; Rochau, G. A.; and others

    2015-05-15

    By magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. We show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/−0.06) MG · cm, a ∼ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. This is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  20. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; et al

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used tomore » infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.« less

  1. Effects of magnetization on fusion product trapping and secondary neutron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Peterson, Kyle J.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Awe, Thomas James; Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Geissel, Matthias; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Porter, John L.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Savage, Mark E.; Smith, Ian C.; Stygar, William A.; Herrmann, Mark

    2015-05-14

    In magnetizing the fusion fuel in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) systems, we found that the required stagnation pressure and density can be relaxed dramatically. This happens because the magnetic field insulates the hot fuel from the cold pusher and traps the charged fusion burn products. This trapping allows the burn products to deposit their energy in the fuel, facilitating plasma self-heating. Here, we report on a comprehensive theory of this trapping in a cylindrical DD plasma magnetized with a purely axial magnetic field. Using this theory, we are able to show that the secondary fusion reactions can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product, BR, during fusion burn. This parameter, not ρR, is the primary confinement parameter in magnetized ICF. Using this method, we analyze data from recent Magnetized Liner InertialFusion experiments conducted on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories. Furthermore, we show that in these experiments BR ≈ 0.34(+0.14/-0.06) MG · cm, a ~ 14× increase in BR from the initial value, and confirming that the DD-fusion tritons are magnetized at stagnation. Lastly, this is the first experimental verification of charged burn product magnetization facilitated by compression of an initial seed magnetic flux.

  2. Fusion cross sections for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 124}Sn reaction at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkar, V. V.; Palit, R.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Naidu, B. S.; Santra, S.; Mahata, K.; Ramachandran, K.; Joshi, P. K.; Rath, P. K.; Trivedi, T.; Raghav, A.

    2010-11-15

    The complete and incomplete fusion cross sections for {sup 9}Be+{sup 124}Sn reaction have been deduced using the online {gamma}-ray measurement technique. Complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier was found to be suppressed by {approx}28% compared to the coupled-channels calculations and is in agreement with the systematics of L. R. Gasques et al. [Phys. Rev. C 79, 034605 (2009)]. Study of the projectile dependence for fusion on a {sup 124}Sn target shows that, for {sup 9}Be nuclei, the enhancement at below-barrier energies is substantial compared to that of tightly bound nuclei.

  3. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics study of membrane fusion: Curvature effects on free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamoto, Shuhei; Shinoda, Wataru; Klein, Michael L.

    2015-12-28

    The effects of membrane curvature on the free energy barrier for membrane fusion have been investigated using coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CG-MD) simulations, assuming that fusion takes place through a stalk intermediate. Free energy barriers were estimated for stalk formation as well as for fusion pore formation using the guiding potential method. Specifically, the three different geometries of two apposed membranes were considered: vesicle–vesicle, vesicle–planar, and planar–planar membranes. The free energy barriers for the resulting fusion were found to depend importantly on the fusing membrane geometries; the lowest barrier was obtained for vesicular membranes. Further, lipid sorting was observed in fusion of the mixed membranes of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). Specifically, DOPE molecules were found to assemble around the stalk to support the highly negative curved membrane surface. A consistent result for lipid sorting was observed when a simple continuum model (CM) was used, where the Helfrich energy and mixing entropy of the lipids were taken into account. However, the CM predicts a much higher free energy barrier than found using CG-MD. This discrepancy originates from the conformational changes of lipids, which were not considered in the CM. The results of the CG-MD simulations reveal that a large conformational change in the lipid takes place around the stalk region, which results in a reduction of free energy barriers along the stalk mechanism of membrane fusion.

  4. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Fusion Energy Sciences: Target 2017

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Richard

    2014-05-02

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,500 users working on some 650 projects that involve nearly 600 codes in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In March 2013, NERSC, DOE?s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE?s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) held a review to characterize High Performance Computing (HPC) and storage requirements for FES research through 2017. This report is the result.

  5. Possible in-lattice confinement fusion (LCF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawarasaki, Y.

    1996-05-01

    New scheme of a nuclear fusion reactor system is proposed, the basic concept of which comes from ingenious combination of hitherto developed techniques and verified facts; (1) so-called cold fusion (CF), (2) plasma of both magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), and (3) accelerator-based D-T (D) neutron source. Through the comparison of the characteristics among ICF, LCF, and MCF, the feasibility of the LCFs is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Safeguard Requirements for Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston and Alexander Glaser

    2012-08-10

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to fissile materials can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production and diversion of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state openly produces fissile material in violation of international agreements. The degree of risk in each of these categories is assessed, taking into account both state and non-state actors, and it is found that safeguards are required for fusion energy to be highly attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. Specific safeguard requirements and R&D needs are outlined for each category of risk, and the technical capability of the ITER experiment, under construction, to contribute to this R&D is noted. A preliminary analysis indicates a potential legal pathway for fusion power systems to be brought under the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. "Vertical" proliferation risks associated with tritium and with the knowledge that can be gained from inertial fusion energy R&D are outlined.

  7. Proceedings of the Office of Fusion Energy/DOE workshop on ceramic matrix composites for structural applications in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.H. ); Lucas, G.E. )

    1990-11-01

    A workshop to assess the potential application of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for structural applications in fusion reactors was held on May 21--22, 1990, at University of California, Santa Barbara. Participants included individuals familiar with materials and design requirements in fusion reactors, ceramic composite processing and properties and radiation effects. The primary focus was to list the feasibility issues that might limit the application of these materials in fusion reactors. Clear advantages for the use of CMCs are high-temperature operation, which would allow a high-efficiency Rankine cycle, and low activation. Limitations to their use are material costs, fabrication complexity and costs, lack of familiarity with these materials in design, and the lack of data on radiation stability at relevant temperatures and fluences. Fusion-relevant feasibility issues identified at this workshop include: hermetic and vacuum properties related to effects of matrix porosity and matrix microcracking; chemical compatibility with coolant, tritium, and breeder and multiplier materials, radiation effects on compatibility; radiation stability and integrity; and ability to join CMCs in the shop and at the reactor site, radiation stability and integrity of joints. A summary of ongoing CMC radiation programs is also given. It was suggested that a true feasibility assessment of CMCs for fusion structural applications could not be completed without evaluation of a material tailored'' to fusion conditions or at least to radiation stability. It was suggested that a follow-up workshop be held to design a tailored composite after the results of CMC radiation studies are available and the critical feasibility issues are addressed.

  8. X-Ray Energy Responses of Silicon Tomography Detectors Irradiated with Fusion Produced Neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirata, M. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Numakura, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yokoyama, N. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukai, T. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tomii, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Tokioka, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyake, Y. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kiminami, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shimizu, K. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Miyoshi, S. [Plasma Research Centre, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Hirano, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan); Yoshida, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Yamauchi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Kondoh, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan); Nishitani, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    In order to clarify the effects of fusion-produced neutron irradiation on silicon semiconductor x-ray detectors, the x-ray energy responses of both n- and p-type silicon tomography detectors used in the Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak (n-type) and the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror (p-type) are studied using synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory of the National Laboratory for High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). The fusion neutronics source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is employed as well-calibrated D-T neutron source with fluences from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto these semiconductor detectors. Different fluence dependence is found between these two types of detectors; that is, (i) for the n-type detector, the recovery of the degraded response is found after the neutron exposure beyond around 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} onto the detector. A further finding is followed as a 're-degradation' by a neutron irradiation level over about 10{sup 14} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. On the other hand, (ii) the energy response of the p-type detector shows only a gradual decrease with increasing neutron fluences. These properties are interpreted by our proposed theory on semiconductor x-ray responses in terms of the effects of neutrons on the effective doping concentration and the diffusion length of a semiconductor detector.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  10. Major next steps proposed for development of fusion energy based on the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spherical tokamak design | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Major next steps proposed for development of fusion energy based on the spherical tokamak design By John Greenwald August 24, 2016 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Phhysicist Jonathan Menard (Photo by Elle Starkman/Office of Communications) Phhysicist Jonathan Menard Gallery: Center stack of the NSTX-U. (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Center stack of the NSTX-U. NSTX-U test cell with tokamak in the

  11. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  12. Photo of the Week: The Mirror Fusion Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility Photo of the Week: The Mirror Fusion Test Facility July 19, 2013 - 4:17pm Addthis This 1981 photo shows the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), an experimental magnetic confinement fusion device built using a magnetic mirror at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The MFTF functioned as the primary research center for mirror fusion devices. The design consisted of a 64-meter-long vacuum vessel fitted with 26 coil magnets bonding the center of the vessel

  13. Microelectromechanical inertial sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-06-26

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) inertial sensor is disclosed which can be used to sense a linear acceleration, or a Coriolis acceleration due to an angular rotation rate, or both. The MEM inertial sensor has a proof mass which is supported on a bridge extending across an opening through a substrate, with the proof mass being balanced on the bridge by a pivot, or suspended from the bridge by the pivot. The proof mass can be oscillated in a tangential direction in the plane of the substrate, with any out-of-plane movement of the proof mass in response to a sensed acceleration being optically detected using transmission gratings located about an outer edge of the proof mass to generate a diffracted light pattern which changes with the out-of-plane movement of the proof mass.

  14. Magnetized Target Fusion project with high density FRC at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intrator, T.; Park, J. Y.; Wurden, G. A.; Taccetti, J. M.; Tuszewski, M.; Zhang, S. Y.; Waganaar, W.; Furno, I.; Hsu, S.; Tejero, E.; Leonard, M.; Bass, C.; Grabowski, C.; Degnan, J. H.

    2003-08-13

    We describe a program to demonstrate the scientific basis of Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). MTF is a potentially low cost path to fusion which is intermediate in plasma regime between magnetic (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). MTF involves the compression of a magnetized target plasma and PdV heating to fusion relevant conditions inside a converging flux conserving boundary. We have chosen to demonstrate MTF by using a field-reversed configuration (FRC) as our magnetized target plasma and an imploding metal liner for compression. These choices take advantage of significant past scientific and technical accomplishments in MFE and Defense Programs research and should yield substantial plasma performance (n{tau}>10{sup 13}s-cm{sup -3}>5 keV) using an available pulsed-power implosion facility at modest cost. We have recently shown this FRC to be within a factor of 2-3 of required pressure and lifetime.

  15. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-09-29

    The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

  16. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasche, G.P.

    1988-04-05

    A method for recovering energy in an inertial confinement fusion reactor having a reactor chamber and a sphere forming means positioned above an opening in the reactor chamber is described, comprising: embedding a fusion target fuel capsule having a predetermined yield in the center of a hollow solid lithium tube and subsequently embedding the hollow solid lithium tube in a liquid lithium medium; using the sphere forming means for forming the liquid lithium into a spherical shaped liquid lithium mass having a diameter smaller than the length of the hollow solid lithium tube with the hollow solid lithium tube being positioned along a diameter of the spherical shaped mass, providing the spherical shaped liquid lithium mass with the fusion fuel target capsule and hollow solid lithium tube therein as a freestanding liquid lithium shaped spherical shaped mass without any external means for maintaining the spherical shape by dropping the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass from the sphere forming means into the reactor chamber; producing a magnetic field in the reactor chamber; imploding the target capsule in the reactor chamber to produce fusion energy; absorbing fusion energy in the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass to convert substantially all the fusion energy to shock induced kinetic energy of the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass which expands the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass; and compressing the magnetic field by expansion of the liquid lithium spherical shaped mass and recovering useful energy.

  17. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power www.pppl.gov FACT SHEET FUSION POWER Check us out on YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ppplab Find us on Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/PPPLab Follow us on Twitter. @PPPLab Access our RSS feed @PPPLab Deuterium Electron Proton Hydrogen Tritium Neutron For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery to man. During the twentieth century, scientists discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. E=mc 2 , Albert Einstein's familiar

  18. Microelectromechanical inertial sensor (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) inertial sensor is disclosed which can be used to sense a linear acceleration, or a Coriolis acceleration due to an angular rotation rate, or both. ...

  19. Proceedings of the third symposium on the physics and technology of compact toroids in the magnetic fusion energy program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siemon, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    This document contains papers contributed by the participants of the Third Symposium on Physics and Technology of Compact Toroids in the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Subjects include reactor aspects of compact toroids, energetic particle rings, spheromak configurations (a mixture of toroidal and poloidal fields), and field-reversed configurations (FRC's that contain purely poloidal field).

  20. Automatic Mesh Adaptivity for Hybrid Monte Carlo/Deterministic Neutronics Modeling of Fusion Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad M; Wilson, P.; Sawan, M.; Mosher, Scott W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Grove, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Three mesh adaptivity algorithms were developed to facilitate and expedite the use of the CADIS and FW-CADIS hybrid Monte Carlo/deterministic techniques in accurate full-scale neutronics simulations of fusion energy systems with immense sizes and complicated geometries. First, a macromaterial approach enhances the fidelity of the deterministic models without changing the mesh. Second, a deterministic mesh refinement algorithm generates meshes that capture as much geometric detail as possible without exceeding a specified maximum number of mesh elements. Finally, a weight window coarsening algorithm decouples the weight window mesh and energy bins from the mesh and energy group structure of the deterministic calculations in order to remove the memory constraint of the weight window map from the deterministic mesh resolution. The three algorithms were used to enhance an FW-CADIS calculation of the prompt dose rate throughout the ITER experimental facility and resulted in a 23.3% increase in the number of mesh tally elements in which the dose rates were calculated in a 10-day Monte Carlo calculation. Additionally, because of the significant increase in the efficiency of FW-CADIS simulations, the three algorithms enabled this difficult calculation to be accurately solved on a regular computer cluster, eliminating the need for a world-class super computer.

  1. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  2. Expectations for {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced fusion cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Back, B. B.; Janssens, R.V.F; Physics

    2007-01-12

    The extrapolations of cross sections for fusion reactions involving {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei down to energies relevant for explosive stellar burning have been reexamined. Based on a systematic study of fusion in heavier systems, it is expected that a suppression of the fusion process will also be present in these light heavy-ion systems at extreme sub-barrier energies due to the saturation properties of nuclear matter. Previous phenomenological extrapolations of the S factor for light heavy-ion fusion based on optical model calculations may therefore have overestimated the corresponding reaction rates. A new 'recipe' is proposed to extrapolate S factors for light heavy-ion reactions to low energies taking the hindrance behavior into account. It is based on a fit to the logarithmic derivative of the experimental cross section which is much less sensitive to overall normalization discrepancies between different data sets than other approaches. This method, therefore, represents a significant improvement over other extrapolations. The impact on the astrophysical reaction rates is discussed.

  3. Expectations for {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O induced fusion cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. L.; Rehm, K. E.; Back, B. B.; Janssens, R. V. F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The extrapolations of cross sections for fusion reactions involving {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei down to energies relevant for explosive stellar burning have been reexamined. Based on a systematic study of fusion in heavier systems, it is expected that a suppression of the fusion process will also be present in these light heavy-ion systems at extreme sub-barrier energies due to the saturation properties of nuclear matter. Previous phenomenological extrapolations of the S factor for light heavy-ion fusion based on optical model calculations may therefore have overestimated the corresponding reaction rates. A new ''recipe'' is proposed to extrapolate S factors for light heavy-ion reactions to low energies taking the hindrance behavior into account. It is based on a fit to the logarithmic derivative of the experimental cross section which is much less sensitive to overall normalization discrepancies between different data sets than other approaches. This method, therefore, represents a significant improvement over other extrapolations. The impact on the astrophysical reaction rates is discussed.

  4. On impact fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterberg, F.

    1997-04-15

    Impact fusion is a promising, but much less developed road towards inertial confinement fusion. It offers an excellent solution to the so-called stand-off problem for thermonuclear microexplosions but is confronted with the challenge to accelerate macroscopic particles to the needed high velocities of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} km/s. To reach these velocities, two ways have been studied in the past. The electric acceleration of a beam of microparticles, with the particles as small as large clusters, and the magnetic acceleration of gram-size ferromagnetic or superconducting projectiles. For the generation of an intense burst of soft X-rays used for the indirect drive, impact fusion may offer new promising possibilities.

  5. Taming Plasma Fusion Snakes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taming Plasma Fusion Snakes Taming Plasma Fusion Snakes Supercomputer simulations move fusion energy closer to reality January 24, 2014 Kathy Kincade, +1 510 495 2124, kkincade@lbl.gov SugiSnakes_2.jpg Researchers have been able to see and measure plasma snakes - corkscrew-shaped concentrations of plasma density in the center of a fusion plasma -- for years. 3D nonlinear plasma simulations conducted at NERSC are providing new insights into the formation and stability of these structures. Image

  6. Proliferation Risks of Fusion Energy: Clandestine Production, Covert Production, and Breakout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.J. Goldston, A. Glaser, A.F. Ross

    2009-08-13

    Nuclear proliferation risks from fusion associated with access to weapon-usable material can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state begins production of fissile material without concealing the effort. In this paper we address each of these categories of risk from fusion. For each case, we find that the proliferation risk from fusion systems can be much lower than the equivalent risk from fission systems, if commercial fusion systems are designed to accommodate appropriate safeguards.

  7. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Bethesda, Maryland, June 8-12, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-06-08

    Nuclear fusion - the process that powers the sun - offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITE R fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world's population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES ) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW's task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.) This Report presents a portfolio of research activities for US research in magnetic fusion for the next two decades. It is intended to provide a

  8. Vertical dispersion of inertial waves in the upper ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenstein, D.M.

    1983-05-20

    A linear model of the vertical dispersion of near-inertial waves is developed. A porosity distribution near the bottom of the computational domain minimizes bottom reflections and simulates an ocean of the infinite depth. The model is used to show that the vertical dispersion of near-inertial waves in the upper ocean may, under certain conditions, contribute significanlty to the observed rapid decay of inertial oscillations in the surface layer. The kinetic energy of inertial oscillations at mid-latitudes decays with an e folding time scale of 10 days or less, when the parameter lambda(km)/N(cph)d(m) is less than or of the order of unity, where lambda is the wavelength of the wind-generated near-inertial waves, N is the Vaeisaelae frequency in the upper pycnocline, and d is the surface layer thickness. At the top of the pycnocline the model predicts a velocity maximum, which develops as energy propagates downward, out of the surface layer. However, when the upper pycnocline is sufficiently peaked, a resonant frequency interference effect is predicted. This effect modulates the dissipation of surface layer inertial oscillations, and their magnitude after a storm need not decay monotonically. We also make qualitative comparisons with deep-ocean current meter observations taken during the Mixed Layer Experiment (MILE) and with shallow water (105 m) observations taken in the Baltic Sea.

  9. Office of Basic Energy Sciences program to meet high priority nuclear data needs of the Office of Fusion Energy 1983 review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haight, R.C.; Larson, D.C.

    1983-11-01

    This review was prepared during a coordination meeting held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on September 28-29, 1983. Participants included research scientists working for this program, a representative from the OFE's Coordination of Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Nuclear Data Needs Activities, and invited specialists.

  10. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is amore » general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.« less

  11. Development of ODS FeCrAl for compatibility in fusion and fission energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A.; Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Hoelzer, David T.

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrAl alloys with 12–15% Cr are being evaluated for improved compatibility with Pb-Li for a fusion energy application and with high temperature steam for a more accident-tolerant light water reactor fuel cladding application. A 12% Cr content alloy showed low mass losses in static Pb-Li at 700°C, where a LiAlO2 surface oxide formed and inhibited dissolution into the liquid metal. All the evaluated compositions formed a protective scale in steam at 1200°C, which is not possible with ODS FeCr alloys. However, most of the compositions were not protective at 1400°C, which is a general and somewhat surprising problem with ODS FeCrAl alloys that is still being studied. More work is needed to optimize the alloy composition, microstructure and oxide dispersion, but initial promising tensile and creep results have been obtained with mixed oxide additions, i.e. Y2O3 with ZrO2, HfO2 or TiO2.

  12. Physics (selected articles). [Nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiyao, Z.; Zesheng, C.; Xiaolung, X.; Qiang, H.

    1982-09-01

    Controlled nuclear fusion as a new energy source was investigated. It will be possible in the 1980's to obtain thermal nuclear ignition, and in the early 2000's nuclear fusion may be used to supplement the energy shortage. It is predicted that in the 2000's nuclear fusion will occupy an important position as a global source of energy.

  13. Fire-protection research for energy technology: FY 80 year-end report. [For fusion energy experiments and other energy research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Priante, S.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-05-26

    This continuing research program was initiated in 1977 in order to advance fire protection strategies for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE). The program has since been expanded to encompass other forms of energy research. Accomplishments for fiscal year 1980 were: finalization of the fault-tree analysis of the Shiva fire management system; development of a second-generation, fire-growth analysis using an alternate moel and new LLNL combustion dynamics data; improvements of techniques for chemical smoke aerosol analysis; development and test of a simple method to assess the corrosive potential of smoke aerosols; development of an initial aerosol dilution system; completion of primary small-scale tests for measurements of the dynamics of cable fires; finalization of primary survey format for non-LLNL energy technology facilities; and studies of fire dynamics and aerosol production from electrical insulation and computer tape cassettes.

  14. Fusion: The controversy continues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    Nuclear fusion-the power of the stars that promises mankind an inexhaustible supply of energy-seems concurrently much closer and still distant this month. The recent flurry of announcements concerning the achievement of a cold fusion reaction has-if nothing else-underscored the historic importance of the basic fusion reaction which uses hydrogen ions to fuel an energy-producing reaction.

  15. Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, L. Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J.; Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J.

    2014-09-15

    In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a k?{sub D} range of 0.15?

  16. Fusion reactor design | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactor design Subscribe to RSS - Fusion reactor design The design of devices that use powerful magnetic fields to control plasma so fusion can take place. The most widely used magnetic confinement device is the tokamak, followed by the stellarator. How Does Fusion Energy Work? Click here to view a cool infographic about fusion energy from the U.S. Department of Energy. Read more about How Does Fusion Energy Work? How Does Fusion Energy Work? Fusion is the energy source of the sun and stars.

  17. High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) High Energy Density Laboratory Plasmas NNSA's Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion and DOE's Office of Science established a joint program in HEDLP in 2008. Initially, this program was a combination of work that was funded as part of the NNSA's Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program in the research area of high energy density physics and the DOE Office of Science's HEDLP Program and Innovative Confinement Concepts Program. Steady advances in increasing the

  18. Breakthrough: Neutron Science for the Fusion Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Robert

    2012-04-24

    How Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping to solve the world's energy problems through fusion energy research.

  19. Breakthrough: Neutron Science for the Fusion Mission

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGreevy, Robert

    2014-06-03

    How Oak Ridge National Laboratory is helping to solve the world's energy problems through fusion energy research.

  20. Heavy ion fusion--Using heavy ions to make electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-03-15

    The idea of using nuclear fusion as a source of commercial electrical power has been pursued worldwide since the 1950s. Two approaches, using magnetic and inertial confinement of the reactants, are under study. This paper describes the difference between the two approaches, and discusses in more detail the heavy-ion-driven inertial fusion concept. A multibeam induction linear accelerator would be used to bring {approx}100 heavy ion beams to a few GeV. The beams would then heat and compress a target of solid D-T. This approach is unique among fusion concepts in its ability to protect the reaction chamber wall from neutrons and debris.

  1. Viral membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  2. Electropionics and fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenny, J.P. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports on the electropionic mass formula which does not differentiate between nuclei and elementary particles, but gives the deuteron a unique bifurcated space-time description. This hints at fusion products produced by anomalous intermediate mass states of 3026, 3194, and 3515 MeV/c{sup 2} that then decay to produce energy. Another unique possibility in electropionics is that no fusion of deuterons occurs, but the deuteron is changed by electron capture into a D-meson that then decays to produce observed cold fusion energies. All these cold fusion electropionic reactions violate baryon conservation but do produce energy yields consistent with reported cold fusion decay products and energy levels.

  3. Fusion Institutions | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Institutions Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Fusion Institutions Fusion Links International Activities Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information » Research Fusion

  4. Fusion Links | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion Links Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) FES Home About Research Fusion Institutions Fusion Links International Activities Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of FES Funding Opportunities Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Fusion Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-24/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-4941 F: (301) 903-8584 E: Email Us More Information » Research Fusion Links Print

  5. Evaluation of high strength, high conductivity CuNiBe alloys for fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinkle, Steven J

    2014-06-01

    candidate for certain fusion energy structural applications. Conversely, CuNiBe may not be preferred at intermediate temperatures of 250-500 C due to the poor ductility and fracture toughness of CuNiBe alloys at temperatures >250 C. The potential deformation mechanisms responsible for the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture are discussed. The possible implications for other precipitation hardened alloys such as nickel based superalloys are briefly discussed.

  6. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2007-05-01

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  7. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  8. The Heavy Ion Fusion Program in the U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Davidson, R.C.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Lindl, J.D.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-10-03

    Inertial fusion energy research has enjoyed increased interest and funding. This has allowed expanded programs in target design, target fabrication, fusion chamber research, target injection and tracking, and accelerator research. The target design effort examines ways to minimize the beam power and energy and increase the allowable focal spot size while preserving target gain. Chamber research for heavy ion fusion emphasizes the use of thick liquid walls to serve as the coolant, breed tritium, and protect the structural wall from neutrons, photons, and other target products. Several small facilities are now operating to model fluid chamber dynamics. A facility to study target injection and tracking has been built and a second facility is being designed. Improved economics is an important goal of the accelerator research. The accelerator research is also directed toward the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE is being designed to accelerate ions to >100 MeV, enabling experiments in beam dynamics, focusing, and target physics. Activities leading to the IRE include ion source development and a High Current Experiment (HCX) designed to transport and accelerate a single beam of ions with a beam current of approximately 1 A, the initial current required for each beam of a fusion driver. In terms of theory, the program is developing a source-to-target numerical simulation capability. The goal of the entire program is to enable an informed decision about the promise of heavy ion fusion in about a decade.

  9. FES Science Network Requirements - Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements Workshop Conducted March 13 and 14, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tierney, Brian; Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2008-07-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In March 2008, ESnet and the Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the FES Program Office. Most sites that conduct data-intensive activities (the Tokamaks at GA and MIT, the supercomputer centers at NERSC and ORNL) show a need for on the order of 10 Gbps of network bandwidth for FES-related work within 5 years. PPPL reported a need for 8 times that (80 Gbps) in that time frame. Estimates for the 5-10 year time period are up to 160 Mbps for large simulations. Bandwidth requirements for ITER range from 10 to 80 Gbps. In terms of science process and collaboration structure, it is clear that the proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) has the potential to significantly impact the data movement patterns and therefore the network requirements for U.S. fusion science. As the FSP is defined over the next two years, these changes will become clearer. Also, there is a clear and present unmet need for better network connectivity between U.S. FES sites and two Asian fusion experiments--the EAST Tokamak in China and the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. In addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing the network requirements of the science endeavors funded by the FES Program Office, the workshop emphasized that there is a need for research into better ways of conducting remote

  10. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-09-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  11. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial confi nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  12. A Virtualized Computing Platform For Fusion Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, T; Adams, P; Fisher, J; Talbot, A

    2011-03-18

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. 2,500 servers, 400 network devices and 700 terabytes of networked attached storage provide the foundation for NIF's Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) and Experimental Data Archive. This talk discusses the rationale & benefits for server virtualization in the context of an operational experimental facility, the requirements discovery process used by the NIF teams to establish evaluation criteria for virtualization alternatives, the processes and procedures defined to enable virtualization of servers in a timeframe that did not delay the execution of experimental campaigns and the lessons the NIF teams learned along the way. The virtualization architecture ultimately selected for ICCS is based on the Open Source Xen computing platform and 802.1Q open networking standards. The specific server and network configurations needed to ensure performance and high availability of the control system infrastructure will be discussed.

  13. Audit Report: OAI-M-16-13 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Audit Report: OAI-M-16-13 July 7, 2016 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Endeavor One of the missions of the Department of Energy's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to strengthen the security of the United States through the development and application of world-class science and technology. In January 2014, LLNL's Independent Audit and Ethics Department reported that from fiscal year (FY) 2008 through March 2013, LLNL expended nearly $60

  14. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  15. A1.5 Fusion Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, P

    2011-03-31

    Analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations for expected high-gain fusion target performance on a demonstration 1-GWe Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant in the mid-2030s timeframe are presented. The required laser energy driver is 2.2 MJ at a 0.351-{micro}m wavelength, and a fusion target gain greater than 60 at a repetition rate of 16 Hz is the design goal for economic and commercial attractiveness. A scaling-law analysis is developed to benchmark the design parameter space for hohlraum-driven central hot-spot ignition. A suite of integrated hohlraum simulations is presented to test the modeling assumptions and provide a basis for a near-term experimental resolution of the key physics uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF is poised to demonstrate ignition by 2012 based on the central hot spot (CHS) mode of ignition and propagating thermonuclear burn [1]. This immediate prospect underscores the imperative and timeliness of advancing inertial fusion as a carbon-free, virtually limitless source of energy by the mid-21st century to substantially offset fossil fuel technologies. To this end, an intensive effort is underway to leverage success at the NIF and to provide the foundations for a prototype 'LIFE.1' engineering test facility by {approx}2025, followed by a commercially viable 'LIFE.2' demonstration power plant operating at 1 GWe by {approx}2035. The current design goal for LIFE.2 is to accommodate {approx}2.2 MJ of laser energy (entering the high-Z radiation enclosure or 'hohlraum') at a 0.351-{micro}m wavelength operating at a repetition rate of 16 Hz and to provide a fusion target yield of 132 MJ. To achieve this design goal first requires a '0-d' analytic gain model that allows convenient exploration of parameter space and target optimization. This step is then followed by 2- and 3-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations that incorporate laser beam transport, x-ray radiation transport, atomic physics, and

  16. Progress toward high-gain laser fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, E.

    1988-09-28

    A 1985-1986 Review of the US inertial confinement fusion program by the National Academy of Sciences concluded that five more years might be required to obtain enough data to determine the future course of the program. Since then, data from the Nova laser and from the Halite/Centurion program have resolved most of the outstanding problems identified by the NAS review. In particular, we now believe that we can produce a sufficiently uniform target; that we can keep the energy content in hot electrons and high-energy photons low enough (/approximately/1--10% of drive energy, depending on target design) and achieve enough pulse-shaping accuracy (/approximately/10%, with a dynamic range of 100:1) to keep the fuel on a near-Fermi-degenerate adiabat; that we can produce an /approximately/100-Mbar pressure pulse of sufficient uniformity (/approximately/1%), and can we control hydrodynamic instabilities so that the mix of the pusher into the hot spot is low enough to permit marginal ignition. These results are sufficiently encouraging that the US Department of Energy is planning to complete a 10-MJ laboratory microfusion facility to demonstrate high-gain ICF in the laboratory within a decade. 22 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Kathy Prestridge-Physics' solutions for energy independence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kathy Prestridge Kathy Prestridge-Physics' solutions for energy independence She leads a team whose high-resolution experiments in fluid dynamics have been applied to weapon design, astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF)-the power of the sun. March 19, 2014 Kathy Prestridge In college at Princeton and then U.C. San Diego where she obtained her doctorate, Prestridge studied applied mechanics and aerospace engineering. At Los Alamos, she researches the behavior of materials in extreme

  18. Beam Propagation For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A comparison to prior calculations suggests that this results in acceptable first wall heating. Authors: Wilks, S C ; Cohen, B I ; Latkowski, J F ; Williams, E A Publication Date: ...

  19. Beam Propagation For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: TOFE, San Francisco, CA, United States, Sep 28 - Oct 02, 2008 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore National ...

  20. Apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel contained within the microballoon. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

  1. Methods and apparatus for producing cryogenic inertially driven fusion targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, John R.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique for producing uniform layers of solid DT on microballoon surfaces. Local heating of the target, typically by means of a focused laser, within an isothermal freezing cell containing a low pressure cryogenic exchange gas such as helium, vaporizes the DT fuel. Removal of the laser heating source causes the DT gas to rapidly condense and freeze in a layer which exhibits a good degree of uniformity.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October-December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammer, J.

    1997-01-01

    The articles in this issue report progress on: Supernova Hydrodynamics Experiments on the Nova Laser; Characterization of Laser-Driven Shock Waves Using Interferometry; Absolute Equation of State Measurements of Compressed Liquid Deuterium Using Nova; Low-Density-Foam Shells; Tetrahedral Hohlraums; The Rosseland Mean Opacity of a Composite Material at High Temperatures.

  3. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Honrubia, J. J., E-mail: javier.honrubia@upm.es 1 ; Murakami, M. 2 + Show Author Affiliations ETSI Aeronuticos, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain) ...

  4. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear ...

  5. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physics of Plasmas; Journal Volume: 18; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: DOI: 10.10631.3567499; (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics Country ...

  6. Exploring magnetized liner inertial fusion with a semi-analytic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Peterson, Kyle J. 1 ; Rochau, Gregory A. 1 ; Porter, John L. 1 more ; Stygar, William A. 1 ; Campbell, Edward Michael 2 ; Nakhleh, Charles W. 3 ; Herrmann, Mark C. ...

  7. Diagnosing magnetized liner inertial fusion experiments on Z...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Wayne 1 ; Cuneo, Michael Edward 1 ; Herrmann, Mark C. 2 more ; Mark Harry Hess ; Johns, Owen 1 ; Lamppa, Derek C. 1 ; Martin, Matthew 1 ; Porter, J. L. 1 ; ...

  8. Ablation layer coating of mechanically nonsupported inertial fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gram, R.Q.; Kim, H.; Mason, J.F.; Wittman, M.

    1986-05-01

    Ablation layers are deposited on DT-filled glass microballoon targets by a parylene coating scheme while the targets are bounced on the surface of a mechanical resonator. Optimum bouncing is achieved with the resonator surface moving with a peak vertical velocity of approx.3 cm/s at a frequency much greater than the bounce frequency of the targets. The resonator, a solid cylinder of high-Q material, uses a longitudinal mode of vibration to achieve vertical motion, which is uniform over its surface. A flexural mode of the cylinder is used for dislodging targets which have become stuck. In their natural state, the targets become charged triboelectrically and by the beta emission from the tritium decay. The adhesion of these charged targets is eliminated by creating a low power plasma in the bouncing region. Real time monitoring and control of coating thickness are achieved by use of a laser reflectometer. Coatings are examined with electron microscopy and x-ray radiography.

  9. Final optics protection in laser inertial fusion with cryogenic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF) or Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). ... In the case of NIF, the droplets would be injected only when needed just before a high ...

  10. Compressing turbulence to improve inertial confinement fusion experiments |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administration Nuclear Test Ban Treaty NNSA hosts international CTBT on-site inspection experts at Nevada National Security Site This month, NNSA hosted a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) on-site inspection activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). For the first time, CTBT surrogate inspectors and other inspection experts were able to visit NNSS, a former nuclear explosive test site that now supports... NNSA Conducts Experiment to Improve U.S. Ability to Detect

  11. US ITER - Why Fusion?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL FusEdWeb Educational Outreach: US ITER staff members are available for presentations on fusion energy and the ITER project to technical, civic, community, and student groups. ...

  12. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  13. Ion beam inertial confinement target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bangerter, Roger O.; Meeker, Donald J.

    1985-01-01

    A target for implosion by ion beams composed of a spherical shell of frozen DT surrounded by a low-density, low-Z pusher shell seeded with high-Z material, and a high-density tamper shell. The target has various applications in the inertial confinement technology. For certain applications, if desired, a low-density absorber shell may be positioned intermediate the pusher and tamper shells.

  14. Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, G.D.

    1989-03-10

    This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs.

  15. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors

  16. Energy and technology review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O'Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P.

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs. (GHT)

  17. Fiscal Year 1987 Department of Energy Authorization (magnetic fusion energy). Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, February 25, 26, 1986, Volume V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume V of the hearing record covers two days of hearings on the magnetic fusion energy programs. Alvin Trivelpiece of DOE, Stephen Dean of Fusion Power Associates, Allen Mense of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, and George Miley of the University Fusion Association testified on the impact of budget reductions and the role of international cooperation in the fusion energy effort. Trivelpiece reviewed progress of the past 25 years, and discussed the problem of funding long-range energy options during an energy surplus. International collaboration has focused on the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) program. Rep. Mike McCormack described some of the myths surrounding fusion research and its goals, and outlined three lines of approach toward reaching the goal of producing fusion electricity. Others commended changes in policy direction as being helpful despite budget cuts.

  18. Development of multichannel low-energy neutron spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arikawa, Y. Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Kojima, S.; Sakata, S.; Inoue, H.; Utsugi, M.; Iwasa, Y.; Sarukura, N.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.; Murata, T.

    2014-11-15

    A multichannel low-energy neutron spectrometer for down-scattered neutron (DSN) measurements in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments has been developed. Our compact-size 256-channel lithium-glass-scintillator-based spectrometer has been implemented and tested in ICF experiments with the GEKKO XII laser. We have performed time calibration of the 256-channel analog-to-digital convertor system used for DSN measurements via X-ray pulse signals. We have clearly observed the DD-primary fusion neutron signal and have successfully studied the detector's impulse response. Our detector is soon to be implemented in future ICF experiments.

  19. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. The critical fusion zone sizes to ensure nugget pull-out failure mode are developed for both DP800 and TRIP800 using limit load based analytical model and micro-hardness measurements of the weld cross sections. Static weld strength tests using cross tension samples were performed on the joint populations with controlled fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 materials examined. The critical fusion zone size for nugget pullout shall be derived for individual materials based on different base metal properties as well as different heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld properties resulted from different welding parameters.

  20. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a

  1. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  2. Energy and Technology Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Individual abstracts were prepared for the three items in this issue. These include age estimation of the universe, measurement of equations of state for tantalum, and inertial confinement fusion. (GHT)

  3. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  4. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  5. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, Katharine H.

    1990-01-01

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  6. Controlled Nuclear Fusion (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Controlled Nuclear Fusion The objective of controlled nuclear fusion research is to develop a major economic source of energy that should be readily available to all ...

  7. Physicist Zoe Martin's fusion quest: a stellar future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Zoe Martin's fusion quest: a stellar future Physicist Zoe Martin's fusion quest: a stellar future From revealing radiation hydrodynamics to creating energy, physics student pursues ...

  8. Ab initio calculations of light-ion fusion reactions (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Recent applications to light nuclei scattering and fusion reactions relevant to energy production in stars and Earth based fusion facilities, such as the deuterium-sup 3He ...

  9. Controlled Nuclear Fusion (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Controlled Nuclear Fusion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Controlled Nuclear Fusion You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech ...

  10. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm{sup 2} on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall.

  11. Fiscal Year 1983 Department of Energy budget review (magnetic-fusion energy). Volume V. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Energy Research and Production of the Committee on Science and Technology, US House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, March 23-24, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Volume V covers two days of budget hearings on the magnetic-fusion-energy program. The nine witnesses included Alvin W. Trivelpiece of the DOE Office of Energy Research and John F. Clarke, Director for Fusion Energy of the Office of Energy Research. Witnesses were asked to respond to questions about the level of funding, the technical progress of the program, and the appropriate timing and level of industrial development. Two panels of interested members of industry and the fusion-energy community testified. The record includes their statements and additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  12. ICF Program Framework | National Nuclear Security Administration...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Program Framework 2016 Inertial Confinement Fusion Program Framework, U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security ...

  13. Energy relaxation of multi-MeV protons traveling in compressed DT+Be plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhigang; He, Bin; Fu, Zhen-Guo; Zhang, Ping

    2014-07-15

    We investigate the stopping power of the multi-MeV protons moving in the hot dense deuterium-tritium plasmas mixed with beryllium (Be), which is important in inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is shown that with increasing the density of Be, the stopping power of the proton also increases with the peaks shifting towards higher projectile velocity, which leads to the reduction of both the projectile range and the energy transferred to the electrons.

  14. FY2014 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Theory & Simulation Performance Target, Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Guoyong; Budny, Robert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai; Poli, Francesca; Chen, Yang; McClenaghan, Joseph; Lin, Zhihong; Spong, Don; Bass, Eric; Waltz, Ron

    2014-10-14

    We report here the work done for the FY14 OFES Theory Performance Target as given below: "Understanding alpha particle confinement in ITER, the world's first burning plasma experiment, is a key priority for the fusion program. In FY 2014, determine linear instability trends and thresholds of energetic particle-driven shear Alfven eigenmodes in ITER for a range of parameters and profiles using a set of complementary simulation models (gyrokinetic, hybrid, and gyrofluid). Carry out initial nonlinear simulations to assess the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport". In the past year (FY14), a systematic study of the alpha-driven Alfven modes in ITER has been carried out jointly by researchers from six institutions involving seven codes including the transport simulation code TRANSP (r. Budny and F. Poli, PPPL), three gyrokinetic codes: GEM (Y. Chen, Univ. of Colorado), GTC (J. McClenaghan, Z. Lin, UCI), and GYRO (E. Bass, R. Waltz, UCSD/GA), the hybrid code M3D-K (G.Y. Fu, PPPL), the gyro-fluid code TAEFL (D. Spong, ORNL), and the linear kinetic stability code NOVA-K (N. Gorelenkov, PPPL). A range of ITER parameters and profiles are specified by TRANSP simulation of a hybrid scenario case and a steady state scenario case. Based on the specified ITER equilibria linear stability calculations are done to determine the stability boundary of alpha-driven high-n TAEs using the five initial value codes (GEM, GTC, GYRO, M3D-K, and TAEFL) and the kinetic stability code (NOVA-K). Both the effects of alpha particles and beam ions have been considered. Finally the effects of the unstable modes on energetic particle transport have been explored using GEM and M3D-K.

  15. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  16. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions at 16 MeV/nucleon and beam energy dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; Commara, M. La; Parascandolo, C.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Cardella, G.; Filippo, E. De

    2009-08-15

    High-energy {gamma} rays and light charged particles from the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 96}Zr and {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr reactions at E{sub lab}=16 and 15.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively, were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues by means of the MEDEA multidetector array coupled to four parallel plate avalanche counters. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the prompt {gamma} radiation, emitted in the decay of the dynamical dipole mode, in the {approx}16 MeV/nucleon energy range and to map its beam energy dependence, comparing the present results with our previous ones obtained at lower energies. The studied reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the region of Ce under the same conditions of excitation energy and spin. Light charged particle energy spectra were used to pin down the average excitation energy and the average mass of the system. By studying the {gamma}-ray spectra of the charge symmetric reaction {sup 40}Ar+{sup 92}Zr, the statistical giant dipole resonance (GDR) parameters and angular distribution were extracted, and a comparison of the linearized 90 deg. {gamma}-ray spectra of the two reactions revealed a 12% extra yield in the GDR energy region for the more charge asymmetric system. The center-of-mass angular distribution data of this extra {gamma} yield, compatible with a dipole oscillating along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system, support its dynamical nature. The experimental findings are compared with theoretical predictions performed within a Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport model and based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the entrance channel reaction dynamics. An interesting sensitivity to the symmetry term of the equation of state and to in-medium effects on nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross sections is finally discussed.

  17. DOE's Ed Synakowski traces key discoveries in the quest for fusion energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office Supports Military-Grade Biofuels November 10, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels DOE's Bioenergy Technologies Office is developing military-grade biofuels Happy Veteran's Day from EERE! Our Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is helping the U.S. military increase the nation's #energy security, reduce

  18. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2005-05-15

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  19. Vortex stabilized electron beam compressed fusion grade plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2014-03-19

    Most inertial confinement fusion schemes are comprised of highly compressed dense plasmas. Those schemes involve short, extremely high power, short pulses of beams (lasers, particles) applied to lower density plasmas or solid pellets. An alternative approach could be to shoot an intense electron beam through very dense, atmospheric pressure, vortex stabilized plasma.

  20. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  1. Electron inertial effects on rotating magnetic field current drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrari, Hugo E.; Farengo, Ricardo; Clemente, Roberto A.

    2006-03-15

    The effect of finite electron mass on the formation and sustainment of a field reversed configuration (FRC) by rotating magnetic fields (RMF) is studied. The importance of inertial effects is measured by the ratio between the RMF frequency ({omega}) and the electron-ion collision frequency ({nu}). In the limit where this ratio is very small ({omega}/{nu}{yields}0), previous results corresponding to massless electrons are recovered. When {omega}/{nu} increases there are significant changes in the value of the minimum external rotating field needed to sustain the FRC and the time required to reach a steady state. Since {nu} decreases with increasing temperature and decreasing density, these effects are expected to become more important as fusion relevant temperatures are approached.

  2. Light ion fusion experiment (L. I. F. E. ) concept validation studies. Final report, July 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, T E; Orthel, J L; Thomson, J J

    1980-12-01

    This report reflects the considerable advances made for the objectives of the contractual program, validating by detailed anaytical studies the concept of a new Light Ion Fusion Experiment for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The studies have produced an analytical design of a novel electrostatic accelerator based on separate function and strong channel focusing principles, to launch 3 to 10 MeV, 23 kA, He/sup +/ neutralized beams in 400 ns pulses, delivering on a 5 mm radius target located 10 m downstream, 50 kJ of implosion energy in approx. 20 ns impact times The control, stability and focusing of beams is made by electrostatic quadrupoles, producing overall beam normalized emittance of approx. 3 x 10/sup -5/ m-rad.

  3. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  4. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  5. Z, ZX, and X-1: A Realistic Path to High Fusion Yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK, DONALD L.

    1999-10-07

    Z-pinches now constitute the most energetic and powerful sources of x-rays available by a large margin. The Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has produced 1.8 MJ of x-ray energy, 280 TW of power, and hohlraum temperatures of 200 eV. These advances are being applied to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on Z. The requirements for high fusion yield are exemplified in the target to be driven by the X-1 accelerator. X-1 will drive two z-pinches, each producing 7 MJ of x-ray energy and about 1000 TW of x-ray power. Together, these radiation sources will heat a hohlraum containing the 4-mm diameter ICF capsule to a temperature exceeding 225 eV for about 10 ns, with the pulse shape required to drive the capsule to high fusion yield, in the range of 200--1000 MJ. Since X-1 consists of two identical accelerators, it is possible to mitigate the technical risk of high yield by constructing one accelerator. This accelerator, ZX, will bridge the gap from Z to X-1 by driving an integrated target experiment with a very efficient energy source, ZX will also provide experimental condition that the full specifications of the X-1 accelerator for high yield are achievable, and that a realistic path to high fission yield exists.

  6. H-Sensors and Fusion Work at SNL-CA | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Guidance for Potential ATVM Applicants (June 2016) Guidance for Potential ATVM Applicants (June 2016) Download "Guidance for Potential ATVM Applicants" (3 MB) More Documents & Publications GM-Ford-Chrysler: Allocating Loan Authority LPO Update, 28-Jun-2016 DOE-LPO_Email-Update_013_Final_2-Feb-2016 ATVM: Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program Climate Change in National Environmental Policy Act Reviews (CEQ, 2016) | Department of Energy

    on Consideration of

  7. An overview on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energy range ∼ 3-8 MeV/A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Rahbar; Singh, D.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Kumar, Rakesh; Muralithar, S.; Golda, K. S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

    2014-08-14

    The information of ICF reaction has been obtained from the measurement of excitation function (EF) of ERs populated in the interaction of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 16}O on {sup 55}Mn, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 156}Gd targets. Sizable enhancement in the measured cross-sections has been observed in α-emitting channels over theoretical predictions, which has been attributed to ICF of the projectile. In order to confirm the findings of the measurements and analysis of EFs, the forward recoil range distributions of ERs populated in {sup 20}Ne+{sup 159}Tb (E ∼165MeV) and {sup 16}O+{sup 156}Gd (E ∼ 72, 82 and 93MeV) systems, have been measured. It has been observed that peaks appearing at different cumulative thicknesses in the stopping medium are related with different degree of linear momentum transfer from projectile to target nucleus by adopting the break-up fusion model consideration. In order to deduce the angular momentum involved in various CF and / or ICF reaction products, spin distribution and side-feeding intensity profiles of radio-nuclides populated via CF and ICF channels in {sup 16}O+{sup 160}Gd system at energy, E ∼ 5.6 MeV/A, have been studied. Spin distribution of ICF products are found to be distinctly different than that observed from CF products.

  8. Statement of Bernard Bigot Director-General ITER International Fusion Energy Organization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comprehensive Plan of Action | Department of Energy from Secretary Ernest Moniz on the Anniversary of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action Statement from Secretary Ernest Moniz on the Anniversary of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action July 14, 2016 - 8:44am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 "One year ago, the P5+1, the European Union and the Islamic Republic of Iran announced the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), a historic deal to ensure that Iran's nuclear

  9. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  10. Fusion pumped laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. MEMS inertial sensors with integral rotation means.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohler, Stewart M.

    2003-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of inertial micro-sensors (gyroscopes and accelerometers) has advanced to the point where they are displacing the more traditional sensors in many size, power, and/or cost-sensitive applications. A factor limiting the range of application of inertial micro-sensors has been their relatively poor bias stability. The incorporation of an integral sensitive axis rotation capability would enable bias mitigation through proven techniques such as indexing, and foster the use of inertial micro-sensors in more accuracy-sensitive applications. Fabricating the integral rotation mechanism in MEMS technology would minimize the penalties associated with incorporation of this capability, and preserve the inherent advantages of inertial micro-sensors.

  12. Micro-system inertial sensing technology overview.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, James Joe

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of Micro-System technology as it applies to inertial sensing. Transduction methods are reviewed with capacitance and piezoresistive being the most often used in COTS Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors. Optical transduction is the most recent transduction method having significant impact on improving sensor resolution. A few other methods are motioned which are in a R&D status to hopefully allow MEMS inertial sensors to become viable as a navigation grade sensor. The accelerometer, gyroscope and gravity gradiometer are the type of inertial sensors which are reviewed in this report. Their method of operation and a sampling of COTS sensors and grade are reviewed as well.

  13. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreas, Ronald D.; Heck, G. Michael; Kohler, Stewart M.; Watts, Alfred C.

    1991-01-01

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  14. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  15. Prospects for practical fusion power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, S.O.

    1980-12-01

    The prospects for practical fusion power received a substantial shot in the arm recently when the President signed into law the Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980. This new law directs the Secretary of Energy to ''initiate at the earliest practical time each activity which he deems necessary to achieve the national goal for operation of a commercial demonstration plant at the turn of the twenty-first century''. The new law is in consonance with the conclusions of two panels which reviewed the status of magnetic fusion energy research during 1980. A Fusion Advisory Panel to the House Science and Technology Committee, chaired by Dr. Robert L. Hirsch of EXXON, concluded that ''fusion can be made commercial before 2000 if a national commitment is made soon''. And, the Department of Energy's Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB), chaired by Dr. Solomon J. Buchsbaum of Bell Laboratories, concluded that ''recent progress in plasma confinement has been impressive'' and that ''as a result of this progress, the U.S. is now ready to embark on the next step toward the goal of achieving economic fusion power: the exploration of the engineering feasibility of fusion''. The basis for optimism that fusion will become a practical energy source around the turn of the century is three-fold: (1) dramatic scientific progress has occurred on a broad front during the past few years; (2) key fusion technologies have been developed for several large fusion facilities now under construction; and (3) a growing cadre of engineers have been identifying the engineering development tasks required for practical systems.

  16. Theoretical Fusion Research | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NSTX-U Education Organization Contact Us Overview Experimental Fusion Research Theoretical Fusion Research Basic Plasma Science Plasma Astrophysics Other Physics and Engineering Research PPPL Technical Reports NSTX-U Theoretical Fusion Research About Theory Department The fusion energy sciences mission of the Theory Department at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is to help provide the scientific foundations for establishing magnetic confinement as an attractive, technically

  17. Photons & Fusion Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photons fusion 2012 Photons & Fusion Newsletter August 2012 Photons & Fusion is a monthly review of science and technology at the National Ignition Facility & Photon Science ...

  18. Hydrogen Fusion An Opportunity for Global Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process of Hydrogen Fusion Hydrogen fusion, the process that powers our sun and the stars, is the most fundamental energy source in the visible universe. Directly, it provides sunlight, while indirectly it is the driver behind all "renewable" energies (solar-thermal and photovoltaic, wind, biomass and ocean- thermal). Even the fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), which were derived over long periods of time from ancient biomass, are by-products of hydrogen fusion. The energy released

  19. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  20. Fusion Energy Sciences Jobs

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    fesaboutjobs Below is a list of currently open federal employment opportunities in the Office of Science. Prospective applicants should follow the links to the formal position...