Sample records for inertial confinement fusion

  1. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  2. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  3. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  4. Lasers and Inertial Confinement Fusion in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermonuclear device began the Inertial Confinement Fusion Era I1860 · StanislawUlamandEdward Teller developedLasers and Inertial Confinement Fusion in the United States R. L. McCrory Director and Vice Provost confinement fusion (ICF) has grown as successively larger lasers have been built I1859 · The

  5. Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments S. Cremera) and C. P energetic up to 31 MeV tertiary protons produced during the final stage of inertial confinement fusion the elastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons, is a source of very energetic protons capable of escaping from

  6. Fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of studies on fast ignition of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are reviewed. The aspects of the fast ignition concept, which consists in the separation of the processes of target ignition and compression due to the synchronized action of different energy drivers, are considered. Criteria for the compression ratio and heating rate of a fast ignition target, the energy balance, and the thermonuclear gain are discussed. The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the heating of a compressed target by various types of igniting drivers, namely, beams of fast electrons and light ions produced under the action of a petawatt laser pulse on the target, a heavy-ion beam generated in the accelerator, an X-ray pulse, and a hydrodynamic flow of laser-accelerated matter, are analyzed. Requirements to the igniting-driver parameters that depend on the fast ignition criteria under the conditions of specific target heating mechanisms, as well as possibilities of practical implementation of these requirements, are discussed. The experimental programs of various laboratories and the prospects of practical implementation of fast ignition of ICF targets are reviewed. To date, fast ignition is the most promising method for decreasing the ignition energy and increasing the thermonuclear gain of an ICF plasma. A large number of publications have been devoted to investigations of this method and adjacent problems of the physics of igniting drivers and their interaction with plasma. This review presents results of only some of these studies that, in the author's opinion, allow one to discuss in detail the main physical aspects of the fast ignition concept and understand the current state and prospects of studies in this direction.

  7. Atomic scale mixing for inertial confinement fusion associated hydro instabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Atomic scale mixing for inertial confinement fusion associated hydro instabilities J. Melvina, , P Alamos, NM 87545, USA Abstract Hydro instabilities have been identified as a potential cause- able. We find numerical convergence for this important quantity, in a purely hydro study, with only

  8. Progress in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyerhofer,D.D.

    2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at LLE using the 60-beam, 30-kJUV OMEGA laser system and cryogenic target capability to perform ignition-scaled implosions will be reported. In addition, a new high-energy (2.6-kJ) petawatt capability is currently under construction.

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion R&D and Nuclear Proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In a few months, or a few years, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory may achieve fusion gain using 192 powerful lasers to generate x-rays that will compress and heat a small target containing isotopes of hydrogen. This event would mark a major milestone after decades of research on inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It might also mark the beginning of an accelerated global effort to harness fusion energy based on this science and technology. Unlike magnetic confinement fusion (ITER, 2011), in which hot fusion fuel is confined continuously by strong magnetic fields, inertial confinement fusion involves repetitive fusion explosions, taking advantage of some aspects of the science learned from the design and testing of hydrogen bombs. The NIF was built primarily because of the information it would provide on weapons physics, helping the United States to steward its stockpile of nuclear weapons without further underground testing. The U.S. National Academies' National Research Council is now hosting a study to assess the prospects for energy from inertial confinement fusion. While this study has a classified sub-panel on target physics, it has not been charged with examining the potential nuclear proliferation risks associated with ICF R&D. We argue here that this question urgently requires direct and transparent examination, so that means to mitigate risks can be assessed, and the potential residual risks can be balanced against the potential benefits, now being assessed by the NRC. This concern is not new (Holdren, 1978), but its urgency is now higher than ever before.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion and the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, P.

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) seeks to provide sustainable fusion energy by compressing frozen deuterium and tritium fuel to extremely high densities. The advantages of fusion vs. fission are discussed, including total energy per reaction and energy per nucleon. The Lawson Criterion, defining the requirements for ignition, is derived and explained. Different confinement methods and their implications are discussed. The feasibility of creating a power plant using ICF is analyzed using realistic and feasible numbers. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is shown as a significant step forward toward making a fusion power plant based on ICF. NIF is the world’s largest laser, delivering 1.8 MJ of energy, with a peak power greater than 500 TW. NIF is actively striving toward the goal of fusion energy. Other uses for NIF are discussed.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Ronald P. (Peters Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  12. Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFP »summerlectures [ICO]default SignInertial

  13. Future directions in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodner, S.E. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author discusses future directions for the ICF program. At this time there is still uncertainty on a number of key issues necessary to decide on what type of a National Ignition Facility should be constructed. Mechanisms are in place to answer these questions. The author offers his opinions of where the program is likely to proceed. Technology wise indications are that direct drive heating has the best chance of reaching ignition and high gain. This has the advantage of making all three major user programs happy, namely weapons physics, weapons effects, and electrical energy. The demand for and price of energy in the country will have a major impact on the way the program is developed. From the laser fusion side the most promising drivers at present seem to be KrF lasers, and a major concern for these systems is whether the peak to valley nonuniformities can be reduced to the 1 to 2% level when delivered to the target in order to avoid driving instabilities.

  14. Next-generation laser for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C.D.; Deach, R.J.; Bibeau, C. [and others

    1997-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the progress in developing and building the Mercury laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode- pumped solid-state Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced high energy density (HED) physics applications. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a 1-10 ns pulse with 1 omega energies of 100 J and with 2 omega/3 omega frequency conversion.

  15. Heat transfer in inertial confinement fusion reactor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovingh, J.

    1980-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The short time and deposition distance for the energy from inertial fusion products results in local peak power densities on the order of 10/sup 18/ watts/m/sup 3/. This paper presents an overview of the various inertial fusion reactor designs which attempt to reduce these peak power intensities and describes the heat transfer considerations for each design.

  16. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  17. Integrated diagnostic analysis of inertial confinement fusion capsule performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerjan, Charles; Springer, Paul T.; Sepke, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual model is developed for typical inertial confinement fusion implosion conditions that integrates available diagnostic information to determine the stagnation properties of the interior fill and surrounding shell. Assuming pressure equilibrium at peak compression and invoking radiative and equation-of-state relations, the pressure, density, and electron temperature are obtained by optimized fitting of the experimental output to smooth, global functional forms. Typical observational data that may be used includes x-ray self-emission, directional neutron time-of-flight signals, neutron yield, high-resolution x-ray spectra, and radiographic images. This approach has been validated by comparison with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, producing semi-quantitative agreement. Model results implicate poor kinetic energy coupling to the hot core as the primary cause of the observed low thermonuclear burn yields.

  18. Improving Particle Confinement in Inertial Electrostatic Fusion for Spacecraft Power and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving Particle Confinement in Inertial Electrostatic Fusion for Spacecraft Power and Propulsion Electrostatic Fusion for Spacecraft Power and Propulsion By Carl C. Dietrich Fusion energy is attractive for use for power supplies and magnets, in the case of magnetic confinement, or capacitors and lasers in the case

  19. Progress in the pulsed power Inertial Confinement Fusion program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Matzen, M.K.; Mehlhorn, T.A. [and others

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed power accelerators are being used in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research. In order to achieve our goal of a fusion yield in the range of 200 - 1000 MJ from radiation-driven fusion capsules, it is generally believed that {approx}10 MJ of driver energy must be deposited within the ICF target in order to deposit {approx}1 MJ of radiation energy in the fusion capsule. Pulsed power represents an efficient technology for producing both these energies and these radiation environments in the required short pulses (few tens of ns). Two possible approaches are being developed to utilize pulsed power accelerators in this effort: intense beams of light ions and z- pinches. This paper describes recent progress in both approaches. Over the past several years, experiments have successfully answered many questions critical to ion target design. Increasing the ion beam power and intensity are our next objectives. Last year, the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator H (PBFA II) was modified to generate ion beams in a geometry that will be required for high yield applications. This 2048 modification has resulted in the production of the highest power ion beam to be accelerated from an extraction ion diode. We are also evaluating fast magnetically-driven implosions (z-pinches) as platforms for ICF ablator physics and EOS experiments. Z-pinch implosions driven by the 20 TW Saturn accelerator have efficiently produced high x- ray power (> 75 TW) and energy (> 400 kJ). Containing these x-ray sources within a hohlraum produces a unique large volume (> 6000 mm{sup 3}), long lived (>20 ns) radiation environment. In addition to studying fundamental ICF capsule physics, there are several concepts for driving ICF capsules with these x-ray sources. Progress in increasing the x-ray power on the Saturn accelerator and promise of further increases on the higher power PBFA II accelerator will be described.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion based on the ion-bubble trigger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafari, S., E-mail: SJafari@guilan.ac.ir; Nilkar, M.; Ghasemizad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht 41335-1914 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Triggering the ion-bubble in an inertial confinement fusion, we have developed a novel scheme for the fast ignition. This scheme relies on the plasma cavitation by the wake of an intense laser pulse to generate an ion-bubble. The bubble acts both as an intense electron accelerator and as an electron wiggler. Consequently, the accelerated electrons trapped in the bubble can emit an intense tunable laser light. This light can be absorbed by an ablation layer on the outside surface of the ignition capsule, which subsequently drills it and thereby produces a guide channel in the pellet. Finally, the relativistic electron beam created in the bubble is guided through the channel to the high density core igniting the fusion fuel. The normalized beam intensity and beam energy required for triggering the ignition have been calculated when core is heated by the e-beam. In addition, through solving the momentum transfer, continuity and wave equations, a dispersion relation for the electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been analytically derived. The variations of growth rate with the ion-bubble density and electron beam energy have been illustrated. It is found that the growth rates of instability are significantly controlled by the ions concentration and the e-beam energy in the bubble.

  1. Proton emission imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCiantis, Joseph Loreto

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A proton core imaging system has been developed and extensively used for measuring the nuclear burn regions of inertial confinement fusion implosions. These imaging cameras, mounted to the 60-beam OMEGA laser facility, use ...

  2. Determination of the deuterium-tritium branching ratio based on inertial confinement fusion implosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Michael Jonathan

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) ?-to-neutron branching ratio [[superscript 3]H(d,?)[superscript 5]He/[superscript 3]H(d,n)[superscript 4]He] was determined under inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions, where the ...

  3. HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accelerators as Drivers for Inertially Confined Fusion, W.B.LBL-9332/SLAC-22l (1979) Fusion Driven by Heavy Ion Beams,OF CALIFORNIA f Accelerator & Fusion Research Division

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion quarterly report, April--June 1995. Volume 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ICF Quarterly Reports is published four times each fiscal year by the Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The journal reports selected current research within the ICF Program. Major areas of investigation presented here include fusion target theory and design, target fabrication, target experiments, and laser and optical science and technology.

  5. Proton core imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proton core imaging of the nuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion implosions J. L. De; published online 7 April 2006 A proton emission imaging system has been developed and used extensively the penetrating 14.7 MeV protons produced from D 3 He fusion reactions to produce emission images of the nuclear

  6. Comment on 'Species separation in inertial confinement fusion fuels'[Phys. Plasmas 20, 012701 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larroche, O. [CEA DIF, Bruyeres le Chatel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent paper presents numerical simulations of shock waves in a two-ion-component plasma, investigating how species separation occurring in the latter can affect the nuclear fusion yield of inertial confinement fusion targets. Here, it is shown that an important physical mechanism has obviously been omitted in those calculations, which thus lead to significantly overestimated results.

  7. Investigation of plasma instabilities relevant toInvestigation of plasma instabilities relevant to inertial confinement fusioninertial confinement fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strathclyde, University of

    . At sufficiently high temperatures a propagating fusion burn wave is ignited, releasing ~70 times the energy it is hoped that their effects can be minimized allowing fusion power to be harnessed to help combat the world's energy crisis. Plasmas InstabilitiesInertial Confinement Instabilities Small instabilities in a plasma

  8. Fuel Target Implosion in Ion beam Inertial Confinement Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The numerical results for the fuel target implosion are presented in order to clarify the target physics in ion beam inertial fusion. The numerical analyses are performed for a direct-driven ion beam target. In the paper the following issues are studied: the beam obliquely incidence on the target surface, the plasma effect on the beam-stopping power, the beam particle energy, the beam time duration, the target radius, the beam input energy and the non-uniformity effect on the fuel target performance. In this paper the beam ions are protons.

  9. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  10. SAFIRE: A systems analysis code for ICF (inertial confinement fusion) reactor economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarville, T.J.; Meier, W.R.; Carson, C.F.; Glasgow, B.B.

    1987-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The SAFIRE (Systems Analysis for ICF Reactor Economics) code incorporates analytical models for scaling the cost and performance of several inertial confinement fusion reactor concepts for electric power. The code allows us to vary design parameters (e.g., driver energy, chamber pulse rate, net electric power) and evaluate the resulting change in capital cost of power plant and the busbar cost of electricity. The SAFIRE code can be used to identify the most attractive operating space and to identify those design parameters with the greatest leverage for improving the economics of inertial confinement fusion electric power plants.

  11. An Assessment of Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics A Panel on Fusion Target Physics ("the Panel") will serve as a technical resource to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Assessment of Inertial Confinement Fusion Target Physics A Panel on Fusion Target Physics ("the Panel") will serve as a technical resource to the Committee on Inertial Confinement Energy Systems ("the Physics will prepare a report that will assess the current performance of fusion targets associated

  12. Engineering design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial-confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, W W; Godwin, R O; Hurley, C A; Wallerstein, E. P.; Whitham, K.; Murray, J. E.; Bliss, E. S.; Ozarski, R. G.; Summers, M. A.; Rienecker, F.; Gritton, D. G.; Holloway, F. W.; Suski, G. J.; Severyn, J. R.

    1982-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is placed upon design-to-performance requirements as they impact the various subsystems that comprise this complex experimental facility.

  13. He-proton emission imaging for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments (invited)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D3 He-proton emission imaging for inertial-confinement-fusion experiments (invited) F. H. Séguin, Livermore, California 94550 (Presented on 19 April 2004; published 5 October 2004) Proton emission imaging cameras, in combination with proton spectrometers and a proton temporal diagnostic, provide a great deal

  14. The role of nuclear reactions and -particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    The role of nuclear reactions and -particle transport in the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion capsules Josselin Garnier1,a and Catherine Cherfils-Clérouin2 1 Laboratoire de Probabilités et the energy released by nuclear reactions, a nonlocal model for the -particle energy deposition process

  15. ION ACCELERATORS AS DRIVERS FOR INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faltens, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    these desiderata. ENERGY PRODUCTION VIA INERTIAL CONFINEMENTICF) to lead to net energy production one must as a minimum:

  16. ION ACCELERATORS AS DRIVERS FOR INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faltens, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Brussels, Belgium,of the Heavy Ion Fusion Workshop held at Brookhaven NationalReport, Hearthfire Heavy Ion Fusion, October 1, 1979 - March

  17. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton Radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tommasini, R

    2010-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion is time-resolved imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. Here we report on the source and diagnostic development of hard x-ray radiography and on the first radiographs of direct drive implosions obtained at photon energies up to about 100keV, where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the shell opacity. The radiographs of direct drive, plastic shell implosions obtained at the OMEGA laser facility have a spatial resolution of {approx}10um and a temporal resolution of {approx}10ps. This novel Compton Radiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for Inertial Confinement Fusion targets, and will be integrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  18. Index of light ion inertial confinement fusion publications and presentations January 1989 through December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report lists publications and presentations that are related to inertial confinement fusion and were authored or coauthored by Sandians in the Pulsed Power Sciences Center from 1989 through 1993. The 661 publications and presentations are categorized into the following general topics: (1) reviews, (2) ion sources, (3) ion diodes, (4) plasma opening switches, (5) ion beam transport, (6) targets and deposition physics, (7) advanced driver and pulsed power technology development, (8) diagnostics, and (9) code development. Research in these areas is arranged by topic in chronological order, with the early efforts under each topic presented first. The work is also categorized alphabetically by first author. A list of acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions of use in understanding light ion inertial confinement fusion research is also included.

  19. Self-similar structure and experimental signatures of suprathermal ion distribution in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Grigory; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Huang, C -K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution function of suprathermal ions is found to be self-similar under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion hot-spots. By utilizing this feature, interference between the hydro-instabilities and kinetic effects is for the first time assessed quantitatively to find that the instabilities substantially aggravate the fusion reactivity reduction. The ion tail depletion is also shown to lower the experimentally inferred ion temperature, a novel kinetic effect that may explain the discrepancy between the exploding pusher experiments and rad-hydro simulations and contribute to the observation that temperature inferred from DD reaction products is lower than from DT at National Ignition Facility.

  20. Multiple-beam laser–plasma interactions in inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myatt, J. F., E-mail: jmya@lle.rochester.edu; Zhang, J.; Maximov, A. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Short, R. W.; Seka, W.; Edgell, D. H.; Michel, D. T.; Igumenshchev, I. V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627-0171 (United States); Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental evidence for multiple-beam laser-plasma instabilities of relevance to laser driven inertial confinement fusion at the ignition scale is reviewed, in both the indirect and direct-drive approaches. The instabilities described are cross-beam energy transfer (in both indirectly driven targets on the NIF and in direct-drive targets), multiple-beam stimulated Raman scattering (for indirect-drive), and multiple-beam two-plasmon decay instability (in direct drive). Advances in theoretical understanding and in the numerical modeling of these multiple beam instabilities are presented.

  1. Manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional Euler equations with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.

  2. Inertial confinement fusion. 1995 ICF annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is a Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Program research and advanced technology development program focused on the goal of demonstrating thermonuclear fusion ignition and energy gain in the laboratory. During FY 1995, the ICF Program continued to conduct ignition target physics optimization studies and weapons physics experiments in support of the Defense Program`s stockpile stewardship goals. It also continued to develop technologies in support of the performance, cost, and schedule goals of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project. The NIF is a key element of the DOE`s Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. In addition to its primary Defense Program goals, the ICF Program provides research and development opportunities in fundamental high-energy-density physics and supports the necessary research base for the possible long-term application to inertial fusion energy (IFE). Also, ICF technologies have had spin-off applications for industrial and governmental use. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Fast Neutral Generation by Charge Exchange Reaction and Its Effect on Neutron Production Rate in Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, S.; Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K. [Kyushu University (Japan)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast neutral generation by charge exchange reaction in inertial electrostatic confinement plasmas is studied by solving the Poisson equation and the Boltzmann equation for fast neutrals. Fusion reactions carried by the charge exchange fast neutrals become appreciable compared with ion-background fusion reaction. It is shown that the fusion reaction between fast neutral and background gas is sensitively affected by experimental parameters (grid voltage, background gas pressure) and ion distribution function.

  4. Role of hydrodynamic instability growth in hot-spot mass gain and fusion performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana, E-mail: srinbhu@vt.edu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Tang, Xian-Zhu, E-mail: xtang@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an inertial confinement fusion target, energy loss due to thermal conduction from the hot-spot will inevitably ablate fuel ice into the hot-spot, resulting in a more massive but cooler hot-spot, which negatively impacts fusion yield. Hydrodynamic mix due to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the gas-ice interface can aggravate the problem via an increased gas-ice interfacial area across which energy transfer from the hot-spot and ice can be enhanced. Here, this mix-enhanced transport effect on hot-spot fusion-performance degradation is quantified using contrasting 1D and 2D hydrodynamic simulations, and its dependence on effective acceleration, Atwood number, and ablation speed is identified.

  5. {gamma}-ray 'bang-time' measurements with a gas-Cherenkov detector for inertial-confinement fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horsfield, C. J.; Caldwell, S. E.; Christensen, C. R.; Evans, S. C.; Mack, J. M.; Sedillo, T.; Young, C. S.; Glebov, V. Yu. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In a laser driven inertial-confinement fusion experiment, bang time is defined as the time between the laser light impinging the target and the peak of the fusion reactions. Bang time is often used to compare computed predictions to experiment. Large laser facilities, such as NIF and LMJ, which are currently under construction, will produce yields far in excess of any previous inertial-confinement fusion experiment. One of the implications of such high yields is that fusion {gamma} rays, which have branching ratios four orders of magnitude less than that of fusion neutrons, may be used to diagnose bang time. This article describes the first of such {gamma}-ray bang-time measurement made using the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The diagnostic used for this was a gas Cherenkov detector. The experimental setup, data and error analyses, and suggested improvements are presented.

  6. KrF laser path to high gain ICF (inertial confinement fusion) laboratory microfusion facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, D.B.; Sullivan, J.A.; Figueiro, J.F.; Cartwright, D.C.; McDonald, T.E.; Hauer, A.A.; Coggeshall, S.V.; Younger, S.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The krypton-fluoride laser has many desirable features for inertial confinement fusion. Because it is a gas laser capable of operation with high efficiency, it is the only known laser candidate capable of meeting the driver requirements for inertial fusion energy (IFE) production. Los Alamos National Laboratory has defined a program plan to develop KrF lasers for IFE production. This plan develops the KrF laser and demonstrates the target performance in single-pulse facilities. A 100-kJ Laser Target Test Facility (LTTF) is proposed as the next step, to be followed by a 3 to 10-MJ Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The LTTF will resolve many target physics issues and accurately define the driver energy required for the LMF. It is also proposed that the technology development for IFE, such as the high-efficiency, high-reliability, repetitively pulsed driver, the reactor, mass production of targets, and the mechanism of injecting targets be developed in parallel with the single-pulse facilities. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Production and measurement of engineered surfaces for inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hatch, Douglas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rivera, Gerald [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Confinement Fusion uses the optical energy from a very high power laser to implode spherical capsules that contain a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium. The capsules are made of either Beryllium, plastic, or glass and range from 0.1 mm to 2 mm in diameter. As a capsule implodes, thereby compressing the fuel to reach nuclear fusion conditions, it achieves temperatures of millions of degrees Centigrade and very high pressures. In this state, the capsule materials act like fluids and often a low density fluidic material will push on a higher density material which can be a very unstable condition depending upon the smoothness of the interface between the two materials. This unstable condition is called a hydrodynamic instabillity which results in the mixing of the two materials. If the mixing occurs between the fuel and a non-fuel material, it can stop the fusion reaction just like adding significant amounts of water to gasoline can stop the operation of an automobile. Another region in the capsule where surface roughness can cause capsule performance degradation is at a joint. For instance, many capsules are made of hemispheres that are joined together. If the joint surfaces are too rough, then there will an effective reduction in density at the joint. This density reduction can cause a non-uniform implosion which will reduce the fusion energy coming out of the capsule.

  8. Fusion reactor control study. Volume 4: inertial confinement reactors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, F.R.; Fisher, J.L.; Madden, P.A.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor control investigated concepts of the type intended to be driven by laser, electron, or light-ion pulsed energy beams. The study delineates the major reactor control functions, the methods and techniques advanced so far to perform those functions, and the problems, uncertainties, and issues associated with their possible implementation. The perceived shortcomings of some proposed methods of beam/target interaction initiated a search for potentially better solutions to the guidance/pointing/tracking control problem. A preliminary study of a new scheme to accomplish this most important control function is described. The simulated performance of the concept, which involves the active control of the intensity of a laser tube through which the fuel pellet travels to the target point, is encouraging. However, it is concluded that a more detailed study including experimental verification is required to establish the practicality of the concept.

  9. Interactive tools designed to study mix in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welser-sherrill, Leslie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cooley, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Doug C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical user interface tools have been built in IDL to study mix in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion cores. FLAME (Fall-Line Analysis Mix Evaluator), a code which investigates yield degradation due to mix , was designed to post-process 1D hydrodynamic simulation output by implementing a variety of mix models. Three of these mix models are based on the physics of the fall-line. In addition, mixing data from other sources can be incorporated into the yield degradation analysis. Two independent tools called HAME (Haan Analysis Mix Evaluator) and YAME (Youngs Analysis Mix Evaluator) were developed to calculate the spatial extent of the mix region according to the Haan saturation model and Youngs' phenomenological model, respectively. FLAME facilitates a direct comparison to experimental data. The FLAME, HAME, and YAME interfaces are user-friendly, flexible, and platform-independent.

  10. Application of spatially resolved high resolution crystal spectrometry to inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparacio, L.; Pablant, N. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Beiersdorfer, P.; Schneider, M.; Widmann, K. [Physics Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sanchez del Rio, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043-Grenoble Cedex (France); Zhang, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High resolution ({lambda}/{Delta}{lambda}{approx} 10 000) 1D imaging x-ray spectroscopy using a spherically bent crystal and a 2D hybrid pixel array detector is used world wide for Doppler measurements of ion-temperature and plasma flow-velocity profiles in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Meter sized plasmas are diagnosed with cm spatial resolution and 10 ms time resolution. This concept can also be used as a diagnostic of small sources, such as inertial confinement fusion plasmas and targets on x-ray light source beam lines, with spatial resolution of micrometers, as demonstrated by laboratory experiments using a 250-{mu}m {sup 55}Fe source, and by ray-tracing calculations. Throughput calculations agree with measurements, and predict detector counts in the range 10{sup -8}-10{sup -6} times source x-rays, depending on crystal reflectivity and spectrometer geometry. Results of the lab demonstrations, application of the technique to the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and predictions of performance on NIF will be presented.

  11. Advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 192-beam National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational and conducting experiments. NIF, the flagship facility of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, will achieve high-energy-density conditions never previously obtained in the laboratory - temperatures over 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm3, and pressures exceeding 100 billion atmospheres. Such conditions exist naturally only in the interiors of the stars and during thermonuclear burn. Demonstration of ignition and thermonuclear burn in the laboratory is a major NIF goal. To date, the NIF laser has demonstrated all pulse shape, beam quality, energy, and other specifications required to meet the ignition challenge. On March 10, 2009, the NIF laser delivered 1.1 MJ of ultraviolet laser energy to target chamber center, approximately 30 times more energy than any previous facility. The ignition program at NIF is the National Ignition Campaign (NIC), a national collaboration for ignition experimentation with participation from General Atomics, LLNL, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The achievement of ignition at NIF will demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF and focus worldwide attention on fusion as a viable energy option. A particular energy concept under investigation is the LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion Energy) scheme. The LIFE engine is inherently safe, minimizes proliferation concerns associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, and can provide a sustainable carbon-free energy generation solution in the 21st century. This talk will describe NIF and its potential as a user facility and an experimental platform for high-energy-density science, NIC, and the LIFE approach for clean, sustainable energy.

  12. Fatigue cracking of a bare steel first wall in an inertial confinement fusion chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abbott, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Havstad, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial confinement fusion power plants will deposit high energy X-rays onto the outer surfaces of the first wall many times a second for the lifetime of the plant. These X-rays create brief temperature spikes in the first few microns of the wall, which cause an associated highly compressive stress response on the surface of the material. The periodicity of this stress pulse is a concern due to the possibility of fatigue cracking of the wall. We have used finite element analyses to simulate the conditions present on the first wall in order to evaluate the driving force of crack propagation on fusion-facing surface cracks. Analysis results indicate that the X-ray induced plastic compressive stress creates a region of residual tension on the surface between pulses. This tension film will likely result in surface cracking upon repeated cycling. Additionally, the compressive pulse may induce plasticity ahead of the crack tip, leaving residual tension in its wake. However, the stress amplitude decreases dramatically for depths greater than 80–100 ?m into the fusion-facing surface. Crack propagation models as well as stress-life estimates agree that even though small cracks may form on the surface of the wall, they are unlikely to propagate further than 100 ?m without assistance from creep or grain erosion phenomena.

  13. Energy enhancement for deuteron beam fast ignition of a precompressed inertial confinement fusion target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiaoling; Miley, George H. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Flippo, Kirk A. [P-24 Plasma Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Hora, Heinrich [University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast Ignition (FI) is recognized as a potentially promising approach to achieve the high-energy-gain target performance needed for commercial inertial confinement fusion. Here we consider deuteron beam driven FI which provides not only the 'hot spot' ignition spark, but also extra ''bonus'' fusion energy through reactions in the target. In this study, we estimate the impact of the added deposition energy due to the fusion reactions occurring, based on calculations using a modified energy multiplication factor F{sub c}. The deuteron beam energy deposition range and time are also evaluated in order to estimate the desired deuteron initial energy. It is shown that an average of 30% extra energy can be gained from deuterons with 1 MeV initial energy and 12% from deuterons with 3 MeV initial energy. These results indicate that the energy benefit of this approach could be significant, but a much more comprehensive calculation is needed to realize a full 3D design for realistic experimental studies.

  14. Mode 1 drive asymmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, Brian K., E-mail: spears9@llnl.gov; Edwards, M. J.; Hatchett, S.; Kritcher, A.; Lindl, J.; Munro, D.; Patel, P.; Robey, H. F.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Road Rochester, New York 14623-1212 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, 250 E. River Road Rochester, New York 14623-1212 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mode 1 radiation drive asymmetry (pole-to-pole imbalance) at significant levels can have a large impact on inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This asymmetry distorts the cold confining shell and drives a high-speed jet through the hot spot. The perturbed hot spot shows increased residual kinetic energy and reduced internal energy, and it achieves reduced pressure and neutron yield. The altered implosion physics manifests itself in observable diagnostic signatures, especially the neutron spectrum which can be used to measure the neutron-weighted flow velocity, apparent ion temperature, and neutron downscattering. Numerical simulations of implosions with mode 1 asymmetry show that the resultant simulated diagnostic signatures are moved toward the values observed in many NIF experiments. The diagnostic output can also be used to build a set of integrated implosion performance metrics. The metrics indicate that P{sub 1} has a significant impact on implosion performance and must be carefully controlled in NIF implosions.

  15. Achieving competitive excellence in nuclear energy: The threat of proliferation; the challenge of inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear energy will have an expanding role in meeting the twenty-first-century challenges of population and economic growth, energy demand, and global warming. These great challenges are non-linearly coupled and incompletely understood. In the complex global system, achieving competitive excellence for nuclear energy is a multi-dimensional challenge. The growth of nuclear energy will be driven by its margin of economic advantage, as well as by threats to energy security and by growing evidence of global warming. At the same time, the deployment of nuclear energy will be inhibited by concerns about nuclear weapons proliferation, nuclear waste and nuclear reactor safety. These drivers and inhibitors are coupled: for example, in the foreseeable future, proliferation in the Middle East may undermine energy security and increase demand for nuclear energy. The Department of Energy`s nuclear weapons laboratories are addressing many of these challenges, including nuclear weapons builddown and nonproliferation, nuclear waste storage and burnup, reactor safety and fuel enrichment, global warming, and the long-range development of fusion energy. Today I will focus on two major program areas at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL): the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) energy.

  16. An improved method for measuring the absolute DD neutron yield and calibrating neutron time-of-flight detectors in inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waugh, C. (Caleb Joseph)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the establishment of nuclear physics in the early 1900's and the development of the hydrogen bomb in the 1950's, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been an important field in physics. Funded largely though the ...

  17. Studies of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF and magnetic reconnection using laser-produced plasmas at OMEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, Michael Jonathan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of ion kinetic effects during the shock-convergence phase of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions and magnetic reconnection in strongly-driven, laser-produced plasmas have been facilitated by the use of ...

  18. Recent progress on the Los Alamos Aurora ICF (inertial confinement fusion) laser system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Blair, L.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse, high-power, krypton-fluoride laser system. It serves as an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale ultraviolet laser systems for short wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver stacked, 248-nm, 5-ns duration multikilojoule laser pulses to ICF-relevant targets. This paper presents a summary of the Aurora system and a discussion of the progress achieved in the construction and integration of the laser system. We concentrate on the main features of the following major system components: front-end lasers, amplifier train, multiplexer, optical relay train, demultiplexer, and the associated optical alignment system. During the past year, two major construction and integration tasks have been accomplished. The first task is the demonstration of 96-beam multiplexing and amplified energy extraction, as evidenced by the integrated operation of the front end, the multiplexer (12-fold and 8-fold encoders), the optical relay train, and three electron-beam-driven amplifiers. The second task is the assembly and installation of the demultiplexer optical hardware, which consists of over 300 optical components ranging in size from several centimeters square to over a meter square. 13 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tommasini, R; MacPhee, A; Hey, D; Ma, T; Chen, C; Izumi, N; Unites, W; MacKinnon, A; Hatchett, S P; Remington, B A; Park, H S; Springer, P; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Seely, J; Holland, G; Hudson, L

    2008-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present scaled demonstrations of backlighter sources, emitting Bremsstrahlung x-rays with photon energies above 75 keV, that we will use to record x-ray Compton radiographic snapshots of cold dense DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In experiments performed at the Titan laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we measured the source size and the Bremsstrahlung spectrum as a function of laser intensity and pulse length, from solid targets irradiated at 2e17-5e18 W/cm{sup 2} using 2-40 ps pulses. Using Au planar foils we achieved source sizes down to 5.5 {micro}m, and conversion efficiencies of about 1e-3 J/J into x-ray photons with energies in the 75-100 keV spectral range. We can now use these results to design NIF backlighter targets and shielding, and to predict Compton radiography performance as a function of the NIF implosion yield and associated background.

  20. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Justin, Terence Davies, Frans Janson, Bruce Marshall, Perry Bell, Daniel Kalantar, Joseph Kimbrough, Stephen Vernon, Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called “comb” pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber.

  1. Optimized beryllium target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simakov, Andrei N., E-mail: simakov@lanl.gov; Wilson, Douglas C.; Yi, Sunghwan A.; Kline, John L.; Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, Daniel S.; Milovich, Jose L.; Salmonson, Jay D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For indirect drive inertial confinement fusion, Beryllium (Be) ablators offer a number of important advantages as compared with other ablator materials, e.g., plastic and high density carbon. In particular, the low opacity and relatively high density of Be lead to higher rocket efficiencies giving a higher fuel implosion velocity for a given X-ray drive; and to higher ablation velocities providing more ablative stabilization and reducing the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities on the implosion performance. Be ablator advantages provide a larger target design optimization space and can significantly improve the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. D. Lindl et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)] ignition margin. Herein, we summarize the Be advantages, briefly review NIF Be target history, and present a modern, optimized, low adiabat, Revision 6 NIF Be target design. This design takes advantage of knowledge gained from recent NIF experiments, including more realistic levels of laser-plasma energy backscatter, degraded hohlraum-capsule coupling, and the presence of cross-beam energy transfer.

  2. X-ray ablation rates in inertial confinement fusion capsule materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Leeper, R. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray ablation rates have been measured in beryllium, copper-doped beryllium, germanium-doped plastic (Ge-doped CH), and diamondlike high density carbon (HDC) for radiation temperatures T in the range of 160-260 eV. In beryllium, the measured ablation rates range from 3 to 12 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns; in Ge-doped CH, the ablation rates range from 2 to 6 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns; and for HDC, the rates range from 2 to 9 mg/cm{sup 2}/ns. The ablation rates follow an approximate T{sup 3} dependence and, for T below 230 eV, the beryllium ablation rates are significantly higher than HDC and Ge-doped CH. The corresponding implied ablation pressures are in the range of 20-160 Mbar, scaling as T{sup 3.5}. The results are found to be well predicted by computational simulations using the physics packages and computational techniques employed in the design of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion capsules. An iterative rocket model has been developed and used to compare the ablation rate data set to spherical indirect-drive capsule implosion experiments and to confirm the validity of some aspects of proposed full-scale National Ignition Facility ignition capsule designs.

  3. Metrics for long wavelength asymmetries in inertial confinement fusion implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A. L.; Town, R.; Bradley, D.; Clark, D.; Spears, B.; Jones, O.; Haan, S.; Springer, P. T.; Lindl, J.; Callahan, D.; Edwards, M. J.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Scott, R. H. H. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)] [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate yield degradation due to applied low mode P2 and P4 asymmetries in layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. This study has been performed with a large database of >600 2D simulations. We show that low mode radiation induced drive asymmetries can result in significant deviation between the core hot spot shape and the fuel ?R shape at peak compression. In addition, we show that significant residual kinetic energy at peak compression can be induced by these low mode asymmetries. We have developed a metric, which is a function of the hot spot shape, fuel ?R shape, and residual kinetic energy at peak compression, that is well correlated to yield degradation due to low mode shape perturbations. It is shown that the ?R shape and residual kinetic energy cannot, in general, be recovered by inducing counter asymmetries to make the hot core emission symmetric. In addition, we show that the yield degradation due to low mode asymmetries is well correlated to measurements of time dependent shape throughout the entire implosion, including early time shock symmetry and inflight fuel symmetry.

  4. Novel free-form hohlraum shape design and optimization for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Shaoen; Jing, Longfei, E-mail: scmyking-2008@163.com; Ding, Yongkun [Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: huangyblhy@gmail.com [Mechatronics School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The hohlraum shape attracts considerable attention because there is no successful ignition method for laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility. The available hohlraums are typically designed with simple conic curves, including ellipses, parabolas, arcs, or Lame curves, which allow only a few design parameters for the shape optimization, making it difficult to improve the performance, e.g., the energy coupling efficiency or radiation drive symmetry. A novel free-form hohlraum design and optimization approach based on the non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) model is proposed. In the present study, (1) all kinds of hohlraum shapes can be uniformly represented using NURBS, which is greatly beneficial for obtaining the optimal available hohlraum shapes, and (2) such free-form uniform representation enables us to obtain an optimal shape over a large design domain for the hohlraum with a more uniform radiation and higher drive temperature of the fuel capsule. Finally, a hohlraum is optimized and evaluated with respect to the drive temperature and symmetry at the Shenguang III laser facility in China. The drive temperature and symmetry results indicate that such a free-form representation is advantageous over available hohlraum shapes because it can substantially expand the shape design domain so as to obtain an optimal hohlraum with high performance.

  5. On the transport coefficients of hydrogen in the inertial confinement fusion regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, Flavien; Recoules, Vanina; Decoster, Alain; Clerouin, Jean [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Desjarlais, Michael [Pulsed Power Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to compute the thermal and electrical conductivities of hydrogen from 10 to 160 g cm{sup -3} and temperatures up to 800 eV, i.e., thermodynamical conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The ionic structure is obtained using molecular dynamics simulations based on an orbital-free treatment for the electrons. The transport properties were computed using ab initio simulations in the DFT/LDA approximation. The thermal and electrical conductivities are evaluated using Kubo-Greenwood formulation. Particular attention is paid to the convergence of electronic transport properties with respect to the number of bands and atoms. These calculations are then used to check various analytical models (Hubbard's, Lee-More's and Ichimaru's) widely used in hydrodynamics simulations of ICF capsule implosions. The Lorenz number, which is the ratio between thermal and electrical conductivities, is also computed and compared to the well-known Wiedemann-Franz law in different regimes ranging from the highly degenerate to the kinetic one. This allows us to deduce electrical conductivity from thermal conductivity for analytical model. We find that the coupling of Hubbard and Spitzer models gives a correct description of the behavior of electrical and thermal conductivities in the whole thermodynamic regime.

  6. Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor: heat transfer loop and balance of plant considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDowell, M.W.; Murray, K.A.

    1984-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual heat transfer loop and balance of plant design for the Pulse*Star Inertial Confinement Fusion Reactor has been investigated and results are presented. The Pulse*Star reaction vessel, a perforated steel bell jar approximately 11 m in diameter, is immersed in Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ coolant which flows through the perforations and forms a 1.5 m thick plenum of droplets around an 8 m diameter inner chamber. The reactor and associated pumps, piping, and steam generators are contained within a 17 m diameter pool of Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ coolant to minimize structural requirements and occupied space, resulting in reduced cost. Four parallel heat transfer loops with flow rates of 5.5 m/sup 3//s each are necessary to transfer 3300 MWt of power. The steam generator design was optimized by finding the most cost-effective combination of heat exchanger area and pumping power. Power balance calculations based on an improved electrical conversion efficiency revealed a net electrical output of 1260 MWe to the bus bar and a resulting net efficiency of 39%. Suggested balance-of-plant layouts are also presented.

  7. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (IFC) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Séguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Amendt, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atzeni, S. [Dipartimento SBAI, Universitŕ di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma (Italy); Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hoffman, N. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)] (ORCID:000000030178767X); Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:000000017274236X); Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258834054); Glebov, V. Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Seka, W. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Marshall, F. J. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Delettrez, J. A. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000340402672); Betti, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Wilks, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pino, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in DłHe-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.

  8. Assessment of ion kinetic effects in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion (IFC) implosions using fusion burn imaging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Amendt, P. A.; Atzeni, S.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Hoffman, N. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; et al

    2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in DłHe-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, NK) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolved measurementsmore »of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (NK ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less

  9. Experimental techniques for measuring Rayleigh-Taylor instability in inertial confinement fusion (ICF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalyuk, V A

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is one of the major concerns in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) because it amplifies target modulations in both acceleration and deceleration phases of implosion, which leads to shell disruption and performance degradation of imploding targets. This article reviews experimental results of the RT growth experiments performed on OMEGA laser system, where targets were driven directly with laser light. RT instability was studied in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The experiments were performed in acceleration phase, using planar and spherical targets, and in deceleration phase of spherical implosions, using spherical shells. Initial target modulations consisted of 2-D pre-imposed modulations, and 2-D and 3-D modulations imprinted on targets by the non-uniformities in laser drive. In planar geometry, the nonlinear regime was studied using 3-D modulations with broadband spectra near nonlinear saturation levels. In acceleration-phase, the measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in good agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [Haan S W 1989 Phys. Rev. A 39 5812]. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions [Oron D et al 2001 Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883]. The 3-D, inner-surface modulations were measured to grow throughout the deceleration phase of spherical implosions. RT growth rates are very sensitive to the drive conditions, therefore they can be used to test and validate drive physics in hydrodynamic codes used to design ICF implosions. Measured growth rates of pre-imposed 2-D target modulations below nonlinear saturation levels were used to validate non-local thermal electron transport model in laser-driven experiments.

  10. The mitigating effect of magnetic fields on Rayleigh-Taylor unstable inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xian-Zhu [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities at interfaces of disparate mass densities have long been known to generate magnetic fields during inertial confinement fusion implosions. An externally applied magnetic field can also be efficiently amplified by RT instabilities. The focus here is on magnetic field generation and amplification at the gas-ice interface which is RT unstable during the deceleration phase of the implosion. RT instabilities lead to undesirable mix of hot and cold plasmas which enhances thermal energy loss and tends to produce a more massive warm-spot instead of a hot-spot. Two mechanisms are shown here to mitigate the thermal energy loss from the hot-spot. The first mechanism is the reduction of electron thermal conductivity with interface-aligned magnetic fields. This can occur through self-generated magnetic fields via the Biermann battery effect as well as through externally applied magnetic fields that undergo an exponential growth via the stretch-and-fold magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Self-generated magnetic fields during RT evolution can result in a factor of 2?10 decrease in the electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface, while externally applied magnetic fields that are compressed to 6–1000 T at the onset of deceleration (corresponding to pre-implosion external fields of 0.06–10 T) could result in a factor of 2–500 reduction in electron thermal conductivity at the gas-ice interface. The second mechanism to mitigate thermal energy loss from the hot-spot is to decrease the interface mixing area between the hot and cold plasmas. This is achieved through large external magnetic fields of 1000 T at the onset of deceleration which damp short-wavelength RT modes and long-wavelength Kelvin-Helmholtz modes thus significantly slowing the RT growth and reducing mix.

  11. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoffman, Nelson M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)] (ORCID:000000030178767X); Zimmerman, George B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Molvig, Kim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rinderknecht, Hans G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Albright, B. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simakov, Andrei N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sio, Hong [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:000000017274236X); Zylstra, Alex B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Johnson, Maria Gatu [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Séguin, Fredrick H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Frenje, Johan A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000168460378); Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Petrasso, Richard D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States)] (ORCID:0000000258834054); Higdon, David M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Srinivasan, Gowri [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Glebov, Vladimir Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, Christian [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Seka, Wolf [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. Craig [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)] (ORCID:0000000340402672)

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method described here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach will motivate continued theoretical research into the development of first-principles-based, comprehensive, self-consistent, yet useable models of kinetic multispecies ion behavior in ICF plasmas.

  12. Approximate models for the ion-kinetic regime in inertial-confinement-fusion capsule implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hoffman, Nelson M.; Zimmerman, George B.; Molvig, Kim; Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Albright, B. J.; Simakov, Andrei N.; Sio, Hong; Zylstra, Alex B.; Johnson, Maria Gatu; et al

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    “Reduced” (i.e., simplified or approximate) ion-kinetic (RIK) models in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations permit a useful description of inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) implosions where kinetic deviations from hydrodynamic behavior are important. For implosions in or near the kinetic regime (i.e., when ion mean free paths are comparable to the capsule size), simulations using a RIK model give a detailed picture of the time- and space-dependent structure of imploding capsules, allow an assessment of the relative importance of various kinetic processes during the implosion, enable explanations of past and current observations, and permit predictions of the results of future experiments. The RIK simulation method describedmore »here uses moment-based reduced kinetic models for transport of mass, momentum, and energy by long-mean-free-path ions, a model for the decrease of fusion reactivity owing to the associated modification of the ion distribution function, and a model of hydrodynamic turbulent mixing. The transport models are based on local gradient-diffusion approximations for the transport of moments of the ion distribution functions, with coefficients to impose flux limiting or account for transport modification. After calibration against a reference set of ICF implosions spanning the hydrodynamic-to-kinetic transition, the method has useful, quantifiable predictive ability over a broad range of capsule parameter space. Calibrated RIK simulations show that an important contributor to ion species separation in ICF capsule implosions is the preferential flux of longer-mean-free-path species out of the fuel and into the shell, leaving the fuel relatively enriched in species with shorter mean free paths. Also, the transport of ion thermal energy is enhanced in the kinetic regime, causing the fuel region to have a more uniform, lower ion temperature, extending over a larger volume, than implied by clean simulations. We expect that the success of our simple approach will motivate continued theoretical research into the development of first-principles-based, comprehensive, self-consistent, yet useable models of kinetic multispecies ion behavior in ICF plasmas.« less

  13. Ion microtomography and particle-induced x-ray emission analysis of direct drive inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antolak, A.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Morse, D.H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)); Weirup, D.L.; Heikkinen, D.W. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)); Cholewa, M.; Bench, G.S.; Legge, G.J.F. (Micro Analytical Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia))

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The complementary techniques of ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are used to provide submicron-scale characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets for density uniformity, sphericity, and trace-element spatial distributions. ICF target quality control in the laser fusion program is important to ensure that the energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Rayleigh--Taylor instabilities. We obtain 1% total electron density determinations using IMT with spatial resolution approaching 2 {mu}m. Utilizing PIXE, we can map out dopant and impurity distributions with elemental detection sensitivities on the order of a few parts per million. We present examples of ICF target characterization by IMT and PIXE in order to demonstrate their potential impact in assessing target fabrication processes.

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEAVY-ION ACCELERATORS AS DRIVERS FOR INERTIALLY CONFINED FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.b.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    29 The Fission-fusion Hybrid - iii - General DiscussionInteraction in Heavy Ion Fusion BIBLIOGRAPHY HEAVY IONReactor Designs . . . 27 Pure Fusion Power Reactor Tritium

  15. Improving particle confinement in inertial electrostatic fusion for spacecraft power and propulsion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietrich, Carl, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion energy is attractive for use in future spacecraft because of improved fuel energy density and reduced radioactivity compared with fission power. Unfortunately, the most promising means of generating fusion power on ...

  16. PLASMA-PHYSICS-21 Heavy ion driven reactor-size double shell inertial fusion targets*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Serna Moreno; N. A. Tahir; J. J. López Cela; A. R. Piriz; D. H. H. Hoffmann

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is considered as an alternative to Magnetic Confinement Fusion to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion. The main goal is to exploit the energy released from thermonuclear fusion reactions

  17. LBNL perspective on inertial fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bangerter, Roger O.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL Perspective on Inertial Fusion Energy Roger Bangerter1990) and the last Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (1993)year 2005, the Inertial Fusion Energy Program must grow to

  18. Tutorial on the Physics of Inertial Confinement Fusion for energy applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma += EEE n nuclear output thermal inputE If 's slow-down in the plasma, they self-heat the plasma E the level of self-heating of the fusion plasma. A better physics parameter is Q thermal inputE E Q = 5 Q Q instability (ignition) is triggered when the alpha self-heating exceeds all the energy losses in the hot spot

  19. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, October--December 1992. Volume 3, No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixit, S.N. [ed.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains papers on the following topics: The Beamlet Front End: Prototype of a new pulse generation system;imaging biological objects with x-ray lasers; coherent XUV generation via high-order harmonic generation in rare gases; theory of high-order harmonic generation; two-dimensional computer simulations of ultra- intense, short-pulse laser-plasma interactions; neutron detectors for measuring the fusion burn history of ICF targets; the recirculator; and lasnex evolves to exploit computer industry advances.

  20. Elliptical magnetic mirror generated via resistivity gradients for fast ignition inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The elliptical magnetic mirror scheme for guiding fast electrons for Fast Ignition proposed by Schmitz et al. (Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085016 (2012)) is studied for conditions on the multi-kJ scale which are much closer to full-scale Fast Ignition. When scaled up, the elliptical mirror scheme is still highly beneficial to Fast Ignition. An increase in the coupling efficiency by a factor of 3–4 is found over a wide range of fast electron divergence half-angles.

  1. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masnari, Nino A. (Ann Arbor, MI); Rensel, Walter B. (Ann Arbor, MI); Robinson, Merrill G. (Ann Arbor, MI); Solomon, David E. (Ann Arbor, MI); Wise, Kensall D. (Ann Arbor, MI); Wuttke, Gilbert H. (Ypsilanti Township, Washtenaw County, MI)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ICF target comprising a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a concentric shell; and a process for manufacturing the same which includes the steps of forming hemispheric shells of a silicon or other substrate material, adhering the shell segments to each other with a fuel pellet contained concentrically therein, then separating the individual targets from the parent substrate. Formation of hemispheric cavities by deposition or coating of a mold substrate is also described. Coatings or membranes may also be applied to the interior of the hemispheric segments prior to joining.

  2. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size, and their partial or total evaporation in the expanding flow.

  3. Ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis direct drive of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antolak, A.J.; Pontau, A.E.; Morse, D.H. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)); Weirup, D.L.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Hornady, R.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Cholewa, M.; Bench, G.S.; Legge, G.J.F. (Melbourne Univ. (Australia). Micro Analytical Research Centre)

    1991-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The complementary techniques of ion microtomography (IMT) and particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are used to provide micro-characterization of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets for density uniformity, sphericity, and trace element spatial distributions. ICF target quality control in the laser fusion program is important to ensure that the energy deposition from the lasers results in uniform compression and minimization of Taylor-Rayleigh instabilities. We obtain 1% density determinations using IMT with spatial resolution approaching two microns. Utilizing PIXE, we can map out dopant and impurity distributions with elemental detection sensitivities on the order of a few ppm. We present examples of IMT and PIXE analyses performed on several ICF targets.

  4. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  5. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and ?R are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mrosenbe@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Séguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Hohenberger, M.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Yeamans, C. B.; LePape, S.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Talison, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (?R) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ?1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120?keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF.

  6. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, A. J.; Cooper, G. W. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Ruiz, C. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Hahn, K. D.; Leeper, R. J.; Smelser, R.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode for inertial confinement fusion experiments has been applied to the on-axis nTOF detectors located in the basement of the Z-Facility. It will be shown that this method can identify sources of neutron scattering, and is useful for predicting detector responses in future experimental configurations, and for identifying potential sources of neutron scattering when experimental set-ups change. This method can also provide insight on how much broadening neutron scattering contributes to the primary signals, which is then subtracted from them. Detector time responses are deconvolved from the signals, allowing a transformation from dN/dt to dN/dE, extracting neutron spectra at each detector location; these spectra are proportional to the absolute yield.

  7. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R&D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work.

  8. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Peterson, K. J. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87125 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a “low-foot” drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  9. An innovative accelerator-driven inertial electrostatic confinement device using converging ion beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    1999-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental physics issues facing development of fusion power on a small-scale are assessed with emphasis on the idea of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). The authors propose a new concept of accelerator-driven IEC fusion, termed Converging Beam Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (CB-IEC). CB-IEC offers a number of innovative features that make it an attractive pathway toward resolving fundamental physics issues and assessing the ultimate viability of the IEC concept for power generation.

  10. Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C; Carey, R; Demaret, R; Edwards, O; Lagin, L; Van Arsdall, P

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) facility point design is being developed at LLNL to support an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) based energy concept. This will build upon the technical foundation of the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system. NIF is designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn. The LIFE control systems will have an architecture partitioned by sub-systems and distributed among over 1000's of front-end processors, embedded controllers and supervisory servers. LIFE's automated control subsystems will require interoperation between different languages and target architectures. Much of the control system will be embedded into the subsystem with well defined interface and performance requirements to the supervisory control layer. An automation framework will be used to orchestrate and automate start-up and shut-down as well as steady state operation. The LIFE control system will be a high parallel segmented architecture. For example, the laser system consists of 384 identical laser beamlines in a 'box'. The control system will mirror this architectural replication for each beamline with straightforward high-level interface for control and status monitoring. Key technical challenges will be discussed such as the injected target tracking and laser pointing feedback. This talk discusses the the plan for controls and information systems to support LIFE.

  11. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, F. J., E-mail: fredm@lle.rochester.edu; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  12. Status and Prospects of the Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion Concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, M H

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast ignition is an alternate concept in inertial confinement fusion, which has the potential for easier ignition and greater energy multiplication. If realized it could improve the prospects for inertial fusion energy. It poses stimulating challenges in science and technology and the research is approaching a key stage in which the feasibility of fast ignition will be determined. This review covers the concepts, the state of the science and technology, the near term prospects and the challenges and risks involved in demonstrating high gain fast ignition.

  13. Fast ignition when heating the central part of an inertial confinement fusion target by an ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus’kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Il’in, D. V.; Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the ignition and burning of a precompressed laser fusion target when it is rapidly heated by an ion beam with the formation of a temperature peak in the central part of the target. We present the results of our comprehensive numerical simulations of the problem that include the following components: (1) the target compression under the action of a profiled laser pulse, (2) the heating of the compressed target with spatially nonuniform density and temperature distributions by a beam of high-energy ions, and (3) the burning of the target with the initial spatial density distribution formed at the instant of maximum target compression and the initial spatial temperature distribution formed as a result of the compressed-target heating by an ion beam. The dependences of the threshold energies of the igniting ion beam and the thermonuclear gain on the width of the Gaussian beam ion energy spectrum have been established. The peculiarities of fast ignition by an ion beam related to the spatial distribution of parameters for the target precompressed by a laser pulse are discussed.

  14. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W. M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), now being constructed in Caderache, France [5]. In contrast, inertial fusion

  15. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  16. Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy Fusion Power Associates Annual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    82 kV #12;7 Outline · Refurbished Z · Pulsed power fusion · Advances in pulsed power technology · Z-pinch;10 Outline · Refurbished Z · Pulsed power fusion · Advances in pulsed power technology · Z-pinch IFE Linear1 Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting and Symposium December 4

  17. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W. M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIFAN 1830 INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMSAC02-05CH11231. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION467 (1992). [38] R. W. Moir, Fusion Tech. 25, 5 (1994) [39

  18. Progress in heavy ion drivers inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ION DRIVEN INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY: FROM SCALED EXPERIMENTSThe promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ionleading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus

  19. Inertial fusion: strategy and economic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial fusion must demonstrate that the high target gains required for practical fusion energy can be achieved with driver energies not larger than a few megajoules. Before a multi-megajoule scale driver is constructed, inertial fusion must provide convincing experimental evidence that the required high target gains are feasible. This will be the principal objective of the NOVA laser experiments. Implosions will be conducted with scaled targets which are nearly hydrodynamically equivalent to the high gain target implosions. Experiments which demonstrate high target gains will be conducted in the early nineties when multi-megajoule drivers become available. Efficient drivers will also be demonstrated by this time period. Magnetic fusion may demonstrate high Q at about the same time as inertial fusion demonstrates high gain. Beyond demonstration of high performance fusion, economic considerations will predominate. Fusion energy will achieve full commercial success when it becomes cheaper than fission and coal. Analysis of the ultimate economic potential of inertial fusion suggests its costs may be reduced to half those of fission and coal. Relative cost escalation would increase this advantage. Fusions potential economic advantage derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy (which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity).

  20. Japanese magnetic confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.C.; Abdou, M.A.; Berry, L.A.; Horton, C.W.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six U.S. scientists surveyed and assessed Japanese research and development in magnetic fusion. The technical accomplishments from the early 1980s through June 1989 are reviewed, and the Japanese capabilities and outlook for future contributions are assessed. Detailed evaluations are provided in the areas of basic and applied plasma physics, tokamak confinement, alternate confinement approaches, plasma technology, and fusion nuclear technology and materials.

  1. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Waugh, C. J.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (?R) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in themore »filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±« less

  2. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and pR are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rosenberg, M. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Zylstra, A. B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rinderknecht, H. G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Waugh, C. J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sinenian, N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. Yu. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Hohenberger, M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sangster, T. C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LePape, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mackinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bionta, R. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Talison, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Casey, D. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moran, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zacharias, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, step range filter proton spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum, from which yield and areal density (?R) are inferred for deuterium-filled thin-shell inertial confinement fusion implosions. This spectrometer, which is based on tantalum step-range filters, is sensitive to protons in the energy range 1-9 MeV and can be used to measure proton spectra at mean energies of ~1-3 MeV. It has been developed and implemented using a linear accelerator and applied to experiments at the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Modeling of the proton slowing in the filters is necessary to construct the spectrum, and the yield and energy uncertainties are ±<10% in yield and ±120 keV, respectively. This spectrometer can be used for in situ calibration of DD-neutron yield diagnostics at the NIF

  3. Effects of non-local electron transport in one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations of shock-ignited inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marocchino, A.; Atzeni, S.; Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento SBAI, Universitŕ di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)] [Dipartimento SBAI, Universitŕ di Roma “La Sapienza” and CNISM, Roma 00161 (Italy)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In some regions of a laser driven inertial fusion target, the electron mean-free path can become comparable to or even longer than the electron temperature gradient scale-length. This can be particularly important in shock-ignited (SI) targets, where the laser-spike heated corona reaches temperatures of several keV. In this case, thermal conduction cannot be described by a simple local conductivity model and a Fick's law. Fluid codes usually employ flux-limited conduction models, which preserve causality, but lose important features of the thermal flow. A more accurate thermal flow modeling requires convolution-like non-local operators. In order to improve the simulation of SI targets, the non-local electron transport operator proposed by Schurtz-Nicolaď-Busquet [G. P. Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] has been implemented in the DUED fluid code. Both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) simulations of SI targets have been performed. 1D simulations of the ablation phase highlight that while the shock profile and timing might be mocked up with a flux-limiter; the electron temperature profiles exhibit a relatively different behavior with no major effects on the final gain. The spike, instead, can only roughly be reproduced with a fixed flux-limiter value. 1D target gain is however unaffected, provided some minor tuning of laser pulses. 2D simulations show that the use of a non-local thermal conduction model does not affect the robustness to mispositioning of targets driven by quasi-uniform laser irradiation. 2D simulations performed with only two final polar intense spikes yield encouraging results and support further studies.

  4. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY J. J. Barnard 1 , J.dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-targetas drivers for inertial fusion energy (IFE), for their high

  5. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  6. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, January-December 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes research and development effort in support of the Inertial Confinement Fusion program, including absorption measurements with an integrating sphere, generation of high CO/sub 2/-laser harmonics in the backscattered light from laser plasmas, and the effects of hydrogen target contamination on the hot-electron temperature and transport. The development of new diagnostics is outlined and measurements taken with a proximity-focused x-ray streak camera are presented. High gain in phase conjugation using germanium was demonstrated, data were obtained on retropulse isolation by plasmas generated from metal shutters, damage thresholds for copper mirrors at high fluences were characterized, and phase conjugation in the ultraviolet was demonstrated. Significant progress in the characterization of targets, new techniques in target coating, and important advances in the development of low-density, small-cell-size plastic foam that permit highly accurate machining to any desired shape are presented. The results of various fusion reactor system studies are summarized.

  7. A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield and R are determined in thin-shell inertial-confinement-fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A compact proton spectrometer for measurement of the absolute DD proton spectrum from which yield for extending by 103 the dynamic range of compact proton spectrometers for diagnosing ICF implosions. Sci. Instrum. 85, 063502 (2014); 10.1063/1.4880203 D 3 He -proton emission imaging for inertial

  8. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 1 LA-UR-11-01898 #12;Some Observations An economic for the DOE/NNSA 2 #12;Magneto-inertial fusion: Part of a plan B · May allow more efficient drivers, lower Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 3 #12;A Wide Range of Driver

  9. U.S. Heavy Ion Beam Science towards inertial fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Science towards Inertial Fusion Energy B.G. Logan 1), D.activities for inertial fusion energy at Lawrence LivermoreIon Fusion in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program [25].

  10. Magnetic Confinement Fusion at the Crossroads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Matterhorn initiated at Princeton 1950s Classified US Project Sherwood on controlled thermonuclear fusionMagnetic Confinement Fusion at the Crossroads Michael Bell Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory #12;MGB / UT / 070307 2 The Beginnings of Fusion Energy Research 1928 Concept of fusion reactions

  11. Report of the FESAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Abdou, M.; Briggs, R. [and others

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article is a response to the Office of Energy Research of the US DOE from the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee on a review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program. This response was solicited in response to one of the suggestions made as part of the advisory report `A Restructured Fusion Energy Sciences Program` submitted to the US DOE in early 1996. The charge directed that the committee provide an assessment of the content of an inertial fusion energy program that advances the scientific elements of the program and is consistent with the Fusion Energy Sciences Program, and budget projections over the next several years.

  12. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.) [comp.

    1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented.

  13. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. Moses, “Inertial fusion energy target output and chamberA. J. Schmitt, et al. , “Fusion energy research with lasers,o?s for inertial fusion energy power plants,” presented at

  14. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Facility (NIF) will extend HEDP experiments to include access to thermonuclear burn conditions's Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) through three strategic objectives: Achieve thermonuclear ignition thermonuclear ignition to the national nuclear weapons program was one of the earliest motivations of the ICF

  15. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (SSP) through three strategic objectives: · Achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory experiments to include access to thermonuclear burn conditions in the laboratory, a unique and unprecedented to demonstrate thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. The NIF is a 192-bea

  16. Inertial Confinement Fusion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure...

  17. Inertial confinement fusion | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm)HydrogenRFP »summerlectures [ICO]default

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Inertial confinement fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.7 348,016.0 336,514.0 350,723.3fact-sheets

  19. Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999 Report of the FEAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    participation in the of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program of the Office of International Thermonuclear ReactorJournal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999 Report of the FEAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review. S. Department of Energy Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) review of its Inertial Fusion Energy

  20. Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy density plasmasa...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Experimental investigation of opacity models for stellar interior, inertial fusion, and high energy for calculating energy transport in plasmas. In particular, understanding stellar interiors, inertial fusion more energy and the backlight must be bright enough to overwhelm the plasma self

  1. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  2. Compression and combustion of non-cryogenic targets with a solid thermonuclear fuel for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu., E-mail: guskov@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Zmitrenko, N. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Sherman, V. E. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Variants of a target with a solid thermonuclear fuel in the form of deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals for an inertial fusion have been proposed. The laser-pulse-induced compression of non-cryogenic targets, as well as ignition and combustion of such targets, has been examined. The numerical calculations show that, despite a decrease in the caloric content of the fuel and an increase in the energy losses on intrinsic radiation in the target containing deuterium-tritium hydrides of light metals as compared to the target containing deuterium-tritium ice, the non-cryogenic target can ensure the fusion gain sufficient for its use in the energy cycle of a thermonuclear power plant based on the inertial plasma confinement method.

  3. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1.3.2 Fusion Energy . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3.3 Fission-Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy 2.1 Potentialaspects of magnetic fusion energy, September 1989. 1.1.3.2 [

  4. Self-pinched beam transport experiments Relevant to Heavy Ion Driven inertial fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. L . Olson, J. Fusion Energy 1, 309 (1982). "FilamentationHeavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy January 30, 1998 W.Agency Sixteenth I A E A Fusion Energy Conference (Montreal,

  5. Simulations for experimental study of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy applications on NDCX-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MATTER AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY APPLICATIONS ON NDCX-II Byof Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, of the U.S.matter and inertial fusion energy applications on NDCX-II J.

  6. Spherical plasma oscillations in a reversed-polarity inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuft, C.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed reversed-polarity inertial-electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally using voltage and spectroscopic diagnostics. Large-amplitude oscillations were observed in the floating potential of the plasma immediately following the initiation of the discharge. It is postulated that the observations were the result of coherent ion oscillations within a harmonic potential well formed by a uniform electron density in the center of the device. A simple model of the system predicts the depth of this transient potential well to be approximately 100 V. Observations of the relative occupation of the third and fourth energy levels of hydrogen in the plasma indicated the formation of a Maxwellian electron energy distribution after 20 {mu}s. The results suggest a promising avenue toward a net fusion power gain by utilizing these oscillations to periodically compress and heat the plasma to thermonuclear densities and energies.

  7. Ion beam heated target simulations for warm dense matter physics and inertial fusion energy$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Jonathan

    Ion beam heated target simulations for warm dense matter physics and inertial fusion energy$ J Keywords: Ion beam heating Warm dense matter Inertial fusion energy targets Hydrodynamic simulation a b fusion energy-related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids

  8. First Observations of Nonhydrodynamic Mix at the Fuel-Shell Interface in Shock-Driven Inertial Confinement Implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Amendt, P.; Delettrez, J.; Bellei, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Betti, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Landen, O.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Wilks, S.; Greenwood, A.; Nikroo, A.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strong nonhydrodynamic mechanism generating atomic fuel-shell mix has been observed in strongly shocked inertial confinement fusion implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells filled with He 3 gas. These implosions were found to produce DHe 3 -proton shock yields comparable to implosions of identical shells filled with a hydroequivalent 50?50 DHe 3 gas mixture. Standard hydrodynamic mixing cannot explain this observation, as hydrodynamic modeling including mix predicts a yield an order of magnitude lower than was observed. Instead, these results can be attributed to ion diffusive mix at the fuel-shell interface.

  9. Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 15, Nos. 3/4, 1996 Report of the FESAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 15, Nos. 3/4, 1996 Report of the FESAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Marshall Rosenbluth, H,~3 William Tang, 12 and Ernest Valeo 12 Dr. Robert W. Conn, Chair Fusion Energy on a specific recommendation made by your Committee in its report, "A Restructured Fusion Energy Sciences Pro

  10. A semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBride, Ryan D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented is a semi-analytic model of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This model accounts for several key aspects of MagLIF, including: (1) preheat of the fuel (optionally via laser absorption); (2) pulsed-power-driven liner implosion; (3) liner compressibility with an analytic equation of state, artificial viscosity, internal magnetic pressure, and ohmic heating; (4) adiabatic compression and heating of the fuel; (5) radiative losses and fuel opacity; (6) magnetic flux compression with Nernst thermoelectric losses; (7) magnetized electron and ion thermal conduction losses; (8) end losses; (9) enhanced losses due to prescribed dopant concentrations and contaminant mix; (10) deuterium-deuterium and deuterium-tritium primary fusion reactions for arbitrary deuterium to tritium fuel ratios; and (11) magnetized alpha-particle fuel heating. We show that this simplified model, with its transparent and accessible physics, can be used to reproduce the general 1D behavior presented throughout the original Ma...

  11. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC): Panel 7 report on Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R.; Ripin, B.; Abdou, M.; Baldwin, D.E.; Commisso, R.; Dean, S.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.; Lee, E.; Lindl, J.; McCrory, R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The charge to FEAC Panel 7 on inertial fusion energy (IFE) is encompassed in the four articles of correspondence. To briefly summarize, the scope of the panel`s review and analysis adhered to the following guidelines. (1) Consistent with previous recommendations by the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) and the National Academy of Science (NAS) panel on inertial fusion, the principal focus of FEAC Panel 7`s review and planning activities for next-generation experimental facilities in IFE was limited to heavy ions. (2) The panel considered the three budget cases: $5M, $10M, and $15M annual funding at constant level-of-effort (FY92 dollars), with a time horizon of about five years. (3) While limiting the analysis of next-generation experimental facilities to heavy ions, the panel assessed both the induction and rf linac approaches, and factored European plans into its considerations as well. (4) Finally, the panel identified high-priority areas in system studies and supporting IFE technologies, taking into account how IFE can benefit from related activities funded by the Office of Fusion Energy and by Defense Programs. This report presents the technical assessment, findings, and recommendations on inertial fusion energy prepared by FEAC Panel 7.

  12. Octahedral spherical hohlraum and its laser arrangement for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan, Ke; He, Xian-Tu; Liu, Jie [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Wudi; Lai, Dongxian [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent publication [K. Lan et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 010704 (2014)] proposed a spherical hohlraum with six laser entrance holes of octahedral symmetry at a specific hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio of 5.14 for inertial fusion study, which has robust high symmetry during the capsule implosion and superiority on low backscatter without supplementary technology. This paper extends the previous one by studying the laser arrangement and constraints of octahedral hohlraum in detail. As a result, it has serious beam crossing at ?{sub L}?45°, and ?{sub L}=50° to 60° is proposed as the optimum candidate range for the golden octahedral hohlraum, here ?{sub L} is the opening angle that the laser quad beam makes with the Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) normal direction. In addition, the design of the LEH azimuthal angle should avoid laser spot overlapping on hohlraum wall and laser beam transferring outside hohlraum from a neighbor LEH. The octahedral hohlraums are flexible and can be applicable to diverse inertial fusion drive approaches. This paper also applies the octahedral hohlraum to the recent proposed hybrid indirect-direct drive approach.

  13. Rep-Rated Target Injection for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, D.T.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Drake, T.J.; Egli, W.; Vermillion, B.A.; Klasen, R.; Cleary, M.M

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) with laser drivers is a pulsed power generation system that relies on repetitive, high-speed injection of targets into a fusion reactor. To produce an economically viable IFE power plant the targets must be injected into the reactor at a rate between 5 and 10 Hz.To survive the injection process, direct drive (laser fusion) targets (spherical capsules) are placed into protective sabots. The sabots separate from the target and are stripped off before entering the reactor chamber. Indirect drive (heavy ion fusion) utilizes a hohlraum surrounding the spherical capsule and enters the chamber as one piece.In our target injection demonstration system, the sabots or hohlraums are injected into a vacuum system with a light gas gun using helium as a propellant. To achieve pulsed operation a rep-rated injection system has been developed. For a viable power plant we must be able to fire continuously at 6 Hz. This demonstration system is currently set up to allow bursts of up to 12 targets at 6 Hz. Using the current system, tests have been successfully run with direct drive targets to show sabot separation under vacuum and at barrel exit velocities of {approx}400 m/s.The existing revolver system along with operational data will be presented.

  14. Chamber technology concepts for inertial fusion energy: Three recent examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Abdou, M.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The most serious challenges in the design of chambers for inertial fusion energy (IFE) are 1) protecting the first wall from fusion energy pulses on the order of several hundred megajoules released in the form of x rays, target debris, and high energy neutrons, and 2) operating the chamber at a pulse repetition rate of 5-10 Hz (i.e., re-establishing, the wall protection and chamber conditions needed for beam propagation to the target between pulses). In meeting these challenges, designers have capitalized on the ability to separate the fusion burn physics from the geometry and environment of the fusion chamber. Most recent conceptual designs use gases or flowing liquids inside the chamber. Thin liquid layers of molten salt or metal and low pressure, high-Z gases can protect the first wall from x rays and target debris, while thick liquid layers have the added benefit of protecting structures from fusion neutrons thereby significantly reducing the radiation damage and activation. The use of thick liquid walls is predicted to 1) reduce the cost of electricity by avoiding the cost and down time of changing damaged structures, and 2) reduce the cost of development by avoiding the cost of developing a new, low-activation material. Various schemes have been proposed to assure chamber clearing and renewal of the protective features at the required pulse rate. Representative chamber concepts are described, and key technical feasibility issues are identified for each class of chamber. Experimental activities (past, current, and proposed) to address these issues and technology research and development needs are discussed.

  15. Dependence of Shell Mix on Feedthrough in Direct Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion S. P. Regan, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, F. J. Marshall, J. M. Soures, V. A. Smalyuk, P. B. Radha, B. Yaakobi,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    shell target containing thermonuclear fuel is imploded [1,2]. During an implosion of a D2 or DT gas throughout the implosion up to stagnation [12]. The thermonuclear fusion rate in the resulting central hot importance to ICF and the ultimate goal of thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. The strategy to control

  16. Development and validation of compressible mixture viscous fluid algorithm applied to predict the evolution of inertial fusion energy chamber gas and the impact of gas on direct-drive target survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Robert Scott

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and technologies for fusion energy with lasers and direct-direct drive inertial fusion energy targets. Report 06-02,Improved Inertial Fusion Energy Chamber Inter-Shot

  17. Comparison of Coulomb Collision Rates in the Plasma Physics and Magnetically Confined Fusion Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comparison of Coulomb Collision Rates in the Plasma Physics and Magnetically Confined Fusion Literature

  18. Overview of University of Wisconsin Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the UW IEC Research Team Graduate Students Dave Boris Ryan Giar Greg Piefer Ross Radel Alex Wehmeyer Point) #12;JFS 2004 3Fusion Technology Institute Objectives of UW IEC Research 1. Optimize fusion reaction rate in an IEC device: a. 14.7 MeV protons from D-3He, and b. 2.45 MeV neutrons from D-D. 2. Use

  19. Gas Transport and Control in Thick-Liquid Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debonnel, Christophe Sylvain

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Williams. HYLIFE-II: A molten-salt inertial fusion energyelectricity. The binary molten salt ?ibe (LiF-BeF 2 ) andtarget and ablated molten salt. Her approach was essentially

  20. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology option. Therefore, in the following description of these specific feasibility issues, we try to strike a balance between narrowing the range of recommended R&D options to minimize cost, and keeping enough R&D options to minimize risk.

  1. Neutronics Assessment of Blanket Options for the HAPL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    -cooled lithium blanket, a helium-cooled solid breeder blanket, and a dual-coolant lithium lead blanket of the reference blanket. Keywords-Laser fusion; lithium blanket; solid breeder; lithium lead; tritium breedingNeutronics Assessment of Blanket Options for the HAPL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Chamber M

  2. Fourth annual progress report on special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. The Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits.

  3. LANL | Physics | Inertial Confinement Fusion and High Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using the world's most powerful lasers, Physics Division scientists are aiming to create thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. The experimental research of the Physics Division's...

  4. Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Provide mission need report for the proposed OMEGA Extended Performance project. · October 2002: NNSA November 21, 2003 #12;2 Statements to FESAC IFE panel 10/28/03 · Ignition is a major goal for NNSA supports OFES's mission and OFES use of NNSA's ICF facilities is accepted · Defense Programs reserves right

  5. Inertial Confinement Fusion: How to Make a Star

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The Energy Materials Center at CornellOf SmartIndustrial

  6. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu, James Cowin PNNL Probing

  7. ARIES Inertial Fusion Chamber Assessment M. S. Tillack*, F. Najmabadi, L. A. El-Guebaly, D. Goodin, W. R. Meier,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    -coupled indirect drive and fast ignition. Arguably, inertial fusion looks significantly more credible and more components (i.e., final optics, final focus magnets), chamber physics (particle and radiation transport, gas al., "Inertial Fusion Energy Reactor Design Studies: Prometheus Final Report," MDC 92E0008 (DOE

  8. Neutronics Design of a Thorium-Fueled Fission Blanket for LIFE (Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, J; Abbott, R; Fratoni, M; Kramer, K; Latkowski, J; Seifried, J; Taylor, J

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) project at LLNL includes development of hybrid fusion-fission systems for energy generation. These hybrid LIFE engines use high-energy neutrons from laser-based inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical blanket of fission fuel that surrounds the fusion chamber. The fission blanket contains TRISO fuel particles packed into pebbles in a flowing bed geometry cooled by a molten salt (flibe). LIFE engines using a thorium fuel cycle provide potential improvements in overall fuel cycle performance and resource utilization compared to using depleted uranium (DU) and may minimize waste repository and proliferation concerns. A preliminary engine design with an initial loading of 40 metric tons of thorium can maintain a power level of 2000 MW{sub th} for about 55 years, at which point the fuel reaches an average burnup level of about 75% FIMA. Acceptable performance was achieved without using any zero-flux environment 'cooling periods' to allow {sup 233}Pa to decay to {sup 233}U; thorium undergoes constant irradiation in this LIFE engine design to minimize proliferation risks and fuel inventory. Vast reductions in end-of-life (EOL) transuranic (TRU) inventories compared to those produced by a similar uranium system suggest reduced proliferation risks. Decay heat generation in discharge fuel appears lower for a thorium LIFE engine than a DU engine but differences in radioactive ingestion hazard are less conclusive. Future efforts on development of thorium-fueled LIFE fission blankets engine development will include design optimization, fuel performance analysis work, and further waste disposal and nonproliferation analyses.

  9. THE CONCEPT OF ISOCHORIC CENTRAL SPARK IGNITION AND ITS FUEL GAIN IN INERTIAL FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of two distinct regions named as hot and cold regions and formed by hydro-dynamical implosion of fuel power plant has been investigated and fuel gain for isochoric model in this method is calculated. We have shown the effects of different physical parameters of inertial fusion on fuel gain and optimized

  10. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)] [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  11. Peter A. Norreys Professor of Inertial Fusion Science,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Target Gain InputEnergyDriver OutputEnergyNuclear G Driver nuclear output E E G LIFE fusion reactor Credit: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory #12;EEE n output nuclear Nuclear energy output from plasma -heating due to slowing down in plasma External thermal energy input to the fusion plasma 5 Q E E

  12. Utility of the US National Ignition Facility for development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Anderson, A.T.; Tobin, M.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schrock, V.E. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Meier, W.R. [Schafer (W.J.) Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tokheim, R.E. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Poulter Lab.; Abdou, M.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schultz, K.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain in the proposed US National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a facility for integrated testing of the technologies needed for inertial fusion-energy (IFE) power plants. A workshop was convened at the University of California, Berkeley on February 22--24, 1994, attended by 61 participants from 17 US organizations, to identify possible NIF experiments relevant to IFE. We considered experiments in four IFE areas: Target physics, target chamber dynamics, fusion power ethnology, and target systems, as defined in the following sections.

  13. Special-purpose materials for magnetically confined fusion reactors. Third annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of Special Purpose Materials covers fusion reactor materials problems other than the first-wall and blanket structural materials, which are under the purview of the ADIP, DAFS, and PMI task groups. Components that are considered as special purpose materials include breeding materials, coolants, neutron multipliers, barriers for tritium control, materials for compression and OH coils and waveguides, graphite and SiC, heat-sink materials, ceramics, and materials for high-field (>10-T) superconducting magnets. It is recognized that there will be numerous materials problems that will arise during the design and construction of large magnetic-fusion energy devices such as the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and Demonstration Reactor (DEMO). Most of these problems will be specific to a particular design or project and are the responsibility of the project, not the Materials and Radiation Effects Branch. Consequently, the Task Group on Special Purpose Materials has limited its concern to crucial and generic materials problems that must be resolved if magnetic-fusion devices are to succeed. Important areas specifically excluded include low-field (8-T) superconductors, fuels for hybrids, and materials for inertial-confinement devices. These areas may be added in the future when funding permits.

  14. Inertial Fusion Driven by Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News link to facebook linkProtections moreINERTIAL

  15. Ion Fast Ignition-Establishing a Scientific Basis for Inertial Fusion Energy --- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richard Burnite [General Atomics; Foord, Mark N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics; Beg, Farhat N. [University of California, San Diego; Schumacher, Douglass W. [The Ohio State University

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Ignition (FI) Concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has the potential to provide a significant advance in the technical attractiveness of Inertial Fusion Energy reactors. FI differs from conventional ?central hot spot? (CHS) target ignition by decoupling compression from heating: using a laser (or heavy ion beam or Z pinch) drive pulse (10?s of nanoseconds) to create a dense fuel and a second, much shorter (~10 picoseconds) high intensity pulse to ignite a small volume within the dense fuel. The compressed fuel is opaque to laser light. The ignition laser energy must be converted to a jet of energetic charged particles to deposit energy in the dense fuel. The original concept called for a spray of laser-generated hot electrons to deliver the energy; lack of ability to focus the electrons put great weight on minimizing the electron path. An alternative concept, proton-ignited FI, used those electrons as intermediaries to create a jet of protons that could be focused to the ignition spot from a more convenient distance. Our program focused on the generation and directing of the proton jet, and its transport toward the fuel, none of which were well understood at the onset of our program. We have developed new experimental platforms, diagnostic packages, computer modeling analyses, and taken advantage of the increasing energy available at laser facilities to create a self-consistent understanding of the fundamental physics underlying these issues. Our strategy was to examine the new physics emerging as we added the complexity necessary to use proton beams in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) application. From the starting point of a proton beam accelerated from a flat, isolated foil, we 1) curved it to focus the beam, 2) attached the foil to a superstructure, 3) added a side sheath to protect it from the surrounding plasma, and finally 4) studied the proton beam behavior as it passed through a protective end cap into plasma. We built up, as we proceeded, a self-consistent picture of the quasi-neutral plasma jet that is the proton beam that, for the first time, included the role of the hot electrons in shaping the jet. Controlling them?through design of the accelerating surface and its connection to the surrounding superstructure?is critical; their uniform spread across the proton accelerating area is vital, but their presence in the jet opposes focus; their electron flow away from the acceleration area reduces conversion efficiency but can also increase focusing ability. The understanding emerging from our work and the improved simulation tools we have developed allow designing structures that optimize proton beams for focused heating. Our findings include: ? The achievable focus of proton beams is limited by the thermal pressure gradient in the laser-generated hot electrons that drive the process. This bending can be suppressed using a controlled flow of hot electrons along the surrounding cone wall, which induces a local transverse focusing sheath electric field. The resultant (vacuum-focused) spot can meet IFE requirements. ? Confinement of laser-generated electrons to the proton accelerating area can be achieved by supporting targets on thin struts. That increases laser-to-proton conversion energy by ~50%. As noted above, confinement should not be total; necessary hot-electron leakage into the surrounding superstructure for proton focusing can be controlled by with the strut width/number. ? Proton jets are further modified as they enter the fuel through the superstructure?s end cap. They can generate currents during that transit that further focus the proton beams. We developed a new ion stopping module for LSP code that properly accounted for changes in stopping power with ionization (e.g. temperature), and will be using it in future studies. The improved understanding, new experimental platforms, and the self-consistent modeling capability allow researchers a new ability to investigate the interaction of large ion currents with warm dense matter. That is of direct importance to the creation and investiga

  16. The role of inertial and spatial confinement in laser interaction with organic materials Leonid V. Zhigilei,1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ], and manufacturing of electronic devices [4,5]. A complete understanding of the laser-induced processes is required#12;215 The role of inertial and spatial confinement in laser interaction with organic materials author, e-mail: lz2n@virginia.edu ABSTRACT Short-pulse laser irradiation of organic material performed

  17. Plasma Jet Driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Security, LLC for NNSA LA-UR-11-07030 #12;Plasma jet experiments can provide cm National Security, LLC for NNSA Imploding plasma liner formed by 30 merging plasma jets with 1.5 MJ, LLC for NNSA MIF ICF Basko et al., Nucl. Fusion, 2000 Magnetic field reduces thermal transport

  18. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements to LASL's two-beam system, Gemini, are outlined and experimental results are discussed. Our eight-beam system, Helios, was fired successfully on target for the first time, and became the world's most powerful gas laser for laser fusion studies. Work on Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is summarized, indicating that design work and building construction are 70 and 48% complete, respectively. A baseline design for automatic centering of laser beams onto the various relay mirrors and the optical design of the Antares front end are discussed. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, as well as investigations of synthetic-fuel production through application of fusion energy to hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting. Studies on increased efficiency of energy extraction in CO/sub 2/ lasers and on lifetimes of cryogenic pellets in a reactor environment are summarized, as well as the results of studies on pellet injection, tracking, and beam synchronization.

  19. Inertial fusion program, January 1-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements are outlined for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Gemini System, which permitted over 500 shots in support of 10 different target experiments; the transformation of our eight-beam system, Helios, from a developmental to an operational facility that is capable of irradiating targets on a routine basis is described; and progress made toward completion of Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is detailed. Investigations of phenomena such as phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion systems, and frequency multiplexing as a means toward multipulse energy extraction are summarized. Also discussed are experiments with targets designed for adiabatic compression. Progress is reported in the development of accurate diagnostics, especially for the detection of expanding ions, of neutron yield, and of x-ray emission. Significant advances in our theoretical efforts are summarized, such as the adaptation of our target design codes for use with the CRAY-1 computer, and new results leading to a better understanding of implosion phenomena are reported. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, including the development of an ICF reactor blanket that offers a promising alternative to the usual lithium blanket, and the formulation of a capital-cost data base for laser fusion reactors to permit meaningful comparisons with other technologies.

  20. Molten Salt Fuel Version of Laser Inertial Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R W; Shaw, H F; Caro, A; Kaufman, L; Latkowski, J F; Powers, J; Turchi, P A

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten salt with dissolved uranium is being considered for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) fission blanket as a backup in case a solid-fuel version cannot meet the performance objectives, for example because of radiation damage of the solid materials. Molten salt is not damaged by radiation and therefore could likely achieve the desired high burnup (>99%) of heavy atoms of {sup 238}U. A perceived disadvantage is the possibility that the circulating molten salt could lend itself to misuse (proliferation) by making separation of fissile material easier than for the solid-fuel case. The molten salt composition being considered is the eutectic mixture of 73 mol% LiF and 27 mol% UF{sub 4}, whose melting point is 490 C. The use of {sup 232}Th as a fuel is also being studied. ({sup 232}Th does not produce Pu under neutron irradiation.) The temperature of the molten salt would be {approx}550 C at the inlet (60 C above the solidus temperature) and {approx}650 C at the outlet. Mixtures of U and Th are being considered. To minimize corrosion of structural materials, the molten salt would also contain a small amount ({approx}1 mol%) of UF{sub 3}. The same beryllium neutron multiplier could be used as in the solid fuel case; alternatively, a liquid lithium or liquid lead multiplier could be used. Insuring that the solubility of Pu{sup 3+} in the melt is not exceeded is a design criterion. To mitigate corrosion of the steel, a refractory coating such as tungsten similar to the first wall facing the fusion source is suggested in the high-neutron-flux regions; and in low-neutron-flux regions, including the piping and heat exchangers, a nickel alloy, Hastelloy, would be used. These material choices parallel those made for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL. The nuclear performance is better than the solid fuel case. At the beginning of life, the tritium breeding ratio is unity and the plutonium plus {sup 233}U production rate is {approx}0.6 atoms per 14.1 MeV neutron.

  1. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  2. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  3. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  4. Impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vujic, J.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Sisolak et al. defined two methods for the approximation of pulsed irradiation: the steady-state (SS) and the equivalent steady-state (ESS) methods. Both methods have been shown to greatly simplify the process of calculating radionuclide inventories. However, they are not accurate when applied to magnetic fusion energy (MFF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) experimental facilities. In the work reported here, an attempt has been made to evaluate the accuracy of the SS and ESS methods as they might be applied to typical MFE and IFE power plants. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kulcinski, Gerald (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Zhao, Haihua (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Bonazza, Riccardo (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Peterson, Per F. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marriott, Ed (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Oakley, Jason (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  6. A Concept Exploration Program in Fast Ignition Inertial Fusion — Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, Richarad Burnite [General Atomics] [General Atomics; Freeman, Richard R. [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University; Van Woekom, L. D. [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University; Key, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; MacKinnon, Andrew J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Wei, Mingsheng [General Atomics] [General Atomics

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Ignition (FI) approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) holds particular promise for fusion energy because the independently generated compression and ignition pulses allow ignition with less compression, resulting in (potentially) higher gain. Exploiting this concept effectively requires an understanding of the transport of electrons in prototypical geometries and at relevant densities and temperatures. Our consortium, which included General Atomics (GA), The Ohio State University (OSU), the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), University of California, Davis (UC-Davis), and Princeton University under this grant (~$850K/yr) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under a companion grant, won awards in 2000, renewed in 2005, to investigate the physics of electron injection and transport relevant to the FI concept, which is crucial to understand electron transport in integral FI targets. In the last two years we have also been preparing diagnostics and starting to extend the work to electron transport into hot targets. A complementary effort, the Advanced Concept Exploration (ACE) program for Fast Ignition, was funded starting in 2006 to integrate this understanding into ignition schemes specifically suitable for the initial fast ignition attempts on OMEGA and National Ignition Facility (NIF), and during that time these two programs have been managed as a coordinated effort. This result of our 7+ years of effort has been substantial. Utilizing collaborations to access the most capable laser facilities around the world, we have developed an understanding that was summarized in a Fusion Science & Technology 2006, Special Issue on Fast Ignition. The author lists in the 20 articles in that issue are dominated by our group (we are first authors in four of them). Our group has published, or submitted 67 articles, including 1 in Nature, 2 Nature Physics, 10 Physical Review Letters, 8 Review of Scientific Instruments, and has been invited to give numerous talks at national and international conferences (including APS-DPP, IAEA, FIW). The advent of PW capabilities – at Rutherford Appleton Lab (UK) and then at Titan (LLNL) (2005 and 2006, respectively), was a major step toward experiments in ultra-high intensity high-energy FI relevant regime. The next step comes with the activation of OMEGA EP at LLE, followed shortly by NIF-ARC at LLNL. These capabilities allow production of hot dense material for electron transport studies. In this transitional period, considerable effort has been spent in developing the necessary tools and experiments for electron transport in hot and dense plasmas. In addition, substantial new data on electron generation and transport in metallic targets has been produced and analyzed. Progress in FI detailed in §2 is related to the Concept Exploration Program (CEP) objectives; this section is a summary of the publications and presentations listed in §5. This work has benefited from the synergy with work on related Department of Energy (DOE) grants, the Fusion Science Center and the Fast Ignition Advanced Concept Exploration grant, and from our interactions with overseas colleagues, primarily at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, and the Institute for Laser Engineering in Japan.

  7. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, January 1-June 30, 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies and experiments aimed at investigating the possibility of restoring wavefront quality in optical systems through phase conjugation are summarized, and work that could lead to the development of highly damage-resistant isolators is discussed. The effects of various parameters on pulse-energy uniformity and of multipass extraction on laser efficiency are reported. Results of equation-of-state, shock propagation, multiburst simulation, and opacity measurements are discussed. Target designs are described that should provide a smooth transition from the exploding-pusher regime of experiments to that of isentropic compression. Progress in target fabrication techniques toward creating a 20-times-liquid-density target are outlined, and efforts that led to the extension of our neutron detection capability to levels of less than 10/sup 3/ n are summarized. The results of various studies of laser fusion application, e.g., for producing ultrahigh-temperature process heat or hydrogen from water decomposition are presented, as well as investigations of fusion-fission hybrids for the production of /sup 233/U from /sup 232/Th.

  8. TIMELY DELIVERY OF LASER INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunne, A M

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's largest and most energetic laser system, is now operational at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A key goal of the NIF is to demonstrate fusion ignition for the first time in the laboratory. Its flexibility allows multiple target designs (both indirect and direct drive) to be fielded, offering substantial scope for optimization of a robust target design. In this paper we discuss an approach to generating gigawatt levels of electrical power from a laser-driven source of fusion neutrons based on these demonstration experiments. This 'LIFE' concept enables rapid time-to-market for a commercial power plant, assuming success with ignition and a technology demonstration program that links directly to a facility design and construction project. The LIFE design makes use of recent advances in diode-pumped, solid-state laser technology. It adopts the paradigm of Line Replaceable Units utilized on the NIF to provide high levels of availability and maintainability and mitigate the need for advanced materials development. A demonstration LIFE plant based on these design principles is described, along with the areas of technology development required prior to plant construction. A goal-oriented, evidence-based approach has been proposed to allow LIFE power plant rollout on a time scale that meets policy imperatives and is consistent with utility planning horizons. The system-level delivery builds from our prior national investment over many decades and makes full use of the distributed capability in laser technology, the ubiquity of semiconductor diodes, high volume manufacturing markets, and U.S. capability in fusion science and nuclear engineering. The LIFE approach is based on the ignition evidence emerging from NIF and adopts a line-replaceable unit approach to ensure high plant availability and to allow evolution from available technologies and materials. Utilization of a proven physics platform for the ignition scheme is an essential component of an acceptably low-risk solution. The degree of coupling seen on NIF between driver and target performance mandates that little deviation be adopted from the NIF geometry and beamline characteristics. Similarly, the strong coupling between subsystems in an operational power plant mandates that a self-consistent solution be established via an integrated facility delivery project. The benefits of separability of the subsystems within an IFE plant (driver, chamber, targets, etc.) emerge in the operational phase of a power plant rather than in its developmental phase. An optimized roadmap for IFE delivery needs to account for this to avoid nugatory effort and inconsistent solutions. For LIFE, a system design has been established that could lead to an operating power plant by the mid-2020s, drawing from an integrated subsystem development program to demonstrate the required technology readiness on a time scale compatible with the construction plan. Much technical development work still remains, as does alignment of key stakeholder groups to this newly emerging development option. If the required timeline is to be met, then preparation of a viable program is required alongside the demonstration of ignition on NIF. This will enable timely analysis of the technical and economic case and establishment of the appropriate delivery partnership.

  9. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  10. Passive Spectroscopic Diagnostics for Magnetically-confined Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stratton, B. C.; Biter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hillis, D. L.; Hogan, J. T.

    2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectroscopy of radiation emitted by impurities and hydrogen isotopes plays an important role in the study of magnetically-confined fusion plasmas, both in determining the effects of impurities on plasma behavior and in measurements of plasma parameters such as electron and ion temperatures and densities, particle transport, and particle influx rates. This paper reviews spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma radiation that are excited by collisional processes in the plasma, which are termed 'passive' spectroscopic diagnostics to distinguish them from 'active' spectroscopic diagnostics involving injected particle and laser beams. A brief overview of the ionization balance in hot plasmas and the relevant line and continuum radiation excitation mechanisms is given. Instrumentation in the soft X-ray, vacuum ultraviolet, ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared regions of the spectrum is described and examples of measurements are given. Paths for further development of these measurements and issues for their implementation in a burning plasma environment are discussed.

  11. Inertial fusion energy: A clearer view of the environmental and safety perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If fusion energy is to achieve its full potential for safety and environmental (S&E) advantages, the S&E characteristics of fusion power plant designs must be quantified and understood, and the resulting insights must be embodied in the ongoing process of development of fusion energy. As part of this task, the present work compares S&E characteristics of five inertial and two magnetic fusion power plant designs. For each design, a set of radiological hazard indices has been calculated with a system of computer codes and data libraries assembled for this purpose. These indices quantify the radiological hazards associated with the operation of fusion power plants with respect to three classes of hazard: accidents, occupational exposure, and waste disposal. The three classes of hazard have been qualitatively integrated to rank the best and worst fusion power plant designs with respect to S&E characteristics. From these rankings, the specific designs, and other S&E trends, design features that result in S&E advantages have been identified. Additionally, key areas for future fusion research have been identified. Specific experiments needed include the investigation of elemental release rates (expanded to include many more materials) and the verification of sequential charged-particle reactions. Improvements to the calculational methodology are recommended to enable future comparative analyses to represent more accurately the radiological hazards presented by fusion power plants. Finally, future work must consider economic effects. Trade-offs among design features will be decided not by S&E characteristics alone, but also by cost-benefit analyses. 118 refs., 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Recyclable transmission line concept for z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Groot, J. S. (University of California, Davis, CA); Olson, Craig Lee; Cochrane, Kyle Robert (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger Alan; Peterson, Per F. (University of California, Berkeley, CA)

    2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recyclable transmission lines (RTL)s are being studied as a means to repetitively drive z pinches to generate fusion energy. We have shown previously that the RTL mass can be quite modest. Minimizing the RTL mass reduces recycling costs and the impulse delivered to the first wall of a fusion chamber. Despite this reduction in mass, a few seconds will be needed to reload an RTL after each subsequent shot. This is in comparison to other inertial fusion approaches that expect to fire up to ten capsules per second. Thus a larger fusion yield is needed to compensate for the slower repetition rate in a z-pinch driven fusion reactor. We present preliminary designs of z-pinch driven fusion capsules that provide an adequate yield of 1-4 GJ. We also present numerical simulations of the effect of these fairly large fusion yields on the RTL and the first wall of the reactor chamber. These simulations were performed with and without a neutron absorbing blanket surrounding the fusion explosion. We find that the RTL will be fully vaporized out to a radius of about 3 meters assuming normal incidence. However, at large enough radius the RTL will remain in either the liquid or solid state and this portion of the RTL could fragment and become shrapnel. We show that a dynamic fragmentation theory can be used to estimate the size of these fragmented particles. We discuss how proper design of the RTL can allow this shrapnel to be directed away from the sensitive mechanical parts of the reactor chamber.

  13. Prospects for x-ray polarimetry measurements of magnetic fields in magnetized liner inertial fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan G., E-mail: lynn@ece.unm.edu; Gilmore, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments, where a metal liner is imploded to compress a magnetized seed plasma may generate peak magnetic fields ?10{sup 4} T (100 Megagauss) over small volumes (?10{sup ?10}m{sup 3}) at high plasma densities (?10{sup 28}m{sup ?3}) on 100 ns time scales. Such conditions are extremely challenging to diagnose. We discuss the possibility of, and issues involved in, using polarimetry techniques at x-ray wavelengths to measure magnetic fields under these extreme conditions.

  14. Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magneto-inertial fusion concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, C. E.; Kirkpatrick, R. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional parameter study of a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) concept indicates that significant gain may be achievable. This concept uses a dynamically formed plasma shell with inwardly directed momentum to drive a magnetized fuel to ignition, which in turn partially burns an intermediate layer of unmagnetized fuel. The concept is referred to as Plasma Jet MIF or PJMIF. The results of an adaptive mesh refinement Eulerian code (Crestone) are compared to those of a Lagrangian code (LASNEX). These are the first published results using the Crestone and LASNEX codes on the PJMIF concept.

  15. Stability of shocks relating to the shock ignition inertial fusion energy scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davie, C. J., E-mail: c.davie10@imperial.ac.uk; Bush, I. A.; Evans, R. G. [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Motivated by the shock ignition approach to improve the performance of inertial fusion targets, we make a series of studies of the stability of shock waves in planar and converging geometries. We examine stability of shocks moving through distorted material and driving shocks with non-uniform pressure profiles. We then apply a fully 3D perturbation, following this spherically converging shock through collapse to a distorted plane, bounce and reflection into an outgoing perturbed, broadly spherical shock wave. We find broad shock stability even under quite extreme perturbation.

  16. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  17. Theory of hydro-equivalent ignition for inertial fusion and its applications to OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nora, R.; Betti, R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.; Christopherson, A. R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Anderson, K. S.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Epstein, R.; Marshall, F. J.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); McCrory, R. L. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Department of Physics and/or Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of ignition for inertial confinement fusion capsules [R. Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 058102 (2010)] is used to assess the performance requirements for cryogenic implosion experiments on the Omega Laser Facility. The theory of hydrodynamic similarity is developed in both one and two dimensions and tested using multimode hydrodynamic simulations with the hydrocode DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 032702 (2005)] of hydro-equivalent implosions (implosions with the same implosion velocity, adiabat, and laser intensity). The theory is used to scale the performance of direct-drive OMEGA implosions to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) energy scales and determine the requirements for demonstrating hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA. Hydro-equivalent ignition on OMEGA is represented by a cryogenic implosion that would scale to ignition on the NIF at 1.8?MJ of laser energy symmetrically illuminating the target. It is found that a reasonable combination of neutron yield and areal density for OMEGA hydro-equivalent ignition is 3 to 6?×?10{sup 13} and ?0.3?g/cm{sup 2}, respectively, depending on the level of laser imprinting. This performance has not yet been achieved on OMEGA.

  18. Fokker Planck kinetic modeling of suprathermal particles in a fusion plasma B. E. Peigneya,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    effects on the physics of ignition and thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion schemes. KeywordsFokker Planck kinetic modeling of suprathermal particles in a fusion plasma B. E. Peigneya, , O the ignition and burn of the deuterium-tritium fuel of inertial fusion targets. The analysis of the underlying

  19. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaledexperiments to the integrated research experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, J.J.; Ahle, L.E.; Baca, D.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bieniosek,F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Davidson, R.C.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Franks, R.M.; Grote, D.P.; Haber, I.; Henestroza, E.; deHoon, M.J.L.; Kaganovich, I.; Karpenko, V.P.; Kishek, R.A.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S.M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.; Prost, L.R.; Qin, H.; Rose, D.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sangster, T.C.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Shuman, D.; Vay, J.L.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.; Yu, S.S.

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents ({approx}100s Amperesheam) and ion energies ({approx}1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions. and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial Fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned.

  20. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    1 Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser final optics in a laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the GILMM substrate, adaptive (deformable) optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film

  1. A Fusion Test Facility for Inertial Fusion Presented by Stephen Obenschain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    target designs consistent with the energy application. · Development of economical mass production with direct laser drive NRL Laser Fusion DT ice (fuel) ablator D Pellet shell imploded by laser ablation to v 300 km/sec for >MJ designs Hot fuel Cold fuel · Reduce pellet mass while increasing implosion velocity

  2. Macron Formed Liner Compression as a Practical Method for Enabling Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slough, John

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The entry of fusion as a viable, competitive source of power has been stymied by the challenge of finding an economical way to provide for the confinement and heating of the plasma fuel. The main impediment for current nuclear fusion concepts is the complexity and large mass associated with the confinement systems. To take advantage of the smaller scale, higher density regime of magnetic fusion, an efficient method for achieving the compressional heating required to reach fusion gain conditions must be found. The very compact, high energy density plasmoid commonly referred to as a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) provides for an ideal target for this purpose. To make fusion with the FRC practical, an efficient method for repetitively compressing the FRC to fusion gain conditions is required. A novel approach to be explored in this endeavor is to remotely launch a converging array of small macro-particles (macrons) that merge and form a more massive liner inside the reactor which then radially compresses and heats the FRC plasmoid to fusion conditions. The closed magnetic field in the target FRC plasmoid suppresses the thermal transport to the confining liner significantly lowering the imploding power needed to compress the target. With the momentum flux being delivered by an assemblage of low mass, but high velocity macrons, many of the difficulties encountered with the liner implosion power technology are eliminated. The undertaking to be described in this proposal is to evaluate the feasibility achieving fusion conditions from this simple and low cost approach to fusion. During phase I the design and testing of the key components for the creation of the macron formed liner have been successfully carried out. Detailed numerical calculations of the merging, formation and radial implosion of the Macron Formed Liner (MFL) were also performed. The phase II effort will focus on an experimental demonstration of the macron launcher at full power, and the demonstration of megagauss magnetic field compression by a small array of full scale macrons. In addition the physics of the compression of an FRC to fusion conditions will be undertaken with a smaller scale MFL. The timescale for testing will be rapidly accelerated by taking advantage of other facilities at MSNW where the target FRC will be created and translated inside the MFL just prior to implosion of the MFL. Experimental success would establish the concept at the �proof of principle� level and the following phase III effort would focus on the full development of the concept into a fusion gain device. Successful operation would lead to several benefits in various fields. It would have application to high energy density physics, as well as nuclear waste transmutation and alternate fission fuel cycles. The smaller scale device could find immediate application as an intense source of neutrons for diagnostic imaging and non-invasive object interrogation.

  3. The roadmap to magnetic confinement fusion Cutaway of the ITER tokamak. ( ITER)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampshire, Damian

    The roadmap to magnetic confinement fusion Cutaway of the ITER tokamak. (© ITER) There are two ways breeding concepts [8] . Roadmap beyond ITER The ITER project has mapped out a road map to a commercial is the most promising for power generation (Table 2) [9] . #12;Table 2. "Fast track" fusion roadmap Facility

  4. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid system is subcritical, a LIFE engine can burn any fertile or fissile nuclear material, including unenriched natural or depleted U and SNF, and can extract a very high percentage of the energy content of its fuel resulting in greatly enhanced energy generation per metric ton of nuclear fuel, as well as nuclear waste forms with vastly reduced concentrations of long-lived actinides. LIFE engines could thus provide the ability to generate vast amounts of electricity while greatly reducing the actinide content of any existing or future nuclear waste and extending the availability of low cost nuclear fuels for several thousand years. LIFE also provides an attractive pathway for burning excess weapons Pu to over 99% FIMA (fission of initial metal atoms) without the need for fabricating or reprocessing mixed oxide fuels (MOX). Because of all of these advantages, LIFE engines offer a pathway toward sustainable and safe nuclear power that significantly mitigates nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizes nuclear waste. An important aspect of a LIFE engine is the fact that there is no need to extract the fission fuel from the fission blanket before it is burned to the desired final level. Except for fuel inspection and maintenance process times, the nuclear fuel is always within the core of the reactor and no weapons-attractive materials are available outside at any point in time. However, an important consideration when discussing proliferation concerns associated with any nuclear fuel cycle is the ease with which reactor fuel can be converted to weapons usable materials, not just when it is extracted as waste, but at any point in the fuel cycle. Although the nuclear fuel remains in the core of the engine until ultra deep actinide burn up is achieved, soon after start up of the engine, once the system breeds up to full power, several tons of fissile material is present in the fission blanket. However, this fissile material is widely dispersed in millions of fuel pebbles, which can be tagged as individual accountable items, and thus made difficult to diver

  5. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    neutralization on heavy-ion fusion chamber transport,” totechniques for heavy ion fusion chamber transport,” Nucl.liquid heavy-ion fusion target chambers,” Fusion Technol.

  6. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  7. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Con- trolled Nuclear Fusion, CONF-760975-P3, pages 1061–more effective solution, nuclear fusion. Fission Energy Thethe development of nuclear fusion weapons, humankind has

  8. The National Ignition Facility: The Path to Ignition, High Energy Density Science and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is a Nd:Glass laser facility capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. This world's most energetic laser system is now operational with the goals of achieving thermonuclear burn in the laboratory and exploring the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and energy densities. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in the interiors of planetary and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, NIF performed the first integrated ignition experiment which demonstrated the successful coordination of the laser, the cryogenic target system, the array of diagnostics and the infrastructure required for ignition. Many more experiments have been completed since. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and the international communities are examining the implication of achieving ignition on NIF for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a 10% electrical-optical efficiency laser, as well as further advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection and tracking, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in 10- to 15-years. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) baseline design and examining various technology choices for LIFE power plant This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF, the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition, the start of fundamental science experiments and plans to transition NIF to an international user facility providing access to researchers around the world. The paper will conclude with a discussion of LIFE, its development path and potential to enable a carbon-free clean energy future.

  9. Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign The Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield (ICF) Campaign supports the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and effective nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. It supports stockpile assessment in simulations is essential to having confidence in them. More than 99 percent of the energy from a nuclear criticality is attained. The ICF program operates and conducts experiments in facilities that can create

  10. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4.3.3.4 Chamber Radius and Fusion Neutron Flux . . . . .1.1.3.2 Fusion Energy . . . . . . . . .1.1.3.3 Fission-Fusion Hybrids . . . . 1.2 Scope and Purpose

  11. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called theof a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System by Kevinof a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System by Kevin

  12. Beryllium liner implosion experiments on the Z accelerator in preparation for magnetized liner inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, R. D.; Martin, M. R.; Lemke, R. W.; Jennings, C. A.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Slutz, S. A.; Nakhleh, C. W.; Davis, J.-P.; Flicker, D. G.; Rogers, T. J.; Robertson, G. K.; Kamm, R. J.; Smith, I. C.; Savage, M.; Stygar, W. A.; Rochau, G. A.; Jones, M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); and others

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple experimental campaigns have been executed to study the implosions of initially solid beryllium (Be) liners (tubes) on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The implosions were driven by current pulses that rose from 0 to 20 MA in either 100 or 200 ns (200 ns for pulse shaping experiments). These studies were conducted in support of the recently proposed Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion concept [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)], as well as for exploring novel equation-of-state measurement techniques. The experiments used thick-walled liners that had an aspect ratio (initial outer radius divided by initial wall thickness) of either 3.2, 4, or 6. From these studies, we present three new primary results. First, we present radiographic images of imploding Be liners, where each liner contained a thin aluminum sleeve for enhancing the contrast and visibility of the liner's inner surface in the images. These images allow us to assess the stability of the liner's inner surface more accurately and more directly than was previously possible. Second, we present radiographic images taken early in the implosion (prior to any motion of the liner's inner surface) of a shockwave propagating radially inward through the liner wall. Radial mass density profiles from these shock compression experiments are contrasted with profiles from experiments where the Z accelerator's pulse shaping capabilities were used to achieve shockless (“quasi-isentropic”) liner compression. Third, we present “micro-B-dot ” measurements of azimuthal magnetic field penetration into the initially vacuum-filled interior of a shocked liner. Our measurements and simulations reveal that the penetration commences shortly after the shockwave breaks out from the liner's inner surface. The field then accelerates this low-density “precursor” plasma to the axis of symmetry.

  13. Intermittency and turbulence in a magnetically confined fusion plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Carbone; L. Sorriso-Valvo; E. Martines; V. Antoni; P. Veltri

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the intermittency of magnetic turbulence as measured in Reversed Field Pinch plasmas. We show that the Probability Distribution Functions of magnetic field differences are not scale invariant, that is the wings of these functions are more important at the smallest scales, a classical signature of intermittency. We show that scaling laws appear also in a region very close to the external wall of the confinement device, and we present evidences that the observed intermittency increases moving towards the wall.

  14. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 48 (2006) B153B163 doi:10.1088/0741-3335/48/12B/S15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -drive). If the thermonuclear fuel is ignited and a burn wave propagates through the dense core, the fusion energy produced canINSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING PLASMA PHYSICS AND CONTROLLED FUSION Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion for direct-drive and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion R Betti1,2,3 , K Anderson1,3 , T R Boehly3

  15. Vlasov simulations of kinetic enhancement of Raman backscatter in laser fusion plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strozzi, D. J. (David J.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is studied in plasmas relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The Eulerian Vlasov-Maxwell code ELVIS was developed and run for this purpose. Plasma waves are heavily Landau damped ...

  16. Starpower: The U.S. and the International Quest for Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of this report) #12;. Foreword Fusion research, offering the hope of an energy technology with an essentially un with the requirements for develop- ment of a usefuI energy technology. The report does not analyze inertial confinement

  17. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): Principles, Status, and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion that is intermediate between the two extremes of inertial and magnetic confinement. Target plasma preparation is followed by compression to fusion conditions. The use of a magnetic field to reduce electron thermal conduction and potentially enhance DT alpha energy deposition allows the compression rate to be drastically reduced relative to that for inertial confinement fusion. This leads to compact systems with target driver power and intensity requirements that are orders of magnitude lower than for ICF. A liner on plasma experiment has been proposed to provide a firm proof of principle for MTF.

  18. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bers, Abraham (Arlington, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  19. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J. (Cambridge, MA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  20. Diagnosing residual motion via the x-ray self emission from indirectly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pak, A., E-mail: pak5@llnl.gov; Field, J. E.; Benedetti, L. R.; Caggiano, J.; Hatarik, R.; Izumi, N.; Khan, S. F.; Ma, T.; Spears, B. K.; Town, R. P. J.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of the x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.

  1. Implementation of scattering pinhole diagnostic for detection of fusion products on CR-39 at high particle fluence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orozco, David, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments use solid-state nuclear track detector CR-39 as a means to detect different types of nuclear products. Until recently, it was difficult to use CR-39 in experiments with ...

  2. Direct Drive Heavy-Ion-Beam Inertial Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B. Grant

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion at High Coupling Efficiency B.G. Logan 1, L.J.fusion at high coupling efficiency B. G. Logan , L . J.Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry

  3. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    it is unlikely that nuclear fission power plants willIn the case of nuclear fission reactions, the fundamentalaspects of nuclear fusion and fission. This approach, termed

  4. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF): A Low-Cost Fusion Development Path

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindemuth, I.R.; Siemon, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1998-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Simple transport-based scaling laws are derived to show that a density and time regime intermediate between conventional magnetic confinement and conventional inertial confinement offers attractive reductions in system size and energy when compared to magnetic confinement and attractive reductions in heating power and intensity when compared to inertial confinement. This intermediate parameter space appears to be readily accessible by existing and near term pulsed power technologies. Hence, the technology of the Megagauss conference opens up an attractive path to controlled thermonuclear fusion.

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 39, NO. 4, APRIL 2011 1007 Inertial Confinement Fusion Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the compressing target. Integrated FI experiments have begun on the OMEGA/OMEGA EP laser system. Index Terms compression of a solid deuterium­tritium (DT)-layered target on a low adiabat (defined as the ratio have demonstrated near-design compression with an areal density R 290 mg/cm2 at Vimp = 3.1 × 107 cm

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion, High Energy Density Plasmas and an Energy Source on Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. #12;Tabak Snowmass We are making

  7. A novel charged-particle diagnostic for compression in inertial confinement fusion targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    several cru- cial aspects of an igniting target: the degree of self-heating in the target, its fractional

  8. National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Methane Hydrates Energy Storage · Nanoscale Electrode Materials for Batteries Energy Conversion potential to meet the IFE requirements Electra KrF Laser (NRL) = 248 nm (fundamental) Gas Laser Mercury target performance #12;What is a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) Laser? · Gas Laser--Excimer (Excited Dimer

  9. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hoffman, N.; Kagan, G.; Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Betti, R.; Yu Glebov, V.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)] [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or “exploding pushers,” generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D{sup 3}He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure {sup 3}He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations.

  10. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, D.J.; Luckhardt, R.; Moyer, S.; Armentrout, C.J.; Downs, R.L.; Moncur, K. (eds.)

    1990-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses: Cryogenic technology; polymer shell fabrication; glass shell fabrication and characterization; coating technology; development of characterization techniques; laser technology; and plasma research and instrumentation.

  11. Inertial confinement fusion. Quarterly report, July--September 1995, Volume 5, Number 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) final report recommended proceeding with the construction of a 1- to 2-MJ Nd-doped glass laser designed to achieve ignition in the laboratory (a laser originally called the Nova Upgrade, but now called the National Ignition Facility, or NIF, and envisioned as a national user facility). As a prerequisite, the report recommended completion of a series of target physics objectives on the Nova laser in use at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Meeting these objectives, which were called the Nova Technical Contract (NTC), would demonstrate (the Academy committee believed) that the physics of ignition targets was understood well enough that the laser requirements could be accurately specified. Completion of the NTC objectives was given the highest priority in the NAS report. The NAS committee also recommended a concentrated effort on advanced target design for ignition. As recommended in the report, completion of these objectives has been the joint responsibility of LLNL and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the articles in this issue of the ICF Quarterly were written jointly by scientists from both institutions. Several of the NTC objectives required the completion of improvements to Nova`s power balance and pointing accuracy and of new diagnostics and new target fabrication capabilities. These improvements were called {open_quotes}Precision Nova{close_quotes} and are documented. The original NTC objectives have been largely met. This Introduction summarizes those objectives and their motivation in the context of the requirements for ignition. The articles that follow describe the NIF ignition target designs and summarize the principal accomplishments in the various elements of the NTC.

  12. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; et al

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al. , Opt. Commun.133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burnmore »can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.« less

  13. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF Using novel neutron spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey, Daniel Thomas

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel neutron spectrometer, called the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS), was designed, built, and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the neutron spectra from ...

  14. FPEOS: A First-Principles Equation of State Table of Deuterium for Inertial Confinement Fusion Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Applications S. X. Hu1, , B. Militzer2 , V. N. Goncharov1 , S. Skupsky1 1. Laboratory for Laser Energetics-hot-spot ignition designs, a cap- sule of cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) covered with plastic ablator is driven to implode either directly by in- tense laser pulses2 or indirectly by x-rays in a hohlraum3 . To minimize

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEAVY-ION ACCELERATORS AS DRIVERS FOR INERTIALLY CONFINED FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.b.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the power costs from new coal and new LWE plants. Since itcosts at least 25mills/kwh more than power from a new coal plant,cost between 5 and 10 mills more than power from a new coal plant.

  16. Improved lifetimes and synchronization behavior in multi-grid inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, Thomas John, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high output power source is required for fast, manned exploration of the solar system, especially the outer planets. Travel times measured in months, not years, will require high power, lightweight nuclear systems. The ...

  17. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al. , Opt. Commun.133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ?±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ?±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15?20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ?±25?40 km/s.

  18. Inertial confinement fusion quarterly report, January--March 1993. Volume 3, No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, P.A. [ed.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the following topics: High Fluence Third Harmonic Generation; Ultraviolet Induced Transient Absorption in KDP and Its Influence on Fourth Harmonic Frequency Conversion; Relativistic Semiclassical Atomic Transition Rates; Verification of OPAL Opacity Code Predictions for Conditions of Astrophysical Interest; Solid Hydrogen Surfaces; Large Aperture Sol-Gel Random Phase Plates for Beam Smoothing on Nova; and Neutron Time-of-Flight Ion Temperature Diagnostic for Nova.

  19. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, H. G.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Hoffman, N.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; et al

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or ''exploding pushers,'' generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D3He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure 3He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important inmore »the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations« less

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEAVY-ION ACCELERATORS AS DRIVERS FOR INERTIALLY CONFINED FUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.b.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as uneconomic as fast breeder reactors). An electro- nuclearreactor scenarios exist with evacuated chambers. Liquid metal getters can be used for fast

  1. The physics issues that determine inertial confinement fusion target gain and driver requirements: A tutorial*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with simple models for hohlraum wall energy loss to predict coupling efficiencies and a simple one into running the driver. More- over, the unrecycled portion of energy produced must be sufficient to sell

  2. Response to 'Comment on 'Species separation in inertial confinement fusion fuels'' [Phys. Plasmas 20, 044701 (2013)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellei, C.; Amendt, P. A.; Wilks, S. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Casey, D. T.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Welch, D. R. [Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The claims made in the preceding Comment are categorically refuted. Further evidence to support the conclusions of our original paper is herein provided.

  3. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A. B., E-mail: zylstra@mit.edu; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ?±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ?±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15?20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ?±25?40 km/s.

  4. Adiabatic Quasi-Spherical Compressions Driven by Magnetic Pressure for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NASH,THOMAS J.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic implosion of a high-Z quasi-spherical shell filled with DT fuel by the 20-MA Z accelerator can heat the fuel to near-ignition temperature. The attainable implosion velocity on Z, 13-cm/{micro}s, is fast enough that thermal losses from the fuel to the shell are small. The high-Z shell traps radiation losses from the fuel, and the fuel reaches a high enough density to reabsorb the trapped radiation. The implosion is then nearly adiabatic. In this case the temperature of the fuel increases as the square of the convergence. The initial temperature of the fuel is set by the heating of an ion acoustic wave to be about 200-eV after a convergence of 4. To reach the ignition temperature of 5-keV an additional convergence of 5 is required. The implosion dynamics of the quasi-spherical implosion is modeled with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX. LASNEX shows an 8-mm diameter quasi-spherical tungsten shell on Z driving 6-atmospheres of DT fuel nearly to ignition at 3.5-keV with a convergence of 20. The convergence is limited by mass flow along the surface of the quasi-spherical shell. With a convergence of 20 the final spot size is 400-{micro}m in diameter.

  5. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Hoffman, N.; Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Betti, R. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Yu Glebov, V. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Seka, W. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bellei, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greenwood, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or ''exploding pushers,'' generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D3He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure 3He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations

  6. A compact neutron spectrometer for characterizing inertial confinement fusion implosions at OMEGA and the NIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H. W.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; McCluskey, M.; Mastrosimone, D.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact spectrometer for measurements of the primary deuterium-tritium neutron spectrum has been designed and implemented on the OMEGA laser facility [T. Boehly et al. , Opt. Commun.133, 495 (1997)]. This instrument uses the recoil spectrometry technique, where neutrons produced in an implosion elastically scatter protons in a plastic foil, which are subsequently detected by a proton spectrometer. This diagnostic is currently capable of measuring the yield to ~±10% accuracy, and mean neutron energy to ~±50 keV precision. As these compact spectrometers can be readily placed at several locations around an implosion, effects of residual fuel bulk flows during burn can be measured. Future improvements to reduce the neutron energy uncertainty to ±15-20 keV are discussed, which will enable measurements of fuel velocities to an accuracy of ~±25-40 km/s.

  7. Basics of Inertial Confinement Fusion NIF and Photon Science Directorate Chief Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ICF Implosion Space at 100 km Air Water Weapon Test 100x lead density #12;Rocket-like implosion for Efficient absorption Cryogenic Fuel for Efficient compression There are two principal approaches description of x-ray target performance (Laser-plasma interactions are treated separately with codes which

  8. Kinetic mix mechanisms in shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rinderknecht, H. G. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Sio, H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Hoffman, N.; Zylstra, A. B. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Rosenberg, M. J. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Frenje, J. A. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu Johnson, M. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Seguin, F. H. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. D. [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Betti, R. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Yu Glebov, V. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Meyerhofer, D. D. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Sangster, T. C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Seka, W. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Lab. for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Kagan, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Molvig, K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bellei, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rygg, J. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wilks, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Greenwood, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock-driven implosions of thin-shell capsules, or ''exploding pushers,'' generate low-density, high-temperature plasmas in which hydrodynamic instability growth is negligible and kinetic effects can play an important role. Data from implosions of thin deuterated-plastic shells with hydroequivalent D3He gas fills ranging from pure deuterium to pure 3He [H. G. Rinderknecht et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135001 (2014)] were obtained to evaluate non-hydrodynamic fuel-shell mix mechanisms. Simulations of the experiments including reduced ion kinetic models support ion diffusion as an explanation for these data. Several additional kinetic mechanisms are investigated and compared to the data to determine which are important in the experiments. Shock acceleration of shell deuterons is estimated to introduce mix less than or comparable to the amount required to explain the data. Beam-target mechanisms are found to produce yields at most an order of magnitude less than the observations

  9. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Code MFE Magnetic Fusion Energy MOX Mixed Oxide NES Nuclearreprocessing mixed oxide (MOX) fuels, as will be discussedbegun using Mixed ox- ide or MOX fuel as a means of both

  10. Simulations for experimental study of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy applications on NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bieniosek, F M; Friedman, A; Hay, M J; Henestroza, E; Logan, B G; More, R M; Ni, P A; Perkins, L J; Ng, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2010-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a {approx}3 MeV, {approx}30 A Li{sup +} ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The purpose of NDCX II is to carry out experimental studies of material in the warm dense matter regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. In preparation for this new machine, we have carried out hydrodynamic simulations of ion-beam-heated, metallic solid targets, connecting quantities related to observables, such as brightness temperature and expansion velocity at the critical frequency, with the simulated fluid density, temperature, and velocity. We examine how these quantities depend on two commonly used equations of state.

  11. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 27 JUNE 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1701 Inertially confined plasma in an imploding bubble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    thermonuclear fusion1,2 . Convincing evidence for fusion is yet to be shown, but the transient condi- tions-3 --comparable to the densities produced in laser-driven fusion experiments7 --with effective plasma acoustic cavitation in deuterated acetone12,13 resulting from intracavity fusion reactions (that is

  12. Apparatus and method for removing particle species from fusion-plasma-confinement devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1981-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a mirror fusion plasma confinement apparatus, method and apparatus are provided for selectively removing (pumping) trapped low energy (thermal) particle species from the end cell region, without removing the still useful high energy particle species, and without requiring large power input to accomplish the pumping. Perturbation magnets are placed in the thermal barrier region of the end cell region at the turning point characteristic of trapped thermal particles, thus deflecting the thermal particles from their closed trajectory, causing them to drift sufficiently to exit the thermal barrier.

  13. Evidence for a New Path to the Self-Sustainment of the Thermonuclear Fusion Reactions in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasma Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evidence for a New Path to the Self-Sustainment of the Thermonuclear Fusion Reactions in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasma Experiments

  14. Analysis of the energy transport and deposition within the reaction chamber of the prometheus inertial fusion energy reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, J.E.; Abdou, M.A.; Tillack, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the parameters affecting the feasibility of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) devices is the number of shots per unit time, i.e. the repetition rate. The repetition rate limits the achievable power that can be obtained from the reactor. To obtain an estimate of the allowable time between shots, a code named RECON was developed to model the response of the reaction chamber to the pellet explosion. This paper discusses how the code treats the thermodynamic response of the cavity gas and models the condensation/evaporation of this vapor to and from the first wall. A large amount of energy from the pellet microexplosion is carried by the pellet debris and the x-rays generated in the fusion reaction. Models of x-ray attenuation and ion slowing down are used to estimate the fraction of the pellet energy that is absorbed in the vapor. A large amount of energy is absorbed into the cavity gas, which causes it to become partially ionized. The ionization complicates the calculation of the temperature, pressure, and the radiative heat transfer from the gas to the first wall. To treat this problem, methods developed by Zel`dovich and Raizer are used in modeling the internal energy and the radiative heat flux. RECON was developed to run with a relatively short computational time, yet accurate enough for conceptual reactor design calculations.

  15. The impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Sanz, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain); Vujic, J.L. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) and magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plants will probably operate in a pulsed mode. The two different schemes, however, will have quite different time periods. Typical repetition rates for IFE power plants will be 1-5 Hz. MFE power plants will ramp up in current for about 1 hour, shut down for several minutes, and repeat the process. Traditionally, activation calculations for IFE and MFE power plants have assumed continuous operation and used either the ``steady state`` (SS) or ``equivalent steady state`` (ESS) approximations. It has been suggested recently that the SS and ESS methods may not yield accurate results for all radionuclides of interest. The present work expands that of Sisolak, et al. by applying their formulae to conditions which might be experienced in typical IFE and MFE power plants. In addition, complicated, multi-step reaction/decay chains are analyzed using an upgraded version of the ACAB radionuclide generation/depletion code. Our results indicate that the SS method is suitable for application to MFE power plant conditions. We also find that the ESS method generates acceptable results for radionuclides with half-lives more than a factor of three greater than the time between pulses. For components that are subject to 0.05 Hz (or more frequent) irradiation (such as coolant), use of the ESS method is recommended. For components or materials that are subject to less frequent irradiation (such as high-Z target materials), pulsed irradiation calculations should be used.

  16. Recent U.S. advances in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics and heavy ion fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    physics and heavy ion fusion energy drivers, including bothoptions towards inertial fusion energy. Acknowledgements:fusion drivers for inertial fusion energy. 1. Introduction A

  17. Economic Evaluation of Electrical Power Generation Using Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tm Anklam; Wayne Meier; Al Erl; Robin Miles; Aaron Simon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and upcoming ignition experiments, there is renewed interest in laser fusion-fission hybrids and pure fusion systems for base load power generation. An advantage of a laser fusion based system is that it would produce copious neutrons ( ~ 1.8x10 20 /s for a 500 MW fusion source). This opens the door to hybrid systems with once through, high burn-up, closed fuel cycles. With abundant fusion neutrons, only modest fission gain (5 to 10) is needed for power production. Depleted uranium can be used as the fission fuel, effectively eliminating the need for uranium mining and enrichment. With high burn up, a hybrid would generate only 5 % to 10% the volume of high-level nuclear waste per kilowatt hour that a once through light water reactor (LWR) does. Reprocessing is no longer needed to close the fuel cycle as the spent fuel can, after interim cooling, go directly to geologic disposal. While the depleted uranium fuel cycle offers advantages of simplicity and proliferation avoidance, it has the most challenging fuel lifetime requirements. Fissile fuel such as plutonium, or plutonium and minor actinides separated from spent nuclear fuel, would have roughly twice the fission gain and incur only about 25 % of the radiation damage to reach the same burn up level as depleted uranium. These missions are interesting in their own right and also provide an opportunity for early market entry of laser fusion based energy sources. A third fuel cycle option is to burn spent fuel directly, without prior separation of the plutonium and minor actinides. The neutronic and economic performance of this fuel cycle is very similar to the depleted uranium system. The primary difference is the need to fabricate new LIFE fuel from spent LWR fuel. The advantage of this fuel cycle is that it would burn the residual actinides in spent nuclear fuel, greatly reducing long term radio-toxicity and heat load, while avoiding the need to chemically separate spent LWR fuel.

  18. Observation of nuclear fusion driven by a pyroelectric crystalQ1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimzewski, James

    ............................................................................................................................................................................. While progress in fusion research continues with magnetic1 and inertial2 confinement, alternative fusion is not useful in the power-producing sense, we anticipate that the system will find application, heating or cooling a pyroelectric crystal in vacuum causes bound charge to accumulate on faces normal

  19. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  20. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heavy ion inertial fusion energy. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thisheavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralizedto drift axially). For fusion energy applications, either

  1. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre Gsponer; Jean-pierre Hurni

    The feasibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either DT or Li2DT is found to be about 10 21 /k 2, where

  2. IS C O N SIN FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -MADISON 2004 #12;i Abstract Experiments are described that used an Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) fusion device to create radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. The IEC concept utilizes spherically this method is that the IEC device is small and relatively inexpensive, so it may be developed into a semi

  3. IS C O N SIN FUSION TECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ Madison (UW ­ IEC) [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Deuterium anion current densities as high as 8.5 µA/cm2 have been measured at the wall of the UW IEC device. INTRODUCTION The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion concept was first patented by Farnsworth1

  4. Vortex stabilized electron beam compressed fusion grade plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, Ady [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Most inertial confinement fusion schemes are comprised of highly compressed dense plasmas. Those schemes involve short, extremely high power, short pulses of beams (lasers, particles) applied to lower density plasmas or solid pellets. An alternative approach could be to shoot an intense electron beam through very dense, atmospheric pressure, vortex stabilized plasma.

  5. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  6. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  7. Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications 2003: State of the Art 2003, Published by the American Nuclear Society

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Editors: B. A. Hammel; D. D. Meyerhofer; J. Meyer-ter-Vehn; H. Azechi. Organizing Chair: W. J. Hogan

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collection of all papers presented and submitted at the IFSA2003 conference. Topics included target design and performance, fast ignition, plasma instabilities, laser technology, fusion reactor technology

  8. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B.G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    drive targets for inertial fusion energy. 1. Introduction Adensity matter and fusion energy. Previously, experiments inHeavy ion fusion science research for high energy density

  9. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J; Brandon, S; Clark, D; Town, R; Cerjan, C; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Springer, P; Moses, E; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of thermonuclear burn in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion targets under compressed axial magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, L. J.; Logan, B. G.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Werner, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report for the first time on full 2-D radiation-hydrodynamic implosion simulations that explore the impact of highly compressed imposed magnetic fields on the ignition and burn of perturbed spherical implosions of ignition-scale cryogenic capsules. Using perturbations that highly convolute the cold fuel boundary of the hotspot and prevent ignition without applied fields, we impose initial axial seed fields of 20–100 T (potentially attainable using present experimental methods) that compress to greater than 4 × 10{sup 4} T (400 MG) under implosion, thereby relaxing hotspot areal densities and pressures required for ignition and propagating burn by ?50%. The compressed field is high enough to suppress transverse electron heat conduction, and to allow alphas to couple energy into the hotspot even when highly deformed by large low-mode amplitudes. This might permit the recovery of ignition, or at least significant alpha particle heating, in submarginal capsules that would otherwise fail because of adverse hydrodynamic instabilities.

  11. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation.

  12. PPPL-3183 -Preprint: May 1996, UC-420, 424, 426 Fusion Reactivity, Confinement, and Stability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controllable plasma parameters, the limitation and optimization of fusion power production of the present TFTR with a reversed shear (RS) magnetic configuration [8], and Supershots enhanced by Li pellet conditioning [9, 10

  13. PPPL3183 Preprint: May 1996, UC420, 424, 426 Fusion Reactivity, Confinement, and Stability of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    controllable plasma parameters, the limitation and optimization of fusion power production of the present TFTR], discharges with a reversed shear (RS) magnetic configuration#[8], and Supershots enhanced by Li pellet

  14. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  15. LLE 1998 annual report, October 1997--September 1998. Inertial fusion program and National Laser Users` Facility program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), the operation of the National Laser Users` Facility (NLUF), and programs involving the education of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students for FY98. Research summaries cover: progress in laser fusion; diagnostic development; laser and optical technology; and advanced technology for laser targets.

  16. Inertial Fusion in NNSA N AT I O N AL N U C L E AR S E C U R I T Y AD M I N I S T R AT I O N OFFICE OF DEFENSE PROGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Inertial Fusion in NNSA N AT I O N AL N U C L E AR S E C U R I T Y AD M I N I S T R AT I O N, 2012 #12;2 ICF Program is critically important element of NNSA's Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP to the Editor from Tom D'Agostino (NNSA Administrator) & Parney Albright (LLNL Director) stated NIF's primary

  17. Method and system to directly produce electrical power within the lithium blanket region of a magnetically confined, deuterium-tritium (DT) fueled, thermonuclear fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Belle Mead, NJ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for integrating liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation with fusion blanket technology to produce electrical power from a thermonuclear fusion reactor located within a confining magnetic field and within a toroidal structure. A hot liquid metal flows from a liquid metal blanket region into a pump duct of an electromagnetic pump which moves the liquid metal to a mixer where a gas of predetermined pressure is mixed with the pressurized liquid metal to form a Froth mixture. Electrical power is generated by flowing the Froth mixture between electrodes in a generator duct. When the Froth mixture exits the generator the gas is separated from the liquid metal and both are recycled.

  18. Commentary on A Conceptual Design of Transport Lines for a Heavy-Ion Inertial-Fusion Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, E.P.

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Some major system features are not stated but can be inferred. For example this is probably an engineering test facility, not a power plant driver, because the standoff from target to final magnet is only 5.0 m. The fusion target takes two-sided illumination with indirect drive using a total of 60 beam pulses: 10 pre-pulses (3.0 GeV) + 20 main pulses (4.0 GeV) from each side. On page 12 it's stated that the charge per beam pulse is 26.8 {micro}C, so we calculate pre-pulse: 20 x 3 GeV x 26.8 {micro}C = 1.608MJ, main pulse: 40 x 4 GeV x 26.8 {micro}C = 4.288MJ, total beam energy 5.896MJ. The beam ion mass ks 200 amu, so the species is Hg{sup +}. Therefore the mid-pulse velocities are: pre-pulse v = .1773c = 5.316 x 10{sup 7} m/s, main pulse v = .2040c = 6.114 x 10{sup 7} m/s, On page 12 it is stated that the pre-compression pulse length is L{sub 0} = 10.0m, and compression is by a 'factor of order 20'. They infer a final pulse length of about .5 m and final durations pre-pulse {tau} {approx} .5/5.316 x 10{sup 7} = 9.4 ns; main pulse {tau} {approx} .5/6.114 x 10{sup 7} = 8.2 ms. The magnetic rigidity of the beam ions is [B{rho}] = {gamma}m v/e = {l_brace} 112.0 T-m - prepulse/129.5 T-m - mainpulse{r_brace}.

  19. Course: FUSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Universit degli Studi di Padova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesare, Bernardo

    the subject of controlled thermonuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasmas. Both fusion science of Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion, b) Engineering of a Magnetically Confined Fusion Reactor, c) ExperimentalCourse: FUSION SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING Universitŕ degli Studi di Padova in agreement

  20. LDRD final report on confinement of cluster fusion plasmas with magnetic fields.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argo, Jeffrey W.; Kellogg, Jeffrey W.; Headley, Daniel Ignacio; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott; Waugh, Caleb J.; Lewis, Sean M.; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Wisher, Matthew; Struve, Kenneth William; Savage, Mark Edward; Quevedo, Hernan J.; Bengtson, Roger

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two versions of a current driver for single-turn, single-use 1-cm diameter magnetic field coils have been built and tested at the Sandia National Laboratories for use with cluster fusion experiments at the University of Texas in Austin. These coils are used to provide axial magnetic fields to slow radial loss of electrons from laser-produced deuterium plasmas. Typical peak field strength achievable for the two-capacitor system is 50 T, and 200 T for the ten-capacitor system. Current rise time for both systems is about 1.7 {mu}s, with peak current of 500 kA and 2 MA, respectively. Because the coil must be brought to the laser, the driver needs to be portable and drive currents in vacuum. The drivers are complete but laser-plasma experiments are still in progress. Therefore, in this report, we focus on system design, initial tests, and performance characteristics of the two-capacitor and ten-capacitors systems. The questions of whether a 200 T magnetic field can retard the breakup of a cluster-fusion plasma, and whether this field can enhance neutron production have not yet been answered. However, tools have been developed that will enable producing the magnetic fields needed to answer these questions. These are a two-capacitor, 400-kA system that was delivered to the University of Texas in 2010, and a 2-MA ten-capacitor system delivered this year. The first system allowed initial testing, and the second system will be able to produce the 200 T magnetic fields needed for cluster fusion experiments with a petawatt laser. The prototype 400-kA magnetic field driver system was designed and built to test the design concept for the system, and to verify that a portable driver system could be built that delivers current to a magnetic field coil in vacuum. This system was built copying a design from a fixed-facility, high-field machine at LANL, but made to be portable and to use a Z-machine-like vacuum insulator and vacuum transmission line. This system was sent to the University of Texas in Austin where magnetic fields up to 50 T have been produced in vacuum. Peak charge voltage and current for this system have been 100 kV and 490 kA. It was used this last year to verify injection of deuterium and surrogate clusters into these small, single-turn coils without shorting the coil. Initial test confirmed the need to insulate the inner surface of the coil, which requires that the clusters must be injected through small holes in an insulator. Tests with a low power laser confirmed that it is possible to inject clusters into the magnetic field coils through these holes without destroying the clusters. The university team also learned the necessity of maintaining good vacuum to avoid insulator, transmission line, and coil shorting. A 200-T, 2 MA system was also constructed using the experience from the first design to make the pulsed-power system more robust. This machine is a copy of the prototype design, but with ten 100-kV capacitors versus the two used in the prototype. It has additional inductance in the switch/capacitor unit to avoid breakdown seen in the prototype design. It also has slightly more inductance at the cable connection to the vacuum chamber. With this design we have been able to demonstrate 1 MA current into a 1 cm diameter coil with the vacuum chamber at air pressure. Circuit code simulations, including the additional inductance with the new design, agree well with the measured current at a charge voltage of 40 kV with a short circuit load, and at 50 kV with a coil. The code also predicts that with a charge voltage of 97 kV we will be able to get 2 MA into a 1 cm diameter coil, which will be sufficient for 200 T fields. Smaller diameter or multiple-turn coils will be able to achieve even higher fields, or be able to achieve 200-T fields with lower charge voltage. Work is now proceeding at the university under separate funding to verify operation at the 2-MA level, and to address issues of debris mitigation, measurement of the magnetic field, and operation in vacuum. We anticipate operation at full current with single

  1. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is demonstrated at the SNL Z-IFE LTD laboratory with rep-rates up to 10.3 seconds between shots (this is essentially at the goal of 10 seconds for Z-IFE). (7) A single LTD switch at Tomsk was fired repetitively every 12 seconds for 36,000 shots with no failures. (8) Five 1.0 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavities have been combined into a voltage adder configuration with a test load to successfully study the system operation. (9) The combination of multiple LTD coaxial lines into a tri-plate transmission line is examined. The 3D Quicksilver code is used to study the electron flow losses produced near the magnetic nulls that occur where coax LTD lines are added together. (10) Circuit model codes are used to model the complete power flow circuit with an inductive isolator cavity. (11) LTD architectures are presented for drivers for Z-IFE and high yield. A 60 MA LTD driver and a 90 MA LTD driver are proposed. Present results from all of these power flow studies validate the whole LTD/RTL concept for single-shot ICF high yield, and for repetitive-shot IFE.

  2. ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PROJECT STAFF

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK A271 ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. The General Atomics (GA) Advanced Fusion Technology Program seeks to advance the knowledge base needed for next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately for an economical and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. To achieve this objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic and applied knowledge about these technologies. GA's Advanced Fusion Technology program derives from, and draws on, the physics and engineering expertise built up by many years of experience in designing, building, and operating plasma physics experiments. The technology development activities take full advantage of the GA DIII-D program, the DIII-D facility and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and the ICF Target Fabrication facility.

  3. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powers, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System. ” Thesis.hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) systems.Hybrid LIFE Engines Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) systems

  4. The physics of antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either D or Li_2DT is found to be about 10^{21}/k^2, where k is the compression factor of the fuel to be ignited. We conclude that the financial and energy investments needed to produce such amounts of antiprotons would confine applications of antimatter triggered thermonuclear devices to the military domain.

  5. Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion can play an important role in sustainable global energy because it has an available and unlimited fuel supply and location not restricted by climate or geography. Further, it emits no greenhouse gases. It has no potential for large energy releases in an accident, and no need for more than about 100 years retention for radioactive waste disposal. Substantial progress in the realization of fusion energy has been made during the past 20 years of research. It is now possible to produce significant amounts of energy from controlled deuterium and tritium (DT) reactions in the laboratory. This has led to a growing confidence in our ability to produce burning plasmas with significant energy gain in the next generation of fusion experiments. As success in fusion facilities has underpinned the scientific feasibility of fusion, the high cost of next-step fusion facilities has led to a shift in the focus of international fusion research towards a lower cost development path and an attractive end product. The increasing data base from fusion research allows conceptual fusion power plant studies, of both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches to fusion, to translate commercial requirements into the design features that must be met if fusion is to play a role in the world's energy mix; and identify key R and D items; and benchmark progress in fusion energy development. This paper addresses the question, ''Is mankind closer or farther away from controlled fusion than a few decades ago?'' We review the tremendous scientific progress during the last 10 years. We use the detailed engineering design activities of burning plasma experiments as well as conceptual fusion power plant studies to describe our visions of attractive fusion power plants. We use these studies to compare technical requirements of an attractive fusion system with present achievements and to identify remaining technical challenges for fusion. We discuss scenarios for fusion energy deployment in the energy market.

  6. Realizing Technologies for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurden, Glen A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers are making progress with a range of magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) concepts. All of these approaches use the addition of a magnetic field to a target plasma, and then compress the plasma to fusion conditions. The beauty of MIF is that driver power requirements are reduced, compared to classical inertial fusion approaches, and simultaneously the compression timescales can be longer, and required implosion velocities are slower. The presence of a sufficiently large Bfield expands the accessibility to ignition, even at lower values of the density-radius product, and can confine fusion alphas. A key constraint is that the lifetime of the MIF target plasma has to be matched to the timescale of the driver technology (whether liners, heavy ions, or lasers). To achieve sufficient burn-up fraction, scaling suggests that larger yields are more effective. To handle the larger yields (GJ level), thick liquid wall chambers are certainly desired (no plasma/neutron damage materials problem) and probably required. With larger yields, slower repetition rates ({approx}0.1-1 Hz) for this intrinsically pulsed approach to fusion are possible, which means that chamber clearing between pulses can be accomplished on timescales that are compatible with simple clearing techniques (flowing liquid droplet curtains). However, demonstration of the required reliable delivery of hundreds of MJ of energy, for millions of pulses per year, is an ongoing pulsed power technical challenge.

  7. Laser Inertial Fusion-based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as thermal insulator to protect capsule during injection: --Radiation heating to capsule: ­ Polyimide transmits in the IR ­ Radiation shield (Al/polyimide/Al) gives 99% reflectivity --Convective heating of polyimide window dominates: ­ Heat transfer coefficient ~8 W/m2-K at window edge ­ Window heats to ~80

  8. Reviewers Comments on the 5th Symposium and the Status of Fusion Research 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, R F

    2005-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Better to understand the status of fusion research in the year 2003 we will first put the research in its historical context. Fusion power research, now beginning its sixth decade of continuous effort, is unique in the field of scientific research. Unique in its mixture of pure and applied research, unique in its long-term goal and its promise for the future, and unique in the degree that it has been guided and constrained by national and international governmental policy. Though fusion research's goal has from the start been precisely defined, namely, to obtain a net release of energy from controlled nuclear fusion reactions between light isotopes (in particular those of hydrogen and helium) the difficulty of the problem has spawned in the past a very wide variety of approaches to the problem. Some of these approaches have had massive international support for decades, some have been pursued only at a ''shoestring'' level by dedicated groups in small research laboratories or universities. In discussing the historical and present status of fusion research the implications of there being two distinctly different approaches to achieving net fusion power should be pointed out. The first, and oldest, approach is the use of strong magnetic fields to confine the heated fuel, in the form of a plasma and at a density typically four or five orders of magnitude smaller than the density of the atmosphere. In steady state this fusion fuel density is still sufficient to release fusion energy at the rate of many megawatts per cubic meter. The plasma confinement times required for net energy release in this regime are long--typically a second or more, representing an extremely difficult scientific challenge --witness the five decades of research in magnetic fusion, still without having reaching that goal. The second, more recently initiated approach, is of course the ''inertial'' approach. As its name implies, the ''confinement'' problem is solved ''inertially,'' that is by compressing and heating a tiny pellet of frozen fusion fuel in nanoseconds, such that before disassembly the pellet fuses and releases its energy as a micro-explosion. The first, and most thoroughly investigated means to create this compression and heating is to use multiple laser beams, with total energies of megajoules, focused down to impinge uniformly on the pellet target. To illustrate the extreme difference between the usual magnetic confinement regime at that of inertial fusion, there are twenty orders of magnitude in fusion power density (ten orders of magnitude in plasma density) between the two regimes. In principle fusion power systems could operate at any density between these extremes, if means were to be found to exploit this possibility.

  9. How much laser power can propagate through fusion plasma?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavel M. Lushnikov; Harvey A. Rose

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of intense laser beams is crucial for inertial confinement fusion, which requires precise beam control to achieve the compression and heating necessary to ignite the fusion reaction. The National Ignition Facility (NIF), where fusion will be attempted, is now under construction. Control of intense beam propagation may be ruined by laser beam self-focusing. We have identified the maximum laser beam power that can propagate through fusion plasma without significant self-focusing and have found excellent agreement with recent experimental data, and suggest a way to increase that maximum by appropriate choice of plasma composition with implication for NIF designs. Our theory also leads to the prediction of anti-correlation between beam spray and backscatter and suggests the indirect control of backscatter through manipulation of plasma ionization state or acoustic damping.

  10. Engineering Challenges in Antiproton Triggered Fusion Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassenti, Brice [Department. of Engineering and Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 275 Windsor Avenue, Hattford, CT 06120 (United States); Kammash, Terry [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    During the last decade antiproton triggered fusion propulsion has been investigated as a method for achieving high specific impulse, high thrust in a nuclear pulse propulsion system. In general the antiprotons are injected into a pellet containing fusion fuel with a small amount of fissionable material (i.e., an amount less than the critical mass) where the products from the fission are then used to trigger a fusion reaction. Initial calculations and simulations indicate that if magnetically insulated inertial confinement fusion is used that the pellets should result in a specific impulse of between 100,000 and 300,000 seconds at high thrust. The engineering challenges associated with this propulsion system are significant. For example, the antiprotons must be precisely focused. The pellet must be designed to contain the fission and initial fusion products and this will require strong magnetic fields. The fusion fuel must be contained for a sufficiently long time to effectively release the fusion energy, and the payload must be shielded from the radiation, especially the excess neutrons emitted, in addition to many other particles. We will review the recent progress, possible engineering solutions and the potential performance of these systems.

  11. Hydrogen Hydrogen FusionFusionFusionFusionFusionFusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heiz, Ulrich

    100.000 years LNGS Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso Borexino THE THERMONUCLEAR FUSION REACTIONHydrogen Hydrogen Fusion Deuterium FusionFusionFusionFusionFusionFusion THE SUN AS BOREXINO SEES

  12. Uniformity of fuel target implosion in Heavy Ion Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawata, S; Suzuki, T; Karino, T; Barada, D; Ogoyski, A I; Ma, Y Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confinement fusion the target implosion non-uniformity is introduced by a driver beams' illumination non-uniformity, a fuel target alignment error in a fusion reactor, the target fabrication defect, et al. For a steady operation of a fusion power plant the target implosion should be robust against the implosion non-uniformities. In this paper the requirement for the implosion uniformity is first discussed. The implosion uniformity should be less than a few percent. A study on the fuel hotspot dynamics is also presented and shows that the stagnating plasma fluid provides a significant enhancement of vorticity at the final stage of the fuel stagnation. Then non-uniformity mitigation mechanisms of the heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination are also briefly discussed in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). A density valley appears in the energy absorber, and the large-scale density valley also works as a radiation energy confinement layer, which contributes to a radiation energy smoothing. In HIF a wobbling he...

  13. Requirements for low cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multi-unit intertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B. Grant; Moir, Ralph; Hoffman, Myron A.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium- Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE)Reactor," UCRL-Aspects of Magnetic Fusion Energy," Lawrence Livermorefor the Inertial Fusion Energy Experiments," proceedings of

  14. Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  15. A novel method for modeling the neutron time of flight (nTOF) detector response in current mode to inertial confinement fusion experiments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Alan J. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Cooper, Gary Wayne [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Chandler, Gordon Andrew; Fehl, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Smelser, Ruth Marie; Torres, Jose A.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are several machines in this country that produce short bursts of neutrons for various applications. A few examples are the Zmachine, operated by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM; the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester in Rochester, NY; and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) operated by the Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. They all incorporate neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors which measure neutron yield, and the shapes of the waveforms from these detectors contain germane information about the plasma conditions that produce the neutrons. However, the signals can also be %E2%80%9Cclouded%E2%80%9D by a certain fraction of neutrons that scatter off structural components and also arrive at the detectors, thereby making analysis of the plasma conditions more difficult. These detectors operate in current mode - i.e., they have no discrimination, and all the photomultiplier anode charges are integrated rather than counted individually as they are in single event counting. Up to now, there has not been a method for modeling an nTOF detector operating in current mode. MCNPPoliMiwas developed in 2002 to simulate neutron and gammaray detection in a plastic scintillator, which produces a collision data output table about each neutron and photon interaction occurring within the scintillator; however, the postprocessing code which accompanies MCNPPoliMi assumes a detector operating in singleevent counting mode and not current mode. Therefore, the idea for this work had been born: could a new postprocessing code be written to simulate an nTOF detector operating in current mode? And if so, could this process be used to address such issues as the impact of neutron scattering on the primary signal? Also, could it possibly even identify sources of scattering (i.e., structural materials) that could be removed or modified to produce %E2%80%9Ccleaner%E2%80%9D neutron signals? This process was first developed and then applied to the axial neutron time of flight detectors at the ZFacility mentioned above. First, MCNPPoliMi was used to model relevant portions of the facility between the source and the detector locations. To obtain useful statistics, variance reduction was utilized. Then, the resulting collision output table produced by MCNPPoliMi was further analyzed by a MATLAB postprocessing code. This converted the energy deposited by neutron and photon interactions in the plastic scintillator (i.e., nTOF detector) into light output, in units of MeVee%D1%84 (electron equivalent) vs time. The time response of the detector was then folded into the signal via another MATLAB code. The simulated response was then compared with experimental data and shown to be in good agreement. To address the issue of neutron scattering, an %E2%80%9CIdeal Case,%E2%80%9D (i.e., a plastic scintillator was placed at the same distance from the source for each detector location) with no structural components in the problem. This was done to produce as %E2%80%9Cpure%E2%80%9D a neutron signal as possible. The simulated waveform from this %E2%80%9CIdeal Case%E2%80%9D was then compared with the simulated data from the %E2%80%9CFull Scale%E2%80%9D geometry (i.e., the detector at the same location, but with all the structural materials now included). The %E2%80%9CIdeal Case%E2%80%9D was subtracted from the %E2%80%9CFull Scale%E2%80%9D geometry case, and this was determined to be the contribution due to scattering. The time response was deconvolved out of the empirical data, and the contribution due to scattering was then subtracted out of it. A transformation was then made from dN/dt to dN/dE to obtain neutron spectra at two different detector locations.

  16. Inertial-confinement fusion-reactor dry-wall study. Final report, 13 August 1981-31 March 1983. Report WAESD-TR-83-0010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sucov, E.W.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse ICF Dry Wall Study was undertaken (1) to explore the practical implications of using a Ta coating to protect the steel first wall of an ICF reactor against the power pulses from the explosions of a pellet containing Ta as the heavy element and (2) to determine if a feasible design for improved safety and lower cost in a blanket could be developed using solid lithium compound in place of liquid lithium as the tritium breeder. Three coating techniques were examined; plasma spray, chemical vapor deposition and explosive bonding. An evaporation code and a sputtering code which were developed at LANL, were used to calculate the loss rate of Ta due to these processes after each pellet explosion. A simulation experiment to verify the CHART D calculations was investigated. Sources of pulsed x-rays and ions to simulate the debris from each pellet explosion were identified. The CANDID code was developed to permit evaluation of candidate metals for coating the steel based on criteria such as surface and bulk temperature rise, thermal stress in the creating layer and evaporation rate. Material properties were stored in the memory and were called upon to calculate evaluation algorithms. Of twenty original candidates, six remain: Re, Ir, Mo, Cr, W, Ta and Nb. Further evaluation would include parameters such as cost, manufacturability, radioactive decay rate, etc.

  17. To: ! Members of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems, and the Panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : either a shift primarily to non-ignition nuclear weapons research ("high energy density physics different indirect-drive target designs that could be quickly developed and tested. For others, Plan B would for a proper direct-drive test. Also, the chamber portholes that would be needed for direct-drive were covered

  18. Fusion of WiFi, Smartphone Sensors and Landmarks Using the Kalman Filter for Indoor Localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhenghua; Zou, Han; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Qingchang; Soh, Yeng; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T.T. GPS/MEMS INS Data Fusion and Map Matching in UrbanP. ; Besada, J.A. ; Casar, J.R. Fusion of RSS and inertialConference on Information Fusion (FUSION), Istanbul, Turkey,

  19. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  20. Historical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, Stephen O

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress and Policy is traced over the approximately 55 year history of the U. S. Fusion Program. The classified beginnings of the effort in the 1950s ended with declassification in 1958. The effort struggled during the 1960s, but ended on a positive note with the emergence of the tokamak and the promise of laser fusion. The decade of the 1970s was the 'Golden Age' of fusion, with large budget increases and the construction of many new facilities, including the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Shiva laser. The decade ended on a high note with the passage of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, overwhelming approved by Congress and signed by President Carter. The Act called for a '$20 billion, 20 year' effort aimed at construction of a fusion Demonstration Power Plant around the end of the century. The U. S. Magnetic Fusion Energy program has been on a downhill slide since 1980, both in terms of budgets and the construction of new facilities. The Inertial Confinement Fusion program, funded by Department of Energy Defense Programs, has faired considerably better, with the construction of many new facilities, including the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

  1. Laser fusion driven breeder design study. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berwald, D.H.; Massey, J.V.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the Laser Fusion Breeder Design Study are given. This information primarily relates to the conceptual design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) breeder reactor (or fusion-fission hybrid) based upon the HYLIFE liquid metal wall protection concept developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The blanket design for this breeder is optimized to both reduce fissions and maximize the production of fissile fuel for subsequent use in conventional light water reactors (LWRs). When the suppressed fission blanket is compared with its fast fission counterparts, a minimal fission rate in the blanket results in a unique reactor safety advantage for this concept with respect to reduced radioactive inventory and reduced fission product decay afterheat in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident.

  2. Role of atomic collisions in fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, D.E.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

  3. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton, CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

    1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.

  4. Snowmass 2002: The Fusion Energy Sciences Summer Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. Sauthoff; G. Navratil; R. Bangerter

    2002-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Summer Study 2002 will be a forum for the critical technical assessment of major next-steps in the fusion energy sciences program, and will provide crucial community input to the long-range planning activities undertaken by the DOE [Department of Energy] and the FESAC [Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee]. It will be an ideal place for a broad community of scientists to examine goals and proposed initiatives in burning plasma science in magnetic fusion energy and integrated research experiments in inertial fusion energy. This meeting is open to every member of the fusion energy science community and significant international participation is encouraged. The objectives of the Fusion Summer Study are three: (1) Review scientific issues in burning plasmas to establish the basis for the following two objectives and to address the relations of burning plasma in tokamaks to innovative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) confinement concepts and of ignition in inertial fusion energy (IFE) to integrated research facilities. (2) Provide a forum for critical discussion and review of proposed MFE burning plasma experiments (e.g., IGNITOR, FIRE, and ITER) and assess the scientific and technological research opportunities and prospective benefits of these approaches to the study of burning plasmas. (3) Provide a forum for the IFE community to present plans for prospective integrated research facilities, assess present status of the technical base for each, and establish a timetable and technical progress necessary to proceed for each. Based on significant preparatory work by the fusion community prior to the July Snowmass meeting, the Snowmass working groups will prepare a draft report that documents the scientific and technological benefits of studies of burning plasmas. The report will also include criteria by which the benefits of each approach to fusion science, fusion engineering/technology, and the fusion development path can be assessed. Finally, the report will present a uniform technical assessment of the benefits of the three approaches. The draft report will be presented and extensively discussed during the July meeting, leading to a final report. This report will provide critical fusion community input to the decision process of FESAC and DOE in 2002-2003, and to the review of burning plasma science by the National Academy of Sciences called for by FESAC and Energy Legislation which was passed by the House of Representatives [H.R. 4]. Members of the fusion community are encouraged to participate in the Snowmass working groups.

  5. Laboratory for Laser Energetics annual report, 1 October 1991--30 September 1992. Inertial Fusion Program and National Laser Users Facility Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an annual report covering research progress on laser fusion and the OMEGA Upgrade design and development. In laser fusion, line-spectroscopy methods were demonstrated to be useful in diagnosing the core temperature and densities of polymer-shell targets; a theoretical analysis of nonlocal heat transport effects on filamentation of light in plasmas confirms that the principle mechanism driving filamentation is kinetic thermal rather than ponderomotive; a new method (spatial beam deflection) to produce laser pulses of arbitrary shape was developed; laser-plasma x-ray emission was measured using photodiode arrays; experiments on long-scale-length plasmas have shown that smoothing by spectral dispersion has proven effective in reducing Raman scattering; a method for increasing the gas-retention time of polymer shell targets was developed by overcoating them with aluminum. Experiments relating to the OMEGA Upgrade are described.

  6. Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxamusa, S., E-mail: baxamusa1@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; Suratwala, T.; Sater, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.

  7. Requirements for low cost electricity and hydrogen fuel production from multi-unit intertial fusion energy plants with a shared driver and target factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logan, B. Grant; Moir, Ralph; Hoffman, Myron A.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California 9~516 This work explores the economy of scale for multi- unit inertial fusion energy power plants

  8. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

  9. Antimatter induced fusion and thermonuclear explosions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of using antihydrogen for igniting inertial confinement fusion pellets or triggering large scale thermonuclear explosions is investigated. The number of antiproton annihilations required to start a thermonuclear burn wave in either DT or Li_2DT is found to be about 10^{21}/k^2, where k is the compression factor of the fuel to be ignited. In the second part, the technologies for producing antiprotons with high energy accelerator systems and the means for manipulating and storing microgram amounts of antihydrogen are examined. While there seems to be no theoretical obstacles to the production of 10^{18} antiprotons per day (the amount required for triggering one thermonuclear bomb), the construction of such a plant involves several techniques which are between 3 and 4 orders of magnitude away from present day technology.

  10. Paths to Magne,c Fusion Energy (nature ignores budget austerity)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paths to Magne,c Fusion Energy (nature ignores budget austerity) S. Prager fusion problems should be solved in parallel with ITER Energy confinement to fusion energy present DIII-D NSTX CMOD Plasma confinement research program #12

  11. aerospace system test reactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods of nulcear fusion: inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). Existing thermonuclear reactors are very complex, expensive, large, and...

  12. anuclear research reactor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods of nulcear fusion: inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). Existing thermonuclear reactors are very complex, expensive, large, and...

  13. Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Micro-engineered first wall tungsten armor for high average power laser fusion energy systems is developing an inertial fusion energy demonstration power reactor with a solid first wall chamber. The first is a coordinated effort to develop laser inertial fusion energy [1]. The first stage of the HAPL program

  14. Suggested Path to Develop Inertial Fusion Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;As discussed before, our FTF final amp design is modest scale-up of Nike's 60-cm amp. using high performance at modest energy KrF based FTF parameters 0.5 MJ energy @ 5 Hz (e.g. thirty 18-k

  15. Inertial fusion energy studies in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    interactions ·Neutron damage to first wall and optics ·Channel formation #12;The types of research ­ the wider acceleration High harmonic generation Secondary radiation sources Nuclear physics Fundamental laser plasma

  16. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2011 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 1 for the DOE/NNSA Slide 2 Some MIF-IFE reactor considerations #12;A Wide Range of Driver/Target Combinations for the DOE/NNSA S. A. Slutz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) A. G. Lynn, et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 81

  17. Inertial Frames and Clock Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subhash Kak

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This article revisits the historiography of the problem of inertial frames. Specifically, the case of the twins in the clock paradox is considered to see that some resolutions implicitly assume inertiality for the non-accelerating twin. If inertial frames are explicitly identified by motion with respect to the large scale structure of the universe, it makes it possible to consider the relative inertiality of different frames.

  18. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  19. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 43 (2003) 16931709 PII: S0029-5515(03)67272-8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 43 (2003) 1693­1709 PII: S0029-5515(03)67272-8 Fusion energy with lasers, direct drive targets.iop.org/NF/43/1693 Abstract A coordinated, focused effort is underway to develop Laser Inertial Fusion Energy

  20. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Pulsed Power Sciences Center

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm{sup 2} on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall.

  1. A Virtualized Computing Platform For Fusion Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frazier, T; Adams, P; Fisher, J; Talbot, A

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a stadium-sized facility that contains a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, ultraviolet laser system together with a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for multiple experimental diagnostics. NIF is the world's largest and most energetic laser experimental system, providing a scientific center to study inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF's laser beams are designed to compress fusion targets to conditions required for thermonuclear burn, liberating more energy than required to initiate the fusion reactions. 2,500 servers, 400 network devices and 700 terabytes of networked attached storage provide the foundation for NIF's Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS) and Experimental Data Archive. This talk discusses the rationale & benefits for server virtualization in the context of an operational experimental facility, the requirements discovery process used by the NIF teams to establish evaluation criteria for virtualization alternatives, the processes and procedures defined to enable virtualization of servers in a timeframe that did not delay the execution of experimental campaigns and the lessons the NIF teams learned along the way. The virtualization architecture ultimately selected for ICCS is based on the Open Source Xen computing platform and 802.1Q open networking standards. The specific server and network configurations needed to ensure performance and high availability of the control system infrastructure will be discussed.

  2. Method and Apparatus to Produce and Maintain a thick, flowing, Liquid Lithium first wall for Toroidal Magnetic Confinement DT Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woolley, Robert D.

    1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fission reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

  3. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) A Path to Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion energy has long been considered a promising clean, nearly inexhaustible source of energy. Power production by fusion micro-explosions of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been a long term research goal since the invention of the first laser in 1960. The NIF is poised to take the next important step in the journey by beginning experiments researching ICF ignition. Ignition on NIF will be the culmination of over thirty years of ICF research on high-powered laser systems such as the Nova laser at LLNL and the OMEGA laser at the University of Rochester as well as smaller systems around the world. NIF is a 192 beam Nd-glass laser facility at LLNL that is more than 90% complete. The first cluster of 48 beams is operational in the laser bay, the second cluster is now being commissioned, and the beam path to the target chamber is being installed. The Project will be completed in 2009 and ignition experiments will start in 2010. When completed NIF will produce up to 1.8 MJ of 0.35 {micro}m light in highly shaped pulses required for ignition. It will have beam stability and control to higher precision than any other laser fusion facility. Experiments using one of the beams of NIF have demonstrated that NIF can meet its beam performance goals. The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) has been established to manage the ignition effort on NIF. NIC has all of the research and development required to execute the ignition plan and to develop NIF into a fully operational facility. NIF will explore the ignition space, including direct drive, 2{omega} ignition, and fast ignition, to optimize target efficiency for developing fusion as an energy source. In addition to efficient target performance, fusion energy requires significant advances in high repetition rate lasers and fusion reactor technology. The Mercury laser at LLNL is a high repetition rate Nd-glass laser for fusion energy driver development. Mercury uses state-o-the art technology such as ceramic laser slabs and light diode pumping for improved efficiency and thermal management. Progress in NIF, NIC, Mercury, and the path forward for fusion energy will be presented.

  4. Inertial range turbulence in kinetic plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. G. Howes

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The transfer of turbulent energy through an inertial range from the driving scale to dissipative scales in a kinetic plasma followed by the conversion of this energy into heat is a fundamental plasma physics process. A theoretical foundation for the study of this process is constructed, but the details of the kinetic cascade are not well understood. Several important properties are identified: (a) the conservation of a generalized energy by the cascade; (b) the need for collisions to increase entropy and realize irreversible plasma heating; and (c) the key role played by the entropy cascade--a dual cascade of energy to small scales in both physical and velocity space--to convert ultimately the turbulent energy into heat. A strategy for nonlinear numerical simulations of kinetic turbulence is outlined. Initial numerical results are consistent with the operation of the entropy cascade. Inertial range turbulence arises in a broad range of space and astrophysical plasmas and may play an important role in the thermalization of fusion energy in burning plasmas.

  5. Atomic mix in directly driven inertial confinement implosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D. C.; Ebey, P. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sangster, T. C.; Shmayda, W. T.; Yu. Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Lerche, R. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Directly driven implosions on the Omega laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have measured the presence of atomic mix using D+T neutron yield rates from plastic capsules with and without deuterated layers, and a nearly pure tritium fuel containing 0.7% deuterium. In 15, 19, and 24 {mu}m thick plastic shells, D+T neutron yields increased by factors of 86, 112, and 24 when the 1.2 {mu}m thick inner layer was deuterated. Based on adjusting a fully atomic mix modvfel to fit yield degradation in the un-deuterated capsule and applying it to the capsule with the deuterated layer, atomic mixing accounts for 40-75% of the yield degradation due to mix. For the first time, the time dependence of mixed mass was measured by the ratio of the yield rates from both types of capsules. As expected, the amount of mix grows throughout the D+T burn.

  6. alternative fusion concepts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and fusion collision times. The understanding gained from decades of space plasma research supports the levitated addressing the use of dipole-confined plasmas for energy...

  7. advanced fusion concepts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and fusion collision times. The understanding gained from decades of space plasma research supports the levitated addressing the use of dipole-confined plasmas for energy...

  8. The Vlasov-Maxwell system with strong initial magnetic field. Guiding-center approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bostan, Mihai

    @univ-fcomte.fr 1 #12;duction through the thermonuclear fusion process. Two ways are currently explored for this: the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). The magnetic confinement

  9. The 2002 Fusion Summer Study will be a forum for the critical assessment of major next-steps in the fusion energy sciences program, and will provide crucial community input to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the fusion energy sciences program, and will provide crucial community input to the long range planning to examine goals and proposed initiatives in burning plasma science in magnetic fusion energy and integrated research experiments in inertial fusion energy. This meeting is open to every member of the fusion energy

  10. Taming turbulence in magnetized plasmas: from fusion energy to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    occurs (fusion of particle beams will not work...) Thermonuclear fusion in a confined plasma (T~10 keTaming turbulence in magnetized plasmas: from fusion energy to black hole accretion disks Troy?: In fusion plasmas turbulent leakage of heat and particles is a key issue. Sheared flow can suppress

  11. LLE Review 101 (October-December 2004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shmayda, W.T., editor

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering October to December 2004, highlights the significance of shaped adiabats to inertial confinement fusion. Theory suggests that inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules compressed by shaped adiabats will exhibit improved hydrodynamic stability.

  12. Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials Science Subcommittee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials, Columbia University 2 Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT December 19, 2011 Summary The proposal for tritium-suppressed D-D fusion and the understanding of the turbulent pinch in magnetically confined plasma

  13. LANSCE | About LANSCE | Leadership

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    theoretical investigation of magnetically and inertially confined plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion, intense particle accelerators, plasma accelerators, plasma-based...

  14. Electron Bernstein wave current drive modeling in toroidal plasma confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, Joan, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady-state confinement of tokamak plasmas in a fusion reactor requires non-inductively driven toroidal currents. Radio frequency waves in the electron cyclotron (EC) range of frequencies can drive localized currents ...

  15. Z, ZX, and X-1: A Realistic Path to High Fusion Yield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK, DONALD L.

    1999-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Z-pinches now constitute the most energetic and powerful sources of x-rays available by a large margin. The Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories has produced 1.8 MJ of x-ray energy, 280 TW of power, and hohlraum temperatures of 200 eV. These advances are being applied to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments on Z. The requirements for high fusion yield are exemplified in the target to be driven by the X-1 accelerator. X-1 will drive two z-pinches, each producing 7 MJ of x-ray energy and about 1000 TW of x-ray power. Together, these radiation sources will heat a hohlraum containing the 4-mm diameter ICF capsule to a temperature exceeding 225 eV for about 10 ns, with the pulse shape required to drive the capsule to high fusion yield, in the range of 200--1000 MJ. Since X-1 consists of two identical accelerators, it is possible to mitigate the technical risk of high yield by constructing one accelerator. This accelerator, ZX, will bridge the gap from Z to X-1 by driving an integrated target experiment with a very efficient energy source, ZX will also provide experimental condition that the full specifications of the X-1 accelerator for high yield are achievable, and that a realistic path to high fission yield exists.

  16. Power measurements in fusion reactors Author: Aljaz Cufar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Â?umer, Slobodan

    Seminar: Power measurements in fusion reactors Author: Aljaz Cufar Mentor: doc. dr. Andrej Trkov are presented and power balance condition for magnetic confinement plasma is estimated. The most important methods and detectors used for power measurements in today's largest magnetic confinement fusion reactors

  17. Alternative pathways to fusion energy (focus on Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alternative pathways to fusion energy (focus on Department of Energy Innovative Confinement for a restructured fusion energy science program [5] 1996 | FESAC: Opportunities in Alternative Confinement Concepts, suggests program for Innovative Concepts [1] 1995 | OTA TPX and the Alternates [2] 1995 | PCAST (given flat

  18. Fusion power production in TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 9.3 MW of fusion power has been produced from deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The total fusion yield from a single plasma pulse has reached 6.5 MJ. The experiments in TFTR with deuterium-tritium plasmas fueled and heated by neutral beam injection span wide ranges in plasma and operating conditions. Through the use of lithium pellet conditioning to control the edge recycling, the plasma confinement in TFTR has been improved to the point where the stability of the plasma to pressure driven modes is limiting the fusion power for plasma currents up to 2.5 MA. The central energy and fusion power densities in these plasmas are comparable to those expected in a thermalized DT reactor, such as ITER.

  19. Inertial Particle Dynamics in a Hurricane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapsis, Themistoklis

    The motion of inertial (i.e., finite-size) particles is analyzed in a three-dimensional unsteady simulation of Hurricane Isabel. As established recently, the long-term dynamics of inertial particles in a fluid is governed ...

  20. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M.; Allen, James J.

    2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator for drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows, for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  1. Inertial measurement unit using rotatable MEMS sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, James J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A MEM inertial sensor (e.g. accelerometer, gyroscope) having integral rotational means for providing static and dynamic bias compensation is disclosed. A bias compensated MEM inertial sensor is described comprising a MEM inertial sense element disposed on a rotatable MEM stage. A MEM actuator drives the rotation of the stage between at least two predetermined rotational positions. Measuring and comparing the output of the MEM inertial sensor in the at least two rotational positions allows for both static and dynamic bias compensation in inertial calculations based on the sensor's output. An inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprising a plurality of independently rotatable MEM inertial sensors and methods for making bias compensated inertial measurements are disclosed.

  2. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion Summary Report of the Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidl, P.A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. , "HYLIFE-II: A Molten-Salt Inertial Fusion EnergyL. Vay 3 Vallecitos Molten Salt Research Princeton PlasmaPower Corp. , Vallecitos Molten Salt Research, and Voss

  3. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  4. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, Seth [PPPL; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [PPPL

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial confi#12;nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e#11;ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  5. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  6. ERDA-76/110/l FUSION POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ERDA-76/110/l UC-20 FUSION POWER BY MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT PROGRAMPLAN VOLUME I SUMMARY JULY 1976 electric plants. These include direct production of hydrogen gas and/or synthetic fuels; direct energy production for chemical processing; fissile fuel production; fission product waste disposal; and fusion

  7. Distribution Categories: Magnetic Fusion Energy (UC-20)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Schematic illustrating ion or electron electron beam target interaction 4 2 Flow chart of A8THERMAL-2Distribution Categories: Magnetic Fusion Energy (UC-20) Inertia! Confinement Fusion (UC-21) ANL and square time pulse 16 11 The effect of higher initial temperatures and energy densities on the melting

  8. Thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermonuclear fusion is a way to achieve nuclear fusion by using extremely high temperatures. There are two forms of thermonuclear fusion: uncontrolled, in which the resulting energy is released in an uncontrolled manner, as it is in thermonuclear weapon...

  9. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Petti; Susana Reyes; Lee C. Cadwallader; Jeffery F. Latkowski

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  10. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the U.S. Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States); Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States); Latkowski, J.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  11. Status of Safety and Environmental Activities in the US Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petti, D A; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Latkowski, J F

    2004-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an overview of recent safety efforts in both magnetic and inertial fusion energy. Safety has been a part of fusion design and operations since the inception of fusion research. Safety research and safety design support have been provided for a variety of experiments in both the magnetic and inertial fusion programs. The main safety issues are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are discussed and the programmatic impacts that safety research has had are presented. Future directions in the safety and environmental area are proposed.

  12. Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues.

  13. LANL: Physics Flash June 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies of 4 mix in fusion targets at the OMEGA Laser LANL's Inertial Confinement Fusion program supports NNSA's goal of creating thermonuclear burn in the laboratory. The...

  14. A Cognitive Vision System for Nuclear Fusion Device Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to produce controlled thermonuclear fusion power by magnetic confinement of a plasma (fully ionized gasA Cognitive Vision System for Nuclear Fusion Device Monitoring Vincent Martin1 , Victor Moncada1 optimizations. The framework is generic and can be easily adapted to different fusion device environ- ments

  15. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chris Holland

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  16. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  17. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  18. W.Tang_NERSC 40th Anniversary_Fusion_Feb.4,2014.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fusion reactor size & cost determined by balance between loss processes & self-heating rates * "Scientific Discovery" - Transition to favorable scaling of confinement...

  19. INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS PUBLISHING and INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY NUCLEAR FUSION Nucl. Fusion 42 (2002) 13511356 PII: S0029-5515(02)54166-1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in an inertial fusion energy power plant R.W. Petzoldt1 , D.T. Goodin1 , A. Nikroo1 , E. Stephens1 , N. Siegel2 (IFE) power plant designs, the fuel is a spherical layer of frozen DT contained in a target fusion energy (IFE) power plant, the fuel is solid DT at 18 K encapsulated inside a target

  20. Midterm Summary of Japan-US Fusion Cooperation Program TITAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan; Sze, Dai-Kai [University of California, San Diego; Sokolov, Mikhail [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan-US cooperation program TITAN (Tritium, Irradiation and Thermofluid for America and Nippon) started in April 2007 as 6-year project. This is the summary report at the midterm of the project. Historical overview of the Japan-US cooperation programs and direction of the TITAN project in its second half are presented in addition to the technical highlights. Blankets are component systems whose principal functions are extraction of heat and tritium. Thus it is crucial to clarify the potentiality for controlling heat and tritium flow throughout the first wall, blanket and out-of-vessel recovery systems. The TITAN project continues the JUPITER-II activity but extends its scope including the first wall and the recovery systems with the title of 'Tritium and thermofluid control for magnetic and inertial confinement systems'. The objective of the program is to clarify the mechanisms of tritium and heat transfer throughout the first-wall, the blanket and the heat/tritium recovery systems under specific conditions to fusion such as irradiation, high heat flux, circulation and high magnetic fields. Based on integrated models, the breeding, transfer, inventory of tritium and heat extraction properties will be evaluated for some representative liquid breeder blankets and the necessary database will be obtained for focused research in the future.

  1. Inertial fusion energy power reactor fuel recovery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, C. A.; Kozub, T.; Langish, S. W.; Ciebiera, L. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nobile, A.; Wermer, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sessions, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual design is proposed to support the recovery of un-expended fuel, ash, and associated post-detonation products resident in plasma exhaust from a {approx}2 GWIFE direct drive power reactor. The design includes systems for the safe and efficient collection, processing, and purification of plasma exhaust fuel components. The system has been conceptually designed and sized such that tritium bred within blankets, lining the reactor target chamber, can also be collected, processed, and introduced into the fuel cycle. The system will nominally be sized to process {approx}2 kg of tritium per day and is designed to link directly to the target chamber vacuum pumping system. An effort to model the fuel recovery system (FRS) using the Aspen Plus engineering code has commenced. The system design supports processing effluent gases from the reactor directly from the exhaust of the vacuum pumping system or in batch mode, via a buffer vessel in the Receiving and Analysis System. Emphasis is on nuclear safety, reliability, and redundancy as to maximize availability. The primary goal of the fuel recovery system design is to economically recycle components of direct drive IFE fuel. The FRS design is presented as a facility sub-system in the context of supporting the larger goal of producing safe and economical IFE power. (authors)

  2. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W. M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa,Ni, L. L. Reginato, P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, J. H. Takakuwa,10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.7.083501. [59] P. K. Roy et al. , Phys.

  3. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, W. M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    inner wall instead of molten-salt walls [10], necessitatingof molten Li 2 BeF 4 (“FLiBe”) or other lithium salt to

  4. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  5. Timely Delivery of Laser Inertial Fusion Energy Presentation prepared for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    list) Cost of electricity Rate and cost of build Licensing simplicity Reliability, Availability to 1-5 years Modular laser, optics and processing equipment enables maintenance without plant shutdown

  6. Apparatus for an Inertial Fusion Reactor Inventor Abraham Massry |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Tableimpurity ionAntonyaDEnergy

  7. Summary of Assessment of Prospects for Inertial Fusion Energy | Princeton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ...Success Stories Touching The Lives

  8. Study of Plasma Liner Driven Magnetized Target Fusion via Advanced Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samulyak, Roman V. [SUNY Stony Brook; Parks, Paul [General Atomics

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility of the plasma liner driven Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) via terascale numerical simulations will be assessed. In the MTF concept, a plasma liner, formed by merging of a number (60 or more) of radial, highly supersonic plasma jets, implodes on the target in the form of two compact plasma toroids, and compresses it to conditions of the fusion ignition. By avoiding major difficulties associated with both the traditional laser driven inertial confinement fusion and solid liner driven MTF, the plasma liner driven MTF potentially provides a low-cost and fast R&D path towards the demonstration of practical fusion energy. High fidelity numerical simulations of full nonlinear models associated with the plasma liner MTF using state-of-art numerical algorithms and terascale computing are necessary in order to resolve uncertainties and provide guidance for future experiments. At Stony Brook University, we have developed unique computational capabilities that ideally suite the MTF problem. The FronTier code, developed in collaboration with BNL and LANL under DOE funding including SciDAC for the simulation of 3D multi-material hydro and MHD flows, has beenbenchmarked and used for fundamental and engineering problems in energy science applications. We have performed 3D simulations of converging supersonic plasma jets, their merger and the formation of the plasma liner, and a study of the corresponding oblique shock problem. We have studied the implosion of the plasma liner on the magnetized plasma target by resolving Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in 2D and 3D and other relevant physics and estimate thermodynamic conditions of the target at the moment of maximum compression and the hydrodynamic efficiency of the method.

  9. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: Design, analysis, and sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, K. D., E-mail: kdhahn@sandia.gov; Ruiz, C. L.; Fehl, D. L.; Chandler, G. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Smelser, R. M.; Torres, J. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Diagnostics and Target Physics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Diagnostics and Target Physics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Cooper, G. W.; Nelson, A. J. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Leeper, R. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratories, Plasma Physics Group, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r{sup 2} decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm{sup 2} and is ? 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  10. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  11. Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Damage Threats and Response of Final Optics for Laser-Fusion Power Plants M. S. Tillack1 , S. A-1597 The final optics for laser-IFE (inertial fusion energy) power plants will be exposed to a variety of damage to be the most serious concerns for a power plant. 1. Introduction Survival of the final optic is one of the most

  12. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  13. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  14. Spin Transport in non-inertial frame

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debashree Chowdhury; B. Basu

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of acceleration and rotation on spintronic applications is theoretically investigated. In our formulation, considering a Dirac particle in a non-inertial frame, different spin related aspects are studied. The spin current appearing due to the inertial spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is enhanced by the interband mixing of the conduction and valence band states. Importantly, one can achieve a large spin current through the $\\vec{k}. \\vec{p}$ method in this non-inertial frame. Furthermore, apart from the inertial SOC term due to acceleration, for a particular choice of the rotation frequency, a new kind of SOC term can be obtained from the spin rotation coupling (SRC). This new kind of SOC is of Dresselhaus type and controllable through the rotation frequency. In the field of spintronic applications, utilizing the inertial SOC and SRC induced SOC term, theoretical proposals for the inertial spin filter, inertial spin galvanic effect are demonstrated. Finally, one can tune the spin relaxation time in semiconductors by tuning the non-inertial parameters.

  15. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air, and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard assoicated with compressed gas cylinders and mthods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  16. Compressed Gas Safety for Experimental Fusion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, L.C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental fusion facilities present a variety of hazards to the operators and staff. There are unique or specialized hazards, including magnetic fields, cryogens, radio frequency emissions, and vacuum reservoirs. There are also more general industrial hazards, such as a wide variety of electrical power, pressurized air and cooling water systems in use, there are crane and hoist loads, working at height, and handling compressed gas cylinders. This paper outlines the projectile hazard associated with compressed gas cylinders and methods of treatment to provide for compressed gas safety. This information should be of interest to personnel at both magnetic and inertial fusion experiments.

  17. An important challenge in magnetic fusion research is to obtain...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control of edge transport barriers on Alcator C-Mod A crucial challenge in magnetic fusion is to obtain high energy confinement in a stationary plasma that is compatible with...

  18. HIGH-ENERGY HEAVY-ION BEAMS AS IGNITERS FOR COMMERCIAL-SCALE INTERTIAL-FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judd, D.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    confined controlled thermonuclear fusion has been David L.steady succession of thermonuclear microexplosions of smallwas the detonation of thermonuclear bombs. I t was proposed

  19. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawryluk, R J [PPPL

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  20. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  1. ITER: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and the Nuclear Weapons Proliferation Implications of Thermonuclear-Fusion Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    André Gsponer; Jean-pierre Hurni

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper contains two parts: (I) A list of “points ” highlighting the strategic-political and militarytechnical reasons and implications of the very probable siting of ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) in Japan, which should be confirmed sometimes in early 2004. (II) A technical analysis of the nuclear weapons proliferation implications of inertial- and magnetic-confinement fusion systems substantiating the technical points highlighted in the first part, and showing that while full access to the physics of thermonuclear weapons is the main implication of ICF, full access to large-scale tritium technology is the main proliferation impact of MCF. The conclusion of the paper is that siting ITER in a country such as Japan, which already has a large separated-plutonium stockpile, and an ambitious laser-driven ICF program (comparable in size and quality to those of the United States or France) will considerably increase its latent (or virtual) nuclear weapons proliferation status, and foster further nuclear proliferation throughout the world. The safety and environmental problems related to the operation of largescale fusion facilities such as ITER (which contain massive amounts of hazardous and/or radioactive materials such as tritium, lithium, and beryllium, as well as neutron-activated structural materials) are not addressed in this paper.

  2. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. I. Moses

    2001-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) currently under construction at the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt, 351-nm laser for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy-density experimental studies. NIF is being built by the Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) to provide an experimental test bed for the U.S. Stockpile Stewardship Program to ensure the country's nuclear deterrent without underground nuclear testing. The experimental program will encompass a wide range of physical phenomena from fusion energy production to materials science. Of the roughly 700 shots available per year, about 10% will be dedicated to basic science research. Laser hardware is modularized into line replaceable units (LRUs) such as deformable mirrors, amplifiers, and multi-function sensor packages that are operated by a distributed computer control system of nearly 60,000 control points. The supervisory control room presents facility-wide status and orchestrates experiments using operating parameters predicted by physics models. A network of several hundred front-end processors (FEPs) implements device control. The object-oriented software system is implemented in the Ada and Java languages and emphasizes CORBA distribution of reusable software objects. NIF is currently scheduled to provide first light in 2004 and will be completed in 2008.

  3. Fusion Rules in Navier-Stokes Turbulence: First Experimental Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrienne L. Fairhall; Brindesh Dhruva; Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia; Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

    1997-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first experimental tests of the recently derived fusion rules for Navier-Stokes (N-S) turbulence. The fusion rules address the asymptotic properties of many-point correlation functions as some of the coordinates coalesce, and form an important ingredient of the nonperturbative statistical theory of turbulence. Here we test the fusion rules when the spatial separations lie within the inertial range, and find good agreement between experiment and theory. An unexpected result is a simple linear law for the Laplacian of the velocity fluctuation conditioned on velocity increments across large separations.

  4. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    refrigeration efficiency and nuclear heating handling. http://magnet.fsu.edu/~lee/plot/plot.htm HTS Range LTSSuperconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini, Leslie Gaithersburg Marriott Washingtonian Center #12;Magnet Technology Enables Magnetic Confinement Fusion · Magnets

  5. Quantitative predictions of tokamak energy confinement from first-principles simulations with kinetic effects*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Quantitative predictions of tokamak energy confinement from first-principles simulations Jersey 08543 (Received 14 November 1994; accepted 2 March 1995) A first-principles model of anomalous data from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. This model is based

  6. Quantitative Predictions of Tokamak Energy Confinement from FirstPrinciples Simulations with Kinetic Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    Quantitative Predictions of Tokamak Energy Confinement from First­Principles Simulations 451, Princeton, NJ, 08543 Abstract A first­principles model of anomalous thermal transport based Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. This model is based on nonlinear gyrofluid

  7. ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL AND DEMONSTRATION TOKAMAK FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    ASSESSMENT OF OPTIONS FOR ATTRACTIVE COMMERCIAL AND DEMONSTRATION TOKAMAK FUSION POWER PLANTS Power Plant based on toka- mak confinement concept. It is obvious that the Fusion Demo should demonstrate that a commercial fusion power plant would be accepted by utility and industry (i

  8. Please cite this article in press as: K.J. Boehm, et al., Modeling results for mass production layering in a fluidized bed, Fusion Eng. Des. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2010.08.004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production layering device for inertial fusion energy (IFE) fuel pellets are presented. In an IFE power plant GModel FUSION-5362; No.of Pages11 Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2011) xxx­xxx Contents lists.B. Alexanderb , D.T. Goodinb a Center for Energy Research, M/C 0438 460D EBU II, University of California, San

  9. Assisted fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German Kälbermann

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

  10. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  11. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  12. Apparatus for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions ions are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  13. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreas, R.D.; Heck, G.M.; Kohler, S.M.; Watts, A.C.

    1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single offshore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on an electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block about the gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to te gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and angular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors. 25 figures.

  14. Wellbore inertial directional surveying system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andreas, Ronald D. (Albuquerque, NM); Heck, G. Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Kohler, Stewart M. (Albuquerque, NM); Watts, Alfred C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wellbore inertial directional surveying system for providing a complete directional survey of an oil or gas well borehole to determine the displacement in all three directions of the borehole path relative to the well head at the surface. The information generated by the present invention is especially useful when numerous wells are drilled to different geographical targets from a single off-shore platform. Accurate knowledge of the path of the borehole allows proper well spacing and provides assurance that target formations are reached. The tool is lowered down into a borehole on the electrical cable. A computer positioned on the surface communicates with the tool via the cable. The tool contains a sensor block which is supported on a single gimbal, the rotation axis of which is aligned with the cylinder axis of the tool and, correspondingly, the borehole. The gyroscope measurement of the sensor block rotation is used in a null-seeking servo loop which essentially prevents rotation of the sensor block aboutthe gimbal axis. Angular rates of the sensor block about axes which are perpendicular to the gimbal axis are measured by gyroscopes in a manner similar to a strapped-down arrangement. Three accelerometers provide acceleration information as the tool is lowered within the borehole. The uphole computer derives position information based upon acceleration information and anular rate information. Kalman estimation techniques are used to compensate for system errors.

  15. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  16. Confinement of Coulomb balls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arp, O.; Block, D.; Klindworth, M.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

    2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A model for the confinement of the recently discovered Coulomb balls is proposed. These spherical three-dimensional plasma crystals are trapped inside a rf discharge under gravity conditions and show an unusual structural order in complex plasmas. Measurements of the thermophoretic force acting on the trapped dust particles and simulations of the plasma properties of the discharge are presented. The proposed model of confinement considers thermophoretic, ion-drag, and electric field forces, and shows excellent agreement with the observations. The findings suggest that self-confinement does not significantly contribute to the structural properties of Coulomb balls.

  17. Fusion energy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  18. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baylor, Larry

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Larry Baylor explains how the US ITER team is working to prevent solar flare-like events at a fusion energy reactor that will be like a small sun on earth

  19. US ITER - Why Fusion?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Fusion Hydrogen Fusion - Mark Uhran Safe, Clean and Virtually Unlimited Energy Hydrogen fusion, the process that powers our sun and the stars, is the most fundamental...

  20. Dynamic Instruction Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Ian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SANTA CRUZ DYNAMIC INSTRUCTION FUSION A thesis submitted in4 2.2 Instruction Fusion & Complex10 3.1 Fusion Selection

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relevance to Astrophysics and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Afterglow of gamma ray bursts Hot electron transport for Fast Igniter -- ICF Characteristics of CFI...

  2. SciTech Connect: Development of CCD Cameras for Soft X-ray Imaging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Inertial Confinement Fusion II; Journal Volume: 8850; Conference: SPIE 2013 Optics + Photonics, August 25-29, 2013, San Diego, CA Research Org: Nevada Test SiteNational...

  3. SciTech Connect: Strip Velocity Measurements for Gated X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering for Inertial Confinement Fusion II; Journal Volume: 8850; Conference: SPIE Optics and Photonics 2013 Conference, August 25-29, 2013, San Diego, CA Research Org: Nevada...

  4. SciTech Connect: Performance of CID camera X-ray imagers at NIF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Inertial Confinement Fusion II; Journal Volume: 8850; Conference: SPIE 2013 Optics + Photonics, August 25-29, 2013, San Diego, CA Research Org: Nevada Test SiteNational...

  5. Trident | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Defense Programs Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Facilities Trident Trident Fred Archuleta working in the main laser bay of...

  6. OMEGA and OMEGA EP | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Defense Programs Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Facilities OMEGA and OMEGA EP OMEGA and OMEGA EP OMEGA amplifiers Two glass...

  7. ICF Facilities | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Defense Programs Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Facilities ICF Facilities Nike mirror array and lens array ICF operates a set...

  8. Z Machine | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Defense Programs Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Inertial Confinement Fusion ICF Facilities Z Machine Z Machine Air-gas breakdown when Z Machine at Sandia...

  9. alpha particle models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to investigate the potential role of ion kinetic effects on the physics of ignition and thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion schemes. Peigney, Benjamin-Edouard;...

  10. actinide burning lead: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the ignition and burn of ICF targets Mathematics Websites Summary: and burn of the thermonuclear fuel in inertial confinement fusion pellets at the ion kinetic level to...

  11. alpha particle model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to investigate the potential role of ion kinetic effects on the physics of ignition and thermonuclear burn in inertial confinement fusion schemes. Peigney, Benjamin-Edouard;...

  12. Upcoming Events, Conferences and Meetings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    modern technologies with a diverse applications, including efficient nuclear energy production via Inertial Confinement Fusion , stockpile stewardship and astrophysics. CoMuEx...

  13. A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for the Two-Fluid Plasma Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumlak, Uri

    fusion concepts including tokamaks, spheromaks, FRCs, Z-pinches and inertial confinement concepts], and finite Larmor radius effects in Z-pinches and Spheromaks... Plasma Dynamics Group - Aerospace

  14. GRAVIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS ON MOVING AND NON-INERTIAL PLATFORMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GRAVIMETRIC MEASUREMENTS ON MOVING AND NON-INERTIAL PLATFORMS By Haydey Alvarez Allende, Elias: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;Gravimetric Measurements on Moving and Non-inertial Platforms Haydey Alvarez of the gravitational field using a gravimeter mounted on an aircraft. In a moving non-inertial platform, like

  15. Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves, and acceleration of ions in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M. [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Large amplitude inertial compressional Alfvénic shock and solitary waves in magnetohydrodynamic plasmas are investigated. Dispersive effect caused by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can balance the nonlinear steepening of waves leading to the formation of a soliton. A Sagdeev-potential formalism is employed to derive an energy-balance like equation. The range of allowed values of the soliton speed, M (Mach number), plasma ? (ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the pressure in the confining magnetic field), and electron inertia, wherein solitary waves may exist, are determined. Depth of the potential increases with increasing the Mach number and plasma ?, however decreases with the increasing electron inertia. The height of soliton increases with increasing in Mach number and decreases with plasma ?. And with increasing electron inertial length, the width of soliton increases. The electron-ion collisional dissipation results a dissipative inertial compressional Alfvén wave, which can produce a shock like structure and can efficiently accelerate ions to the order of the local Alfvén velocity. The shock height increases with the increasing collision frequency, but shock height decreases with increasing plasma ?.

  16. Fusion Power Associates Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Power Associates Fusion Energy Sciences Program www.ofes.fusion.doe.gov U.S. Department for ITER Decision Making (IAEA, November 8-9, 2004) Delegations from China, European Union, Japan

  17. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 (1997) A275A283. Printed in the UK PII: S0741-3335(97)81172-4 Alpha-particle physics in the tokamak fusion test reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 (1997) A275­A283. Printed in the UK PII: S0741-3335(97)81172-4 Alpha-particle physics in the tokamak fusion test reactor DT experiment S J Zwebena , V Arunasalama fusion test reactor. Alpha particles are generally well confined in MHD-quiescent discharges, and alpha

  18. Nonlinear inertial Alfven wave in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, P.O. Nilore Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Center for Physics, Shadra Valley, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Saleem, H. [National Center for Physics, Shadra Valley, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Solitary inertial Alfven wave in the presence of positively and negatively charged dust particles is studied. It is found that electron density dips are formed in the super Alfvenic region and wave amplitude is increased for the case of negatively charged dust particles in comparison with positively charged dust particles in electron-ion plasmas.

  19. Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on fusion devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duval, B. P. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    For fusion, obtaining reliable measurements of basic plasma parameters like ion and electron densities and temperatures is a primary goal. For theory, measurements are needed as a function of time and space to understand plasma transport and confinement with the ultimate goal of achieving economic nuclear fusion power. Electron profile measurements and plasma spectroscopy for the plasma ions are introduced. With the advent of Neutral Beam auxiliary plasma heating, Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy provides accurate and time resolved measurements of the ions in large volume fusion devices. In acknowledgement of Nicol Peacock's role in the development of these techniques, still at the forefront of plasma fusion research, this paper describes the evolution of this diagnostic method.

  20. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof EnergyFunding Opportunity fromFusion Links Fusion

  1. Confined Brownian ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Rubi, J Miguel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the dynamics of Brownian ratchets in a confined environment. The motion of the particles is described by a Fick-Jakobs kinetic equation in which the presence of boundaries is modeled by means of an entropic potential. The cases of a flashing ratchet, a two-state model and a ratchet under the influence of a temperature gradient are analyzed in detail. We show the emergence of a strong cooperativity between the inherent rectification of the ratchet mechanism and the entropic bias of the fluctuations caused by spatial confinement. Net particle transport may take place in situations where none of those mechanisms leads to rectification when acting individually. The combined rectification mechanisms may lead to bidirectional transport and to new routes to segregation phenomena. Confined Brownian ratchets (CBR) could be used to control transport in mesostructures and to engineer new and more efficient devices for transport at the nanoscale.

  2. Liquid Vortex Shielding for Fusion Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bardet, Philippe M. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Supiot, Boris F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Peterson, Per F. [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Savas, Oemer [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Swirling liquid vortices can be used in fusion chambers to protect their first walls and critical elements from the harmful conditions resulting from fusion reactions. The beam tube structures in heavy ion fusion (HIF) must be shielded from high energy particles, such as neutrons, x-rays and vaporized coolant, that will cause damage. Here an annular wall jet, or vortex tube, is proposed for shielding and is generated by injecting liquid tangent to the inner surface of the tube both azimuthally and axially. Its effectiveness is closely related to the vortex tube flow properties. 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) is being conducted to precisely characterize its turbulent structure. The concept of annular vortex flow can be extended to a larger scale to serve as a liquid blanket for other inertial fusion and even magnetic fusion systems. For this purpose a periodic arrangement of injection and suction holes around the chamber circumference are used, generating the layer. Because it is important to match the index of refraction of the fluid with the tube material for optical measurement like PIV, a low viscosity mineral oil was identified and used that can also be employed to do scaled experiments of molten salts at high temperature.

  3. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  4. Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 16391645 Thermo-mechanical analysis of a micro-engineered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    laser (HAPL) program goal is to develop a laser inertial fusion reactor using a solid first wall (FW of X-rays, ions, and neutrons assumed unimpeded by any gas in the chamber. X-rays and ions have shallow such a small volume [6]. Shallow energy absorption leads to fast expansion in the surface while the bulk

  5. University of California, San Diego UCSD-ENG-105 Fusion Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    of various threats. The full range of damage threats in a laser-IFE power plant includes laser damage and optic response in inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants and simulation of those phenomena through for a laser-IFE power plant and to field both small and medium scale prototypes for testing. The top level

  6. Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute for Fusion Studies is a national center for theoretical fusion plasma physics research. Its purposes are: (1) to conduct research on theoretical questions concerning the achievement of controlled fusion energy by means of magnetic confinement--including both fundamental problems of long-range significance, as well as shorter-term issues; (2) to serve as a center for information exchange, nationally and internationally, by hosting exchange visits, conferences, and workshops; (3) and to train students and postdoctoral research personnel for the fusion energy program and plasma physics research areas. The theoretical research results that are obtained by the Institute contribute mainly to the progress of national and international efforts in nuclear fusion research, whose goal is the development of fusion power.as a basic energy source. In addition to its primary focus on fusion physics, the Institute is also involved with research in related fields, such as advanced computing techniques, nonlinear dynamics, plasma astrophysics, and accelerator physics. The work of EFS scientists continued to receive national and international recognition. Numerous invited papers were given during the past year at workshops, conferences, and scientific meetings. Last year IFS scientists published 95 scientific articles in technical journals and monographs.

  7. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, K

    2010-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 {micro}m of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The {sub 17}Pb{sub 83} flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}, separated from the Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF{sub 2}), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by the same radial flibe flow that travels through perforated ODS walls to the reflector blanket. This reflector blanket is 75 cm thick comprised of 2 cm diameter graphite pebbles cooled by flibe. The flibe extraction plenum surrounds the reflector bed. Detailed neutronics designs studies are performed to arrive at the described design. The LFFH engine thermal power is controlled using a technique of adjusting the {sup 6}Li/{sup 7}Li enrichment in the primary and secondary coolants. The enrichment adjusts system thermal power in the design by increasing tritium production while reducing fission. To perform the simulations and design of the LFFH engine, a new software program named LFFH Nuclear Control (LNC) was developed in C++ to extend the functionality of existing neutron transport and depletion software programs. Neutron transport calculations are performed with MCNP5. Depletion calculations are performed using Monteburns 2.0, which utilizes ORIGEN 2.0 and MCNP5 to perform a burnup calculation. LNC supports many design parameters and is capable of performing a full 3D system simulation from initial startup to full burnup. It is able to iteratively search for coolant {sup 6}Li enrichments and resulting material compositions that meet user defined performance criteria. LNC is utilized throughout this study for time dependent simulation of the LFFH engine. Two additional methods were developed to improve the computation efficiency of LNC calculations. These methods, termed adaptive time stepping and adaptive mesh refinement were incorporated into a separate stand alone C++ library name the Adaptive Burnup Library (ABL). The ABL allows for other client codes to call and utilize its functionality. Adaptive time stepping is useful for automatically maximizing the size of the depletion time step while maintaining a desired level of accuracy. Adaptive meshing allows for analysis of fixed fuel configurations that would normally require a computationally burdensome number of depletion zones. Alternatively, Adaptive M

  8. Fusion Propulsion and Power for Future Flight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Froning, H.D. Jr.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are innovative magnetic and electric confinement fusion power and propulsion system designs with potential for: vacuum specific impulses of 1500-2000 seconds with rocket engine thrust/mass ratios of 5-10 g`s; environmentally favorable exhaust emissions if aneutronic fusion propellants can be used; a 2 to 3-fold reduction in the mass of hypersonic airliners and SSTO aerospace planes; a 10 to 20 fold reduction in Mars expedition mass and cost (if propellant from planetary atmospheres is used); and feasibility or in-feasibility of these systems could be confirmed with a modest applied research and exploratory development cost.

  9. Nuclear Fusion: Bringing a star down to Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirk, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion offers the potential for being a near limitless energy source by fusing together deuterium and tritium nuclei to form helium inside a plasma burning at 100 million kelvin. However, scientific and engineering challenges remain. This paper describes how such a plasma can be confined on Earth and discusses the similarities and differences with fusion in stars. It focusses on the magnetic confinement technique and, in particular, the method used in a tokamak. The confinement achieved in the equilibrium state is reviewed and it is shown how the confinement can be too good, leading to explosive instabilities at the plasma edge called Edge Localised modes (ELMs). It is shown how the impact of ELMs can be minimised by the application of magnetic perturbations and discusses the physics behind the penetration of these perturbations into what is ideally a perfect conducting plasma.

  10. Introduction Minimal Fusion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thévenaz, Jacques

    Introduction Minimal Fusion Systems Maximal Parabolics Results Minimal Fusion Systems Ellen Henke University of Birmingham Ellen Henke Minimal Fusion Systems #12;Introduction Minimal Fusion Systems Maximal Parabolics Results Contents 1 Introduction 2 Minimal Fusion Systems 3 Maximal Parabolics 4 Results Ellen

  11. Regarding Confinement Resonances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead5 Idle OperatingRegarding Confinement

  12. Regarding Confinement Resonances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-SettingHead5 IdleRegarding Confinement Resonances

  13. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) carries out research in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US fusion program and the international fusion community. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, this report also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are carried out by other ORNL organizations (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program and discussed in this report include the following: Experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, development and testing of materials for fusion devices, and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas. Highlights from program activities are included in this report.

  14. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature13008 Fuel gain exceeding unity in an inertially confined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    experiments. We also see a significant contribution to the yield from a-particle self-heating and evidence) and a run-away self-heating process releases energy many times greater than that absorbed by the capsule

  15. Universities and the UK Magnetic Confinement Fusion Programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as for DTN, plus a choice of three other modules (eg High Performance Computing; Statistical Data Analysis

  16. Safeguard Requirements for Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert J. Goldston and Alexander Glaser

    2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear proliferation risks from magnetic fusion energy associated with access to fissile materials can be divided into three main categories: 1) clandestine production of fissile material in an undeclared facility, 2) covert production and diversion of such material in a declared and safeguarded facility, and 3) use of a declared facility in a breakout scenario, in which a state openly produces fissile material in violation of international agreements. The degree of risk in each of these categories is assessed, taking into account both state and non-state actors, and it is found that safeguards are required for fusion energy to be highly attractive from a non-proliferation standpoint. Specific safeguard requirements and R&D needs are outlined for each category of risk, and the technical capability of the ITER experiment, under construction, to contribute to this R&D is noted. A preliminary analysis indicates a potential legal pathway for fusion power systems to be brought under the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. "Vertical" proliferation risks associated with tritium and with the knowledge that can be gained from inertial fusion energy R&D are outlined.

  17. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  18. A time-delay approach for the modeling and control of plasma instabilities in thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sipahi, Rifat

    for thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Indeed, advanced plasma confinement scenarios, such as the ones considered1 A time-delay approach for the modeling and control of plasma instabilities in thermonuclear fusion Emmanuel WITRANT, Erik OLOFSSON, Silviu-Iulian NICULESCU, March 13, 2009. Abstract This letter

  19. Towards Real-Time Detection and Tracking of Blob-Filaments in Fusion Plasma Big Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Lingfei; Sim, Alex; Churchill, Michael; Choi, Jong Y; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Chang, Cs; Klasky, Scott

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic fusion could provide an inexhaustible, clean, and safe solution to the global energy needs. The success of magnetically-confined fusion reactors demands steady-state plasma confinement which is challenged by the blob-filaments driven by the edge turbulence. Real-time analysis can be used to monitor the progress of fusion experiments and prevent catastrophic events. However, terabytes of data are generated over short time periods in fusion experiments. Timely access to and analyzing this amount of data demands properly responding to extreme scale computing and big data challenges. In this paper, we apply outlier detection techniques to effectively tackle the fusion blob detection problem on extremely large parallel machines. We present a real-time region outlier detection algorithm to efficiently find blobs in fusion experiments and simulations. In addition, we propose an efficient scheme to track the movement of region outliers over time. We have implemented our algorithms with hybrid MPI/OpenMP and ...

  20. Lower Hybrid antennas for nuclear fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillairet, Julien; Bae, Young-Soon; Bai, X; Balorin, C; Baranov, Y; Basiuk, V; Bécoulet, A; Belo, J; Berger-By, G; Brémond, S; Castaldo, C; Ceccuzzi, S; Cesario, R; Corbel, E; Courtois, X; Decker, J; Delmas, E; Delpech, L; Ding, X; Douai, D; Ekedahl, A; Goletto, C; Goniche, M; Guilhem, D; Hertout, P; Imbeaux, F; Litaudon, X; Magne, R; Mailloux, J; Mazon, D; Mirizzi, F; Mollard, P; Moreau, P; Oosako, T; Petrzilka, V; Peysson, Y; Poli, S; Preynas, M; Prou, M; Saint-Laurent, F; Samaille, F; Saoutic, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear fusion research goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes. In order to achieve the conditions similar to those expected in an electricity-generating fusion power plant, plasmas with a temperature of several hundreds of millions of degrees must be generated and sustained for long periods. For this purpose, RF antennas delivering multi-megawatts of power to magnetized confined plasma are commonly used in experimental tokamaks. In the gigahertz range of frequencies, high power phased arrays known as "Lower Hybrid" (LH) antennas are used to extend the plasma duration. This paper reviews some of the technological aspects of the LH antennas used in the Tore Supra tokamak and presents the current design of a proposed 20 MW LH system for the international experiment ITER.

  1. Confinement Contains Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Roberts, Craig D.; Shrock, Robert; Tandy, Peter C.

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and its connection to the generation of hadron masses has historically been viewed as a vacuum phenomenon. We argue that confinement makes such a position untenable. If quark-hadron duality is a reality in QCD, then condensates, those quantities that have commonly been viewed as constant empirical mass-scales that fill all spacetime, are instead wholly contained within hadrons; i.e., they are a property of hadrons themselves and expressed, e.g., in their Bethe-Salpeter or light-front wave functions. We explain that this paradigm is consistent with empirical evidence, and incidentally expose misconceptions in a recent Comment.

  2. Fluid-Particle and Fluid-Structure Interactions in Inertial Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amini, Hamed

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K (2006) Multiphase microfluidics: from flow characteristicsD (2009) Inertial microfluidics. Lab Chip 9: 3038-3046. 17.device using inertial microfluidics. Biotechnology and

  3. d Original Contribution IDENTIFYING THE INERTIAL CAVITATION THRESHOLD AND SKULL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konofagou, Elisa E.

    d Original Contribution IDENTIFYING THE INERTIAL CAVITATION THRESHOLD AND SKULL EFFECTS IN AVESSEL unknown. To investigate the pressure threshold for inertial cavitation of pre- formed microbubbles during sonication, passive cavitation detection in conjunction with B-mode imaging was used. A cerebral vessel

  4. Life Pure Fusion Target Designs: Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lindl, J

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis and radiation-hydrodynamics simulations for expected high-gain fusion target performance on a demonstration 1-GWe Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant are presented. The required laser energy driver is 2.2 MJ at a 0.351-{mu}m wavelength, and a fusion target gain greater than 60 at a repetition rate of 16 Hz is the design goal for economic and commercial attractiveness. A scaling-law analysis is developed to benchmark the design parameter space for hohlraum-driven central hot-spot ignition. A suite of integrated hohlraum simulations is presented to test the modeling assumptions and provide a basis for near-term experimental resolution of the key physics uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility.

  5. Fusion Rules and Conditional Statistics in Turbulent Advection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily S. C. Ching; Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia

    1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion rules in turbulence address the asymptotic properties of many-point correlation functions when some of the coordinates are very close to each other. Here we put to experimental test some non-trivial consequences of the fusion rules for scalar correlations in turbulence. To this aim we examine passive turbulent advection as well as convective turbulence. Adding one assumption to the fusion rules one obtains a prediction for universal conditional statistics of gradient fields. We examine the conditional average of the scalar dissipation field $\\left$ for $R$ in the inertial range, and find that it is linear in $T(\\B.r+\\B.R)-T(\\B.r)$ with a fully determined proportionality constant. The implications of these findings for the general scaling theory of scalar turbulence are discussed.

  6. Inertial range turbulence in kinetic plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howes, G G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The transfer of turbulent energy through an inertial range from the driving scale to dissipative scales in a kinetic plasma followed by the conversion of this energy into heat is a fundamental plasma physics process. A theoretical foundation for the study of this process is constructed, but the details of the kinetic cascade are not well understood. Several important properties are identified: (a) the conservation of a generalized energy by the cascade; (b) the need for collisions to increase entropy and realize irreversible plasma heating; and (c) the key role played by the entropy cascade--a dual cascade of energy to small scales in both physical and velocity space--to convert ultimately the turbulent energy into heat. A strategy for nonlinear numerical simulations of kinetic turbulence is outlined. Initial numerical results are consistent with the operation of the entropy cascade. Inertial range turbulence arises in a broad range of space and astrophysical plasmas and may play an important role in the ther...

  7. Plasma Xray Spectra Analysis Using Genetic Algorithms Igor E. Golovkin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louis, Sushil J.

    to provide insight into studying the possibility of controlled thermonuclear fusion. In many cases during Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments. The idea is the following: given a physics model

  8. Characterization of the deuteron beam current in a linear accelerator for nuclear-diagnostic calibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis, Daniel (Daniel B.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research, passive detection systems are often required in several applications for observing fusion-product spectra from an ICF-capsule implosion. These detection devices can be calibrated ...

  9. An H minority heating regime in Tore Supra showing improved L mode confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budny, Robert

    on the plasma facing components, parti- cle control through pumping and thermalization of fast particles for the next tokamak generation. High energy confinement will also be required for fusion reactor operation to the magnetic axis. The working gas is either deuterium or helium. The density is raised by gas puffing

  10. Modifying locally the safety profile to improve the confinement of magnetic field lines in tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modifying locally the safety profile to improve the confinement of magnetic field lines in tokamak of those (m, n) mode amplitudes. A practical implementation in tokamak plasmas should involve electron tokamak plasmas is one of the critically important issues for the achievement of a viable fusion reactor

  11. Fusion Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenneth Intriligator

    1991-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss when and how the Verlinde dimensions of a rational conformal field theory can be expressed as correlation functions in a topological LG theory. It is seen that a necessary condition is that the RCFT fusion rules must exhibit an extra symmetry. We consider two particular perturbations of the Grassmannian superpotentials. The topological LG residues in one perturbation, introduced by Gepner, are shown to be a twisted version of the $SU(N)_k$ Verlinde dimensions. The residues in the other perturbation are the twisted Verlinde dimensions of another RCFT; these topological LG correlation functions are conjectured to be the correlation functions of the corresponding Grassmannian topological sigma model with a coupling in the action to instanton number.

  12. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  13. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  14. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  15. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  16. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  17. Magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma with tuning of electrostatic field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman (Irvine, CA); Binderbauer, Michl (Irvine, CA); Qerushi, Artan (Irvine, CA); Tahsiri, Hooshang (Irvine, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  18. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dart, Eli

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Division, and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. This isFusion Energy Sciences NetworkRequirements Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Energy

  19. Confined helium on Lagrange meshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baye, Daniel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lagrange-mesh method has the simplicity of a calculation on a mesh and can have the accuracy of a variational method. It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials are studied in perimetric coordinates. Hard confinement in impenetrable spherical cavities is studied in a system of rescaled perimetric coordinates varying in [0,1] intervals. Energies and mean values of the distances between electrons and between an electron and the helium nucleus are calculated. A high accuracy of 11 to 15 significant figures is obtained with small computing times. Pressures acting on the confined atom are also computed. For sphere radii smaller than 1, their relative accuracies are better than $10^{-10}$. For larger radii up to 10, they progressively decrease to $10^{-3}$, still improving the best literature results.

  20. Controlling inertial focussing using rotational motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prohm, Christopher; Stark, Holger

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In inertial microfluidics lift forces cause a particle to migrate across streamlines to specific positions in the cross section of a microchannel. We control the rotational motion of a particle and demonstrate that this allows to manipulate the lift-force profile and thereby the particle's equilibrium positions. We perform two-dimensional simulation studies using the method of multi-particle collision dynamics. Particles with unconstrained rotational motion occupy stable equilibrium positions in both halfs of the channel while the center is unstable. When an external torque is applied to the particle, two equilibrium positions annihilate by passing a saddle-node bifurcation and only one stable fixpoint remains so that all particles move to one side of the channel. In contrast, non-rotating particles accumulate in the center and are pushed into one half of the channel when the angular velocity is fixed to a non-zero value.

  1. Frontier of Fusion Research: Path to the Steady State Fusion Reactor by Large Helical Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motojima, Osamu [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-shi, Gifu-ken, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITER, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which will be built in Cadarache in France, has finally started this year, 2006. Since the thermal energy produced by fusion reactions divided by the external heating power, i.e., the Q value, will be larger than 10, this is a big step of the fusion research for half a century trying to tame the nuclear fusion for the 6.5 Billion people on the Earth. The source of the Sun's power is lasting steadily and safely for 8 Billion years. As a potentially safe environmentally friendly and economically competitive energy source, fusion should provide a sustainable future energy supply for all mankind for ten thousands of years. At the frontier of fusion research important milestones are recently marked on a long road toward a true prototype fusion reactor. In its own merits, research into harnessing turbulent burning plasmas and thereby controlling fusion reaction, is one of the grand challenges of complex systems science.After a brief overview of a status of world fusion projects, a focus is given on fusion research at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan, which is playing a role of the Inter University Institute, the coordinating Center of Excellence for academic fusion research and by the Large Helical Device (LHD), the world's largest superconducting heliotron device, as a National Users' facility. The current status of LHD project is presented focusing on the experimental program and the recent achievements in basic parameters and in steady state operations. Since, its start in a year 1998, a remarkable progress has presently resulted in the temperature of 140 Million degree, the highest density of 500 Thousand Billion/cc with the internal density barrier (IDB) and the highest steady average beta of 4.5% in helical plasma devices and the largest total input energy of 1.6 GJ, in all magnetic confinement fusion devices. Finally, a perspective is given of the ITER Broad Approach program as an integrated part of ITER and Development of Fusion Energy project Agreement. Moreover, the relationship with the NIFS' new parent organization the National Institutes of Natural Sciences and with foreign research institutions is briefly explained.

  2. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuehne, R W

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  3. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rainer W. Kuehne

    2006-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  4. GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY OF ROTATING, PRESSURE-CONFINED, POLYTROPIC GAS DISKS WITH VERTICAL STRATIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo, E-mail: jgkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: seo3919@email.arizona.edu, E-mail: sshong@astro.snu.ac.kr [FPRD, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c{sub eff} of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c{sub eff} and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.

  5. Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making affordable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of "net gain" 3 years after proof · Validated by leading experts

  6. FAQS Qualification Card - Confinement Ventilation and Process...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment FAQS Qualification Card - Confinement Ventilation and Process Gas Treatment A key element for the Department's Technical...

  7. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  8. Buoyant plumes with inertial and chemical reaction-driven forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Stephen W.

    . The forced plumes were compositionally buoy- ant and were injected with inertial forcing into a fluid filled power law relationship that explains their ascent velocity. However, the morphology of the plume heads

  9. Stochastic constraints for vision-aided inertial navigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diel, David D., 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new method to improve inertial navigation using feature-based constraints from one or more video cameras. The proposed method lengthens the period of time during which a human or vehicle can navigate ...

  10. The Dipole Fusion Confinement Concept: A White Paper for the Fusion Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cavity (due to enhancements in solar wind pressure) or by unsteady convections occurring during magnetic substorms energize and populate the energetic electrons trapped in the Earth's magnetosphere [2

  11. Inertial measurement with trapped particles: A microdynamical system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, E. Rehmi; Popescu, George A.; Gershenfeld, Neil [Center for Bits and Atoms, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20 Ames Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2010-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an inertial measurement device based on an electrodynamically trapped proof mass. Mechanical constraints are replaced by guiding fields, permitting the trap stiffness to be tuned dynamically. Optical readout of the proof mass motion provides a measurement of acceleration and rotation, resulting in an integrated six degree of freedom inertial measurement device. We demonstrate such a device - constructed without microfabrication - with sensitivity comparable to that of commercial microelectromechanical systems technology and show how trapping parameters may be adjusted to increase dynamic range.

  12. Fusion Energy Division progress report, 1 January 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, encompasses nearly all areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an economical and environmentally attractive energy source for the future. The program involves staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the US and abroad. Achievements resulting from this collaboration are documented in this report, which is issued as the progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division; it also contains information from components for the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, including remote handling; development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments; assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas; development and testing of materials for fusion devices; and exploration of opportunities to apply the unique skills, technology, and techniques developed in the course of this work to other areas (about 15% of the Division`s activities). Highlights from program activities during 1990 and 1991 are presented.

  13. Fusion Energy Division: Annual progress report, period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fusion Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a major part of the national fusion program, carries out research in nearly all areas of magnetic fusion. Collaboration among staff from ORNL, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., private industry, the academic community, and other fusion laboratories, in the United States and abroad, is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source. This report documents the program's achievements during 1987. Issued as the annual progress report of the ORNL Fusion Energy Division, it also contains information from components of the Fusion Program that are external to the division (about 15% of the program effort). The areas addressed by the Fusion Program include the following: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts, engineering and physics of existing and planned devices, development and testing of diagnostic tools and techniques in support of experiments, assembly and distribution to the fusion community of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects, development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas, development and testing of superconducting magnets for containing fusion plasmas, and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. Highlights from program activities are included in this report. 126 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. The National Energy Policy states that fusion-heated) plasma, and the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) has concluded that the fusion program

  15. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  16. Advanced fusion diagnostics. Final technical report, July 15, 1991--July 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, K.G.

    1993-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Key among various issues of ignited plasmas is understanding the physics of energy transfer between thermal plasma particles and magnetically confined, highly energetic charged ions in a tokamak device. The superthermal particles are products of fusion reactions. The efficiency of energy transfer by collisions, from charged fusion products (e.g., {alpha}-particles) to plasma ions, grossly determines whether or not plasma conditions are self-sustaining without recourse to auxiliary heating. Furthermore, should energy transfer (efficiency be poor, and substantial auxiliary heating power is required to maintain reacting conditions within the plasma, economics may preclude commercial viability of fusion reactors. The required charged fusion product information is contained in the energy distribution function of these particles. Knowledge of temporal variations of the superthermal particle energy distribution function could be used by a fusion reactor control system to balance plasma conditions between thermal runaway and a modicum of fusion product energy transfer. Therefore, diagnostics providing data on the dynamical transfer of alpha-particle and other charged fusion product energy to the plasma ions are essential elements for a fusion reactor control system to insure that proper plasma conditions are maintained. The objective of this work is to assess if spectral analysis of rf radiation emitted by charged fusion products confined in a magnetized plasma, called ion cyclotron emission (ICE), can reveal the vital data of the distribution function of the superthermal particles.

  17. Thermomagnetic burn control for magnetic fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rawls, J.M.; Peuron, A.U.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for controlling the plasma energy production rate of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, by controlling the magnetic field ripple. The apparatus includes a group of shield sectors formed of ferromagnetic material which has a temperature-dependent saturation magnetization, with each shield lying between the plasma and a toroidal field coil. A mechanism for controlling the temperature of the magnetic shields, as by controlling the flow of cooling water therethrough, thereby controls the saturation magnetization of the shields and therefore the amount of ripple in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, to thereby control the amount of heat loss from the plasma. This heat loss in turn determines the plasma state and thus the rate of energy production.

  18. Thermomagnetic burn control for magnetic fusion reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rawls, John M. (Del Mar, CA); Peuron, Unto A. (Solana Beach, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for controlling the plasma energy production rate of a magnetic-confinement fusion reactor, by controlling the magnetic field ripple. The apparatus includes a group of shield sectors (30a, 30b, etc.) formed of ferromagnetic material which has a temperature-dependent saturation magnetization, with each shield lying between the plasma (12) and a toroidal field coil (18). A mechanism (60) for controlling the temperature of the magnetic shields, as by controlling the flow of cooling water therethrough, thereby controls the saturation magnetization of the shields and therefore the amount of ripple in the magnetic field that confines the plasma, to thereby control the amount of heat loss from the plasma. This heat loss in turn determines the plasma state and thus the rate of energy production.

  19. Thermonuclear Fusion Research Progress and the Way to the Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Raymond [Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Royal Military Academy, Association EURATOM - Belgian State, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reviews the progress of fusion research and its prospects for electricity generation. It starts with a reminder of the principles of thermonuclear fusion and a brief discussion of its potential role in the future of the world energy production. The reactions allowing energy production by fusion of nuclei in stars and on earth and the conditions required to sustain them are reviewed. At the high temperatures required for fusion (hundred millions kelvins), matter is completely ionized and has reached what is called its 4th state: the plasma state. The possible means to achieve these extreme temperatures is discussed. The remainder of the paper focuses on the most promising of these approaches, magnetic confinement. The operating principles of the presently most efficient machine of this type -- the tokamak -- is described in some detail. On the road to producing energy with fusion, a number of obstacles have to be overcome. The plasma, a fluid that reacts to electromagnetic forces and carries currents and charges, is a complex medium. Fusion plasma is strongly heated and is therefore a good example of a system far from equilibrium. A wide variety of instabilities can grow in this system and lead to self-organized structures and spontaneous cycles. Turbulence is generated that degrades the confinement and hinders easy achievement of long lasting hot plasmas. Physicists have learned how to quench turbulence, thereby creating sort of insulating bottles inside the plasma itself to circumvent this problem. The recent history of fusion performance is outlined and the prospect of achieving power generation by fusion in a near future is discussed in the light of the development of the 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' project ITER.

  20. Low-cost inertial measurement unit.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deyle, Travis Jay

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories performs many expensive tests using inertial measurement units (IMUs)--systems that use accelerometers, gyroscopes, and other sensors to measure flight dynamics in three dimensions. For the purpose of this report, the metrics used to evaluate an IMU are cost, size, performance, resolution, upgradeability and testing. The cost of a precision IMU is very high and can cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. Thus the goals and results of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the data flow in an IMU and determine a generic IMU design. (2) Discuss a high cost IMU implementation and its theoretically achievable results. (3) Discuss design modifications that would save money for suited applications. (4) Design and implement a low cost IMU and discuss its theoretically achievable results. (5) Test the low cost IMU and compare theoretical results with empirical results. (6) Construct a more streamlined printed circuit board design reducing noise, increasing capabilities, and constructing a self-contained unit. Using these results, we can compare a high cost IMU versus a low cost IMU using the metrics from above. Further, we can examine and suggest situations where a low cost IMU could be used instead of a high cost IMU for saving cost, size, or both.

  1. Final report SI 08-SI-004: Fusion application targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, M Y; Dawedeit, C; Worsley, M A; Kim, S H; Walton, C; Gilmer, G; Zepeda-Ruiz, L; Chernov, A A; Lee, J I; Willey, T M; Biener, M M; van Buuren, T; Wu, K J; Satcher, J H; Hamza, A V

    2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex target structures are necessary to take full advantage of the unique laboratory environment created by inertial confinement fusion experiments. For example, uses-of-ignition targets that contain a thin layer of a low density nanoporous material inside a spherical ablator shell allow placing dopants in direct contact with the DT fuel. The ideal foam for this application is a low-density hydrocarbon foam that is strong enough to survive wetting with cryogenic hydrogen, and low enough in density (density less than {approx}30 mg/cc) to not reduce the yield of the target. Here, we discuss the fabrication foam-lined uses-of-ignition targets, and the development of low-density foams that can be used for this application. Much effort has been directed over the last 20 years toward the development of spherical foam targets for direct-drive and fast-ignition experiments. In these targets, the spherical foam shell is used to define the shape of the cryogenic DT fuel layer, or acts as a surrogate to simulate the cryogenic fuel layer. These targets are fabricated from relatively high-density aerogels (>100 mg/cc) and coated with a few micron thick permeation barrier. With exception of the above mentioned fast ignition targets, the wall of these targets is typically larger than 100 microns. In contrast, the fusion application targets for indirect-drive experiments on NIF will require a much thinner foam shell surrounded by a much thicker ablator shell. The design requirements for both types of targets are compared in Table 1. The foam shell targets for direct-drive experiments can be made in large quantities and with reasonably high yields using an encapsulation technique pioneered by Takagi et al. in the early 90's. In this approach, targets are made by first generating unsupported foam shells using a triple-orifice droplet generator, followed by coating the dried foam shells with a thin permeation barrier. However, this approach is difficult, if not impossible, to transfer to the lower density and thinner wall foam shells required for indirect-drive uses-of-ignition targets for NIF that then would have to be coated with an at least hundred-micron-thick ablator film. So far, the thinnest shells that have been fabricated using the triple-orifice-droplet generator technique had a wall thickness of {approx}20 microns, but despite of being made from a higher-density foam formulation, the shells were mechanically very sensitive, difficult to dry, and showed large deviations from roundness. We thus decided to explore a different approach based on using prefabricated thick-walled spherical ablator shells as templates for the thin-walled foam shell. As in the case of the above mentioned encapsulation technique, the foam is made by sol-gel chemistry. However, our approach removes much the requirements on the mechanical stability of the foam shell as the foam shell is never handled in its free-standing form, and promises superior ablator uniformity and surface roughness. As discussed below, the success of this approach depends strongly on the availability of suitable aerogel chemistries (ideally pure hydrocarbon (CH)-based systems) with suitable rheological properties (high viscosity and high modulus near the gel point) that produce low-density and mechanically strong foams.

  2. The spheromak as a compact fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After summarizing the economic and utility-based rationale for compact, higher-power-density fusion reactors, the gun-sustained spheromak concept is explored as one of a number of poloidal-field-dominated confinement configurations that might improve the prospects for economically attractive and operationally simplified fusion power plants. Using a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model for the spheromak, guided by realistic engineering constraints and physics extrapolation, a range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported. The results presented herein provide the basis for conceptual engineering designs of key fusion-power-core (FPC) subsystems and more detailed plasma modeling of this promising, high mass-power-density concept, which stresses single-piece FPC maintenance, steady-state current drive through electrostatic magnetic helicity injection, a simplified co-axial electrode-divertor, and efficient resistive-coal equilibrium-field coils. The optimal FPC size and the cost estimates project a system that competes aggressively with the best offered by alternative energy sources while simplifying considerably the complexity that has generally been associated with most approaches to magnetic fusion energy.

  3. Cost Accounting System for fusion studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, W.R.; Keeton, D.C.; Thomson, S.L.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Cost Accounting System that is applicable to all magnetic fusion reactor design studies has been developed. This system provides: (1) definitions of the elements of cost and methods for the combination of these elements to form a cost estimate; (2) a Code of Accounts that uses a functional arrangement for identification of the plant components; and (3) definitions and methods to analyze actual cost data so that the data can be directly reported into this Cost Accounting System. The purpose of the Cost Accounting System is to provide the structure for the development of a fusion cost data base and for the development of validated cost estimating procedures. This system has been developed through use at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) and has been applied to different confinement concepts (tokamaks and tandem mirrors) and to different types of projects (experimental devices and commercial power plants). The use of this Cost Accounting System by all magnetic fusion projects will promote the development of a common cost data base, allow the direct comparison of cost estimates, and ultimately establish the cost credibility of the program.

  4. Physics of laser fusion. Volume II. Diagnostics of experiments on laser fusion targets at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLNL. There are two other volumes in this series: Vol. I, by C.E. Max, presents the theoretical laser-plasma interaction physics; Vol. III, by J.F. Holzrichter et al., presents the theory and design of high-power pulsed lasers. A fourth volume will present the theoretical implosion physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first, an introductory section, provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLNL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLNL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  5. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Hydroelectric 1.1.3 Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . .microparticles. Annals of Nuclear Energy, [96] F.B. Brown,In Progress in Nuclear Energy, 17. Pergamon Press, 1986.

  6. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fujiwara. Perspective of ODS alloys application in nuclear97 RAFM steel and two european ODS EUROFER 97 steels. Fusiontemperature oxidation behavior of ODS ferritics. Journal of

  7. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pathway for li6 isotope enrichment. Applied Physics B, 87(explored various enrichment schemes including laser isotopeisotope production con- tinues past the point of full power, but is controlled via 6 Li coolant enrichment

  8. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scenario in a notional generation IV example sodium fastCommittee and the Generation IV Interna- tional Forum.Generation IV roadmap - crosscutting fuels and materials R&D

  9. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    outlook, October 2007. 1.1 [3] Peak oil wikipedia, the freeen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_oil#cite_note-mkinghubbert1956-0.

  10. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Hydroelectric 1.1.3 Nuclear Energy . . . . . . . . .Gain GNEP Global Nuclear Energy Partnership HEU HighlyIn Progress in Nuclear Energy, 17. Pergamon Press, 1986.

  11. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coolant . . . . 2.3.6 Molten Salt Main Coolant . . . . .Metal Atoms flibe The molten salt coolant 2LiF+BeF2 FOMmain system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF 2 ),

  12. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IV example sodium fast reactor. assessing design variations.generate fuel for fast nuclear reactors, although Basov and

  13. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.1.1 Energy Production . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Spentof Figures Current World Energy Production Broken Down byCurrent US Energy Production Broken Down by

  14. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low density, high heat capacity liquid at room temp, verydensity liquid that would have a high heat capacity so itLiquid Na H 2 O Good moderator, chemically stable, high volumetric heat capacity,

  15. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including nuclear waste incineration and energy production.occurs, a ramp-down and incineration period begins. At thisduring the ramp up and incineration phases of a thermal

  16. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DT Deuterium-Tritium DU Depleted Uranium FIMA Fission ofengine loaded with depleted uranium. In Proc. PHYSOR 2010,in the form of depleted uranium (DU). The remaining ~3,075

  17. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DT Deuterium-Tritium DU Depleted Uranium FIMA Fission ofengine loaded with depleted uranium. In Proc. PHYSOR 2010,fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in

  18. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  19. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  20. Fusion Energy Division progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.; Baker, C.C.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shannon, T.E.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report covers all elements of the ORNL Fusion Program, including those implemented outside the division. Non-fusion work within FED, much of which is based on the application of fusion technologies and techniques, is also discussed. The ORNL Fusion Program includes research and development in most areas of magnetic fusion research. The program is directed toward the development of fusion as an energy source and is a strong and vital component of both the US and international fusion efforts. The research discussed in this report includes: experimental and theoretical research on magnetic confinement concepts; engineering and physics of existing and planned devices; development and testing of plasma diagnostic tools and techniques; assembly and distribution of databases on atomic physics and radiation effects; development and testing of technologies for heating and fueling fusion plasmas; and development and testing of materials for fusion devices. The activities involving the use of fusion technologies and expertise for non-fusion applications ranged from semiconductor manufacturing to environmental management.

  1. Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7 Plasma Injector 10 people $3M 1 year #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 8 Density people $3.5M 14 months #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 11 Plasma Compression ExperimentsFusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011

  2. 50 Years of Fusion Research Fusion Innovation Research and Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , .... · Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion had great potential ­ Uncontrolled Thermonuclear fusion demonstrated in 19521 50 Years of Fusion Research Dale Meade Fusion Innovation Research and Energy® Princeton, NJ SOFE 2009 June 1, 2009 San Diego, CA 92101 #12;2 #12;2 #12;3 Fusion Prior to Geneva 1958 · A period of rapid

  3. Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future* Robert Conn Fusion Energy, "Opportunities and Directions in Fusion Energy Science for the Next Decade", held July 11-23, 1999 in Snowmass, Colorado. #12;2 Abstract History shows that all the major opportunities to advance fusion research were

  4. MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusion Technology & Engineering Division 1. Costing of 4 "Reference" Options 2. Equalization of TF;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Total Cost (M$) vs. A; MMIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz M

  5. Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetton, Brian

    Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor Michael Lindstrom fusion en- ergy known as a magnetized target fusion reactor, in which an intense pressure wave the fusion reactor design we have chosen to model. In section 2, we present a simplified model and set

  6. Inertial effect on spin–orbit coupling and spin transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically study the renormalization of inertial effects on the spin dependent transport of conduction electrons in a semiconductor by taking into account the interband mixing on the basis of k{sup ?}?p{sup ?} perturbation theory. In our analysis, for the generation of spin current we have used the extended Drude model where the spin–orbit coupling plays an important role. We predict enhancement of the spin current resulting from the renormalized spin–orbit coupling effective in our model in cubic and non-cubic crystals. Attention has been paid to clarify the importance of gauge fields in the spin transport of this inertial system. A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter has been done through the Aharonov–Casher like phase corresponding to this inertial system. For a time dependent acceleration, effect of k{sup ?}?p{sup ?} perturbation on the spin current and spin polarization has also been addressed. Furthermore, achievement of a tunable source of polarized spin current through the non uniformity of the inertial spin–orbit coupling strength has also been discussed. -- Highlights: •Study of the renormalization of inertial spin dependent transport of electrons. •Enhancement of the spin current due to the renormalized spin–orbit coupling. •A theoretical proposition of a perfect spin filter. •For a time dependent acceleration, spin current, spin polarization is addressed.

  7. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  8. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 17 NOVEMBER 2013 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2795 A long-pulse high-confinement plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China, 2Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., PO Box 7010, Rancho Santa energy source with an abundant fuel supply. One of the most promising approaches to harnessing fusion degrees Celsius) plasma state with sufficient density and energy confinement time. Significant progress

  9. Collective Modes and Fast Particle Confinement in ITER A. Jaun, NADA, Euratom-VR Association, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlad, Gregorio

    -VR Association, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden S. Briguglio, G. Fogaccia, C. Gormezano, F. Zonca, G. Vlad, ENEA C. Introduction Ions in the MeV energy range are generated as «-particles by DT fusion reactions, and can be created by additional heating, such as ICRH on the fuel ions. To confine the heat and sustain the burn

  10. After many years of fusion research, the conditions needed for a DT fusion reactor have been approached on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). For the first time the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammett, Greg

    , is observed to increase in D­T, relative to D plasmas, by 20% and the n i (0) T i (0) t E product by 55 supershot and limiter­H­mode discharges. Extensive lithium pellet injection increased the confinement time. Demonstrating the production of »10 MW of fusion power. In this paper, a brief description will be given

  11. Glass Transition in Confined Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Lang; Vitalie Botan; Martin Oettel; David Hajnal; Thomas Franosch; Rolf Schilling

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Extending mode-coupling theory, we elaborate a microscopic theory for the glass transition of liquids confined between two parallel flat hard walls. The theory contains the standard MCT equations in bulk and in two dimensions as limiting cases and requires as input solely the equilibrium density profile and the structure factors of the fluid in confinement. We evaluate the phase diagram as a function of the distance of the plates for the case of a hard sphere fluid and obtain an oscillatory behavior of the glass transtion line as a result of the structural changes related to layering.

  12. Status of the US National Inertial Fusion ProgramSNL Z Facility UR/LLE OMEGA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through the use of advanced laser technology #12;5 A tangible demonstration of progress is the insertion detector system Z-pinch implosion Complex hydrodynamics #12;20 Recent National Academy of Sciences reports

  13. Preliminary assessment and analysis of CO{sub 2} cleaning for an inertial fusion device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, A.; Abdou, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanisms of cleaning with carbon dioxide ice (CO{sub 2}) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) application are discussed and analyzed. The compatibility between this cleaning process and the materials proposed for energy-relevant liquid-interaction experiments is examined. The cleaning mechanisms include kinetic shear stress, sublimation followed by thermophoresis, and solvent action. The study shows that the debris size could determine the efficiency of this cleaning technique. Furthermore, if the condensed vapor particulate becomes flattened and embedded inside the abscissa while hitting the surface, a large kinetic shear would be needed for debris removal which might damage the surface. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Stauts of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Hohlraum Point Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, P; Dunne, M; Ho, D; Lasinski, B; Meeker, D; Ross, J S

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress on the hohlraum point design for the LIFE engine is described. New features in the original design [Amendt et al., Fus. Sci. Technol. 60, 49 (2011)] are incorporated that address the imperatives of low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, efficient and prompt material recycling, an ability for near-term testing of key target design uncertainties on the National Ignition Facility, and robustness to target chamber environment and injection insults. To this end, the novel use of Pb hohlraums and aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel loading within a high-density-carbon (HDC) ablator is implemented in the hohlraum point design.

  15. Simulation of Gas Dynamic Behavior in Dry-Wall Inertial Fusion Energy Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    . In this work, the code TSUNAMI [2] was used to model chamber gas dynamics for different shapes, sizes of size scaling. Previous- ly, TSUNAMI was used primarily for studying liquid protec- ted chambers which the basic response charac- teristics (with emphasis on the evolution towards a quiescent state

  16. Drift compression and final focus systems for heavy ion inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Hoon, M.J.L.

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Longitudinal compression of space-charge dominated beams can be achieved by imposing a head-to-tail velocity tilt on the beam. This tilt has to be carefully tailored, such that it is removed by the longitudinal space-charge repulsion by the time the beam reaches the end of the drift compression section. The transverse focusing lattice should be designed such that all parts of the beam stay approximately matched, while the beam smoothly expands transversely to the larger beam radius needed in the final focus system following drift compression. In this thesis, several drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression systems were designed within these constraints, based on a given desired pulse shape at the end of drift compression. The occurrence of mismatches due to a rapidly increasing current was analyzed. In addition, the sensitivity of drift compression to errors in the initial velocity tilt and current profile was studied. These calculations were done using a new computer code that accurately calculates the longitudinal electric field in the space-charge dominated regime.

  17. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, J.J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Logan, R. M. More, P. A. Ni, P. K. Roy, W. L. Waldron, P. A.NIMA 577 (2007) 238. [6] P. K. Roy, P. A. Seidl, A. Anders,

  18. Mercury: A second-generation KrF laser for inertial fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigio, I.J.; York, G.; McLeod, J.; Czuchlewski, J.; Rose, E.; Hanson, D.E.; Kurnit, N.A.; McCown, A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ``Mercury`` KrF laser facility at Los Alamos is being built with the benefit of lessons learned from the Aurora KrF laser. An increased understanding of KrF laser engineering, and the designed implementation of system flexibility, will permit Mercury to serve as a testbed for a variety of advanced KrF technology concepts.

  19. Mercury: A second-generation KrF laser for inertial fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigio, I.J.; York, G.; McLeod, J.; Czuchlewski, J.; Rose, E.; Hanson, D.E.; Kurnit, N.A.; McCown, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mercury'' KrF laser facility at Los Alamos is being built with the benefit of lessons learned from the Aurora KrF laser. An increased understanding of KrF laser engineering, and the designed implementation of system flexibility, will permit Mercury to serve as a testbed for a variety of advanced KrF technology concepts.

  20. Gas Transport and Control in Thick-Liquid Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debonnel, Christophe Sylvain

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    c v is the solid or liquid heat capacity at constant volume,heat capacities and might be slightly retrograde. Retrograde liquid-