National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for industry carbon emissions

  1. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  2. Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994...

  3. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million...

  4. Post-harvest carbon emissions and sequestration in southern United States forest industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Row, C.

    1997-12-31

    Whether the forest industries in the southern United States are net emitters or sequesters of carbon from the atmosphere depends on one`s viewpoint. In the short-term, the solid-wood industries-lumber, plywood, and panels--appear to sequester more carbon than is in the fossil fuels they use for processing. The paper industries, however, emit more carbon from fossil fuels than they sequester in the pulp and paper they manufacture. This viewpoint is quite limited. If one considers the life-cycles of solid-wood and paper products from seedlings to landfill, these industries sequester more carbon than they emit from burning fossil fuels. These industries also generate large amounts of energy by replacing fossil fuels with biofuels from processing residues, and wood-based products produce more energy from incineration and landfill gases. Use of the carbon in these biofuels in effect keeps fossil fuel carbon in the ground, considering that at least that amount of carbon would be emitted in producing alternative materials. Another way of looking the emission balances is that wood-based materials, pound for pound or use for use, are the most {open_quotes}carbon efficient{close_quotes} group of major industrial materials. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel...

  6. Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  7. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program that helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and GHG emissions.

  9. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  10. Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110 26 239 140 1,095 50 NA NA 50

  11. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US ...

  12. Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Carbon capture, utilization, and storage can provide a...

  13. Table 10 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrial Sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008," "DOEEIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December ...

  14. Table 6 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Energy and Industry...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008," "DOEEIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December ...

  15. Carbon Constraints and the Electric Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-11-15

    The report is designed to provide a thorough understanding of the type of carbon constraints that are likely to be imposed, when they are likely to take effect, and how they will impact the electric power industry. The main objective of the report is to provide industry participants with the knowledge they need to plan for and react to a future in which carbon emissions are restricted. The main goal of the report is to ensure an understanding of the likely restrictions that will be placed on carbon emissions, the methods available for reducing their carbon emissions, and the impact that carbon reductions will have on the electric power industry. A secondary goal of the report is to provide information on key carbon programs and market participants to enable companies to begin participating in the international carbon marketplace. Topics covered in the report include: overview of what climate change and the Kyoto Protocol are; analysis of the impacts of climate change on the U.S. and domestic efforts to mandate carbon reductions; description of carbon reduction mechanisms and the types of carbon credits that can be created; evaluation of the benefits of carbon trading and the rules for participation under Kyoto; Description of the methods for reducing carbon emissions available to the U.S. electric power industry; analysis of the impact of carbon restrictions on the U.S. electric power industry in terms of both prices and revenues; evaluation of the impact of carbon restrictions on renewable energy; overview of the current state of the global carbon market including descriptions of the three major marketplaces; descriptions of the industry and government programs already underway to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. electric power industry; and, profiles of the major international carbon exchanges and brokers.

  16. Potentials for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions of industrial sector in transitional economies -- A case study of implementation of absorption heat devices and co-generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, J.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    World carbon dioxide emissions, caused by commercial energy-generation, contribute to about 57% of global warming potential. Central and East European (CEE) countries together with former USSR emitted about 25% of the world carbon dioxide emissions, predominantly because of high energy intensity of their industries and dependence on coal. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the high level of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of output, which significantly exceeds the levels of the industry in the European Union. CEE countries` most pressing environmental goal is a reduction of local air and water pollution. Therefore, when analyzing potentials for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions in these countries, they need to concentrate on the activities which would also decrease local pollution. The paper focuses on technologies which would reduce the need for fossil fuel burning by improving energy efficiency in industry. Process industries are very energy intensive. Structure changes of the products are carried out with operations which require input and output of heat. Heat demand is usually met by combustion of fossil fuels, cold is produced with electricity. Technical potentials of absorption heat devices (AHD) and co-generation in process industry as well as their market penetration potentials are analyzed for Slovenia, one of the fastest transforming CEE economies.

  17. Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionschemicals.html Contact Us File...

  18. Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into useful products. ... in private cost-share - will seek to use CO2 emissions from industrial sources to create ...

  19. Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources In 2009, the industrial sector accounted for slightly more than one-quarter of total U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 5,405 million metric tons from energy consumption, according to data from DOE's Energy Information Administration. In a major step forward in the fight to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial plants, DOE has allocated American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act)

  20. Industrial Carbon Management Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- July 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- July 2015 Read the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- July 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers Quarterly Update, July 2015 (845.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Industrial Assessment Centers Update, Fall 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers Quarterly Update, Spring 2014 IAC Factsheet

    Industrial Assessment Centers Update, Fall 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers

  1. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportat...

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  3. Plastic Bags Might Kickstart the Carbon Capture Industry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Plastic Bags Might Kickstart the Carbon Capture Industry Plastic Bags Might Kickstart the Carbon Capture Industry May 6, 2016 - 5:46pm Addthis This GIF shows how CO2 emissions vary across the United States. Each bar represents a 50x50 kilometer grid. Bar height is proportional to total CO2 emissions and bar color represents the type of CO2 emissions. Red bars represent proportionately more CO2 emissions from electricity generation (coal, gas and oil). Green bars represent CO2

  4. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

  5. Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact: Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 Contact Us URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionspetroleum...

  6. How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels...

  7. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation"...

  8. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  9. Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

    1999-11-29

    The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

  10. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 | Department of Energy Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 The purpose of this 1999 paper is to estimate the remaining CHP potential in the chemicals and pulp/paper industries by capacity size, and estimate energy savings and

  11. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  12. Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-04-01

    Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary

  13. Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd Place: Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Zip: 600 034 Sector:...

  14. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  15. Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections September 2, 2010 These projects have been selected for negotiation of awards; final award amounts may vary. Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections (71.28 KB) More Documents & Publications ICCS_Project_Selections.pdf CCSTF - Final Report Before the Subcommittee on Energy -- House Science, Space, and Technology Committee

  16. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

    2005-08-15

    Field measurements and model results have recently shown that aerosols may have important climatic impacts. One line of inquiry has investigated whether reducing climate-warming soot or black carbon aerosol emissions can form a viable component of mitigating global warming. Black carbon is produced by poor combustion, from our example hard coal cooking fires for and industrial pulverized coal boilers. The authors review and acknowledge scientific arguments against considering aerosols and greenhouse gases in a common framework, including the differences in the physical mechanisms of climate change and relevant time scales. It is argued that such a joint consideration is consistent with the language of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Results from published climate-modeling studies are synthesized to obtain a global warming potential for black carbon relative to that of CO{sub 2} (680 on a 100 year basis). This calculation enables a discussion of cost-effectiveness for mitigating the largest sources of black carbon. It is found that many emission reductions are either expensive or difficult to enact when compared with greenhouse gases, particularly in Annex I countries. Finally, a role for black carbon in climate mitigation strategies is proposed that is consistent with the apparently conflicting arguments raised during the discussion. Addressing these emissions is a promising way to reduce climatic interference primarily for nations that have not yet agreed to address greenhouse gas emissions and provides the potential for a parallel climate agreement. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents energy use and carbon emissions patterns in a world context. The report contrasts trends in economically developed and developing areas of the world since 1970, presents a disaggregated view of the "Group of Seven" (G7) key industrialized countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and examines sectoral energy use patterns within each of the G7 countries.

  18. Trading permanent and temporary carbon emissions credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marland, Gregg; Marland, Eric

    2009-08-01

    In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design a system that allows trading of one for the other? As van Kooten expresses the challenge: 'The problem is that emissions reduction and carbon sequestration, while opposite sides of the same coin in some sense, are not directly comparable, thereby inhibiting their trade in carbon markets.' He explains: 'The difficulty centers on the length of time that mitigation strategies without CO{sub 2} from entering the atmosphere - the duration problem.' While reducing emissions of CO{sub 2} represents an essentially permanent benefit for the atmosphere, capturing CO{sub 2} that has been produced (whether capture is from the atmosphere or directly from, for example, the exhaust from power plants) there is the challenge of storing the carbon adn the risk that it will yet escape to the atmosphere. Permanent benefit to the atmosphere is often not assured for carbon sequestration activities. This is especially true if the carbon is taken up and stored in the biosphere - e.g. in forest trees or agricultural soils.

  19. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W.; Toole, Gasper L.

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  20. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources into useful products such as fuel, plastics, cement, and fertilizers.

  1. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Morozova, Irina; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile.more » Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert

  2. Russian anthropogenic black carbon: Emission reconstruction and Arctic black carbon simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y.; Storey, John M.; Romanov, Alexander; Hodson, Elke L.; Cresko, Joe; Ignatieva, Yulia; Cabaniss, John

    2015-10-02

    Development of reliable source emission inventories is needed to advance the understanding of the origin of Arctic haze using chemical transport modeling. This paper develops a regional anthropogenic black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Russian Federation, the largest country by land area in the Arctic Council. Activity data from combination of local Russia information and international resources, emission factors based on either Russian documents or adjusted values for local conditions, and other emission source data are used to approximate the BC emissions. Emissions are gridded at a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and developed into a monthly temporal profile. Total anthropogenic BC emission of Russia in 2010 is estimated to be around 224 Gg. Gas flaring, a commonly ignored black carbon source, contributes a significant fraction of 36.2% to Russia's total anthropogenic BC emissions. Other sectors, i.e., residential, transportation, industry, and power plants, contribute 25.0%, 20.3%, 13.1%, and 5.4%, respectively. Three major BC hot spot regions are identified: the European part of Russia, the southern central part of Russia where human population densities are relatively high, and the Urals Federal District where Russia's major oil and gas fields are located but with sparse human population. BC simulations are conducted using the hemispheric version of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model with emission inputs from a global emission database EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research)-HTAPv2 (Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution) and EDGAR-HTAPv2 with its Russian part replaced by the newly developed Russian BC emissions, respectively. The simulation using the new Russian BC emission inventory could improve 30–65% of absorption aerosol optical depth measured at the AERONET sites in Russia throughout the whole year as compared to that using the default HTAPv2 emissions. At the four ground monitoring sites (Zeppelin, Barrow, Alert, and

  3. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  4. Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact: Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 Contact Us URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionssteel...

  5. Carbon Emissions: Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact: Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 Contact Us URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionsstone...

  6. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  7. New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development | Department of Energy Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development September 7, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the selection of 22 projects that will accelerate carbon capture and storage research and development for industrial sources. Funded with more than $575

  8. New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development | Department of Energy Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development September 7, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the selection of 22 projects that will accelerate carbon capture and storage research and development for industrial sources. Funded with more than $575 million

  9. Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capture and Storage Facility | Department of Energy Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility August 24, 2011 - 6:23pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy issued the following statement in support of today's groundbreaking for construction of the nation's first large-scale industrial carbon capture and storage (ICCS) facility in Decatur,

  10. Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utilization | Department of Energy Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization January 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A breakthrough carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) project in Texas has begun capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and piping it to an oilfield for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Read the project factsheet The project at Air Products

  11. Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction August 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Construction activities have begun at an Illinois ethanol plant that will demonstrate carbon capture and storage. The project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy, is the first large-scale integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration

  12. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources AgencyCompany...

  13. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 November 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 1 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 2 November 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2014 3 November 2015 U.S. Energy

  14. Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia AgencyCompany Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and...

  15. CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov...

  16. Laser-induced light emission from carbon nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osswald, S.; Behler, K.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2008-10-01

    Strong absorption of light in a broad wavelength range and poor thermal conductance between particles of carbon nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, onions, nanodiamond, and carbon black, lead to strong thermal emission (blackbody radiation) upon laser excitation, even at a very low (milliwatts) power. The lasers commonly used during Raman spectroscopy characterization of carbon can cause sample heating to very high temperatures. While conventional thermometry is difficult in the case of nanomaterials, Raman spectral features, such as the G band of graphitic carbon and thermal emission spectra were used to estimate the temperature during light emission that led to extensive graphitization and evaporation of carbon nanomaterials, indicating local temperatures exceeding 3500 deg. C.

  17. FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process for FutureGen 2.0 | Department of Energy Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 October 6, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON -- The FutureGen Industrial Alliance today announced details of a process that will lead to the selection of an Illinois site for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that

  18. Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

  19. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examines some of the factors that influence state-level carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels. These factors include: the fuel mix — especially in the generation of electricity; the state climate; the population density of the state; the industrial makeup of the state and whether the state is a net exporter or importer of electricity.

  20. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-02-15

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and

  1. Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Begins Full-Scale Operations | Department of Energy Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project Begins Full-Scale Operations Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project Begins Full-Scale Operations May 10, 2013 - 11:36am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department's Acting Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Christopher Smith today attended a dedication ceremony at the Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production

  2. Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley, Kevin; Marland, Eric; Cantrell, Jenna; Marland, Gregg

    2011-03-01

    We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

  3. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. RESULTS FROM THE U.S. DOE 2006 SAVE ENERGY NOW ASSESSMENT INITIATIVE: DOE's Partnership with U.S. Industry to Reduce Energy Consumption, Energy Costs, and Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Anthony L; Martin, Michaela A; Gemmer, Bob; Scheihing, Paul; Quinn, James

    2007-09-01

    --those that consume a total of 1 trillion British thermal units (Btu) or more annually. The approximately 6800 U.S. facilities that fall into this category collectively account for about 53% of all energy consumed by industry in the United States. The 2006 Save Energy Now energy assessments departed from earlier DOE plant assessments by concentrating solely on steam and process heating systems, which are estimated to account for approximately 74% of all natural gas use for manufacturing. The assessments also integrated a strong training component designed to teach industrial plant personnel how to use DOE's steam or process heating opportunity assessment software tools. This approach had the advantages of promoting strong buy-in of plant personnel for the assessment and its outcomes and preparing them better to independently replicate the assessment process at the company's other facilities. The Save Energy Now initiative also included provisions to help plants that applied for but did not qualify for assessments (based on the 1 trillion Btu criterion). Services offered to these plants included (1) an assessment by one of DOE's 26 university-based Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), (2) a telephone consultation with a systems expert at the DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Information Center, or (3) other technical materials and services available through ITP (e.g., the Save Energy Now CD). By the end of 2006, DOE had completed all 200 of the promised assessments, identifying potential natural gas savings of more than 50 trillion Btu and energy cost savings of about $500 million. These savings, if fully implemented, could reduce CO2 emissions by 4.04 million metric tons annually. These results, along with the fact that a large percentage of U.S. energy is used by a relatively small number of very large plants, clearly suggest that assessments are an expedient and cost-effective way to significantly affect large amounts of energy use. Building on the success of

  5. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn K; Lu, Hongyou; Liu, Xu; Tsen, Katherine; Xiangyang, Wei; Yunpeng, Zhang; Jian, Guan; Rui, Hou; Junfeng, Zhang; Yuqun, Zhuo; Shumao, Xia; Yafeng, Han; Manzhi, Liu

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  6. Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley...

  7. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990-2012 Year United States Rest of North America Central & South America Europe Eurasia Middle East Africa India China Rest of Asia & Oceania 1990 ...

  8. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013 October 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 October 2014 U.S. Energy...

  9. Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Projected (million metric tons) 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 ...

  10. "Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,200...

  11. Short-Term Energy Carbon Dioxide Emissions Forecasts August 2009

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook. Short-term projections for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions of the three fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, and petroleum.

  12. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    Presents world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries (including the current and former centrally planned economies).

  13. Breakthrough Could Improve Turbine Performance, Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Power Plants | Department of Energy Could Improve Turbine Performance, Reduce Carbon Emissions from Power Plants Breakthrough Could Improve Turbine Performance, Reduce Carbon Emissions from Power Plants April 26, 2016 - 8:03am Addthis Schematic Diagram of the Breakthrough Thermal Barrier Coating by “Solution Precursor Plasma Spray” Process Schematic Diagram of the Breakthrough Thermal Barrier Coating by "Solution Precursor Plasma Spray" Process Research supported by

  14. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

  15. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  16. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  17. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Model

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Description of the procedures for estimating carbon dioxide emissions in the Short-Term Energy Outlook

  18. Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2011-01-15

    This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

  19. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  20. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Allendorf; D. K. Ottesen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1998-11-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom of line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1994-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

  2. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

  4. Carbon-containing cathodes for enhanced electron emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cao, Renyu; Pan, Lawrence; Vergara, German; Fox, Ciaran

    2000-01-01

    A cathode has electropositive atoms directly bonded to a carbon-containing substrate. Preferably, the substrate comprises diamond or diamond-like (sp.sup.3) carbon, and the electropositive atoms are Cs. The cathode displays superior efficiency and durability. In one embodiment, the cathode has a negative electron affinity (NEA). The cathode can be used for field emission, thermionic emission, or photoemission. Upon exposure to air or oxygen, the cathode performance can be restored by annealing or other methods. Applications include detectors, electron multipliers, sensors, imaging systems, and displays, particularly flat panel displays.

  5. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys tomore » understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.« less

  6. Black carbon emissions from Russian diesel sources. Case study of Murmansk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, M.; Kholod, N.; Malyshev, V.; Tretyakova, S.; Gusev, E.; Yu, S.; Barinov, A.

    2015-07-27

    Black carbon (BC) is a potent pollutant because of its effects on climate change, ecosystems and human health. Black carbon has a particularly pronounced impact as a climate forcer in the Arctic because of its effect on snow albedo and cloud formation. We have estimated BC emissions from diesel sources in the Murmansk Region and Murmansk City, the largest city in the world above the Arctic Circle. In this study we developed a detailed inventory of diesel sources including on-road vehicles, off-road transport (mining, locomotives, construction and agriculture), ships and diesel generators. For on-road transport, we conducted several surveys to understand the vehicle fleet and driving patterns, and, for all sources, we also relied on publicly available local data sets and analysis. We calculated that BC emissions in the Murmansk Region were 0.40 Gg in 2012. The mining industry is the largest source of BC emissions in the region, emitting 69 % of all BC emissions because of its large diesel consumption and absence of emissions controls. On-road vehicles are the second largest source, emitting about 13 % of emissions. Old heavy duty trucks are the major source of emissions. Emission controls on new vehicles limit total emissions from on-road transportation. Vehicle traffic and fleet surveys show that many of the older cars on the registry are lightly or never used. We also estimated that total BC emissions from diesel sources in Russia were 50.8 Gg in 2010, and on-road transport contributed 49 % of diesel BC emissions. Agricultural machinery is also a significant source Russia-wide, in part because of the lack of controls on off-road vehicles.

  7. Options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1991-08-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency can significantly reduce the annual growth in greenhouse gas emissions. Such improvements occur when energy intensity is reduced; no reduction in energy services is required. Using the concept of cost of conserved energy'' to develop conservation supply curves similar to resource supply curves, researchers consistently find that electricity and natural gas savings of nearly 50% of current consumption are possible for US buildings. Such reductions in energy consumption directly reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. To capture these savings, we must continue to develop energy-efficient technologies and strategies. This paper describes three recent energy-efficient technologies that benefited from energy conservation research and development (R D) funding: high-frequency ballasts, compact fluorescent lamps, and low-emissivity windows. Other advanced technologies and strategies of spectrally selective windows, superwindows, electrochromic windows, advanced insulation, low-flow showerheads, improved recessed lamp fixtures, whitening surfaces and planting urban trees, daylighting, and thermal energy storage are also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, V. V.; Davies, R. W.; Holbery, J.

    2006-04-01

    This report analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities.

  9. NETL's Carbon Capture Simulation for Industry Impact (CCSI

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NETL's Carbon Capture Simulation for Industry Impact (CCSI 2 ) program is officially extending an opportunity for CO 2 capture technology developers to collaborate with CCSI 2 personnel. CCSI 2 has developed a computational Toolset for computational modeling efforts required for efficiently informing R&D and reducing the risk leading up to commercialization. CCSI 2 is granting developers an opportunity to tap into the CCSI groups' modeling expertise and to become adept at using the CCSI

  10. Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Jump to: navigation, search Name Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions...

  11. Energy-Efficiency and Air-Pollutant Emissions-Reduction Opportunities for the Ammonia Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Ding; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Chen, Wenying

    2015-06-01

    As one of the most energy-intensive and polluting industries, ammonia production is responsible for significant carbon dioxide (CO2) and air-pollutant emissions. Although many energy-efficiency measures have been proposed by the Chinese government to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality, lack of understanding of the cost-effectiveness of such improvements has been a barrier to implementing these measures. Assessing the costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of different energy-efficiency measures is essential to advancing this understanding. In this study, a bottom-up energy conservation supply curve model is developed to estimate the potential for energy savings and emissions reductions from 26 energy-efficiency measures that could be applied in China’s ammonia industry. Cost-effective implementation of these measures saves a potential 271.5 petajoules/year for fuel and 5,443 gigawatt-hours/year for electricity, equal to 14% of fuel and 14% of electricity consumed in China’s ammonia industry in 2012. These reductions could mitigate 26.7 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. This study also quantifies the co-benefits of reducing air-pollutant emissions and water use that would result from saving energy in China’s ammonia industry. This quantitative analysis advances our understanding of the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency measures and can be used to augment efforts to reduce energy use and environmental impacts.

  12. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-2011)" "metric tons of carbon dioxide per person" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011"...

  13. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " ,"million metric tons of carbon dioxide",,,,,"shares" "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total",,"Coal","Petrol...

  14. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011)" "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,"Change" ,,,"2000 to 2011" "State",2000,2001,2002,...

  15. Table 11.2a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Residential Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 5 ...

  16. Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX You...

  17. Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual emission lines of carbon in the 170-190 A region on NSTX Authors: ...

  18. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  19. The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2007-07-11

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents dangerous anthropogenic interference with the planets climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

  20. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  1. Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry February 7, 2014 - 3:27pm Addthis Oxidized fibers move to a high temperature furnace, where material is converted into carbon fiber at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTC). The CFTC enables companies to test low-cost carbon fiber for use in several industries including the clean energy sector. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oxidized fibers move to a high

  2. Spontaneous emission from the C3 radical in carbon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemes, Laszlo; Keszler, Anna M.; Parigger, Christian G.; Hornkohl, James O.; Michelsen, Hope A.; Stakhursky, Vadim

    2007-07-01

    Spontaneous emission measurements are discussed for the Swings transitions of the C3 radical in laser-generated graphite plasma, and the spectroscopy of the C3 radical in carbon vapor and plasma is summarized. A review is given of some theoretical calculations and emission spectroscopic investigations are presented. Time-averaged, laser-induced optical breakdown spectra arereported from Nd:YAG laser generated graphite microplasma. In 200-300 Torr of argon and helium, and depending on the specific experimental configuration,a weak emission continuum is observed centered at 400 nm when using a laser fluence of typically1 J/cm2. Such continua were not detected in our previous experiments using focused laser radiation. The possibilities for the origin of this continuum are considered.

  3. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Love, Lonnie J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  4. Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, H.; Labedz, O.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.

    2011-11-29

    Plasma diagnostics of carbon arc discharge under conditions of carbon magnetic encapsulates formation was performed by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Content of C{sub 2} and Fe species, rotational temperatures of excited (d {sup 3} product {sub g}) and non-excited (a {sup 3} product {sub u}) states, and excitation temperatures of a {sup 5}F and a {sup 3}F levels relatively to the a {sup 5}D level of Fe atoms were determined. The results pointed to a non-equilibrium state of carbon arc plasma under prevailing discharge conditions.

  5. Carbon dioxide storage potential in coalbeds: A near-term consideration for the fossil energy industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrer, C.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1998-07-01

    The concept of using gassy unminable coalbeds for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage while concurrently initiating and enhancing coalbed methane production may be a viable near-term system for industry consideration. Coal is the most abundant and cheapest fossil fuel resource, and it has played a vital role in the stability and growth of the US economy. With the burning of coal in power plants, the energy source is also one of the fuel causing large CO2 emissions. In the near future, coal may also have a role in solving environmental greenhouse gas concerns with increasing CO2 emissions throughout the world. Coal resources may be an acceptable and significant geological sink for storing CO2 emissions in amenable unminable coalbeds while at the same time producing natural gas from gassy coalbeds. Industry proprietary research has shown that the recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by the injection of CO2 via well bores into coal deposits. Gassy coals generally have shown a 2:1 coal-absorption selectivity for CO2 over methane which could allow for the potential of targeting unminable coals near fossil fueled power plants to be utilized for storing stack gas CO2. Preliminary technical and economic assessments of this concept appear to merit further research leading to pilot demonstrations in selected regions of the US.

  6. Carbon dioxide storage potential in coalbeds: A near-term consideration for the fossil energy industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrer, C.W.; Guthrie, H.D.

    1998-04-01

    The concept of using gassy unminable coalbeds for carbon dioxide (CO2) storage while concurrently initiating and enhancing coalbed methane production may be a viable near-term system for industry consideration. Coal is our most abundant and cheapest fossil fuel resource, and it has played a vital role in the stability and growth of the US economy. With the burning of coal in power plants, the energy source is also one of the fuels causing large CO2 emissions. In the near future, coal may also have a role in solving environmental greenhouse gas concerns with increasing CO2 emissions throughout the world. Coal resources may be an acceptable and significant {open_quotes}geological sink{close_quotes} for storing CO2 emissions in amenable unminable coalbeds while at the same time producing natural gas from gassy coalbeds. Industry proprietary research has shown that the recovery of coalbed methane can be enhanced by the injection of CO2 via well bores into coal deposits. Gassy coals generally have shown a 2:1 coal-absorption selectivity for CO2 over methane which could allow for the potential of targeting unminable coals near fossil fueled power plants to be utilized for storing stack gas CO2. Preliminary technical and economic assessments of this concept appear to merit further research leading to pilot demonstrations in selected re ions of the US.

  7. Secretary Chu Announces Nearly $1 Billion Public-Private Investment in Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Three projects will create jobs, reduce carbon emissions, and increase domestic oil production by 10 million barrels of oil per year

  8. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Set To Scale Up Industry | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Educational institutions partner with the Carbon Fiber Technology Facility to develop the skilled workforce needed for widespread production of low-cost carbon fiber. Carbon fiber ...

  9. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  10. Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990-2012 -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dataset | Department of Energy 8: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990-2012 - Dataset Fact #898: November 9, 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990-2012 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for 2015 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1990-2012 fotw#898_web.xlsx (25.25 KB) More Documents & Publications ESPC Project Performance: Supplemental Data Natural Gas Imports and Exports Third Quarter Report 2015 Financial and Activity Report - December 31, 2009

  11. Table 8 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Residential Sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Residential Sector Energy Consumption, 1990-2009" " (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Diioxide)" ,,1990,1991,1992,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,199...

  12. Energy Efficiency as a Low-Cost Resource for Achieving Carbon Emissions Reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    Summarizes the scale and economic value of energy efficiency for reducing carbon emissions and discusses barriers to achieving the potential for cost-effective energy efficiency.

  13. Field Emission from Carbon Films Deposited by Controlled-Low-Energy Beams and CVD Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Baylor, L.R.; Jellison, Jr., G.E.; Poker, D.B.; Kim, S.; Sohn, M.H.; Paik, N.W.

    1999-11-29

    The principal interests in this work are energetic-beam control of carbon-film properties and the roles of doping and surface morphology in field emission.

  14. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  15. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  16. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  17. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alabama" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",123615,113429,135133,186320,213725,288261,368728,466093,474527,472326,424044,468920,460025,479716,532836,567267,598960,591936,609416,554692,537679,573035,537827,532016,534873 "Natural

  18. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    California" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",1231,659,1067,2192,1784,1685,1521,3276,3458,3317,2740,2961,2100,5191,31138,26808,28804,28716,30315,28932,27401,36452,38256,34966,35118 "Natural

  19. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Florida" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",99931,90222,83823,91500,119354,176269,216052,211528,216609,226357,259650,264498,286311,297404,417500,460041,508105,512033,464520,430505,458841,468879,540689,522031,480864 "Natural

  20. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Georgia" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",70007,90671,111585,201596,232586,271800,530275,680050,682504,642737,577847,569995,545792,527893,537663,539691,547446,536134,498669,508871,581609,714951,793006,802209,887372 "Natural

  1. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Illinois" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",187419,203816,190049,228280,255068,261594,379321,332295,339864,386689,422783,406276,405000,442941,533290,806603,915074,927928,828237,722001,838330,856101,888651,883212,931708 "Natural

  2. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Indiana" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",296237,272707,285211,381921,423894,422362,611096,728833,834982,883283,876816,817139,788519,806646,901203,970849,1004788,1031517,985754,929710,1254199,1273057,1252700,1466280,1403502 "Natural

  3. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kentucky" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",199709,185073,183247,241651,265949,247826,338318,370877,418872,490422,507490,522200,471904,535303,584707,658445,624913,669016,642197,676214,895584,983464,893411,871431,902063 "Natural

  4. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",63526,68216,73702,75879,71513,64087,68625,71467,89748,90139,96242,95639,97918,95986,101453,112255,109681,117039,94470,97854,126282,117281,110572,107938,99934 "Natural

  5. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",3229,10397,11717,23520,37512,33573,42205,42039,39260,47569,45178,52634,58508,60644,69422,70840,70629,78943,69863,78900,70225,77311,93718,104570,100041 "Natural

  6. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Michigan" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",156939,200702,203862,230553,252712,294302,362921,358465,346823,362690,354593,369039,358670,370730,396468,406682,453444,439598,409709,388720,425868,392676,374114,405484,400043 "Natural

  7. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mississippi" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",90609,77393,37116,43057,54267,40125,65730,67796,75871,66365,68531,68116,66065,69615,88588,78278,78763,76762,94981,82425,77122,89686,94690,97996,106348 "Natural

  8. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Missouri" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",149428,157176,149531,208591,255793,258025,278644,276798,279119,293134,292645,280869,247379,239803,214011,264723,301916,318865,368301,348474,537257,481519,683418,746419,794530 "Natural

  9. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    York" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",21804,21923,26957,48632,56528,51264,75552,102252,110055,133084,174467,205767,213903,217822,245827,243631,282135,265797,169786,235651,245005,257386,300430,290808,298461 "Natural

  10. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ohio" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",328298,314945,360893,649158,643705,664660,760207,1022707,1037604,1157246,1150521,1250636,1193241,1191814,1258662,1318060,1426879,1462973,1485827,1209189,2085965,2172699,2204132,2247165,2213291 "Natural

  11. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oklahoma" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",74880,76673,78406,95907,89405,100412,108043,108024,114991,112210,108869,117506,115993,110039,102417,110454,109339,116982,114705,122615,106452,118616,118121,113826,109400 "Natural

  12. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",280590,262221,259319,338397,419602,635141,851401,958827,903023,1096135,996972,979095,949261,1041860,1113082,1049810,1118338,1159444,1158512,1191338,1209571,1240828,1266369,1269116,1288932 "Natural

  13. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",30379,35219,54683,80578,104316,104355,165245,177379,226662,226553,228180,216716,210658,216996,215214,230523,223531,207801,218040,191445,205896,195251,171280,177034,182269 "Natural

  14. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Texas" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",334864,364291,337533,430430,458950,448084,480396,494970,576589,592090,585566,632119,612135,581623,594287,721440,716364,718321,683539,636769,563557,619731,562293,544624,534050 "Natural

  15. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Virginia" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",55972,56438,49857,83949,117386,111860,136911,189547,190542,223296,200877,220539,279910,231117,277674,289507,268063,278805,263005,276636,220087,238627,227184,226261,213816 "Natural

  16. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    West Virginia" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",102380,93865,91218,107963,116023,184338,315497,388675,470639,483344,492024,558143,526538,681326,625874,713793,695681,701570,694797,630859,1091442,1045752,1102087,1068857,965899 "Natural

  17. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    United States" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",3425770,3537968,3625314,4890928,5468885,6100901,8103586,9247549,9774485,10470741,10402086,10679025,10787045,10918087,11761081,12624901,13241327,13459993,13019310,12332252,14768599,15258782,15498937,15696398,15741783 "Natural

  18. Overview of Carbon Storage Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Roughly one third of the United States' carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon Storage Program is focused ...

  19. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  20. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  1. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arkansas" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",75942,74612,77622,73584,67035,68211,73160,71833,72868,65726,78479,71176,70031,74549,76060,78823,77315,86718,97033,84291,72229,66566,70208,70953,73346 "Natural gas",24,32,43,31,32,28,24,20,22,26,21,32,23,11,21,21,18,18,15,67,17,17,18,17,17

  2. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Alaska" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",2678,2913,2945,2496,2411,2528,2657,2436,2377,2224,2352,2003,4545,4179,12561,8368,14490,13929,13523,14632,10598,10080,10152,10210,15458 "Natural gas",13,10,10,11,11,11,12,11,15,13,15,9,10,10,13,11,13,11,11,9,12,12,10,12,12

  3. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Arizona" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",22489,23613,21336,32674,36693,36140,48338,56547,49229,52823,60439,69394,70766,72877,74807,78901,105738,130165,124044,124899,142176,134872,131544,129444,125036 "Natural gas",74,79,70,55,67,80,83,86,73,64,79,58,51,58,36,17,17,9,3,7,8,6,10,6,7

  4. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Colorado" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",28407,39974,42818,46853,49433,47566,60452,64793,64512,63888,64999,77596,91396,93908,90489,93098,100573,101386,94727,96615,107836,99745,101864,98418,102580 "Natural gas",26,27,26,25,26,31,33,35,32,30,26,24,21,24,17,12,11,11,9,11,6,2,1,1,1

  5. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Connecticut" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",908,770,7247,503,1311,1313,3007,2737,2879,2816,2847,3419,5880,12228,21148,826,6824,12175,11335,11392,9645,9330,10225,11777,12265 "Natural gas",29,29,34,32,28,19,15,19,23,17,13,9,20,9,10,8,7,6,2,4,6,3,3,4,4

  6. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District of Columbia" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Natural gas",0,0,0,0," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," "," ","

  7. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hawaii" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",792,2209,1435,1287,1387,1663,1680,1060,1015,1274,1572,1475,2154,1433,12585,3354,4019,4820,4805,4357,3617,3211,2070,278,86 "Natural gas",403,373,325,426,95,121,93,89,89,110,122,127,106,76,902,582,579,537,455,588,53,50,52,51,49

  8. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Idaho" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",2094,3029,2301,1616,3801,1603,3358,4111,1689,1787,4238,3737,3116,987,2999,3506,3816,3005,3148,3177,5267,6079,6088,2978,6107 "Natural gas",6,8,4,2,3,2,3,3,2,2,3,3,1,2,2,2,2,2,1,1,2,2,1,1,1

  9. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Iowa" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",72805,92466,103353,107646,114216,99306,163998,147940,144691,148303,148788,152375,147800,153599,171226,170930,190205,168878,170396,182534,198945,218025,209712,224123,201125 "Natural gas",11,10,11,6,6,2,4,3,3,2,7,1,2,3,3,3,4,6,4,3,3,3,2,1,1

  10. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Kansas" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",31498,29975,32930,39191,44555,50230,93495,112481,108414,123188,114657,131419,124338,113912,112947,115880,117443,108221,116046,99115,71337,70094,65762,76140,85243 "Natural gas",4,6,17,6,7,6,6,2,2,2,1,2,3,4,2,64,4,1,2,6,6,4,3,10,7

  11. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maine" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",559,540,292,401,546,476,1538,2006,2016,1840,1726,1423,1117,1593,6269,2349,2978,4015,3934,4090,4323,4505,4521,4465,5574 "Natural gas",8,8,11,13,14,14,13,13,12,15,20,22,23,22,7,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0

  12. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Maryland" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",36332,37512,40857,51044,47095,214124,244867,278286,282500,284301,287448,272978,265412,259499,262294,261255,272677,254326,251603,229197,233251,251845,243295,238056,265492 "Natural gas",12,12,40,17,4,6,6,4,4,4,3,8,4,3,3,3,2,2,2,2,7,3,4,6,6

  13. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Minnesota" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",34022,30926,31068,52422,57174,66187,83399,85598,88204,89899,95334,91757,91775,77334,102028,108278,104657,109711,101136,97511,129370,125407,106236,90988,105228 "Natural gas",7,15,18,9,11,31,14,7,4,6,4,3,3,3,4,3,3,1,1,1,3,2,3,3,1

  14. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",14254,16726,13490,16901,20469,20711,19989,22596,19849,19767,20971,17185,19797,30725,23733,25315,24694,22706,20068,36432,20996,20385,22070,20386,17702 "Natural gas",0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,1,1

  15. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nebraska" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",63940,66824,63689,74955,71501,77133,76598,69205,71725,73730,74657,69360,68130,70701,60647,61435,58084,62785,65736,61065,56657,60780,53652,53558,51742 "Natural gas",0,0,2,0,0,0,1,1,6,3,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,1

  16. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Nevada" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",10164,7366,4640,5225,7841,7856,9315,8488,9169,53291,54356,51433,49197,49926,52960,48612,49659,50086,52898,50190,52644,52075,56550,54099,53261 "Natural gas",52,57,58,49,53,60,55,63,53,45,37,28,21,97,41,12,20,13,18,13,15,12,11,6,7

  17. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hampshire" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",2166,2689,1694,24041,36405,32333,36146,40115,38096,41306,37066,33607,38594,44473,46296,39840,40221,49137,41011,40508,37609,39548,42845,33246,41324 "Natural gas",8,8,16,15,13,11,14,7,11,10,7,15,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0," ","

  18. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Jersey" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",2395,2333,2866,4464,15060,12671,38115,50089,61099,69561,51500,50631,48855,50013,80835,63535,61420,73406,67588,58450,50184,56327,55383,57266,69123 "Natural gas",33,37,73,79,51,32,29,23,25,22,14,29,23,33,40,41,36,41,43,51,49,46,40,30,22

  19. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mexico" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",12014,17706,16538,17799,16546,19273,22214,26645,31168,30757,38493,51035,50982,62371,69031,73913,81488,82737,78595,75755,63018,57673,58306,50395,59574 "Natural gas",43,23,22,23,22,21,20,17,18,9,8,9,10,14,11,12,14,11,12,168,9,8,7,8,9

  20. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carolina" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",43936,51793,63584,81442,127715,123709,246364,392943,482961,516957,488210,481288,481923,473655,497039,497620,532992,556780,522206,439975,415724,472747,424519,374981,378382 "Natural gas",62,54,43,36,21,9,8,8,4,7,4,8,8,4,2,2,2,1,1,2,1,2,1,1,1

  1. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",52698,56827,87164,94480,127427,132855,136415,137982,130699,138294,150488,141328,141498,156233,153590,191764,195793,178826,178368,210373,152684,147327,146371,189694,146402 "Natural gas",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1

  2. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oregon" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",7425,13959,11463,13100,15640,11050,11305,14027,8697,12104,12828,13522,12580,18027,14858,17160,13840,7342,6383,6143,16823,14892,16478,10708,7280 "Natural gas",46,52,39,27,52,63,69,44,32,34,30,28,23,28,24,18,19,10,10,7,9,6,6,4,2

  3. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Rhode Island" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Natural Gas",10,11,19,20,18,17,14,15,15,13,12,18,17,19,15,14,18,14,14,10,11,11,11,7,3 "Natural gas",2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0

  4. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dakota" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",13839,15332,12825,11249,13129,11929,13720,9194,11957,10723,14375,12596,25263,14439,14224,26837,24162,26742,16418,35460,33368,30740,31866,32623,31176 "Natural gas",1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 "Other","

  5. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tennessee" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",80454,78177,89276,144447,143016,130005,234674,265029,290290,297970,341496,370895,374163,396595,500011,533235,563085,614328,610082,570892,849088,895318,843606,796681,838243 "Natural gas",4,7,20,7,4,1,1,0,0,0,0,2,1,1,3,1,2,1,1,2,1,1,3,1,2

  6. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Utah" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",23525,23545,21953,24864,28075,32614,24593,27565,37366,34547,37057,35348,32849,35716,33918,30837,33609,33601,32715,33485,29978,32977,30210,28162,31653 "Natural gas",22,17,17,12,12,15,18,19,8,1,3,6,3,3,2,1,1,1,1,3,2,1,1,1,0

  7. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Washington" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",3362,2820,1690,1695,3221,4203,3123,2707,2256,3945,7475,9309,19572,68959,85701,89418,76615,65080,80288,55300,71156,73657,73826,63973,62933 "Natural gas",36,43,21,19,41,46,43,33,30,29,23,23,22,43,41,17,15,12,19,18,17,12,7,2,2

  8. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wyoming" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Coal",45629,49564,48004,85490,74270,83774,91179,91675,92333,96307,92960,92260,102300,94749,87414,106527,115147,107547,105501,113255,94338,82028,85538,84633,108365 "Natural gas",2,1,2,3,1,2,1,2,2,0,0,2,172,3,2,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1

  9. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  10. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  11. Assessment of the feasibility of reducing emissions from gasoline and LPG industrial equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekken, M.; Wood, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    In 1994, the California Air Resources Board (ARB) approved a State Implementation Plan (SIP) to bring California`s South Coast Air Basin into compliance with federal ozone standards. The plan includes the adoption of emission controls for previously un(der)regulated off-road vehicles and equipment. Off-road industrial equipment in the 25 to 175 horsepower range has been designed to meet power and fuel economy priorities, with little effort going to emission reductions. California`s plan requires substantial emission reductions for such equipment. The application of catalysts or other emission control technologies to spark-ignited industrial equipment can feasibly and cost-effectively achieve the emission reductions required in the SIP. The paper discusses off-road catalyst application, availability, and packaging. In addition, other technologies to reduce emissions are addressed, including engine, fuel system, and exhaust system modifications, and the use of alternate fuels. Anticipated costs are also discussed. There is good reason to presume that spark-ignited industrial equipment will be able to achieve the required emission reductions in the time frame indicated in the SIP.

  12. Nonferrous industry particulate emissions: source category report. Final report, June 1983-August 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, M.; Minden, A.

    1986-12-01

    The report gives results of the development of particulate-emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the nonferrous industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from nonferrous plants, the data were summarized and rated in terms of reliability. Size-specific emission factors were developed from these data for the major processes used in the manufacture of nonferrous metals. A detailed process description is presented with emphasis on factors affecting the generation of emissions. There were replacements for Sections 7.1 (Primary Aluminum Production), 7.3 (Primary Copper Smelting), 7.6 (Primary Lead Smelting), 7.7 (Primary Zinc Smelting), and 7.11 (Secondary Lead Smelting) of EPA report AP-42. A Compilation of Air Pollutant Emissions Factors, was prepared, containing the size-specific emission factors developed during the program.

  13. Table 7. Electric power industry emissions estimates, 1990 through 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Vermont" "Emission type", 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000, 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990 "Sulfur dioxide (short tons)" "Natural Gas",0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 "Natural gas",38,37,26,36,40,40,39,24,39,46,47,41,42,47,52,42,45,47,46,44,13,10,9,10,8 "Petroleum",32,34,26,58,2,2,1,11,8,23,25,28,21,55,137,97,127,50,17,35,17,3,2,0,14

  14. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Table 4. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector percent of total Shares State Commercial Electric Power Residential Industrial Transportation Alabama 1.5% 53.6% 1.8% 17.8% 25.3% Alaska 6.6% 7.3% 4.3% 48.4% 33.3% Arizona 2.5% 58.3% 2.6% 4.8% 31.8% Arkansas 4.2% 52.4% 3.3% 13.6% 26.5% California 4.5% 12.9% 7.9% 20.7% 54.0% Colorado 4.1% 42.6% 9.0% 15.3% 29.0% Connecticut 10.4% 19.8% 21.0% 6.8% 42.1% Delaware 5.7% 30.2% 7.0% 27.8% 29.3% District of Columbia 35.5% 0.0%

  15. The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2007-11-27

    This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the

  16. Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

    2007-08-04

    The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

  17. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  18. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Qin Peng Xizhe

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  19. DOE Seeks Proposals to Increase Investment in Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement soliciting projects to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources and to put CO2 to beneficial use.

  20. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non

  1. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1999-01-01

    A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

  2. Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1999-08-10

    A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

  3. FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in Meredosia, Illinois. ...

  4. Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... CO2 from an industrial coal-fired source to produce biofuel and other high value co-products. ... Aggregates, Ltd. cement manufacturing plant in San Antonio, Texas. (DOE Share: ...

  5. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Table 3. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector million metric tons carbon dioxide State Commercial Electric Power Residential Industrial Transportation Total Alabama 1.8 64.2 2.2 21.3 30.3 119.8 Alaska 2.4 2.6 1.6 17.5 12.0 36.1 Arizona 2.4 54.7 2.4 4.5 29.8 93.8 Arkansas 2.8 35.5 2.2 9.3 18.0 67.8 California 16.0 45.7 27.7 72.9 190.8 353.1 Colorado 3.7 38.6 8.2 13.9 26.3 90.5 Connecticut 3.6 6.8 7.2 2.3 14.4 34.3 Delaware 0.8 4.1 0.9 3.7 3.9 13.4 District of Columbia

  6. Cutting Carbon Emissions under 111(d): The case for expanding solar energy in America

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Solar energy is a solution technology that can provide a cost-effective, economically beneficial, and integral part of a state's effort to regulate carbon emissions from the electric sector. Solar energy's rapidly falling prices and rapidly growing generating capacity, as well as the volatility of fossil fuel prices, give solar energy the potential to transform compliance with both new carbon emission requirements and other existing requirements under the Clean Air Act.

  7. Large and stable emission current from synthesized carbon nanotube/fiber network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Yunsong; Xiao, Mei; Zhang, Xiaobing Wang, Qilong; Li, Chen; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yunkang

    2014-02-14

    In order to obtain a large and stable electron field emission current, the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized on carbon fibers by cold wall chemical vapor deposition method. In the hierarchical nanostructures, carbon fibers are entangled together to form a conductive network, it could provide excellent electron transmission and adhesion property between electrode and emitters, dispersed clusters of carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters have been synthesized on the top of carbon fibers as field emitters, this kind of emitter distribution could alleviate electrostatic shielding effect and protect emitters from being wholly destroyed. Field emission properties of this kind of carbon nanotube/fiber network have been tested, up to 30?mA emission current at an applied electric field of 6.4?V/?m was emitted from as-prepared hierarchical nanostructures. Small current degradation at large emission current output by DC power operation indicated that carbon nanotube/fiber network could be a promising candidate for field emission electron source.

  8. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  9. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  10. Carbon Dioxide and Helium Emissions from a Reservoir of Magmatic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in eastern California. The gas is released mainly as diffuse emissions from normal-temperature soils, but some gas issues from steam vents or leaves the mountain dissolved...

  11. Overview of Carbon Storage Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Roughly one third of the United States’ carbon emissions come from power plants and other large point sources, such as industrial facilities. The Carbon Storage Program is focused on ensuring the...

  12. Fabrication of carbon nanotube emitters on the graphite rod and their high field emission performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yuning; Hoon Shin, Dong; Nam Yun, Ki; Song, Yenan; Saito, Yahachi; Jin Lee, Cheol

    2014-01-27

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters with small emission area were fabricated on graphite rods using CNT films. By introducing the edge polishing process, the field emission performance of the CNT emitter was much improved, which showed a very high emission current of 6.34 mA (1.6 A/cm{sup 2}) under an applied electric field of 5.3 V/μm. It also indicates good long-term emission stability, which reveals no degradation in the emission current for 20 h. The emission patterns demonstrate uniform and well-focused electron beam spots. The enhanced field emission performance is mainly attributed to the suppressed edge emission after the edge polishing process.

  13. Outstanding field emission properties of wet-processed titanium dioxide coated carbon nanotube based field emission devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jinzhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei Chen, Xiaohong; Guo, Pingsheng; Piao, Xianqing; Sun, Zhuo; Xu, Peng; Wang, Miao; Li, Jun

    2015-02-16

    Field emission devices using a wet-processed composite cathode of carbon nanotube films coated with titanium dioxide exhibit outstanding field emission characteristics, including ultralow turn on field of 0.383 V μm{sup −1} and threshold field of 0.657 V μm{sup −1} corresponding with a very high field enhancement factor of 20 000, exceptional current stability, and excellent emission uniformity. The improved field emission properties are attributed to the enhanced edge effect simultaneously with the reduced screening effect, and the lowered work function of the composite cathode. In addition, the highly stable electron emission is found due to the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the carbon nanotubes, which prohibits the cathode from the influence of ions and free radical created in the emission process as well as residual oxygen gas in the device. The high-performance solution-processed composite cathode demonstrates great potential application in vacuum electronic devices.

  14. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025

  15. Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential applications include mobile computing and communication devices, LCDs, electrostatic scrubbers for industrial air pollution control, and any applications requiring high ...

  16. Carbon emissions reduction strategies in Africa from improved waste management: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2010-11-15

    The paper summarises a literature review into waste management practices across Africa as part of a study to assess methods to reduce carbon emissions. Research shows that the average organic content for urban Municipal Solid Waste in Africa is around 56% and its degradation is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The paper concludes that the most practical and economic way to manage waste in the majority of urban communities in Africa and therefore reduce carbon emissions is to separate waste at collection points to remove dry recyclables by door to door collection, compost the remaining biogenic carbon waste in windrows, using the maturated compost as a substitute fertilizer and dispose the remaining fossil carbon waste in controlled landfills.

  17. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and

  18. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, Jayant; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Iyer, Maithili; McNeil, Michael; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Roy, Joyashree; Roy, Moumita; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

    2011-04-15

    This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analysis supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.

  19. Decadal growth of black carbon emissions in India - article no. L02807

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, S.K.; Beig, G.; Sharma, C.

    2008-01-15

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology has been used to construct the black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Indian geographical region. The distribution of emissions from a broader level to a spatial resolution of 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid has been carried out by considering micro level details and activity data of fossil fuels and bio-fuels. Our calculated total BC emissions were 1343.78 Gg and 835.50 Gg for the base years 2001 and 1991 respectively with a decadal growth of around 61%, which is highly significant. The district level analysis shows a diverse spatial distribution with the top 10% emitting districts contributing nearly 50% of total BC emission. Coal contributes more than 50% of total BC emission. All the metropolitan cities show high BC emissions due to high population density giving rise to high vehicular emissions and more demand of energy.

  20. NETL-Led Laboratory-Industry-Academia Collaboration Is Accelerating Carbon-Capture Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory established the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative to take carbon-capture concepts from the laboratory to the power plant more quickly, at a lower cost, and with reduced risk than would be accomplished following more traditional research and development pathways. Today, the NETL-led CCSI has proven itself to be a model of successful, effective collaboration among government, industry, and academia.

  1. The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

  2. Industry Information Practices and the Failure to Remember

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Information Resources » Industries & Technologies Industries & Technologies The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) emphasizes innovative technologies to increase manufacturing agility and open new markets. AMO also maintains a range of projects, analyses, protocols, and strategies to reduce industrial energy intensity and carbon emissions in specific industries and technology areas: Industries Aluminum Chemicals Forest Products Glass Metal Casting Mining Other Industries Petroleum

  3. Inventory of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Kora, Angela R.; Shankle, Steve A.; Fowler, Kimberly M.

    2009-06-29

    The Carbon Management Strategic Initiative (CMSI) is a lab-wide initiative to position the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a leader in science, technology and policy analysis required to understand, mitigate and adapt to global climate change as a nation. As part of an effort to walk the talk in the field of carbon management, PNNL conducted its first carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions inventory for the 2007 calendar year. The goal of this preliminary inventory is to provide PNNL staff and management with a sense for the relative impact different activities at PNNL have on the labs total carbon footprint.

  4. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013 October 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are

  5. Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

    2008-05-01

    The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Field emission from carbon films deposited by VHF CVD on difference substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramov, A A; Andronov, A N; Felter, T E; Ioffe, A F; Kosarev, A I; Shotov, M V; Vinogradov, A J

    1999-04-01

    As previously demonstrated, non-diamond carbon (NDC) films deposited at low temperatures 200-300 C on silicon tips reduced the threshold of field emission. In this paper we will present the results of the study of field emission from flat NDC films prepared by VHF CVD. Emission measurements were performed in a diode configuration at approximately 10{sup {minus}10} Torr. NDC films were deposited on ceramic and on c-Si substrates sputter coated with layers of Ti, Cu, Ni and Pt. The back contact material influences the emission characteristics but not as a direct correlation to work function. A model of field emission from metal-NDC film structures will be discussed.

  7. Emission spectra analysis of arc plasma for synthesis of carbon nanostructures in various magnetic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jian; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Shashurin, Alexey; Keidar, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Arc discharge supported by the erosion of anode materials is one of the most practical and efficient methods to synthesize various high-quality carbon nanostructures. By introducing a non-uniform magnetic field in arc plasmas, high-purity single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and large-scale graphene flakes can be obtained in a single step. In this paper, ultraviolet-visible emission spectra of arc in different spots under various magnetic conditions are analyzed to provide an in situ investigation for transformation processes of evaporated species and growth of carbon nanostructures in arc. Based on the arc spectra of carbon diatomic Swan bands, vibrational temperature in arc is determined. The vibrational temperature in arc center was measured around 6950 K, which is in good agreement with our simulation results. Experimental and simulation results suggest that SWCNT are formed in the arc periphery region. Transmission electronic microscope and Raman spectroscope are also employed to characterize the properties of carbon nanostructures.

  8. COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

    2005-07-14

    Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to

  9. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Generation of Electric Power in the United States 1998

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The President issued a directive on April 15, 1999, requiring an annual report summarizing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by electricity generation in the United States, including both utilities and nonutilities. In response, this report is jointly submitted by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  10. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  11. New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1992-12-31

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the State`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  12. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  13. Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

    1992-01-01

    A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

  14. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  15. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  16. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  17. Effect of industrial by-products containing electron acceptors on mitigating methane emission during rice cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Muhammad Aslam; Lee, Chang Hoon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Kim, Pil Joo

    2009-10-15

    Three industrial by-products (fly ash, phosphogypsum and blast furnace slag), were evaluated for their potential re-use as soil amendments to reduce methane (CH{sub 4}) emission resulting from rice cultivation. In laboratory incubations, CH{sub 4} production rates from anoxic soil slurries were significantly reduced at amendment levels of 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (wt wt{sup -1}), while observed CO{sub 2} production rates were enhanced. The level of suppression in methane production was the highest for phosphogypsum, followed by blast slag and then fly ash. In the greenhouse experiment, CH{sub 4} emission rates from the rice planted potted soils significantly decreased with the increasing levels (2-20 Mg ha{sup -1}) of the selected amendments applied, while rice yield simultaneously increased compared to the control treatment. At 10 Mg ha{sup -1} application level of the amendments, total seasonal CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced by 20%, 27% and 25%, while rice grain yields were increased by 17%, 15% and 23% over the control with fly ash, phosphogypsum, and blast slag amendments, respectively. The suppression of CH{sub 4} production rates as well as total seasonal CH{sub 4} flux could be due to the increased concentrations of active iron, free iron, manganese oxides, and sulfate in the amended soil, which acted as electron acceptors and controlled methanogens' activity by limiting substrates availability. Among the amendments, blast furnace slag and fly ash contributed mainly to improve the soil nutrients balance and increased the soil pH level towards neutral point, but soil acidity was developed with phosphogypsum application. Conclusively, blast slag among the selected amendments would be a suitable soil amendment for reducing CH{sub 4} emissions as well as sustaining rice productivity.

  18. Pollutant emissions reduction and performance optimization of an industrial radiant tube burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scribano, Gianfranco; Solero, Giulio; Coghe, Aldo

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed upon a single-ended self-recuperative radiant tube burner fuelled by natural gas in the non-premixed mode, which is used in the steel industry for surface treatment. The main goal of the research activity was a systematic investigation of the burner aimed to find the best operating conditions in terms of optimum equivalence ratio, thermal power and lower pollutant emissions. The analysis, which focused on the main parameters influencing the thermal efficiency and pollutant emissions at the exhaust (NO{sub x} and CO), has been carried out for different operating conditions of the burner: input thermal powers from 12.8 up to 18kW and equivalence ratio from 0.5 (very lean flame) to 0.95 (quasi-stoichiometric condition). To significantly reduce pollutant emissions ensuring at the same time the thermal requirements of the heating process, it has been developed a new burner configuration, in which a fraction of the exhaust gases recirculates in the main combustion region through a variable gap between the burner efflux and the inner flame tube. This internal recirculation mechanism (exhaust gases recirculation, EGR) has been favoured through the addition of a pre-combustion chamber terminated by a converging nozzle acting as a mixing/ejector to promote exhaust gas entrainment into the flame tube. The most important result of this solution was a decrease of NO{sub x} emissions at the exhaust of the order of 50% with respect to the original burner geometry, for a wide range of thermal power and equivalence ratio. (author)

  19. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 μm, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  20. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  1. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Carbon Dioxide Capture for Natural Gas and Industrial Applications Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas and Industrial Applications Carbon Dioxide Capture Technologies Carbon Dioxide Storage Technologies Crosscutting Technologies in Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial

  2. Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries

  3. Biotechnology for removal of carbon disulfide emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1995-07-01

    Biological removal in a ``biofilter`` plant of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide from the air effluent of a viscose plant at Teepak, Inc., is analyzed from process and economic standpoints by use of the Aspen Plus simulation program. The metabolic product from the biofilter, 3% sulfuric acid, must be transformed at the source into either a marketable or recyclable commodity (such as 95% sulfuric acid, high-quality sulfur, or high-quality gypsum) or a material with reasonable landfill costs (such as sulfur or gypsum). The simulations indicate that the total capital requirement for production of concentrated sulfuric acid is $48.9 million; for high-quality gypsum, $40.4 million; and for high-quality sulfur, $29.4 million. Production of concentrated sulfur for landfill is not economically practical. The process to neutralize the 3% acid effluent with limestone and landfill the resulting low-quality gypsum requires the lowest total investment of the processes simulated, $8.7 million, including the biofilter plant.

  4. The importance of China's household sector for black carbon emissions - article no. L12708

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streets, D.G.; Aunan, K.

    2005-06-30

    The combustion of coal and biofuels in Chinese households is a large source of black carbon (BC), representing about 10-15% of total global emissions during the past two decades, depending on the year. How the Chinese household sector develops during the next 50 years will have an important bearing on future aerosol concentrations, because the range of possible outcomes (about 550 Gg yr{sup -1}) is greater than total BC emissions in either the United States or Europe (each about 400-500 Gg yr{sup -1}). In some Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenarios biofuels persist in rural China for at least the next 50 years, whereas in other scenarios a transition to cleaner fuels and technologies effectively mitigates BC emissions. This paper discusses measures and policies that would help this transition and also raises the possibility of including BC emission reductions as a post-Kyoto option for China and other developing countries.

  5. State-of-the-art adsorption and membrane separation processes for carbon dioxide production from carbon dioxide emitting industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebner, A.D.; Ritter, J.A.

    2009-07-01

    With the growing concern about global warming placing greater demands on improving energy efficiency and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, the need for improving the energy intensive, separation processes involving CO{sub 2} is well recognized. The US Department of Energy estimates that the separation of CO{sub 2} represents 75% of the cost associated with its separation, storage, transport, and sequestration operations. Hence, energy efficient, CO{sub 2} separation technologies with improved economics are needed for industrial processing and for future options to capture and concentrate CO{sub 2} for reuse or sequestration. The overall goal of this review is to foster the development of new adsorption and membrane technologies to improve manufacturing efficiency and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. This study focuses on the power, petrochemical, and other CO{sub 2} emitting industries, and provides a detailed review of the current commercial CO{sub 2} separation technologies, i.e., absorption, adsorption, membrane, and cryogenic, an overview of the emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO{sub 2} separation, and both near and long term recommendations for future research on adsorption and membrane technologies. Flow sheets of the principal CO{sub 2} producing processes are provided for guidance and new conceptual flow sheets with ideas on the placement of CO{sub 2} separations technologies have also been devised.

  6. US cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

  8. Benchmarking the energy efficiency of Dutch industry: An assessment of the expected effect on energy consumption and CO2 emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phylipsen, Dian; Blok, Kornelis; Worrell, Ernst; De Beer, Jeroen

    2002-06-01

    As part of its energy and climate policy the Dutch government has reached an agreement with the Dutch energy-intensive industry that is explicitly based on industry's relative energy efficiency performance. The energy efficiency of the Dutch industry is benchmarked against that of comparable industries in countries world-wide. In the agreement, industry is required to belong to the top-of-the-world in terms of energy efficiency. In return, the government refrains from implementing additional climate policies.This article assesses the potential effects of this agreement on energy consumption and CO2 emissions by comparing the current level of energy efficiency of the Dutch industry - including electricity production - to that of the most efficient countries and regions. At the current structure achieving the regional best practice level for the selected energy-intensive industries would result in a 5plus or minus 2 percent lower current primary energy consumption than the actual level. Most of the savings are expected in the petrochemical industry and in electricity generation. Avoided CO2 emissions would amount to 4 Mt CO2. A first estimate of the effect of the benchmarking agreement in 2012 suggests primary energy savings of 50-130 PJ or 5-10 Mt CO2 avoided compared to the estimated Business as Usual development (5-15 percent). This saving is smaller than what a continuation of the existing policies of Long Term Agreements would probably deliver.

  9. MINIMIZING NET CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS BY OXIDATIVE CO-PYROLYSIS OF COAL/BIOMASS BLENDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hurt; Todd Lang

    2001-06-25

    Solid fuels vary significantly with respect to the amount of CO{sub 2} directly produced per unit heating value. Elemental carbon is notably worse than other solid fuels in this regard, and since carbon (char) is an intermediate product of the combustion of almost all solid fuels, there is an opportunity to reduce specific CO{sub 2} emissions by reconfiguring processes to avoid char combustion wholly or in part. The primary goal of this one-year Innovative Concepts project is to make a fundamental thermodynamic assessment of three modes of solid fuel use: (1) combustion, (2) carbonization, and (3) oxidative pyrolysis, for a wide range of coal and alternative solid fuels. This period a large set of thermodynamic calculations were carried out to assess the potential of the three processes. The results show that the net carbon dioxide emissions and the relative ranking of the different processes depends greatly on the particular baseline fossil fuel being displaced by the new technology. As an example, in a baseline natural gas environment, it is thermodynamically more advantageous to carbonize biomass than to combust it, and even more advantageous to oxidatively pyrolyze the biomass.

  10. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2011-04-28

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

  11. Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

    2010-04-26

    Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

  12. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  13. Triode carbon nanotube field emission display using barrier rib structure and manufacturing method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Han, In-taek; Kim, Jong-min

    2003-01-01

    A triode carbon nanotube field emission display (FED) using a barrier rib structure and a manufacturing method thereof are provided. In a triode carbon nanotube FED employing barrier ribs, barrier ribs are formed on cathode lines by a screen printing method, a mesh structure is mounted on the barrier ribs, and a spacer is inserted between the barrier ribs through slots of the mesh structure, thereby stably fixing the mesh structure and the spacer within a FED panel due to support by the barrier ribs.

  14. Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Carbon Grid Study: Analysis of a 50% Emission Reduction in California Gregory Brinkman and Jennie Jorgenson National Renewable Energy Laboratory Ali Ehlen and James H. Caldwell Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Technologies Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64884 January 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the

  15. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  16. FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The FutureGen Industrial Alliance today announced details of a process that will lead to the selection of an Illinois site for the storage of carbon dioxide collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in Meredosia, Illinois.

  17. The costs of different energy taxes for stabilizing U. S. carbon dioxide emissions: An application of the Gemini model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leary, N.A.; Scheraga, J.D. . Climate Change Div.)

    1993-09-01

    In the absence of policies to mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide, US emissions will grow substantially over the period 1990 to 2030. One option for mitigation of carbon dioxide emissions is to tax energy use. For example, fossil energy might be taxed according to its carbon content, heating value, or market value. Using a partial equilibrium model of US energy markets that combines detailed representation of technological processes with optimizing behavior by energy users and suppliers, the authors compare the costs of using carbon, Btu, and ad valorem taxes as instruments to implement a policy of emission stabilization. The authors also examine the differential impacts of these taxes on the mix of primary energy consumed in the US. The carbon tax induces the substitution of renewables and natural gas for coal and stabilizes carbon dioxide emissions at an estimated annual cost of $125 billion. The Btu tax induces the substitution of renewables for coal, but does not encourage the use of natural gas. The estimated cost of stabilization with the Btu tax is $210 billion per year. The ad valorem tax, like the Btu tax, does not encourage the substitution of natural gas for coal. It also causes a significant shift away from oil in comparison to the carbon tax. The cost of stabilizing emissions with the ad valorem tax is estimated at $450 billion per year.

  18. Input quality, trade liberalization, and abatement of carbon-dioxide emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khanna, M.; Zilberman, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper introduces a methodology to derive the incentives provided by two alternative policies--an emissions tax vs. liberalization of trade in higher quality coal--for increasing conversion-efficiency of electricity generation and for analyzing their impact on carbon emissions as well as on output of electricity. This methodology is applied empirically to examine the potential for abatement of carbon emissions from existing coal-based plants in the thermal power sector in India through the adoption of higher qualities of coal. The paper provides strong empirical support for achieving a complementarity between the goals of abatement and increased output, through policies which remove distortions in domestic and trade policies. It also demonstrates that abatement induced by an emissions-tax alone leads to a conflict between these goals. The authors examine a situation where the availability of higher quality coal is constrained by domestic and trade barriers. The role of coal quality in improving conversion-efficiency is analyzed when microunits are heterogeneous and have putty-clay technologies. The framework developed here juxtaposes engineering relationships governing plant performance and stylized features of electricity-generating technologies with a behavioral economic model.

  19. Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000 - article no. GB2018

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, T.C.; Bhardwaj, E.; Dong, R.; Jogani, R.; Jung, S.K.; Roden, C.; Streets, D.G.; Trautmann, N.M.

    2007-05-15

    We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of black carbon increase almost linearly, totaling about 1000 Gg in 1850, 2200 Gg in 1900, 3000 Gg in 1950, and 4400 Gg in 2000. Primary organic carbon shows a similar pattern, with emissions of 4100 Gg, 5800 Gg, 6700 Gg, and 8700 Gg in 1850, 1900, 1950, and 2000, respectively. Biofuel is responsible for over half of BC emission until about 1890, and dominates energy-related primary OC emission throughout the entire period. Coal contributes the greatest fraction of BC emission between 1880 and 1975, and is overtaken by emissions from biofuel around 1975, and by diesel engines around 1990. Previous work suggests a rapid rise in BC emissions between 1950 and 2000. This work supports a more gradual increase between 1950 and 2000, similar to the increase between 1850 and 1925; implementation of clean technology is a primary reason.

  20. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-­‐Energy, Carbon-­Dioxide-­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC

  1. Variations in embodied energy and carbon emission intensities of construction materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan Omar, Wan-Mohd-Sabki; Doh, Jeung-Hwan; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak

    2014-11-15

    Identification of parameter variation allows us to conduct more detailed life cycle assessment (LCA) of energy and carbon emission material over their lifecycle. Previous research studies have demonstrated that hybrid LCA (HLCA) can generally overcome the problems of incompleteness and accuracy of embodied energy (EE) and carbon (EC) emission assessment. Unfortunately, the current interpretation and quantification procedure has not been extensively and empirically studied in a qualitative manner, especially in hybridising between the process LCA and I-O LCA. To determine this weakness, this study empirically demonstrates the changes in EE and EC intensities caused by variations to key parameters in material production. Using Australia and Malaysia as a case study, the results are compared with previous hybrid models to identify key parameters and issues. The parameters considered in this study are technological changes, energy tariffs, primary energy factors, disaggregation constant, emission factors, and material price fluctuation. It was found that changes in technological efficiency, energy tariffs and material prices caused significant variations in the model. Finally, the comparison of hybrid models revealed that non-energy intensive materials greatly influence the variations due to high indirect energy and carbon emission in upstream boundary of material production, and as such, any decision related to these materials should be considered carefully. - Highlights: • We investigate the EE and EC intensity variation in Australia and Malaysia. • The influences of parameter variations on hybrid LCA model were evaluated. • Key significant contribution to the EE and EC intensity variation were identified. • High indirect EE and EC content caused significant variation in hybrid LCA models. • Non-energy intensive material caused variation between hybrid LCA models.

  2. Field emission behavior of carbon nanotube field emitters after high temperature thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yuning; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yun, Ki Nam; Leti, Guillaume; Hwang, Yeon Mo; Song, Yenan; Saito, Yahachi; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2014-07-15

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters have been fabricated by attaching a CNT film on a graphite rod using graphite adhesive material. The CNT field emitters showed much improved field emission properties due to increasing crystallinity and decreasing defects in CNTs after the high temperature thermal annealing at 900 °C in vacuum ambient. The CNT field emitters showed the low turn-on electric field of 1.15 V/μm, the low threshold electric field of 1.62 V/μm, and the high emission current of 5.9 mA which corresponds to a current density of 8.5 A/cm{sup 2}. In addition, the CNT field emitters indicated the enhanced field emission properties due to the multi-stage effect when the length of the graphite rod increases. The CNT field emitter showed good field emission stability after the high temperature thermal annealing. The CNT field emitter revealed a focused electron beam spot without any focusing electrodes and also showed good field emission repeatability.

  3. Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furimsky, E.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

  4. Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-02-01

    Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

  5. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Release Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research: Reducing Global Carbon Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine releases the Commercial Aircraft Propulsion and Energy Systems Research: Reducing Global Carbon Emissions report, which focuses on large (single- and twin-aisle) planes that transport more than 100 people. These aircraft account for more than 90% of greenhouse gas emissions from all commercial aircraft.

  6. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  11. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However

  12. Effect of plasma parameters on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Tewari, Aarti

    2011-06-15

    The effect of plasma parameters (e.g., electron density and temperature, ion density and temperature, neutral atom density and temperature) on the growth (without a catalyst), structure, and field emission properties of a spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, positively charged ions, and neutral atoms and the energy balance of the various species in plasma, has been developed. Numerical calculations of the radius of the spherical CNT tip for different CNT number densities and plasma parameters have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that upon an increase in the CNT number density and plasma parameters, the radius of the spherical CNT tip decreases, and consequently the field emission factor for the spherical CNT tip increases.

  13. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. . Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu . Research Inst. of Forestry)

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  14. Optically active substituted polyacetylene@carbon nanotube hybrids: Preparation, characterization and infrared emissivity property study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, Xiaohai; Zhou, Yuming Zhang, Tao; Wang, Yongjuan; Zhang, Zewu; He, Man

    2014-08-15

    Optically active substituted polyacetylene@multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPA@MWCNTs) nanohybrids were fabricated by wrapping helical SPA copolymers onto the surface of modified nanotubes through ester bonding linkage. SPA copolymer based on chiral phenylalanine and serine was pre-polymerized by a rhodium zwitterion catalyst in THF, and evidently proved to possess strong optical activity and adopt a predominately one-handed helical conformation. Various characterizations including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated that the SPA had been covalently grafted onto the nanotubes without destroying their original graphite structure. The wrapped SPA was found to exhibit an enhancement in thermal stability and still maintained considerable optical activity after grafting. The infrared emissivity property of the nanohybrids at 8–14 μm was investigated in addition. The results indicated that the SPA@MWCNTs hybrid matrix could possess a much lower infrared emissivity value (ε=0.707) than raw MWCNTs, which might be due to synergistic effect of the unique helical conformation of optically active SPA and strengthened interfacial interaction between the organic polymers and inorganic nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: Optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids with low infrared emissivity. - Highlights: • Synthesis of optically active SPA copolymer derived from serine and phenylalanine. • Preparation and characterization of optically active SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids. • Application study of the SPA@MWCNTs nanohybrids (ε=0.707) in lowering the infrared emissivity.

  15. Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

    2004-04-22

    We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

  16. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  17. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity

  18. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  19. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  20. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  1. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  2. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  3. Synthesis of carbon nanofibres from waste chicken fat for field electron emission applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suriani, A.B.; Dalila, A.R.; Mohamed, A.; Isa, I.M.; Kamari, A.; Hashim, N.; Soga, T.; Tanemura, M.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Waste chicken fat is used as a starting material to produce CNFs via TCVD method. • High heating rate applied resulted in aggregation of catalyst particles. • Aggregated catalyst produced sea urchin-like CNFs with amorphous nature. • The as-grown CNFs presented a potential for field electron emission applications. - Abstract: Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) with sea urchin-like morphology were synthesised from waste chicken fat precursor via catalytic thermal chemical vapour deposition method at 750 °C. The CNFs showed amorphous structures under high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction examination. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the core of the sea urchin-like CNFs was composed of Fe{sub 3}C formed within the first 20 min of synthesis time. The growth of amorphous CNFs from agglomerated Fe{sub 3}C particles was favourable due to the high heating rate applied during the synthesis. Field electron emission examination of the CNFs indicated turn-on and threshold field values of 5.4 and 6.6 V μm{sup −1} at current density of 1 and 10 μA cm{sup −2}, respectively. This study demonstrates that waste chicken fat, a low-cost and readily available resource, can be used as an inexpensive carbon source for the production of CNFs with a potential application in field electron emitters.

  4. QTR Webinar: Chapter 8 - Industry and Manufacturing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar: Chapter 8 - Industry and Manufacturing QTR Webinar: Chapter 8 - Industry and Manufacturing Background The U.S. industrial sector accounts for approximately one-third of the overall energy consumption and associated carbon emissions in the U.S. About four-fifths of end-use industrial energy is consumed by the manufacturing sub-sector, which produces goods ranging from fundamental commodities to sophisticated final-use products. Many of these products have a significant energy and carbon

  5. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  6. Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

  7. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-06-15

    China’s annual cement production (i.e., 1,868 Mt) in 2010 accounted for nearly half of the world’s annual cement production in the same year. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the cement industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese cement industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 279 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 144 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 161 Mt CO2. The fuel CSC model for the cement industry suggests cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 4,326 PJ which is equivalent to the total technical potential with associated CO2 emission reductions of 406 Mt CO2. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. We also developed a scenario in which instead of only implementing the international technologies in 2010-2030, we implement both international and Chinese domestic technologies during the analysis period and calculate the saving and cost of conserved energy accordingly. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese cement industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  8. Growth of Multiwalled-Carbon Nanotubes using Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers as Templates/Scaffolds and Improved Field-Emission Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Hongtao; Yang, X.; Baylor, Larry R; Lowndes, Douglas H

    2005-01-01

    Multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are grown on top of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) via microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD). The VACNFs are first grown in a direct-current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor using nickel catalyst. A layer of carbon-silicon materials is then deposited on the VACNFs and the nickel catalyst particle is broken down into smaller nanoparticles during an intermediate reactive-ion-plasma deposition step. These nickel nanoparticles nucleate and grow MWCNTs in the following MPECVD process. Movable-probe measurements show that the MWCNTs have greatly improved field-emission properties relative to the VACNFs

  9. Secretary Chu Announces First Awards from $1.4 Billion for Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the first round of funding from $1.4 billion from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act for the selection of 12 projects that will capture carbon dioxide from industrial sources for storage or beneficial use.

  10. FE’s Advanced Combustion R&D Seeks Innovative Ways to Lower Cost of Capturing Carbon Emissions from Coal Fired Power Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    You’ve probably heard about carbon capture and storage (CCS), a suite of technologies designed to capture and store carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plants and industrial sources.  Because CCS can...

  11. Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Sources into Useful Products | Department of Energy Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products Secretary Chu Announces Six Projects to Convert Captured CO2 Emissions from Industrial Sources into Useful Products July 22, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced today the selections of six projects that aim to find ways of converting captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial

  12. Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wilkins, Michael J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-06-11

    Energy and climate change represent significant factors in global security. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, while global in scope, are influenced by pore-scale phenomena in the subsurface. We are developing tools to visualize and investigate processes in pore network microfluidic structures with transparent covers as representations of normally-opaque porous media. In situ fluorescent oxygen sensing methods and fluorescent cellulosic materials are being used to investigate processes related to terrestrial carbon cycling involving cellulytic respiring microorganisms. These structures also enable visualization of water displacement from pore spaces by hydrophobic fluids, including carbon dioxide, in studies related to carbon sequestration.

  13. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2013) million metric tons carbon dioxide Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 142.1 133.5 138.3 139.1 141.3 142.9 145.1 146.5 138.9 119.4 131.8 128.9 122.2 119.8 -15.7% -22.3 Alaska 44.3 43.4 43.5 43.6 46.7 48.0 45.7 43.9 39.3 37.7 38.5 38.4 37.8 36.1 -18.5% -8.2 Arizona 86.0 88.3 87.6 89.4 96.2 96.3 99.2 100.9 101.2 92.2 93.9 91.9 89.9 93.8

  14. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Table 2. 2013 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel million metric tons of carbon dioxide Shares State Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Alabama 53.3 33.2 33.4 119.8 44.5% 27.7% 27.8% Alaska 1.4 17.1 17.7 36.1 3.9% 47.2% 48.9% Arizona 43.0 32.8 18.1 93.8 45.8% 34.9% 19.3% Arkansas 30.9 21.6 15.3 67.8 45.5% 31.9% 22.5% California 3.6 217.7 131.8 353.1 1.0% 61.7% 37.3% Colorado 34.3 30.6 25.6 90.5 37.9% 33.8% 28.2% Connecticut 0.7 20.8 12.7 34.3 2.1%

  15. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000-2013) metric tons carbon dioxide per person Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 31.9 29.9 30.9 30.9 31.2 31.3 31.3 31.4 29.4 25.1 27.5 26.9 25.4 24.8 -22.4% -7.1 Alaska 70.6 68.4 67.8 67.3 70.9 72.0 67.7 64.6 57.2 53.9 53.9 53.1 51.8 49.0 -30.6% -21.6 Arizona 16.7 16.7 16.2 16.2 17.0 16.5 16.5 16.4 16.1 14.5 14.6 14.2 13.7 14.1 -15.2%

  16. Regional versus global? -- Will strategies for reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from electric utilities increase carbon dioxide emissions?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, J.C.; Dolsak, N.

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal are expected to reduce their SO{sub 2} emissions. The strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions may result in increased CO{sub 2} emissions. Thereby decrease of regional pollution may cause increase of global pollution. Environmental, political, moral, and economic consequences of the two types of pollution differ significantly. Midwestern electric utilities, USA, which are dependent on high-sulfur coal, are analyzed in the paper. However, the same problem is relevant for some European coal fueled power plants. Strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions, employed by Midwestern electric utilities to comply with the clean Air Act amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and their possible affects on CO{sub 2} emissions, are presented. The paper focuses on two general strategies for reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions. First is coal-switching or blending with a low-sulfur coal. Second is construction and use of flue-gas desulfurization devices (scrubbers). A combination of both strategies is also a viable option. Switching to low-sulfur coal may result in larger CO{sub 2} emissions because that coal has different characteristics and has to be transported much greater distances. Scrubbers require significant amounts of energy for their operation which requires burning more coal. This increases the level of CO{sub 2} emissions.

  17. Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis of Baseline Carbon Emissions and Removal in Tropical Rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Benjamin Kroll; Carlos R. Vargas

    2006-01-10

    Conversion of tropical forest to agricultural land and pasture has reduced forest extent and the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation and reforestation can restore those ecosystem services. We have assessed forest species patterns, quantified deforestation and reforestation rates, and projected future baseline carbon emissions and removal in Amazon tropical rainforest at La Selva Central, Peru. The research area is a 4800 km{sup 2} buffer zone around the Parque Nacional Yanachaga-Chemillen, Bosque de Proteccion San Matias-San Carlos, and the Reserva Comunal Yanesha. A planned project for the period 2006-2035 would conserve 4000 ha of forest in a proposed 7000 ha Area de Conservacion Municipale de Chontabamba and establish 5600 ha of natural regeneration and 1400 ha of native species plantations, laid out in fajas de enriquecimiento (contour plantings), to reforest 7000 ha of agricultural land. Forest inventories of seven sites covering 22.6 ha in primary forest and 17 sites covering 16.5 ha in secondary forest measured 17,073 trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm. The 24 sites host trees of 512 species, 267 genera, and 69 families. We could not identify the family of 7% of the trees or the scientific species of 21% of the trees. Species richness is 346 in primary forest and 257 in the secondary forest. In primary forest, 90% of aboveground biomass resides in old-growth species. Conversely, in secondary forest, 66% of aboveground biomass rests in successional species. The density of trees of diameter {ge} 10 cm is 366 trees ha{sup -1} in primary forest and 533 trees ha{sup -1} in secondary forest, although the average diameter is 24 {+-} 15 cm in primary forest and 17 {+-} 8 cm in secondary forest. Using Amazon forest biomass equations and wood densities for 117 species, aboveground biomass is 240 {+-} 30 t ha{sup -1} in the primary sites and 90 {+-} 10 t ha{sup -1} in the

  18. Table 11.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption by Source, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal 3 Natural Gas 4 Petroleum Total 2,9 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 5 Jet Fuel Kero- sene LPG 6 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 7 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 8 Total Wood 10 Waste 11 Fuel Ethanol 12 Bio- diesel Total 1949 1,118 270 12 140 NA 42 13 7 329 8 244 25 820 2,207 145 NA NA NA 145 1950 1,152 313 14 168 NA 48 16 9 357 8 273 26 918 2,382 147 NA NA

  19. Table 11.2d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    d Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Transportation Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Aviation Gasoline Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Jet Fuel LPG 5 Lubricants Motor Gasoline 6 Residual Fuel Oil Total Fuel Ethanol 8 Biodiesel Total 1949 161 NA 12 30 NA (s) 4 306 91 443 6 611 NA NA NA 1950 146 7 14 35 NA (s) 5 332 95 481 6 640 NA NA NA 1951 129 11 18 42 NA (s) 6 360 102 529 7 675 NA NA NA

  20. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result

  1. International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-02-02

    Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

  2. Industrial Technologies Program - A Clean, Secure Energy Future via Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-05-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) leads the national effort to save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the largest energy-using sector of the U.S. economy. ITP drives energy efficiency improvements and carbon dioxide reductions throughout the manufacturing supply chain, helping develop and deploy innovative technologies that transform the way industry uses energy.

  3. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2014-09-12

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to physicochemical limnology and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included Direct Ebullition, Diffusion, Storage flux, and a newly identified Ice-Bubble Storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lake CH4more » emissions was two times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and Diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions respectively. IBS, ~ 10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, dystrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of phosphate and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from thawing permafrost and by enhancing nutrient availability to primary production, which can also fuel decomposition and methanogenesis.« less

  4. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  5. Buildings Energy Data Book: 6.4 Electric and Generic Quad Carbon Emissions

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Electric Quad Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Average Utility Fuel Mix (Million Metric Tons) (1) Petroleum Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Renewable Total 2010 0.83 10.14 46.45 0.00 0.30 57.72 2011 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21 2012 0.00 0.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.65 2013 0.00 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 2014 0.00 0.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.61 2015 0.00 1.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.04 2016 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.83 2017 0.00 0.58 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.58 2018 0.00 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.62 2019 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.00

  6. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Table 9. Net electricity trade index and primary electricity source for states with least and most energy-related carbon dioxide emissions per capita (2000-2013) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Primary 2011 2012 2013 Source Least CO2 per capita New York 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 Natural Gas Vermont 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.6 3.0 3.2 Nuclear California 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 Natural Gas

  7. Characterization of a radio frequency carbon nanotube growth plasma by ultraviolet absorption and optical emission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-04-15

    Radio frequency driven methane/hydrogen plasmas for carbon nanotube growth at pressures between 0.5 and 20 Torr, bias power from 0 to 110 W, and inductive coil power from 0 to 200 W are characterized via optical diagnostics. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used for quantitative determination of CH{sub 3} radical density for these systems, giving densities on the order of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, accounting for approximately 0.1% of the plasma neutral content. Emission data are also analyzed to extract neutral gas temperatures from the H{sub 2} spectrum and electron densities and temperatures and approximate atomic H densities in the system. Neutral temperature is estimated between 700 and 1100 K, though the lower electrode is heated to 1273 K. Electron temperature is estimated to be between 2.5 and 3.5 eV in the high-energy (>12 eV) portion of the electron energy distribution, and the data suggest an overall non-Maxwellian distribution of electrons. The dissociation of hydrogen is estimated at around 0.1%. Dependencies on power and pressure are explored, indicating more efficient ionization, dissociation, and electron heating at lower pressure and higher power. The absence of any dependency on coil power suggests the plasma is operating in a noninductive mode for these conditions.

  8. Coupled Physical/Chemical and Biofiltration Technologies to Reduce Air Emissions from Forest Products Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. McGinnis

    2001-12-31

    The research is a laboratory and bench-scale investigation of a system to concentrate and destroy volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including hazardous air pollutants, formed from the drying of wood and the manufacture of wood board products (e.g., particle board and oriented strandboard). The approach that was investigated involved concentrating the dilute VOCs (<500 ppmv) with a physical/chemical adsorption unit, followed by the treatment of the concentrated voc stream (2,000 to 2,500 ppmv) with a biofiltration unit. The research program lasted three years, and involved three research organizations. Michigan Technological University was the primary recipient of the financial assistance, the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) and Mississippi State University (MSU) were subcontractors to MTU. The ultimate objective of this research was to develop a pilot-scale demonstration of the technology with sufficient data to provide for the design of an industrial system. No commercialization activities were included in this project.

  9. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when

  10. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from petrochemical industries using low-level solid state sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szinyei, W.J.; Kimbell, C.L. (Tracor Atlas, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    Low level solid state sensors provide an inexpensive alternative to monitoring part per billion levels of pollution over wide areas on a continuous basis. Solid state sensors such as those manufactured by Tracer Atlas for hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are commonly applied in personnel protection applications, to monitor for and warn against high levels of certain toxic gases. Although these devices are not precision analytical instruments, with the proper configuration and electronics they can give reliable indication of the presence at the part per billion level of certain polluting gases. These sensors are sufficiently stable so that a general idea of pollutant level at any given time can be established. The configuration, operation and application of sensors sensitive to hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are discussed in particular. Sensitivity, repeatability, and measurement range is also addressed. In low level applications, solid state sensors would be used as perimeter monitors around plants where there might be low level emissions of a pollutant gas that would need to be monitored on a continuous basis. Connecting a distributed group of sensors to an intelligent data gathering system such as a personal computer can allow spatial distributions in time and time weighted averages of pollutant levels to be calculated and charted.

  11. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from 40 lakes along a north–south latitudinal transect in Alaska

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sepulveda-Jauregui, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Martinez-Cruz, K.; Greene, S.; Thalasso, F.

    2015-06-02

    Uncertainties in the magnitude and seasonality of various gas emission modes, particularly among different lake types, limit our ability to estimate methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from northern lakes. Here we assessed the relationship between CH4 and CO2 emission modes in 40 lakes along a latitudinal transect in Alaska to lakes' physicochemical properties and geographic characteristics, including permafrost soil type surrounding lakes. Emission modes included direct ebullition, diffusion, storage flux, and a newly identified ice-bubble storage (IBS) flux. We found that all lakes were net sources of atmospheric CH4 and CO2, but the climate warming impact of lakemore » CH4 emissions was 2 times higher than that of CO2. Ebullition and diffusion were the dominant modes of CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. IBS, ~10% of total annual CH4 emissions, is the release to the atmosphere of seasonally ice-trapped bubbles when lake ice confining bubbles begins to melt in spring. IBS, which has not been explicitly accounted for in regional studies, increased the estimate of springtime emissions from our study lakes by 320%. Geographically, CH4 emissions from stratified, mixotrophic interior Alaska thermokarst (thaw) lakes formed in icy, organic-rich yedoma permafrost soils were 6-fold higher than from non-yedoma lakes throughout the rest of Alaska. The relationship between CO2 emissions and geographic parameters was weak, suggesting high variability among sources and sinks that regulate CO2 emissions (e.g., catchment waters, pH equilibrium). Total CH4 emission was correlated with concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus and total nitrogen in lake water, Secchi depth, and lake area, with yedoma lakes having higher nutrient concentrations, shallower Secchi depth, and smaller lake areas. Our findings suggest that permafrost type plays important roles in determining CH4 emissions from lakes by both supplying organic matter to methanogenesis directly from

  12. Emission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission intensities and line ratios from a fast neutral helium beam J-W. Ahn a͒ Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA D. Craig, b͒ G. Fiksel, and D. J. Den Hartog Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA J. K. Anderson Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA M. G.

  13. Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pilot-scale testing of an advanced technology for economically capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas has begun at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, Ala.

  14. Industrial market for sulfur dioxide emission-control systems. Final report. [Forecasting to 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Under the postulated EIA medium world oil price scenario, in which oil prices are projected to rise at a real rate of 2.2% per year, coal will represent from 78 to 91% of MFBI fuel consumption by the year 2000, up from the present 16%. This increase would occur even in the absence of FUA, because the cost of coal is substantially lower than the cost of oil or gas. Much of this market will develop in the relatively near to intermediate term (before 1990). Annual installations will be much lower (by about 40%) after that period, reflecting a lower overall steam demand growth rate and the fact that much of the discretionary conversion of gas and oil boilers to coal will have been completed. About 22% of the sales will be for discretionary conversion of oil and gas boilers still having some useful life; the rest will be for nondiscretionary expansion or replacement of worn-out boilers. Under the postulated cost and performance estimates for the competing coal-burning technologies, we expect that AFB combustors and lime spray dryer FGD systems will dominate the market, with 42% of the market in our base case scenario. If the attitudes of the industrial decision-makers are factored into the analyses, particularly their aversion to FGD systems with wet wastes, the AFB and lime spray dryer technologies will capture as much as 73% of the coal-burning market. Costs for the various flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies were projected to be sufficiently close that the selection of one over another will depend on site-specific factors such as the availability of waste disposal facilities, the demonstrated reliability of the particular systems, and the vendor's reputation.

  15. Storing Industry's Carbon Dioxide in Real Time | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    that provide a first live look at industrial pollutants reacting with water and minerals. ... into the reactions between scCO2 and the water and minerals commonly found in geologic ...

  16. Table 11.2b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Commercial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Electricity 7 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kerosene LPG 5 Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 8 Waste 9 Fuel Ethanol 10 Total 1949 148 19 16 3 2 7 NA 28 55 58 280 2 NA NA 2 1950 147 21 19 3 2 7 NA 33 66 63 297 2 NA NA 2 1951 125 25 21 4 3 8 NA 34 70 69 289 2 NA NA 2 1952 112 28 22 4 3 8 NA 35 71 73

  17. Table 11.2e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    e Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Geo- thermal Non- Biomass Waste 5 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Total Wood 6 Waste 7 Total 1949 187 30 2 NA 30 33 NA NA 250 1 NA 1 1950 206 35 2 NA 35 37 NA NA 278 1 NA 1 1951 235 42 2 NA 29 31 NA NA 308 1 NA 1 1952 240 50 2 NA 31 33 NA NA 323 1 NA 1 1953 260 57 3 NA 38 40 NA NA 358 (s) NA (s)

  18. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    by sector" was revised to match the values given in Table 3. Paragraph entitled "Emissions by Sector" the following changes were made by state and sector: Vermont...

  19. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Press Releases Presentations Congressional Testimony Radio Spots Enter Search ... There can also be significant variations in terms of CO2 emissions by sector (Tables 3 ...

  20. Table 9 U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Commercial Sector...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008," "DOEEIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December ...

  1. Table 7. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    table are revised from the data contained in the previous EIA report, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008," "DOEEIA-0573(2008) (Washington, DC, December ...

  2. Trace Gas Emissions Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Trace Gas Emissions are organized as Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions, Land-Use CO2 Emissions, Soil CO2 Emissions, and Methane.

  3. Fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish (Coregoninae) species in the vicinity of industrial thermal emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graham, Carly F.; Eberts, Rebecca L.; Morgan, Thomas D.; Boreham, Douglas R.; Lance, Stacey L.; Manzon, Richard G.; Martino, Jessica A.; Rogers, Sean M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Somers, Christopher M.; et al

    2016-01-25

    Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5%) in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopicmore » niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC) indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Furthermore, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.« less

  4. Reduce Your Company's Energy Costs and Carbon Emissions with DOE Tools and Resources (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    A two-page overview fact sheet that describes the Industrial Technologies Program's Save Energy Now initiative and voluntary pledge program.

  5. Department of Energy Awards $20 Million for Project to Advance Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has announced that Ramgen Power Systems LLC, Bellevue, Washington, has been awarded $20 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to scale up a device that uses supersonic shockwaves to compress carbon dioxide (CO2) for capture and storage.

  6. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  7. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission FactorsDerived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California:1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.

    2007-10-01

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population's exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of {approx}3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  8. Black Carbon Concentrations and Diesel Vehicle Emission Factors Derived from Coefficient of Haze Measurements in California: 1967-2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tast, CynthiaL; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Aguiar, Jeffery; Tonse, Shaheen; Novakov, T.; Fairley, David

    2007-11-09

    We have derived ambient black carbon (BC) concentrations and estimated emission factors for on-road diesel vehicles from archived Coefficient of Haze (COH) data that was routinely collected beginning in 1967 at 11 locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. COH values are a measure of the attenuation of light by particles collected on a white filter, and available data indicate they are proportional to BC concentrations measured using the conventional aethalometer. Monthly averaged BC concentrations are up to five times greater in winter than summer, and, consequently, so is the population?s exposure to BC. The seasonal cycle in BC concentrations is similar for all Bay Area sites, most likely due to area-wide decreased pollutant dispersion during wintertime. A strong weekly cycle is also evident, with weekend concentrations significantly lower than weekday concentrations, consistent with decreased diesel traffic volume on weekends. The weekly cycle suggests that, in the Bay Area, diesel vehicle emissions are the dominant source of BC aerosol. Despite the continuous increase in diesel fuel consumption in California, annual Bay Area average BC concentrations decreased by a factor of ~;;3 from the late 1960s to the early 2000s. Based on estimated annual BC concentrations, on-road diesel fuel consumption, and recent measurements of on-road diesel vehicle BC emissions, diesel BC emission factors decreased by an order of magnitude over the study period. Reductions in the BC emission factor reflect improved engine technology, emission controls and changes in diesel fuel composition. A new BC monitoring network is needed to continue tracking ambient BC trends because the network of COH monitors has recently been retired.

  9. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku

    2014-06-15

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  10. Effect of plasma parameters on growth and field emission of electrons from cylindrical metallic carbon nanotube surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Suresh C.; Tewari, Aarti

    2011-08-15

    The effect of plasma parameters (e.g., electron density and temperature, ion density and temperature, neutral atom density, and temperature) on the growth (without a catalyst), structure, and field emission of electrons from a cylindrical metallic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, positively charged ions, and neutral atoms, and the energy balance of the various species in plasma, has been developed. Numerical calculations of the radius of the cylindrical CNT for different CNT number densities and plasma parameters have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that, on increasing the CNT number density and plasma parameters, the radius of cylindrical CNT decreases and consequently, the field emission factor for the metallic cylindrical CNT surfaces increase.

  11. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 3, India and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M.; Deying, Xu

    1992-08-01

    As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

  12. Ampère-Class Pulsed Field Emission from Carbon-Nanotube Cathodes in a Radiofrequency Resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalcea, D.; Faillace, L.; Hartzell, J.; Panuganti, H.; Boucher, S. M.; Murokh, A.; Piot, P.; Thangaraj, J. C.T.

    2014-12-01

    Pulsed field emission from cold carbon-nanotube cathodes placed in a radiofrequency resonant cavity was observed. The cathodes were located on the backplate of a conventional $1+\\frac{1}{2}$-cell resonant cavity operating at 1.3-GHz and resulted in the production of bunch train with maximum average current close to 0.7 Amp\\`ere. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristic, transverse emittance, and pulse duration are presented and, when possible, compared to numerical simulations. The implications of our results to high-average-current electron sources are briefly discussed.

  13. Modeling global atmospheric CO2 with improved emission inventories and CO2 production from the oxidation of other carbon species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassar, Ray; Jones, DBA; Suntharalingam, P; Chen, j.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Wecht, K. J.; Yantosca, R. M.; Kulawik, SS; Bowman, K; Worden, JR; Machida, T; Matsueda, H

    2010-01-01

    The use of global three-dimensional (3-D) models with satellite observations of CO2 in inverse modeling studies is an area of growing importance for understanding Earth s carbon cycle. Here we use the GEOS-Chem model (version 8-02-01) CO2 mode with multiple modifications in order to assess their impact on CO2 forward simulations. Modifications include CO2 surface emissions from shipping (0.19 PgC yr 1), 3-D spatially-distributed emissions from aviation (0.16 PgC yr 1), and 3-D chemical production of CO2 (1.05 PgC yr 1). Although CO2 chemical production from the oxidation of CO, CH4 and other carbon gases is recognized as an important contribution to global CO2, it is typically accounted for by conversion from its precursors at the surface rather than in the free troposphere. We base our model 3-D spatial distribution of CO2 chemical production on monthly-averaged loss rates of CO (a key precursor and intermediate in the oxidation of organic carbon) and apply an associated surface correction for inventories that have counted emissions of CO2 precursors as CO2. We also explore the benefit of assimilating satellite observations of CO into GEOS-Chem to obtain an observation-based estimate of the CO2 chemical source. The CO assimilation corrects for an underestimate of atmospheric CO abundances in the model, resulting in increases of as much as 24% in the chemical source during May June 2006, and increasing the global annual estimate of CO2 chemical production from 1.05 to 1.18 Pg C. Comparisons of model CO2 with measurements are carried out in order to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions that result when these new sources are added. Inclusion of CO2 emissions from shipping and aviation are shown to increase the global CO2 latitudinal gradient by just over 0.10 ppm (3%), while the inclusion of CO2 chemical production (and the surface correction) is shown to decrease the latitudinal gradient by about 0.40 ppm (10%) with a complex spatial structure

  14. Carbon Dioxide Separation Technology: R&D Needs for the Chemical and Petrochemical Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-11-01

    This report, the second in a series, is designed to summarize and present recommendations for improved CO2 separation technology for industrial processes. This report provides an overview of 1) the principal CO2 producing processes, 2) the current commercial separation technologies and 3) emerging adsorption and membrane technologies for CO2 separation, and makes recommendations for future research.

  15. Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for economically capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas has begun at the National ... nominal 1-megawatt-electric (MWe) pilot plant expected to capture 30 tons of CO2 per day. ...

  16. THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET 'CONTINUUM' IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK SYSTEMS. II. CARBON MONOXIDE FOURTH POSITIVE EMISSION AND ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, Kevin; Schindhelm, Eric; Burgh, Eric B.; Brown, Alexander; Green, James C.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Brown, Joanna M.; Harper, Graham M.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Yang Hao; Abgrall, Herve; Ardila, David R.; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Calvet, Nuria; Ingleby, Laura; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hussain, Gaitee

    2011-06-10

    We exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect far-ultraviolet (UV) spectral features of carbon monoxide (CO) present in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks for the first time. We present spectra of the classical T Tauri stars HN Tau, RECX-11, and V4046 Sgr, representative of a range of CO radiative processes. HN Tau shows CO bands in absorption against the accretion continuum. The CO absorption most likely arises in warm inner disk gas. We measure a CO column density and rotational excitation temperature of N(CO) = (2 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and T{sub rot}(CO) 500 {+-} 200 K for the absorbing gas. We also detect CO A-X band emission in RECX-11 and V4046 Sgr, excited by UV line photons, predominantly H I Ly{alpha}. All three objects show emission from CO bands at {lambda} > 1560 A, which may be excited by a combination of UV photons and collisions with non-thermal electrons. In previous observations these emission processes were not accounted for due to blending with emission from the accretion shock, collisionally excited H{sub 2}, and photo-excited H{sub 2}, all of which appeared as a 'continuum' whose components could not be separated. The CO emission spectrum is strongly dependent upon the shape of the incident stellar Ly{alpha} emission profile. We find CO parameters in the range: N(CO) {approx} 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, T{sub rot}(CO) {approx}> 300 K for the Ly{alpha}-pumped emission. We combine these results with recent work on photo-excited and collisionally excited H{sub 2} emission, concluding that the observations of UV-emitting CO and H{sub 2} are consistent with a common spatial origin. We suggest that the CO/H{sub 2} ratio ({identical_to} N(CO)/N(H{sub 2})) in the inner disk is {approx}1, a transition between the much lower interstellar value and the higher value observed in solar system comets today, a result that will require future

  17. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  18. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) Hazardous Waste Incineration Facility (East Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 3. Characterization of the nature and magnitude of emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    Contents: Introduction; Data Used in Characterizing Emissions; Incinerator Stack Emissions; Fugitive Emissions; Uncertainty in Emissions Characterization; and References.

  19. Role of negatively charged ions in plasma on the growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2012-01-15

    The role of negatively charged ions in plasma on growth (without catalyst) and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, negatively and positively charged ions, neutral atoms, and the energy balance of various species has been developed. Numerical calculations of the spherical CNT tip radius for different relative density of negatively charged ions {epsilon}{sub r}(=n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}}/n{sub C{sup +}}, where n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}} and n{sub C}{sup +} are the equilibrium densities of sulphur hexafluoride and carbon ions, respectively) have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the spherical CNT tip radius decreases with {epsilon}{sub r} and hence the field emission of electrons from the spherical CNT tip increases. Some of our theoretical results are in accordance with the existing experimental observations.

  20. Renewable energy and its potential for carbon emissions reductions in developing countries: Methodology for technology evaluation. Case study application to Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Martinez, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Mark, J.

    1994-08-01

    Many projects have been proposed to promote and demonstrate renewable energy technologies (RETs) in developing countries on the basis of their potential to reduce carbon emissions. However, no uniform methodology has been developed for evaluating RETs in terms of their future carbon emissions reduction potential. This study outlines a methodology for identifying RETs that have the potential for achieving large carbon emissions reductions in the future, while also meeting key criteria for commercialization and acceptability in developing countries. In addition, this study evaluates the connection between technology identification and the selection of projects that are designed to demonstrate technologies with a propensity for carbon emission reductions (e.g., Global Environmental Facility projects). Although this report applies the methodology to Mexico in a case study format, the methodology is broad based and could be applied to any developing country, as well as to other technologies. The methodology used in this report is composed of four steps: technology screening, technology identification, technology deployment scenarios, and estimates of carbon emissions reductions. The four technologies with the highest ranking in the technology identification process for the on-grid category were geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind, and micro-/mini-hydro. Compressed natural gas (CNG) was the alternative that received the highest ranking for the transportation category.

  1. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Appendix B. Other state-related links The underlying energy data upon which the state-level CO2 calculations are based: http://www.eia.gov/state/seds/. This is the State Energy Data System (SEDS), the main repository for all of EIA's state-based energy data. The state CO2 data that this analysis is based upon: http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/state/ This data set contains CO2 emissions data for each state by sector and fuel based on SEDS. State Energy Profiles:

  2. Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

  3. Emissions trading - time to get serious

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitelli, A.

    2007-11-15

    The Kyoto Protocol's five year compliance period begins in 2008. Industrialized nations around the world have pledged to cut carbon emissions, but the job seems to get harder, not easier, as 2008 approaches. Can market mechanisms make the crucial difference? The article discloses recent initiatives and developments worldwide. It concludes that it is clear that the market is maintaining its central role in fighting climate change and that bringing emissions trading to developing countries and to the US can only reinforce that role.

  4. Synthesis of crystalline carbon nanofern-like structure by dc-PECVD and study of its electrical and field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Branched, carbon nanofern like structure have been synthesized on glass substrate via PECVD. ? Ni catalyst played important role in growing such structure. ? The as prepared sample shows good field emission property with turn on field as low as 4.8 V/mm. ? Temperature dependent conductivity of the sample showed non-linearity. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofern-like structure was synthesized by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 C using acetylene as carbon precursor and nickel particle as seed. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study confirmed the fern-like structure of the as-synthesized sample. It was seen that when nickel was not used a cluster deposition took place without forming any structure. Atomic force microscopy study showed the surface topology of the as-prepared samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as HRTEM studies confirmed the presence of nickel in the carbon matrix. Current (I)voltage (V) characteristics have been taken for three different temperatures. A non-linear IV characteristic was obtained for the fern like sample. Field emission study showed that carbon nanofern showed efficient field emission with a turn-on field as low as 4.8 V/?m. Also, the field emission has been studied for different inter-electrode distances.

  5. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, William; Sathaye, Jayant; Masanet, Eric; Xu, Tengfang

    2012-05-15

    China’s annual crude steel production in 2010 was 638.7 Mt accounting for nearly half of the world’s annual crude steel production in the same year. Around 461 TWh of electricity and 14,872 PJ of fuel were consumed to produce this quantity of steel in 2010. We identified and analyzed 23 energy efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the processes in the iron and steel industry. The Conservation Supply Curve (CSC) used in this study is an analytical tool that captures both the engineering and the economic perspectives of energy conservation. Using a bottom-up electricity CSC model, the cumulative cost-effective electricity savings potential for the Chinese iron and steel industry for 2010-2030 is estimated to be 251 TWh, and the total technical electricity saving potential is 416 TWh. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective electricity savings is 139 Mt CO2 and the CO2 emission reduction associated with technical electricity saving potential is 237 Mt CO2. The FCSC model for the iron and steel industry shows cumulative cost-effective fuel savings potential of 11,999 PJ, and the total technical fuel saving potential is 12,139. The CO2 emissions reduction associated with cost-effective and technical fuel savings is 1,191 Mt CO2 and 1,205 Mt CO2, respectively. In addition, a sensitivity analysis with respect to the discount rate used is conducted to assess the effect of changes in this parameter on the results. The result of this study gives a comprehensive and easy to understand perspective to the Chinese iron and steel industry and policy makers about the energy efficiency potential and its associated cost.

  6. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    20 Table 8. Carbon intensity of the economy by state (2000-2013) metric tons of energy-related carbon dioxide per million chained 2009 dollars of GDP Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 947.5 881.6 889.4 873.7 839.2 825.8 827.1 833.3 791.5 704.6 759.5 734.5 691.6 661.8 -30.2% -285.7 Alaska 1,220.0 1,145.3 1,118.1 1,127.8 1,158.5 1,161.3 1,038.3 949.7 847.3 758.4 793.2 770.3 735.6 730.8 -40.1% -489.2 Arizona 424.8

  7. Low temperature synthesis of diamond-based nano-carbon composite materials with high electron field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Yeh, C. J.; Leou, K. C.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-06-08

    A diamond-based nano-carbon composite (d/NCC) material, which contains needle-like diamond grains encased with the nano-graphite layers, was synthesized at low substrate temperature via a bias enhanced growth process using CH{sub 4}/N{sub 2} plasma. Such a unique granular structure renders the d/NCC material very conductive (??=?714.8?S/cm), along with superior electron field emission (EFE) properties (E{sub 0}?=?4.06?V/?m and J{sub e}?=?3.18?mA/cm{sup 2}) and long lifetime (??=?842?min at 2.41?mA/cm{sup 2}). Moreover, the electrical conductivity and EFE behavior of d/NCC material can be tuned in a wide range that is especially useful for different kind of applications.

  8. Experimental study on NOx emission and unburnt carbon of a radial biased swirl burner for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shan Xue; Shi'en Hui; Qulan Zhou; Tongmo Xu

    2009-07-15

    Pilot tests were carried out on a 1 MW thermal pulverized coal fired testing furnace. Symmetrical combustion was implemented by use of two whirl burners with dual air adjustment. The burnout air device was installed in various places at the top of the main burner, which consists of a primary air pipe with a varying cross-section and an impact ring. In the primary air pipe, the air pulverized coal (PC) stream was separated into a whirling stream that was thick inside and thin outside, thus realizing the thin-thick distribution at the burner nozzle in the radial direction. From the comparative combustion tests of three coals with relatively great characteristic differences, Shaanbei Shenhua high rank bituminous coal (SH coal), Shanxi Hejin low rank bituminous coal (HJ coal), and Shanxi Changzhi meager coal (CZ coal), were obtained such test results as the primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, impact of the change of outer secondary air, change of the relative position for the layout of burnout air, change of the swirling intensity of the primary air and secondary air, etc., on the NOx emission, and unburnt carbon content in fly ash (CFA). At the same time, the relationship between the NOx emission and burnout ratio and affecting factors of the corresponding test items on the combustion stability and economic results were also acquired. The results may provide a vital guiding significance to engineering designs and practical applications. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NOx formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased swirl burner, the configuration of the furnace, and the distribution of the air. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. OSTIblog Articles in the carbon emissions Topic | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information emissions Topic OSTI's Cool Roof by Dr. Jeffrey Salmon 10 Nov, 2010 in Technology 2629 CIMG3811.JPG OSTI's Cool Roof Read more about 2629 The Office of Science occupies many buildings around the country, but it owns only two of them. One of them is making some news. The 134,629 sq. ft. (about 3 acres) roof of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) building in Oak Ridge, Tennessee is now officially a Cool Roof, that is, it's

  10. The impact of biogenic carbon emissions on aerosol absorption inMexico City

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marley, N; Gaffney, J; Tackett, M J; Sturchio, N; Hearty, L; Martinez, N; Hardy, K D; Machany-Rivera, A; Guilderson, T P; MacMillan, A; Steelman, K

    2009-02-24

    In order to determine the wavelength dependence of atmospheric aerosol absorption in the Mexico City area, the absorption angstrom exponents (AAEs) were calculated from aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths obtained with a seven-channel aethalometer during two field campaigns, the Mexico City Metropolitan Area study in April 2003 (MCMA 2003) and the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations in March 2006 (MILAGRO). The AAEs varied from 0.76 to 1.56 in 2003 and from 0.54 to 1.52 in 2006. The AAE values determined in the afternoon were consistently higher than the corresponding morning values, suggesting the photochemical formation of absorbing secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the afternoon. The AAE values were compared to stable and radiocarbon isotopic measurements of aerosol samples collected at the same time to determine the sources of the aerosol carbon. The fraction of modern carbon (fM) in the aerosol samples, as determined from {sup 14}C analysis, showed that 70% of the carbonaceous aerosols in Mexico City were from modern sources, indicating a significant impact from biomass burning during both field campaigns. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios of the aerosol samples illustrate the significant impact of Yucatan forest fires (C-3 plants) in 2003 and local grass fires (C-4 plants) at site T1 in 2006. A direct comparison of the fM values, stable carbon isotope ratios, and calculated aerosol AAEs suggested that the wavelength dependence of the aerosol absorption was controlled by the biogenically derived aerosol components.

  11. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 20812100 and 18501869/18611880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmorethe emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 19802011 is about 1.25.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 19802005 versus 20752100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.less

  12. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions at the State Level, 2000-2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Table 7. Carbon intensity by state (2000-2013) kilograms of energy-related carbon dioxide per million Btu Change (2000-2013) State 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 percent Absolute Alabama 58.6 58.2 58.0 57.7 57.0 57.8 58.0 58.3 56.1 51.4 53.7 52.1 50.2 49.0 -16.5% -9.6 Alaska 59.7 59.0 59.4 59.4 60.3 60.2 61.2 60.8 60.4 59.8 60.1 60.0 59.5 59.3 -0.7% -0.4 Arizona 55.0 56.0 54.8 55.8 56.1 56.9 57.5 56.3 55.3 54.1 54.7 53.8 52.9 53.9 -2.0% -1.1 Arkansas 57.2

  13. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian; Xiulian, Hu; Ji, Li

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, China manufactured just over 100 Mt of steel and became the world s largest steel producer. Official Chinese energy consumption statistics for the steel industry include activities not directly associated with the production of steel, double-count some coal-based energy consumption, and do not cover the entire Chinese steelmaking industry. In this paper, we make adjustments to the reported statistical data in order to provide energy use values for steel production in China that are comparable to statistics used internationally. We find that for 1996, official statistics need to be reduced by 1365 PJ to account for non-steel production activities and double-counting. Official statistics also need to be increased by 415 PJ in order to include steelmaking energy use of small plants not included in official statistics. This leads to an overall reduction of 950 PJ for steelmaking in China in 1996. Thus, the official final energy use value of 4018 PJ drops to 3067 PJ. In primary energy terms, the official primary energy use value of 4555 PJ is reduced to 3582 PJ when these adjustments are made.

  14. Energy-consumption and carbon-emission analysis of vehicle and component manufacturing.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-12

    A model is presented for calculating the environmental burdens of the part manufacturing and vehicle assembly (VMA) stage of the vehicle life cycle. The approach is bottom-up, with a special focus on energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. The model is applied to both conventional and advanced vehicles, the latter of which include aluminum-intensive, hybrid electric, plug-in hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. An important component of the model, a weight-based distribution function of materials and associated transformation processes (casting, stamping, etc.), is developed from the United States Council for Automotive Research Generic Vehicle Life Cycle Inventory Study. As the approach is bottom-up, numerous transformation process data and plant operational data were extracted from the literature for use in representing the many operations included in the model. When the model was applied to conventional vehicles, reliable estimates of cumulative energy consumption (34 GJ/vehicle) and CO{sub 2} emission (2 tonnes/vehicle) were computed for the VMA life-cycle stage. The numerous data sets taken from the literature permitted the development of some statistics on model results. Because the model explicitly includes a greater coverage of relevant manufacturing processes than many earlier studies, our energy estimates are on the higher end of previously published values. Limitations of the model are also discussed. Because the material compositions of conventional vehicles within specific classes (cars, light duty trucks, etc.) are sensibly constant on a percent-by-weight basis, the model can be reduced to a simple linear form for each class dependent only on vehicle weight. For advanced vehicles, the material/transformation process distribution developed above needs to be adjusted for different materials and components. This is particularly so for aluminum-intensive and electric-drive vehicles. In fact, because of their comparatively high manufacturing

  15. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  16. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  17. ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursors and Conversion Technologies ITP Industrial Materials: Development and ...

  18. ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursors and Conversion Technologies ITP Industrial Materials: Development and...

  19. Assessment of the Incentives, Disincentives, and Alternatives for Steel Industry CO2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Leuchte; DR. John Stubbles; Professor Fruehan

    2002-04-16

    This report presents the results of the third element of a trilogy of studies sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies on the consumption of energy and the emissions of carbon dioxide in the U.S. steel industry

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, John; Schobert, Harold; Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected 10 projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the various subcontractors on March 1, 2004.

  1. Acting Globally: Potential Carbon Emissions Mitigation Impacts from an International Standards and Labelling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A; Letschert, Virginie E.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Egan, Christine

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents an analysis of the potential impacts of an international initiative designed to support and promote the development and implementation of appliances standards and labelling programs throughout the world. As part of previous research efforts, LBNL developed the Bottom Up Energy Analysis System (BUENAS), an analysis framework that estimates impact potentials of energy efficiency policies on a global scale. In this paper, we apply this framework to an initiative that would result in the successful implementation of programs focused on high priority regions and product types, thus evaluating the potential impacts of such an initiative in terms of electricity savings and carbon mitigation in 2030. In order to model the likely parameters of such a program, we limit impacts to a five year period starting in 2009, but assume that the first 5 years of a program will result in implementation of 'best practice' minimum efficiency performance standards by 2014. The 'high priority' regions considered are: Brazil, China, the European Union,India, Mexico and the United States. The products considered are: refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting (both fluorescent and incandescent), standby power (for consumer electronics) and televisions in the residential sector, and air conditioning and lighting in commercial buildings. In 2020, these regions and enduses account for about 37percent of global residential electricity and 29percent of electricity in commercial buildings. We find that 850Mt of CO2 could be saved in buildings by 2030 compared to the baseline forecast.

  2. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  3. The Impact of Electric Passenger Transport Technology under an Economy-Wide Climate Policy in the United States: Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Coal Use, and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Kyle, G. Page; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to be an economic means of reducing direct (or tailpipe) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the transportation sector. However, without a climate policy that places a limit on CO2 emissions from the electric generation sector, the net impact of widespread deployment of PHEVs on overall U.S. CO2 emissions is not as clear. A comprehensive analysis must consider jointly the transportation and electricity sectors, along with feedbacks to the rest of the energy system. In this paper, we use the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s MiniCAM model to perform an integrated economic analysis of the penetration of PHEVs and the resulting impact on total U.S. CO2 emissions.

  4. Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Place: Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Germany-based carbon emission projects developer....

  5. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  6. Effect of a concave grid mesh in a carbon nanotube-based field emission X-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Lee, Choong Hun

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Successful design using a concave grid mesh for the focusing electron. • Much better X-ray image due to the concave grid mesh. • Higher anode current efficiency using the concave grid mesh versus a flat grid mesh. - Abstract: This study introduces a simple approach to improve the X-ray image quality produced by the carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitter X-ray source by altering the geometrical shape of the grid mesh from the conventional flat shape to a concave one in a typical triode structure. The concave shape of the grid electrode increases the effective number of the grid cells in the mesh, which exerted an electric field in the direction of the emitted electrons, thereby increasing the emission current reaching the anode. Furthermore, the curved mesh (concave grid mesh), which was responsible for the extraction of electrons from the field emitter, exhibited a focusing effect on the electron beam trajectory thereby, reducing the focal spot size impinging on the anode and resulted in a better spatial resolution of the X-ray images produced.

  7. Scale Up of Novel, Low-Cost Carbon Fibers Leading to High-Volume Commercial

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Launch | Department of Energy The Dow Chemical Company - Midland, MI An extrusion process for making carbon fiber uses a novel polyolefin material in place of conventional polyacrylonitrile. Low-cost carbon fiber has widespread application in automobiles, wind turbines, and other industrial applications. This novel process could potentially reduce production costs by 20% and total carbon dioxide emissions by 50%. Scale-Up of Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fibers for High-Volume Commercial Launch

  8. Enhanced water window x-ray emission from in situ formed carbon clusters irradiated by intense ultra-short laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravarty, U.; Rao, B. S.; Arora, V.; Upadhyay, A.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Chakera, J. A.; Mukherjee, C.; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-07-29

    Enhanced water window x-ray emission (23–44 Å) from carbon clusters, formed in situ using a pre-pulse, irradiated by intense (I > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) ultra-short laser pulse, is demonstrated. An order of magnitude x-ray enhancement over planar graphite target is observed in carbon clusters, formed by a sub-ns pre-pulse, interacting with intense main pulse after a delay. The effect of the delay and the duration of the main pulse is studied for optimizing the x-ray emission in the water window region. This x-ray source has added advantages of being an efficient, high repetition rate, and low debris x-ray source.

  9. Pilot study for compact microbeam radiation therapy using a carbon nanotube field emission micro-CT scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadsell, Mike Cao, Guohua; Zhang, Jian; Burk, Laurel; Schreiber, Torsten; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is defined as the use of parallel, microplanar x-ray beams with an energy spectrum between 50 and 300 keV for cancer treatment and brain radiosurgery. Up until now, the possibilities of MRT have mainly been studied using synchrotron sources due to their high flux (100s Gy/s) and approximately parallel x-ray paths. The authors have proposed a compact x-ray based MRT system capable of delivering MRT dose distributions at a high dose rate. This system would employ carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission technology to create an x-ray source array that surrounds the target of irradiation. Using such a geometry, multiple collimators would shape the irradiation from this array into multiple microbeams that would then overlap or interlace in the target region. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of attaining a high dose rate and parallel microbeam beams using such a system. Methods: The microbeam dose distribution was generated by our CNT micro-CT scanner (100?m focal spot) and a custom-made microbeam collimator. An alignment assembly was fabricated and attached to the scanner in order to collimate and superimpose beams coming from different gantry positions. The MRT dose distribution was measured using two orthogonal radiochromic films embedded inside a cylindrical phantom. This target was irradiated with microbeams incident from 44 different gantry angles to simulate an array of x-ray sources as in the proposed compact CNT-based MRT system. Finally, phantom translation in a direction perpendicular to the microplanar beams was used to simulate the use of multiple parallel microbeams. Results: Microbeams delivered from 44 gantry angles were superimposed to form a single microbeam dose distribution in the phantom with a FWHM of 300?m (calculated value was 290 ?m). Also, during the multiple beam simulation, a peak to valley dose ratio of ?10 was found when the phantom translation distance was roughly 4x the beam width. The

  10. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  11. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  12. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected

  13. Quarterly Report for LANL Activities: FY12-Q2 National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawar, Rajesh J.

    2012-04-17

    This report summarizes progress of LANL activities related to the tasks performed under the LANL FWP FE102-002-FY10, National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP): Industrial Carbon Capture Program. This FWP is funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Overall, the NRAP activities are focused on understanding and evaluating risks associated with large-scale injection and long-term storage of CO{sub 2} in deep geological formations. One of the primary risks during large-scale injection is due to changes in geomechanical stresses to the storage reservoir, to the caprock/seals and to the wellbores. These changes may have the potential to cause CO{sub 2} and brine leakage and geochemical impacts to the groundwater systems. While the importance of these stresses is well recognized, there have been relatively few quantitative studies (laboratory, field or theoretical) of geomechanical processes in sequestration systems. In addition, there are no integrated studies that allow evaluation of risks to groundwater quality in the context of CO{sub 2} injection-induced stresses. The work performed under this project is focused on better understanding these effects. LANL approach will develop laboratory and computational tools to understand the impact of CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical stress by creating a geomechanical test bed using inputs from laboratory experiments, field data, and conceptual approaches. The Geomechanical Test Bed will be used for conducting sensitivity and scenario analyses of the impacts of CO{sub 2} injection. The specific types of questions will relate to fault stimulation and fracture inducing stress on caprock, changes in wellbore leakage due to evolution of stress in the reservoir and caprock, and the potential for induced seismicity. In addition, the Geomechanical Test Bed will be used to investigate the coupling of stress-induced leakage pathways with impacts on groundwater quality. LANL activities are performed under two tasks

  14. FIRST DETECTION OF ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM A DETACHED DUST SHELL: GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE CARBON ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR U Hya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Enmanuel; Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Ramstedt, Sofia

    2015-01-10

    We present the discovery of an extended ring of ultraviolet (UV) emission surrounding the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star U Hya in archival observations performed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. This is the third discovery of extended UV emission from a carbon AGB star and the first from an AGB star with a detached shell. From imaging and photometric analysis of the FUV and NUV images, we determined that the UV ring has a radius of ∼110'', thus indicating that the emitting material is likely associated with the detached shell seen in the infrared. We find that scattering of the central point source of NUV and FUV emission by the dust shell is negligible. Moreover, we find that scattering of the interstellar radiation field by the dust shell can contribute at most ∼10% of the FUV flux. Morphological and photometric evidence suggests that shocks caused by the star's motion through space and, possibly, shock-excited H{sub 2} molecules are the most likely origins of the UV flux. In contrast to previous examples of extended UV emission from AGB stars, the extended UV emission from U Hya does not show a bow-shock-like structure, which is consistent with a lower space velocity and lower interstellar medium density. This suggests the detached dust shell is the source of the UV-emitting material and can be used to better understand the formation of detached shells.

  15. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. Nitrous Oxide Emissions 4.1 Total emissions U.S. nitrous oxide emissions in 2009 were 4 MMTCO2e (1.7 percent) below their 2008 total (Table 22). Sources of U.S. nitrous oxide emissions include agriculture, energy use, industrial processes, and waste management (Figure 22). The largest source is agriculture (73 percent), and the majority of agricultural emissions result from nitrogen fertilization of agricultural soils (87 percent of the agriculture total) and management of animal waste (13

  16. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  17. Biological Air Emissions Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Air quality standards are becoming more stringent for the U.S. wood products industry. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (including methanol,...

  18. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  19. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLuchi, M.A. |

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP) MANAGING CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURING A FUTURE FOR THE MIDWEST'S INDUSTRIAL BASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Ball; Robert Burns; Judith Bradbury; Bob Dahowski; Casie Davidson; James Dooley; Neeraj Gupta; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom

    2005-04-29

    This is the third semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two-year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  2. GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: GS Carbon Corporation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10119 Sector: Carbon Product: The company offsets emissions output with...

  3. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  4. In situ optical emission study on the role of C{sub 2} in the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motaung, David Edmond; Moodley, Mathew Kisten; Manikandan, E.; Coville, Neil J.

    2010-02-15

    In situ optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the temporal and spatial behavior of laser induced plasmas in the laser-furnace synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). A graphite composite target located within a sealed quartz tube with a chemical stoichiometric composition of 95:4:1 at. wt % of carbon, yttrium, and nickel, respectively, was ablated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser delivering colinear, focused laser pulses of 1064 and 532 nm temporarily separated by 20 ns. The ablation process was done at a furnace temperature of 1273 K in a flow of argon gas at either 150 or 200 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The pressure was varied (100, 400, and 600 Torr) for each gas flow setting. The temporal and spatial behavior of the emission intensity associated with C{sub 2} Swan bands (d {sup 3{Pi}}{sub g}-a {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}) was investigated and found to be influenced by the pressure and flow rate of the argon gas. At conditions optimal to SWCNT production, a sharp drop in C{sub 2} intensity followed by a rise in C{sub 2} intensity was observed. The temporal and spatial behavior of the electron density was determined by the Stark broadening profile of the CII emission peak at 283.7 nm and was found to decrease with the adiabatic expansion of the plume. We propose that the sharp drop in C{sub 2} intensity and the rise in electron density and electron temperature observed in this study are due to the accompanying rapid nucleation and growth of SWCNTs.

  5. Using an Explicit Emission Tagging Method in Global Modeling of Source-Receptor Relationships for Black Carbon in the Arctic: Variations, Sources and Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Singh, Balwinder; Zhang, Rudong; Ma, Po-Lun; Qian, Yun; Ghan, Steven J.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2014-11-27

    We introduce an explicit emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model to quantify source-region-resolved characteristics of black carbon (BC), focusing on the Arctic. Explicit tagging of BC source regions without perturbing the emissions makes it straightforward to establish source-receptor relationships and transport pathways, providing a physically consistent and computationally efficient approach to produce a detailed characterization of the destiny of regional BC emissions and the potential for mitigation actions. Our analysis shows that the contributions of major source regions to the global BC burden are not proportional to the respective emissions due to strong region-dependent removal rates and lifetimes, while the contributions to BC direct radiative forcing show a near-linear dependence on their respective contributions to the burden. Distant sources contribute to BC in remote regions mostly in the mid- and upper troposphere, having much less impact on lower-level concentrations (and deposition) than on burden. Arctic BC concentrations, deposition and source contributions all have strong seasonal variations. Eastern Asia contributes the most to the wintertime Arctic burden. Northern Europe emissions are more important to both surface concentration and deposition in winter than in summer. The largest contribution to Arctic BC in the summer is from Northern Asia. Although local emissions contribute less than 10% to the annual mean BC burden and deposition within the Arctic, the per-emission efficiency is much higher than for major non-Arctic sources. The interannual variability (1996-2005) due to meteorology is small in annual mean BC burden and radiative forcing but is significant in yearly seasonal means over the Arctic. When a slow aging treatment of BC is introduced, the increase of BC lifetime and burden is source-dependent. Global BC forcing-per-burden efficiency also increases primarily due to changes in BC vertical distributions. The

  6. Toray Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Toray Industries Inc Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 103 8666 Sector: Carbon, Vehicles, Wind energy Product: String representation "A...

  7. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant

  8. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  9. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide equivalent, and biogenic carbon dioxide) for each...

  10. State environmental law and carbon emissions: Do public utility commissions use environmental statutes to fight global warming?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sautter, John A.

    2010-10-15

    In many states environmental statutes provide the authority for public utility commissioners to make decisions to reduce greenhouse gases from electricity generation. This article looks at six such laws and how the presence of these laws affected CO{sub 2} emissions during a nine-year period from 1997 to 2005. (author)

  11. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  12. Carbone Lorraine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbone Lorraine Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbone Lorraine Place: France Product: Paris-based company developing industrial applications and systems for the optimal...

  13. Fossil Energy Research Benefits Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    has become a world leader in carbon capture and storage (CCS) science and technology. ... and storing in geologic formations carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial or power plants. ...

  14. Energy Department Announces New Investments in Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors to Help Meet America’s Carbon Emission Reduction Goal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In support of the Administration’s goal to produce more carbon-free energy, today the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced the selection of two companies, X-energy and Southern Company, to further develop advanced nuclear reactor designs. These awards, with a multi-year cost share of up to $80 million for both companies, will support work to address key technical challenges to the design, construction, and operation of next generation nuclear reactors.

  15. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Scope

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Scope The energy and carbon footprint analysis examines fifteen individual manufacturing sectors that together consume 95% of U.S. manufacturing primary energy consumption and account for 94% of U.S. manufacturing combustion greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manufacturing sectors are defined by their respective NAICS (North American Industry Classification System) codes. i Individual sectors were selected for analysis based on their relative energy intensities, contribution to the U.S. economy,

  16. Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions Introduction A combined heat and power (CHP) system can be a financially attractive energy option for many industrial and commercial facilities. This is particularly the case in areas of the country with high electricity rates. However, regions with air quality concerns often have strict limits on criteria pollutants, such as nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and

  17. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  18. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  19. Method for reducing CO2, CO, NOX, and SOx emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Li, Rongfu

    2002-01-01

    Industrial combustion facilities are integrated with greenhouse gas-solidifying fertilizer production reactions so that CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions can be converted prior to emission into carbonate-containing fertilizers, mainly NH.sub.4 HCO.sub.3 and/or (NH.sub.2).sub.2 CO, plus a small fraction of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3 and (NH.sub.4).sub.2 SO.sub.4. The invention enhances sequestration of CO.sub.2 into soil and the earth subsurface, reduces N0.sub.3.sup.- contamination of surface and groundwater, and stimulates photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere. The method for converting CO.sub.2, CO, NO.sub.x, and SO.sub.x emissions into fertilizers includes the step of collecting these materials from the emissions of industrial combustion facilities such as fossil fuel-powered energy sources and transporting the emissions to a reactor. In the reactor, the CO.sub.2, CO, N.sub.2, SO.sub.x, and/or NO.sub.x are converted into carbonate-containing fertilizers using H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, or NH.sub.3. The carbonate-containing fertilizers are then applied to soil and green plants to (1) sequester inorganic carbon into soil and subsoil earth layers by enhanced carbonation of groundwater and the earth minerals, (2) reduce the environmental problem of NO.sub.3.sup.- runoff by substituting for ammonium nitrate fertilizer, and (3) stimulate photosynthetic fixation of CO.sub.2 from the atmosphere by the fertilization effect of the carbonate-containing fertilizers.

  20. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  1. Erosion-oxidation of carbon steel in the convection section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, J.J.; Walsh, P.M.

    1997-07-01

    Walsh et al. (1994) reported measurements of erosion of carbon steel by fly ash and unburned char particles in the convective heat transfer section of an industrial boiler cofiring coal-water fuel and natural gas. Changes in shape of the surface were measured using a surface profiler. Time-averaged maximum erosion rates were obtained from the differences between the original surface height and the lowest points in the profiles. A model was developed by Xie (1995) to describe wastage of tube material in the presence of erosion by particle impacts and oxidation of the metal. The observed changes in erosion rate with temperature and oxygen concentration were consistent with a mechanism based upon the following assumptions: (1) metal was eroded as a ductile material, at a rate that increased with increasing temperature; (2) oxide was eroded as a brittle material, at a rate independent of temperature; (3) the oxide scale was strongly attached to the metal; (4) the erosion resistance of metal and scale was a linear combination of the resistances of the individual components; (5) oxide formed according to the parabolic rate law, with a rate coefficient proportional to the square root of the oxygen partial pressure; (6) erosion resistance from particles sticking to, or embedded in, the surface was negligible. Using the model and rate coefficients for metal and oxide erosion derived from the measurements, estimates were made of the erosion rate of a boiler tube as functions of impaction angle and gas velocity. Under the conditions of metal temperature, gas composition, particle size, particle concentration, and particle composition investigated, erosion of carbon steel is expected to be slower than 0.05 {micro}m/h when the gas velocity in the convection section is less than approximately 8 m/s.

  2. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Yun; Doherty, Sarah J.; Dang, Cheng; Ma, Po-Lun; Rasch, Philip J.; Fu, Qiang

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA and West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.

  3. Quantifying sources of black carbon in Western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-05-04

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source-receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over Western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over the Northwest USA andmore » West Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  4. Quantifying sources of black carbon in western North America using observationally based analysis and an emission tagging technique in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, R.; Wang, H.; Hegg, D. A.; Qian, Y.; Doherty, S. J.; Dang, C.; Ma, P.-L.; Rasch, P. J.; Fu, Q.

    2015-11-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5), equipped with a technique to tag black carbon (BC) emissions by source regions and types, has been employed to establish source–receptor relationships for atmospheric BC and its deposition to snow over western North America. The CAM5 simulation was conducted with meteorological fields constrained by reanalysis for year 2013 when measurements of BC in both near-surface air and snow are available for model evaluation. We find that CAM5 has a significant low bias in predicted mixing ratios of BC in snow but only a small low bias in predicted atmospheric concentrations over northwestern USA and westernmore » Canada. Even with a strong low bias in snow mixing ratios, radiative transfer calculations show that the BC-in-snow darkening effect is substantially larger than the BC dimming effect at the surface by atmospheric BC. Local sources contribute more to near-surface atmospheric BC and to deposition than distant sources, while the latter are more important in the middle and upper troposphere where wet removal is relatively weak. Fossil fuel (FF) is the dominant source type for total column BC burden over the two regions. FF is also the dominant local source type for BC column burden, deposition, and near-surface BC, while for all distant source regions combined the contribution of biomass/biofuel (BB) is larger than FF. An observationally based positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the snow-impurity chemistry is conducted to quantitatively evaluate the CAM5 BC source-type attribution. While CAM5 is qualitatively consistent with the PMF analysis with respect to partitioning of BC originating from BB and FF emissions, it significantly underestimates the relative contribution of BB. In addition to a possible low bias in BB emissions used in the simulation, the model is likely missing a significant source of snow darkening from local soil found in the observations.« less

  5. Coal fly ash: the most powerful tool for sustainability of the concrete industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, P.K.

    2008-07-01

    In the last 15 years the global cement industry has almost doubled its annual rate of direct emissions of carbon dioxide. These can be cut back by reducing global concrete consumption, reducing the volume of cement paste in mixtures and reducing the proportion of portland clinker in cement. It has recently been proved that use of high volumes of coal fly ash can produce low cost, durable, sustainable cement and concrete mixtures that would reduce the carbon footprint of both the cement and the power generation industries. 2 photos.

  6. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    grasslands 34 Net carbon dioxide sequestration in U.S. urban trees, yard trimmings, and food scraps 35 Emissions of carbon dioxide from biofuelbioenergy use by sector and fuel

  7. Carbon Capture, Utilization & Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the Energy Department's work to advance capture and safe, sustainable storage of carbon dioxide emissions in underground geologic formations.

  8. Risk assessment for the Waste Technologies Industries (WTI) hazardous waste incinerator facility (east Liverpool, Ohio). Volume 3. Characterization of the nature and magnitude of emissions. Draft report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    This report constitutes a comprehensive site-specific risk assessment for the WTI incineration facility located in East Liverpool, OH. Volume III of the report describes the methods used to estimate both stack and fugitive emission rates from the facility.

  9. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Making Industry Part of the Climate Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Jackson, Roderick K; Cox, Matthew; Cortes, Rodrigo; Deitchman, Benjamin H

    2011-06-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  11. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  12. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel Disclosure: Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding...

  13. L-[METHYL-{sup 11}C] Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Delineation in Malignant Gliomas: Impact on Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahasittiwat, Pawinee; Mizoe, Jun-etsu Hasegawa, Azusa; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Kyosan; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Yanagi, Takeshi; Takagi, Ryou D.D.S.; Pattaranutaporn, Pittayapoom; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the importance of {sup 11}C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume (CTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 16 patients with malignant glioma (4 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma; 12 patients, glioblastoma multiforme) treated with surgery and carbon ion radiotherapy from April 2002 to Nov 2005. The MET-PET target volume was compared with gross tumor volume and CTV, defined by using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlations with treatment results were evaluated between positive and negative extended volumes (EVs) of the MET-PET target for CTV. Results: Mean volumes of the MET-PET targets, CTV1 (defined by means of high-intensity volume on T2-weighted MRI), and CTV2 (defined by means of contrast-enhancement volume on T1-weighted MRI) were 6.35, 264.7, and 117.7 cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean EVs of MET-PET targets for CTV1 and CTV2 were 0.6 and 2.2 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The MET-PET target volumes were included in CTV1 and CTV2 in 13 (81.3%) and 11 patients (68.8%), respectively. Patients with a negative EV for CTV1 had significantly greater survival rate (p = 0.0069), regional control (p = 0.0047), and distant control time (p = 0.0267) than those with a positive EV. Distant control time also was better in patients with a negative EV for CTV2 than those with a positive EV (p = 0.0401). Conclusions: For patients with malignant gliomas, MET-PET has a possibility to be a predictor of outcome in carbon ion radiotherapy. Direct use of MET-PET fused to planning computed tomography will be useful and yield favorable results for the therapy.

  14. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several

  15. Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Investments | Department of Energy Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid Infrastructure Investments Emissions Tool Estimates the Impact of Emissions on Smart Grid Infrastructure Investments July 28, 2016 - 2:59pm Addthis In the face of extreme weather events, states, utilities, and other companies are increasingly seeking ways to boost resiliency while reducing their carbon footprint. The Emissions Quantification Tool (EQT), which was conceived of and

  16. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of an O2-Enriched Furnace System for Reduced CO2 and NOx Emissions For the Steel Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward W. Grandmaison; David J. Poirier; Eric Boyd

    2003-01-20

    An oxygen-enriched furnace system for reduced CO2 and NOx emission has been developed. The furnace geometry, with a sidewall-mounted burner, was similar to configurations commonly encountered in a steel reheat furnace. The effect of stack oxygen concentration, oxygen enrichment level and air infiltration on fuel savings/CO2 reduction, NOx emissions and scale formation were investigated. The firing rate required to maintain the furnace temperature at 1100 C decreased linearly with increasing oxygen enrichment. At full oxygen enrichment a reduction of 40-45% in the firing rate was required to maintain furnace temperature. NOx emissions were relatively constant at oxygen enrichment levels below 60% and decreased concentration at all oxygen enrichment levels. Air infiltration also had an effect on NOx levels leading to emissions similar to those observed with no air infiltration but with similar stack oxygen concentrations. At high oxygen enrichment levels, there was a larger variation in the refractory surface-temperature on the roof and blind sidewall of the furnace. Scale habit, intactness, adhesion and oxidation rates were examined for five grades of steel over a range of stack oxygen concentrations and oxygen enrichment levels at 1100 degree C. The steel grade had the largest effect on scaling properties examined in this work. The stack oxygen concentration and the oxygen enrichment level had much smaller effects on the scaling properties.

  17. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints Scope

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the objective of capturing the bulk share of energy consumption and carbon emissions. ... Energy consumption and emissions for all manufacturing sectors within NAICS 31 - 33 are ...

  18. Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solutions provider to measure, manage and mitigate their carbon emissions and realise business and financial benefits. References: Greenstone Carbon Management Ltd.1 This...

  19. Industrial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Industrial Manufacturing Buildings Industrialmanufacturing buildings are not considered commercial, but are covered by the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey...

  20. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  1. Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) -...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Cellulosic emissions (kg of pollutant per km2 county area) Data reflects projected air emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOX), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxide (SOX),...

  2. Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    customers the fuel mix of its electricity production and the associated sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions emissions, expressed in pounds per 1000...

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl; Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Dr. Anthony

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  4. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech

  5. The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Outputs include: The tool outputs greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide equivalent) for each facility as well as total...

  6. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  7. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  8. Final Technical Report for University of Michigan Industrial Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atreya, Arvind

    2007-04-17

    The UM Industrial Assessment Center assisted 119 primary metals, automotive parts, metal casting, chemicals, forest products, agricultural, and glass manufacturers in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana to become more productive and profitable by identifying and recommending specific measures to improve energy efficiency, reduce waste and increase productivity. This directly benefits the environment by saving a total of 309,194 MMBtu of energy resulting in reduction of 0.004 metric tons of carbon emissions. The $4,618,740 implemented cost savings generated also saves jobs that are evaporating from the manufacturing industries in the US. Most importantly, the UM Industrial Assessment Center provided extremely valuable energy education to forty one UM graduate and undergraduate students. The practical experience complements their classroom education. This also has a large multiplier effect because the students take the knowledge and training with them.

  9. Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS) for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Imhoff; Ramin Yazdani; Don Augenstein; Harold Bentley; Pei Chiu

    2010-04-30

    Methane is an important contributor to global warming with a total climate forcing estimated to be close to 20% that of carbon dioxide (CO2) over the past two decades. The largest anthropogenic source of methane in the US is 'conventional' landfills, which account for over 30% of anthropogenic emissions. While controlling greenhouse gas emissions must necessarily focus on large CO2 sources, attention to reducing CH4 emissions from landfills can result in significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at low cost. For example, the use of 'controlled' or bioreactor landfilling has been estimated to reduce annual US greenhouse emissions by about 15-30 million tons of CO2 carbon (equivalent) at costs between $3-13/ton carbon. In this project we developed or advanced new management approaches, landfill designs, and landfill operating procedures for bioreactor landfills. These advances are needed to address lingering concerns about bioreactor landfills (e.g., efficient collection of increased CH4 generation) in the waste management industry, concerns that hamper bioreactor implementation and the consequent reductions in CH4 emissions. Collectively, the advances described in this report should result in better control of bioreactor landfills and reductions in CH4 emissions. Several advances are important components of an Intelligent Bioreactor Management Information System (IBM-IS).

  10. CARBON FIBER COMPOSITES IN HIGH VOLUME

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Charles David; Das, Sujit; Jeon, Dr. Saeil

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle lightweighting represents one of several design approaches that automotive and heavy truck manufacturers are currently evaluating to improve fuel economy, lower emissions, and improve freight efficiency (tons-miles per gallon of fuel). With changes in fuel efficiency and environmental regulations in the area of transportation, the next decade will likely see considerable vehicle lightweighting throughout the ground transportation industry. Greater use of carbon fiber composites and light metals is a key component of that strategy. This paper examines the competition between candidate materials for lightweighting of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. A 53-component, 25 % mass reduction, body-in-white cost analysis is presented for each material class, highlighting the potential cost penalty for each kilogram of mass reduction and then comparing the various material options. Lastly, as the cost of carbon fiber is a major component of the elevated cost of carbon fiber composites, a brief look at the factors that influence that cost is presented.

  11. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  12. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    UNIDO Programs 2 References Resources UNIDO Tools A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry COMFAR III: Computer Model for Feasibility Analysis and...

  13. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  14. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    Analysis of the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona, including economic benefits, CO2 emissions reductions, and water conservation.

  15. Global warming impact on the cement and aggregates industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidovits, J. . Geopolymer Inst.)

    1994-06-01

    CO[sub 2] related energy taxes are focusing essentially on fuel consumption, not on actual CO[sub 2] emission measured at the chimneys. Ordinary Portland cement, used in the aggregates and industries, results from the calcination of limestone and silica. The production of 1 ton of cement directly generates 0.55 tons of chemical-CO[sub 2] and requires the combustion of carbon-fuel to yield an additional 0.40 tons of CO[sub 2]. The 1987 1 billion metric tons world production of cement accounted for 1 billion metric tons of CO[sub 2], i.e., 5% of the 1987 world CO[sub 2] emission. A world-wide freeze of CO[sub 2] emission at the 1990 level as recommended by international institutions, is incompatible with the extremely high cement development needs of less industrialized countries. Present cement production growth ranges from 5% to 16% and suggests that in 25 years from now, world cement CO[sub 2] emissions could equal 3,500 million tons. Eco-taxes when applied would have a spectacular impact on traditional Portland cement based aggregates industries. Taxation based only on fuel consumption would lead to a cement price increase of 20%, whereas taxation based on actual CO[sub 2] emission would multiply cement price by 1.5 to 2. A 25--30% minor reduction of CO[sub 2] emissions may be achieved through the blending of Portland cement with replacement materials such as coal-fly ash and iron blast furnace slag.

  16. Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wetland peat carbon cycle Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are uncertain. This is in part because many climate-sensitive ecosystems release both CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) and it is unknown how these systems will partition future releases of carbon to the atmosphere. Ecosystem observations of CH4 emissions lack mechanistic links to the processes that

  17. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  18. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    -style development path would avoid 430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More than 60% of these energy savings would come from reduced activity and production levels. In carbon terms, this would amount to more than a billion-tonne reduction of energy-related carbon emissions compared with the BAU scenario in 2025, though the absolute level of emissions rises in both scenarios. Aside from the energy and carbon savings related to CLU scenario development, this study showed impending saturation effects in commercial construction, urban appliance ownership, and fertilizer application. The implication of these findings is that urbanization will have a direct impact on future energy use and emissions - policies to guide urban growth can play a central role in China's efforts to mitigate emissions growth.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency & Emissions » Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned

  20. Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Low Carbon Cities (BEST Cities)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-02-01

    BEST-Cities is designed to provide city authorities with strategies they can follow to reduce city-wide carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. The tool quickly assesses local energy use and energy-related CO2 emissions across nine sectors (i.e., industry, public and commercial buildings, residential buildings, transportation, power and heat, street lighting, water & wastewater, solid waste, and urban green space), giving officials a comprehensive perspective on their local carbon performance. Cities can also use the toolmore » to benchmark their energy and emissions performance to other cities inside and outside China, and identify those sectors with the greatest energy saving and emissions reduction potential.« less

  1. Potential trace element emissions from the gasification of Illinois...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MATERIALS; CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; DIAGRAMS; EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY; ENERGY SOURCES; FOSSIL FUELS; FUELS; GASIFICATION; GREAT LAKES REGION; HALOGENS; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS; METALS; ...

  2. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Evaluation of in-use DPFs shows levels of reduction within in-use testing objectives: PM emission reductions >90%, elementalblack carbon reduction of 99%, and retrofit ...

  3. Planetary Emissions Management | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Management Jump to: navigation, search Name: Planetary Emissions Management Place: Cambridge, Massachusetts Sector: Carbon Product: US-based, company offering measurements of...

  4. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  5. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Users The facility has been used for more than a decade by a virtual Who's Who of the semiconductor industry to simulate the potential failures posed by cosmic-ray-induced neutrons upon miniature electronic devices, such as chips that help control aircraft or complex integrated circuits in automobiles. Industrial User Information The Neutron and Nuclear Science (WNR) Facility welcomes proposals for beam time experiments from industry users. Proprietary and non-proprietary industrial

  6. Future Sulfur Dioxide Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Pitcher, Hugh M.; Wigley, Tom M.

    2005-12-01

    The importance of sulfur dioxide emissions for climate change is now established, although substantial uncertainties remain. This paper presents projections for future sulfur dioxide emissions using the MiniCAM integrated assessment model. A new income-based parameterization for future sulfur dioxide emissions controls is developed based on purchasing power parity (PPP) income estimates and historical trends related to the implementation of sulfur emissions limitations. This parameterization is then used to produce sulfur dioxide emissions trajectories for the set of scenarios developed for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). We use the SRES methodology to produce harmonized SRES scenarios using the latest version of the MiniCAM model. The implications, and requirements, for IA modeling of sulfur dioxide emissions are discussed. We find that sulfur emissions eventually decline over the next century under a wide set of assumptions. These emission reductions result from a combination of emission controls, the adoption of advanced electric technologies, and a shift away from the direct end use of coal with increasing income levels. Only under a scenario where incomes in developing regions increase slowly do global emission levels remain at close to present levels over the next century. Under a climate policy that limits emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide emissions fall in a relatively narrow range. In all cases, the relative climatic effect of sulfur dioxide emissions decreases dramatically to a point where sulfur dioxide is only a minor component of climate forcing by the end of the century. Ecological effects of sulfur dioxide, however, could be significant in some developing regions for many decades to come.

  7. Recovery and reuse of MEK from paint stripping operation emissions using specialized adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blystone, P.G.; Goltz, H.R.; Springer, J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The reduction of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is a significant goal of the 1990 Clean Air Act. Industrial operations relating to surface preparation, surface coating and paint striping operations constitute one of the largest industrial sources of VOC emissions. This paper describes a new emission control system offered by Purus, Inc. which captures and recovers VOCs from paint stripping operations. The system is based on an on-site adsorption-desorption process which utilizes a specialized polymeric resin adsorbent. Adsorbent beds are regenerated through a computer controlled pressure-temperature swing process (PTSA). The adsorbent resin offers significant operational advantages over conventional activated carbon adsorbents with respect to treating air laden with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) vapors. Treatment of MEK with activated carbon can be problematic due to reactivity (degradation) and high heats of adsorption of ketones with carbon. The Purus process was successfully demonstrated at Tinker Air Force Base in or under the EPA`s Waste Reduction Evaluation at Federal Sites program. MEK emissions from a paint stripping booth vent were controlled at greater than 95% reduction levels. The recovered solvent was returned to depainting process and reused with no loss in paint stripping efficiency.

  8. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  9. Carbon Cycle Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to carbon cycle includes: • Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Data Sets • Area and Carbon Content of Sphagnum Since Last Glacial Maximum (2002) (Trends Online) • Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2002) (Trends Online) • Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values from Fossil-Fuel Consumption in the U.S.A., (2004) (Trends Online) • Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A. and the District of Columbia for Each Year from 1960 through 2001 (Trends Online) • Global, Regional, and National Annual CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1999 (updated 2002) • Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (1997) • Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (1998) • AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Working Group 1, 1994: Modelling Results Relating Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations to Industrial Emissions (1995) • Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994) (2003) • Global

  10. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  11. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  12. Table 3. Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by sector, 2009 " "Greenhouse Gas and Source","Sector" ,"Residential","Commercial","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Carbon Dioxide" " Energy-Related",1172.297835,1012.323586,1417.683142,1757.250685,5359.555248 " Industrial Processes",,,87.282832,,87.282832 "Total CO2",1172.297835,1012.323586,1504.965974,1757.250685,5446.83808

  13. Development of a Low NOx Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    Solar Turbines Inc., in collaboration with Pennsylvania State University and the University of Southern California, will develop injector technologies for gas turbine use of high-hydrogen content renewable and opportunity fuels derived from coal, biomass, industrial process waste, or byproducts. This project will develop low-emission technology for alternate fuels with high-hydrogen content, thereby reducing natural gas requirements and lowering carbon intensity.

  14. Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-31

    This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this

  15. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  16. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad; Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric; Wang, Mr. Michael; Ruth, Mr. Mark; Andress, Mr. David; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Nguyen, Tien; Das, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  17. Carbon dioxide power plant for total emission control and enhanced oil recovery. [Removal, storage, and use of CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, F L; Steinberg, M

    1981-08-01

    The design of a compact environmentally acceptable carbon dioxide diluted coal-oxygen fired power plant is described. The plant releases no combustion products to the atmosphere. The oxygen for combustion is separated in an air liquefaction plant and the effluent nitrogen is available for use in oil well production. Recycle carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen replaces the nitrogen for the combustion of coal in the burners. The carbon dioxide produced is used in enhanced oil recovery operations and injected into spent wells and excavated salt cavities for long-term storage. The recovery of CO/sub 2/ from a coal-burning power plant by this method appears to have the lowest energy expenditure and the lowest byproduct cost compared to alternative removal and recovery processes.

  18. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; et al

    2015-12-07

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We also discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology andmore » data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. Moreover, the mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each

  20. Carbonation of steel slag for CO{sub 2} sequestration: leaching of products and reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wouter J.J. Huijgen; Rob N.J. Comans

    2006-04-15

    Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO{sub 2} sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, steel slag samples were carbonated to a varying extent. Leaching experiments and geochemical modeling were used to identify solubility-controlling processes of major and trace elements, both with regard to carbonation mechanisms and the environmental properties of the (carbonated) steel slag. Carbonation was shown to reduce the leaching of alkaline earth metals (except Mg) by conversion of Ca-phases, such as portlandite, ettringite, and Ca-(Fe)-silicates into calcite, possibly containing traces of Ba and Sr. The leaching of vanadium increased substantially upon carbonation, probably due to the dissolution of a Ca-vanadate. The reactive surface area of Al- and Fe-(hydr)oxides increased with the carbonation degree, which tends to reduce the leaching of sorption-controlled trace elements. Sorption on Mn-(hydr)oxides was found to be required to adequately model the leaching of divalent cations, but was not influenced by carbonation. Consideration of these three distinct reactive surfaces and possible (surface) precipitation reactions resulted in adequate modeling predictions of oxyanion and trace metal leaching from (carbonated) steel slag. Hence, these surfaces exert a major influence on the environmental properties of both fresh and carbonated steel slag. 24 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon Nanotube

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposites, and Devices Comprising the Nanocomposites - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, Methods of Making Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites, and Devices Comprising the Nanocomposites Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology describes methods to fabricate supercapacitors using

  2. Carbon Capture | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Capture Carbon Capture This GIF shows how CO2 emissions vary across the United States. Each bar represents a 50x50 kilometer grid. Bar height is proportional to total CO2 emissions and bar color represents the type of CO2 emissions. Red bars represent proportionately more CO2 emissions from electricity generation (coal, gas and oil). Green bars represent CO2 emissions by other sources (such as ethanol production, iron-steel production and cement manufacture). Yellow/orange bars signify a

  3. Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The limitation to reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the expense of stripping carbon dioxide from other combustion gases. Without a cost-effective means of accomplishing this, hydrocarbon resources cannot be used freely. A few power plants currently remove

  4. Industrial Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Permit Industrial Permit The Industrial Permit authorizes the Laboratory to discharge point-source effluents under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. October 15, 2012 Outfall from the Laboratory's Data Communications Center cooling towers Intermittent flow of discharged water from the Laboratory's Data Communications Center eventually reaches perennial segment of Sandia Canyon during storm events (Outfall 03A199). Contact Environmental Communication & Public

  5. Industry Economists

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industry Economists The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the Industry Economist, whose work is associated with the performance of economic analyses using economic techniques. Responsibilities: Industry Economists perform or participate in one or more of the following

  6. OTHER INDUSTRIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AMO funded research results in novel technologies in diverse industries beyond the most energy intensive ones within the U.S. Manufacturing sector. These technologies offer quantifiable energy...

  7. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Users - Media Publications and Information The Invisible Neutron Threat Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices Nuclear Science Research at the LANSCE-WNR...

  8. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  9. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Arizona (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Arizona. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Arizona to be $1.15 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 818 million gallons.

  10. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reduction, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Georgia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policy makers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Georgia. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Georgia to be $2.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 3.0 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,628 million gallons.

  11. Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry February 7, 2014 - 3:27pm Addthis Oxidized fibers move to a high temperature furnace, where material is converted into carbon fiber at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Carbon Fiber Technology Facility (CFTC). The CFTC enables companies to test low-cost carbon fiber for use in several industries including the clean energy sector. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oxidized fibers

  12. INTERACTIVE: How Much Carbon Do Countries Emit?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As negotiations continue at COP21, get to know the attending countries’ carbon dioxide emissions, and how they compare to your home state.

  13. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  14. Industry Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cell and biogas industries perspectives. Presented by Mike Hicks, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  15. Office of Industrial Technologies: Summary of program results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-01-01

    Working in partnership with industry, the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) is helping reduce industrial energy use, emissions, and waste while boosting productivity. Operating within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE), OIT conducts research, development, demonstration, and technology transfer efforts that are producing substantial, measurable benefits to industry. This document summarizes some of the impacts of OIT`s programs through 1997. OIT tracks energy savings as well as other benefits associated with the successfully commercialized technologies resulting from OIT-supported research partnerships. Specifically, a chart shows current and cumulative energy savings as well as cumulative reductions of various air pollutants including particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), and the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The bulk of the document consists of four appendices. Appendix 1 describes the technologies currently available commercially, along with their applications and benefits; Appendix 2 describes the OIT-supported emerging technologies that are likely to be commercialized within the next year or two; Appendix 3 describes OIT-sponsored technologies used in commercial applications in the past that are no longer tracked; and Appendix 4 describes the methodology used to assess and track OIT-supported technologies.

  16. Industry @ ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry @ ALS Industry @ ALS Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 11:21 For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research, including vanadium dioxide phase transitions and atomic movement during memristor operation. Summary Slide Read more... ALS, Molecular Foundry,

  17. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in Maine (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in Maine. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, six states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in Maine to be $1.3 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.8 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,387 million gallons.

  18. Economic Benefits, Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions Reductions, and Water Conservation Benefits from 1,000 Megawatts (MW) of New Wind Power in North Carolina (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy?s Wind Powering America Program is committed to educating state-level policymakers and other stakeholders about the economic, CO2 emissions, and water conservation impacts of wind power. This analysis highlights the expected impacts of 1000 MW of wind power in North Carolina. Although construction and operation of 1000 MW of wind power is a significant effort, seven states have already reached the 1000-MW mark. We forecast the cumulative economic benefits from 1000 MW of development in North Carolina to be $1.1 billion, annual CO2 reductions are estimated at 2.9 million tons, and annual water savings are 1,558 million gallons.

  19. Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... News Media Contact: 202-586-4940 Addthis Related Articles Large-Scale Industrial Carbon ... designed National Sequestration Education Center, located at Richland Community ...

  20. An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, Aaron K.; Webber, Michael E.

    2012-07-15

    This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

  1. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Energy Department Announces $10 Million to Advance Zero-Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicles and infrastructure will reduce petroleum use, carbon emissions, and air pollution at transportation hubs, such as ports. The Energy Department seeks...

  5. Gateway:Low Emission Development Strategies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rigorous low emission development strategies (LEDS). LEDS will enable countries to transition to low carbon economic development resulting in sustained growth in employment and...

  6. Call for emission limits heats debate on global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    Emission limits on carbon dioxide is recommended by an Intergovernmental Panel in a discussion on global warming. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Commercial / Industrial Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Commercial & Industrial Lighting Efficiency Program The Commercial & Industrial...

  8. The Energy Department and NETL?s Advances in Carbon Capture and Storage

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2016-07-16

    NETL is innovating cost-effective, safe carbon capturing and storage technologies as part of a long-term strategy for mitigating carbon emissions from fossil fuels.

  9. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    To address the public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel power plants and other industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE-NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focusing on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse and supporting the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} to solid mineral form that can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery, in the manufacturing of concrete or as a benign landfill, in the production of valuable chemicals and/or fuels. This project was selected as a CO{sub 2} reuse activity which would conduct research and development (R&D) at the pilot scale via a cost-shared Cooperative Agreement number DE-FE0001099 with DOE-NETL and would utilize funds setaside by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D,

  10. Cost-Effective Reciprocating Engine Emissions Control and Monitoring for E&P Field and Gathering Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith Hohn; Sarah R. Nuss-Warren

    2011-08-31

    This final report describes a project intended to identify, develop, test, and commercialize emissions control and monitoring technologies that can be implemented by E&P operators to significantly lower their cost of environmental compliance and expedite project permitting. Technologies were installed and tested in controlled laboratory situations and then installed and tested on field engines based on the recommendations of an industry-based steering committee, analysis of installed horsepower, analysis of available emissions control and monitoring technologies, and review of technology and market gaps. The industry-recognized solution for lean-burn engines, a low-emissions-retrofit including increased airflow and pre-combustion chambers, was found to successfully control engine emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, the standard non-selective catalytic reduction (NSCR) system recognized by the industry was found to be unable to consistently control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. The standard NSCR system was observed to produce emissions levels that changed dramatically on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis. Because difficulties with this system seemed to be the result of exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensors that produced identical output for very different exhaust gas conditions, models were developed to describe the behavior of the EGO sensor and an alternative, the universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor. Meanwhile, an integrated NSCR system using an advanced, signal-conditioned UEGO sensor was tested and found to control both NO{sub X} and CO emissions. In conjunction with this project, advanced monitoring technologies, such as Ion Sense, and improved sensors for emissions control, such as the AFM1000+ have been developed and commercialized.

  11. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating the Impact (Energy, ...

  12. EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) AgencyCompany Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Industry, Greenhouse...

  13. Pulsed Corona Plasma Technology for Treating VOC Emissions from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from Pulp Mills Under the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies Forest Products program ... plasma technology for control of the vent emissions from HVLC Brownstock Washers. ...

  14. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel

  15. Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. K. Bloomfield; J. N. Moore

    1999-10-01

    Emission of �greenhouse gases� into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize �green power.� Geothermal power is classed as �green power� and has lower emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.

  16. Geothermal Electrical Production CO2 Emissions Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomfield, Kevin Kit; Moore, J. N.

    1999-10-01

    Emission of “greenhouse gases” into the environment has become an increasing concern. Deregulation of the electrical market will allow consumers to select power suppliers that utilize “green power.” Geothermal power is classed as “green power” and has power emissions of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour of electricity than even the cleanest of fossil fuels, natural gas. However, previously published estimates of carbon dioxide emissions are relatively old and need revision. This study estimates that the average carbon dioxide emissions from geothermal and fossil fuel power plants are: geothermal 0.18 , coal 2.13, petroleum 1.56 , and natural gas 1.03 pounds of carbon dioxide per kilowatt-hour respectively.

  17. Expanding the Pool of Federal Policy Options to Promote Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann; Cox, Matthew; Jackson, Roderick K; Lapsa, Melissa Voss

    2011-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of industry is essential for maintaining the viability of domestic manufacturing, especially in a world economy where production is shifting to low-cost, less regulated developing countries. Numerous studies have shown the potential for significant cost-effective energy-savings in U.S. industries, but the realization of this potential is hindered by regulatory, information, workforce, and financial obstacles. This report evaluates seven federal policy options aimed at improving the energy efficiency of industry, grounded in an understanding of industrial decision-making and the barriers to efficiency improvements. Detailed analysis employs the Georgia Institute of Technology's version of the National Energy Modeling System and spreadsheet calculations, generating a series of benefit/cost metrics spanning private and public costs and energy bill savings, as well as air pollution benefits and the social cost of carbon. Two of the policies would address regulatory hurdles (Output-Based Emissions Standards and a federal Energy Portfolio Standard with Combined Heat and Power); three would help to fill information gaps and workforce training needs (the Superior Energy Performance program, Implementation Support Services, and a Small Firm Energy Management program); and two would tackle financial barriers (Tax Lien Financing and Energy-Efficient Industrial Motor Rebates). The social benefit-cost ratios of these policies appear to be highly favorable based on a range of plausible assumptions. Each of the seven policy options has an appropriate federal role, broad applicability across industries, utilizes readily available technologies, and all are administratively feasible.

  18. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

    2005-10-01

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the

  19. Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    at the Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas. ... The two retrofitted Air Products and Chemicals plants produce commercial bulk hydrogen ...

  20. Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Combined heat and power (CHP)—sometimes referred to as cogeneration—involves the sequential process of producing and utilizing electricity and thermal energy from a single fuel. CHP is widely recognized to save energy and costs, while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants. CHP is a realistic, near-term option for large energy efficiency improvements and significant CO2 reductions.

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Carbon Capture and Storage Research Atlas IV Now Available Atlas IV Now Available Carbon storage atlas estimates at least 2,400 billion metric tons of U.S. CO2 storage resource. Read more Industrial CCS Industrial CCS Learn how DOE is capturing and storing CO2 from industrial plants. Read more Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships A nationwide network of federal, state and private sector partnerships are determining the most suitable

  2. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  3. Norwegian carbon taxes and their implication for fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarstad, O.

    1995-12-31

    The Scandinavian countries, and in particular Norway and Sweden, have since 1990/91 taxed CO{sub 2}-emissions with carbon tax of about US $150 per ton of CO{sub 2}. One may therefore say that these countries have placed themselves in a role as {open_quotes}carbon tax laboratories{close_quotes}. These very high CO{sub 2}-taxes have been in place for about four years and the first lessons from this experience are reported. In general it would seem as if the taxation mechanism is less efficient than economists have expected. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are increasing in both Norway and Sweden and the stabilization goal to the year 2000 will not be achieved in spite of the high taxation. The fossil fuel industry will have to learn to live with the climate change question which is inherently hostile to fossil fuels. It is argued that a more informed and active participation by the fossil fuel industry is needed in the climate change discussion. In addition the image of fossil fuels will benefit from showing real and potential improvement in the area of greenhouse gas emissions in the whole energy chain from production to combustion. The R&D effort being done into CO{sub 2}-capture and -disposal is creating such an option for the future. It is argued that the image of the entire fossil fuel industry will benefit from the creation of a {open_quotes}CO{sub 2}-free{close_quote} option or vision for oil, gas and coal. A number of examples are shown where today (or in the near future) actual CO{sub 2}-disposal in underground formations are taking place.

  4. EERE Success Story-Ford-Dow Partnership Is Linked to Carbon Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Set To Scale Up Industry Plasma oxidation oven. Photo Courtesy: RMX Technologies EERE Success Story-Plasma Oxidation of Carbon Fiber Precursor ...

  5. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73, (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For 1997, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of regulated air emissions from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of VOCs. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72, Construction Permits.

  6. Industry Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    idatech.com info@idatech.com 63065 NE 18 th Street Bend, OR 97701 541.383.3390 Industry Perspective Biogas and Fuel Cell Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 11 - 13, 2012 Mike Hicks Chairman of the Board of Directors, FCHEA Treasurer of the Board of Directors, FCS&E Engineering Manager, Technology Development & Integration, IdaTech Outline 1. Critical Factors * Fuel Purity * Fuel Cost 2. Natural Gas - The Wild Card & Competition 3. IdaTech's Experience Implementing

  7. Global Warming: A Science Overview for the A/C Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1999-12-06

    Fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) provide about 85% of the world's energy, sustaining our standard-of-living. They are inexpensive, transportable, safe, and relatively abundant. At the same time, their use contributes to problems such as air quality and acid rain that are being addressed through various control efforts and to the problem of global warming, which is now being considered by governments of the world. This talk will focus on six key aspects of the scientific findings that are leading to proposals for significant limitation of the emissions of fossil-fuel-derived carbon dioxide and limitations on emissions of other greenhouse gases that can influence the global climate, including substances used in the refrigeration and air-conditioning industries.

  8. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  9. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  10. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California

  11. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Anglani, Norma; Einstein, Dan; Krushch, Marta; Price, Lynn

    2001-02-02

    This paper analyzes the energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reductions potential of the U.S. pulp and paper industry, one of the largest energy users in the U.S. manufacturing sector. We examined over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures. The measures were characterized, and then ordered on the basis of cost-effectiveness. The report indicates that there still exists significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in this industry. The cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement is defined as having a simple pay-back period of three years or less. Not including increased recycling the study identifies a cost-effective savings potential of 16% of the primary energy use in 1994. Including increased recycling leads to a higher potential for energy savings, i.e. a range of cost-effective savings between 16% and 24% of primary energy use. Future work is needed to further elaborate on key energy efficiency measures identified in the report including barriers and opportunities for increased recycling of waste paper.

  12. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2004-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes five states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah) and contiguous areas from three adjacent states (west Texas, south Wyoming, and west Kansas). This energy-rich region exhibits some of the largest growth rates in the nation, and it contains two major CO{sub 2} pipeline networks that presently tap natural subsurface CO{sub 2} reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery at a rate of 30 million tons per year. The ten largest coal-fired power plants in the region produce 50% (140 million tons CO{sub 2}/y) of the total CO{sub 2} from power-plant fossil fuel combustion, with power plant emissions close to half the total CO{sub 2} emissions. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, the five major electric utility industries, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs including the Western Governors Association, and data sharing agreements with four other surrounding states. The Partnership is developing action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region, as well as the non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. The establishment of a website network to facilitate data storage and information sharing, decision-making, and future management of carbon sequestration in the region is a priority. The Southwest Partnership's approach includes (1) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, (2) assessing and initiating public acceptance of possible sequestration approaches, and (3) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. The Partnership will also identify potential gaps in

  13. Survey of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2010-07-15

    The operations of carbonization facilities for municipal solid waste treatment in Japan were examined. Input waste, system processes, material flows, quality of char and its utilization, fuel and chemical consumption, control of facility emissions, and trouble areas in facility operation were investigated and analyzed. Although carbonization is a technically available thermochemical conversion method for municipal solid waste treatment, problems of energy efficiency and char utilization must be solved for carbonization to be competitive. Possible solutions include (1) optimizing the composition of input waste, treatment scale, organization of unit processes, operational methods, and quality and yield of char on the basis of analysis and feedback of long-term operating data of present operating facilities and (2) securing stable char demands by linking with local industries such as thermal electric power companies, iron manufacturing plants, and cement production plants.

  14. Determination of a cost-effective air pollution control technology for the control of VOC and HAP emissions from a steroids processing plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    A steroids processing plant located in northeastern Puerto Rico emits a combined average of 342 lb/hr of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various process operations. The approach that this facility used to implement maximum achievable control technology (MACT) may assist others who must contend with MACT for pharmaceutical or related manufacturing facilities. Federal air regulations define MACT standards for stationary sources emitting any of 189 HAPs. The MACT standards detailed in the NESHAPs are characterized by industry and type of emission control system or technology. It is anticipated that the standard will require HAP reductions of approximately 95%. The steroid plant`s emissions include the following pollutant loadings: VOC/HAP Emission Rate (lb/hr): Methanol 92.0; Acetone 35.0; Methylene chloride 126.0; Chloroform 25.0; Ethyl acetate 56.0; Tetrahydrofuran 5.00; and 1,4-Dioxane 3.00. The facility`s existing carbon adsorption control system was nearing the end of its useful life, and the operators sought to install an air pollution control system capable of meeting MACT requirements for the pharmaceutical industry. Several stand-alone and hybrid control technologies were considered for replacement of the carbon adsorption system at the facility. This paper examines the following technologies: carbon adsorption, membrane separation, thermal oxidation, membrane separation-carbon adsorption, and condensation-carbon adsorption. Each control technology is described; the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing each technology for the steroid processing plant are examined; and capital and operating costs associated with the implementation of each technology are presented. The rationale for the technology ultimately chosen to control VOC and HAP emissions is presented.

  15. Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David G.; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-05-01

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic growth and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study focuses on a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. In the past years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced the China End-Use Energy Model based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not likely be the case because of saturation effects in appliances, residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and urbanization will peak around 2030 with slowing population growth. The baseline and alternative scenarios also demonstrate that the 2020 goals can be met and underscore the significant role that policy-driven energy efficiency

  16. Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave radiation, thus preventing long-wave...

  17. COVER PLACEHOLDER Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Climate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... one- sixth of global CO2 emission reductions in ... 2,000 500 megawatt coal-fired power plants, each emitting 3.5 ... term while significantly reducing carbon emissions. ...

  18. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  19. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  20. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less