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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

2

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

3

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

4

Carbon Emissions: Petroleum Refining Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Refining Industry Petroleum Refining Industry Carbon Emissions in the Petroleum Refining Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 2911) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 79.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.5% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 16.5 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 6,263 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 28.9% Nonfuel Use of Energy Sources: 3,110 trillion Btu (49.7%) -- Naphthas and Other Oils: 1,328 trillion Btu -- Asphalt and Road Oil: 1,224 trillion Btu -- Lubricants: 416 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 12.75 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey", "Monthly Refinery Report" for 1994, and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998.

5

Carbon Emissions: Iron and Steel Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Iron and Steel Industry Iron and Steel Industry Carbon Emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 3312) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 39.9 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 10.7% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 22.2 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 1,649 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 7.6% Nonfuel Use of Energy: 886 trillion Btu (53.7%) -- Coal: 858 trillion Btu (used to make coke) Carbon Intensity: 24.19 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 39.9 Coal 22.7

6

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Industrialized Countries Extended discussion here Carbon emissions per capita 1973 vs. 1991 by major end use. (Denmark comparison is 1972 and 1991) With the third Conference of the Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto approaching, there is a great deal of excitement over policies designed to reduce future carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels. At COP-3, more than 130 nations will meet to create legally binding targets for CO2 reductions. Accordingly, we have analyzed the patterns of emissions arising from the end uses of energy (and electricity production) in ten industrialized countries, with surprising and, in some cases, worrisome results. The surprise is that emissions in many countries in the early 1990s were lower than in the 1970s in an absolute sense and on a per capita basis; the worry

7

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Energy Efficiency Page > Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions > Total Table Total Energy-Related Carbon Emissions for Manufacturing Industries, 1994 Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) Carbon Intensity SIC Code Industry Group Total Net Electricity Natural Gas Petro- leum Coal Other (MMTC/ Quadrillion Btu) Total 371.7 131.1 93.5 87.3 56.8 3.1 17.16 20 Food and Kindred Products 24.4 9.8 9.1 W W 0.1 20.44 21 Tobacco Products W 0.1 W W W W W 22 Textile Mill Products 8.7 5.5 1.7 0.6 1.0 * 28.21 23 Apparel and Other Textile Products W 1.3 0.4 W W W W 24 Lumber and Wood Products 4.9 3.4 0.7 W W 0.2 9.98 25 Furniture and Fixtures 1.6 1.1 0.3 * 0.1 0.1 23.19 26 Paper and Allied Products 31.6 11.0 8.3 4.3 7.8 0.3 11.88

8

A decomposition analysis of carbon dioxide emissions in the Chinese nonferrous metal industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nonferrous metal industry (NMI) of China consumes large amounts of energy and associated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) are very high. Actions to reduce CO 2 emissions and ener...

Y. Shi; T. Zhao

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Assessment of the potential of CHP technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries.

10

Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 2. Energy Consumption, Carbon Emissions Coefficients,and Carbon Emissions from Energy Consumption, and CarbonEnergy – Related Carbon Emissions Fuel Energy Use Carbon (

Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect

Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The POETICs of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japan: an urban and institutional extension of the IPAT identity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study applies the POETICs framework (population, organization, environment, technology, institutions and culture) to an analysis of industrial carbon dioxide emissions in Japanese cities. The inclusion of in...

Stephan Scholz

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Carbon dioxide emissions intensity of Portuguese industry and energy sectors: A convergence analysis and econometric approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Given the relevance of energy and pollution issues for industrialised countries and the importance of industry and energy sectors to the achievement of their economic and environmental goals, it is important to know if there is a common pattern of emissions intensity, fuel intensity and energy intensity, between industries, to know if it justifies a more specific application of energy policies between sectors, which sectors have the greatest potential for reducing energy use and which are the long term effects of those specific variables on the mitigation of emissions. We found that although there is literature on decomposition of effects that affect emissions, the study of the convergence and of the relationships between these variables does not include ratios or effects that result from the decomposition analysis. Thus, the above questions are not answered, much less for the Portuguese reality. The purpose of this paper is to study: (i) the existence of convergence of some relevant ratios as Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions intensity, CO2 emissions by fossil fuel consumption, fossil fuel intensity, energy intensity and economic structure, between industry and energy sectors in Portugal, and (ii) the influence that the consumption of fossil fuels, the consumption of aggregate energy and GDP have on CO2 emissions, and the influence that the ratios in which CO2 emissions intensity decomposes can affect that variable, using an econometric approach, namely Panel corrected standard errors estimator. We concluded that there is sigma convergence for all ratios with exception of fossil fuel intensity. Gamma convergence verifies for all ratios, with exception of CO2 emissions by fossil fuel. From the econometric approach we concluded that the considered variables have a significant importance in explaining CO2 emissions and CO2 emissions intensity.

Victor Moutinho; Margarita Robaina-Alves; Jorge Mota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of industrialized countries in promoting the adoption of low carbon technologies, how do international steel and cement companies influence the situation, and how can such information be used in the context of Clean Development Mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol?

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Carbon emissions reduction potential in the US chemicals and pulp and paper industries by applying CHP technologies  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and the pulp/paper industries combined provide 55% of CHP generation in the US industry. Yet, significant potential for new CHP capacities exists in both industries. From the present steam consumption data, the authors estimate about 50 GW of additional technical potential for CHP in both industries. The reduced carbon emissions will be equivalent to 44% of the present carbon emissions in these industries. They find that most of the carbon emissions reductions can be achieved at negative costs. Depending on the assumptions used in calculations, the economic potential of CHP in these industries can be significantly lower, and carbon emissions mitigation costs can be much higher. Using sensitivity analyses, they determine that the largest effect on the CHP estimate have the assumptions in the costs of CHP technology, in the assumed discount rates, in improvements in efficiency of CHP technologies, and in the CHP equipment depreciation periods. Changes in fuel and electricity prices and the growth in the industries' steam demand have less of an effect. They conclude that the lowest carbon mitigation costs are achieved with the CHP facility is operated by the utility and when industrial company that owns the CHP unit can sell extra electricity and steam to the open wholesale market. Based on the results of the analyses they discuss policy implications.

Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.; Martin, N.; Einstein, D.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Meeting State Carbon Emission Requirements through Industrial Energy Efficiency: The Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This case study describes the Southern California Gas Company’s Industrial End User program, which helps large industrial customers increase energy efficiency and reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

17

Carbon dioxide sequestration in petrochemical industries with the aim of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions to acceptable levels is arguably the greatest...2 increase in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide sequestration that consists of separation, transportation and...2..., is one...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

19

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Energy Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Detailed Energy-Related Carbon Emissions All Industry Groups 1994 emissions Selected Industries Petroleum refining Chemicals Iron & Steel Paper Food Stone, clay and glass Methodological Details Estimation methods Glossary Return to: Energy and GHG Analysis Efficiency Page Energy Use in Manufacturing Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing Manufacturing, which accounts for about 80 percent of industrial energy consumption, also accounts for about 80 percent of industrial energy-related carbon emissions. (Agriculture, mining, forestry, and fisheries account for the remaining 20 percent.) In 1994, three industries, petroleum, chemicals, and primary metals, emitted almost 60 percent of the energy-related carbon in manufacturing. The next three largest emitters (paper, food, and the stone, glass, and clay products industry) produced an additional 22 percent of the energy-related manufacturing emissions (Figure 1).

20

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

calculation of the carbon intensity of fuel and electricitys announced a 2015 carbon intensity reduction target of 17%to calculate economic carbon intensities. The China average

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated How the Carbon Emissions Were Estimated Carbon dioxide emissions are the main component of greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity. Carbon dioxide is emitted mostly as a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels for energy, although certain industrial processes (e.g., cement manufacture) also emit carbon dioxide. The estimates of energy-related carbon emissions require both data on the energy use and carbon emissions coefficients relating energy use to the amount of carbon emitted. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the main source of data on U.S. energy use. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 used annual data provided by energy suppliers. However, to obtain more detail on how different sectors use energy, the emissions estimates in Energy and GHG Analysis rely data from on surveys of energy users, such as manufacturing establishments and commercial buildings.

22

China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conversion Factors methodology as well as conversion factors used for the CO 2related emissions. Conversion Factors This study uses the

Lu, Hongyou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

By the Numbers: A Visual Chronicle of Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq.) emissions are now considered a de facto indicator ... this chapter highlights the size and scope of carbon emissions at multiple levels—countries, cities, industrial...

Tonya Boone; Ram Ganeshan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Potentials for reductions of carbon dioxide emissions of the industrial sector in transitional economies -- A case study of implementation of absorption chiller and co-generation  

SciTech Connect

Central and East European (CEE) countries together with former USSR emitted about 25 percent of the world carbon dioxide emissions, predominantly because of high energy intensity of their industries and dependence on coal. The paper focuses on technologies which would reduce the need for fossil fuel burning by improving energy efficiency in industry. In the process industry, heat demand is usually met by combustion of fossil fuels, cold is produced with electricity. Technical potentials of absorption chillers (AC) and co-generation in the process industry as well as their market penetration potentials are analyses for Slovenia, one of the fastest transforming CEE economies. Technical potentials are not necessarily realized in production. New technology employment in firms depends on several factors. This paper first summarizes the existing models explaining adoption of technology by firms. Then, it focuses selectively on the impact of macro economic and institutional factors and points out which policy instruments could facilitate faster diffusion of the technologies and thereby reduction of energy related carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector.

Remec, J. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Dolsak, N. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Economics]|[Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, industrial structure, and technical efficiency: Empirical evidence from Ghana, Senegal, and Morocco on the causal dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigated the short-run causal relationships and the long-run equilibrium relationships among carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, technical efficiency, and industrial structure for three African countries. Using Bounds cointegration approach the result showed evidence of multiple long-run equilibrium relationships for Ghana and Senegal but a one-way long-run equilibrium relationship for Morocco. The result from the Toda and Yomamoto granger causality test showed a mix of bidirectional, unidirectional, and neutral relationships for all countries. Whilst in Senegal carbon dioxide emission was not found to be a limiting factor to economic growth; it was found to act as a limiting factor to economic growth in Morocco and Ghana. Lastly, the result from the variance decomposition analysis revealed that economic growth contributes largely to changes in future carbon dioxide emissions in Senegal and Morocco whilst in Ghana technical efficiency contributes largely to changes in future variations in carbon dioxide emissions. These results have important policy implications for these countries' energy efficiency systems.

Philip Kofi Adom; William Bekoe; Franklin Amuakwa-Mensah; Justice Tei Mensah; Ebo Botchway

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market Redouane Belaouar Arash Fahim Nizar Scheme (EU ETS) which provides a way to control the emission of CO2 within carbon polluters through carbon emission. Within ETS, certain industrial installations with intensive carbon pollution are given

Touzi, Nizar

27

Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Industrial Carbon Capture Project SelectionsSeptember 2, 2010These projects have been selected for negotiation of awards; final award amounts may vary.

28

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 2.1. Total carbon dioxide emissions Annual U.S. carbon dioxide emissions fell by 419 million metric tons in 2009 (7.1 percent), to 5,447 million metric tons (Figure 9 and Table 6). The annual decrease-the largest over the 19-year period beginning with the 1990 baseline-puts 2009 emissions 608 million metric tons below the 2005 level, which is the Obama Administration's benchmark year for its goal of reducing U.S. emissions by 17 percent by 2020. The key factors contributing to the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions in 2009 included an economy in recession with a decrease in gross domestic product of 2.6 percent, a decrease in the energy intensity of the economy of 2.2 percent, and a decrease in the carbon intensity of energy supply of

29

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI) Background The ICMI project is part of a larger program called Carbon Capture Simulation and Storage Initiative (C2S2I). The C2S2I has a goal of expanding the DOE's focus on Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) for advanced coal power systems and other applications, including the use of petroleum coke as a feedstock for the industrial sector. The American Recovery and Re-Investment Act (ARRA)-funded

31

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions For additional terms, refer to: the Glossary of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 for additional greenhouse gas related terms, the Glossary of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for additional manufacturing terms, and Appendix F of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for descriptions of the major industry groups. British Thermal Unit: The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. One quadrillion Btu is 1015 Btu, or 1.055 exajoules. Btu: See British Thermal Unit. Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil-fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps heat radiated into the atmosphere and thereby contributes to the potential for global warming.

32

Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources Carbon Capture and Storage from Industrial Sources In 2009, the industrial sector accounted for slightly more than one-quarter of total U.S. carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 5,405 million metric tons from energy consumption, according to data from DOE's Energy Information Administration. In a major step forward in the fight to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial plants, DOE has allocated Recovery Act funds to more than 25 projects that capture and sequester CO2 emissions from industrial sources - such as cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, paper mills, and manufacturing facilities - into underground formations. Large-Scale Projects Three projects are aimed at testing large-scale industrial carbon capture

33

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2011. “Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage inOrganization (UNIDO). 2010. Carbon Capture and Storage in92 3.9. Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies for the Iron

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat to smelt the iron. Coal gasification is the result of anew processes such as gasification, slow pyrolysis, and fastreaction ? Carbon gasification and iron ore reduction

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Atmospheric three-dimensional inverse modeling of regional industrial emissions and global oceanic uptake of carbon tetrachloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has substantial stratospheric ozone depletion potential and its consumption is controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments. We implement a Kalman filter using atmospheric CCl4 ...

Xiao, X.

36

The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in industrialized countries: an end-use analysis  

SciTech Connect

There has been much attention drawn to plans for reductions or restraint in future C02 emissions, yet little analysis of the recent history of those emissions by end use or economic activity. Understanding the components of C02 emissions, particularly those related to combustion of fossil fuels, is important for judging the likely success of plans for dealing with future emissions. Knowing how fuel switching, changes in economic activity and its structure, or changes in energy-use efficiency affected emissions in the past, we can better judge both the realism of national proposals to restrain future emissions and the outcome as well. This study presents a first step in that analysis. The organization of this paper is as follows. We present a brief background and summarize previous work analyzing changes in energy use using the factorial method. We then describe our data sources and method. We then present a series of summary results, including a comparison of C02 emissions in 1991 by end use or sector. We show both aggregate change and change broken down by factor, highlighting briefly the main components of change. We then present detailed results, sector by sector. Next we highlight recent trends. Finally, we integrate our results, discussing -the most important factors driving change - evolution in economic structure, changes in energy intensities, and shifts in the fuel mix. We discuss briefly some of the likely causes of these changes - long- term technological changes, effects of rising incomes, the impact of overall changes in energy prices, as well as changes in the relative prices of energy forms.

Schipper, L.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Unander, F.; Monahan, P.; Golove, W.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The era of publicly mandated GHG emissions restrictions inthe United States has begun with recent legislation in California andseven northeastern states. Commercial and industrial buildings canimprove the carbon-efficiency of end-use energy consumption by installingtechnologies such as on-site cogeneration of electricity and useful heatin combined heat and power systems, thermally-activated cooling, solarelectric and thermal equipment, and energy storage -- collectively termeddistributed energy resources (DER). This research examines a collectionof buildings in California, the Northeast, and the southern United Statesto demonstrate the effects of regional characteristics such as the carbonintensity of central electricity grid, the climate-driven demand forspace heating and cooling, and the availability of solar insolation. Theresults illustrate that the magnitude of a realistic carbon tax ($100/tC)is too small to incent significant carbon-reducing effects oneconomically optimal DER adoption. In large part, this is because costreduction and carbon reduction objectives are roughly aligned, even inthe absence of a carbon tax.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Carbon Emissions Analysis of Rail Resurfacing Work: A Case Study, Practical Guideline, and Systems Thinking Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon pollution has become a sensitive topic across the globe in recent times. In Australia, incentive has been provided to industry in order to reduce carbon emissions in heavy polluting industries. The railway transportation ...

Krezo, S.

39

ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even though the Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies (CC & ST) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated carbon emission research in late 1990s (CSI, 2013), carbon emissions has only become a hot topic in the last decade...

Kwok, George

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Estuaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from estuaries are reviewed in relation with biogeochemical processes and carbon cycling. In estuaries, carbon dioxide and methane emissions show a large spatial and temporal ...

Gwenaël Abril; Alberto Vieira Borges

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

42

Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a national level involves substantial investment efforts, though part of these may be regained soon.1 On a global level, the costs of the available options are likely to ...

Catrinus J. Jepma; Che Wah Lee

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we analyze differences in per capita carbon dioxide emissions from 1996 to 2010 in six sectors across 28 provinces in China and examine the ?-convergence, stochastic convergence and ?-convergence of these emissions. We also investigate the factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector. The results show that per capita carbon dioxide emissions in all sectors converged across provinces from 1996 to 2010. Factors that impact the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in each sector vary: GDP (gross domestic product) per capita, industrialization process and population density impact convergence in the Industry sector, while GDP per capita and population density impact convergence in the Transportation, Storage, Postal, and Telecommunications Services sector. Aside from GDP per capita and population density, trade openness also impacts convergence in the Wholesale, Retail, Trade, and Catering Service sector. Population density is the only factor that impacts convergence in the Residential Consumption sector.

Juan Wang; Kezhong Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–...2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in...

Ekaterini Panopoulou; Theologos Pantelidis

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. C. Lal, R. (2004), Carbon emission from farm operations,facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization January 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A breakthrough carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) project in Texas has begun capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and piping it to an oilfield for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Read the project factsheet The project at Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facility in Port Arthur, Texas, is significant for demonstrating both the effectiveness and commercial viability of CCUS technology as an option in helping mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions. Funded in part through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the project is managed by the U.S.

48

Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization January 25, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A breakthrough carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) project in Texas has begun capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and piping it to an oilfield for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Read the project factsheet The project at Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facility in Port Arthur, Texas, is significant for demonstrating both the effectiveness and commercial viability of CCUS technology as an option in helping mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions. Funded in part through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the project is managed by the U.S.

49

Energy Use and Carbon Emissions:  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

World Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1980-2001 World Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 1980-2001 April 2004 Energy Information Administration Contacts Staff from the Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU), Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) prepared this report. General questions concerning the content of the report may be referred to Mark Rodekohr (Mark.Rodekohr@eia.doe.gov, 202-586-1130), Director of EMCID; or Lowell Feld (Lowell.Feld@eia.doe.gov, 202-586-9502), Leader of the Contingency Information Team. Specific questions about the report should be referred to Nathan Wilson (Nathan.Wilson@eia.doe.gov, 202-586-9883). 1 Table of Contents CONTACTS .......................................................................................................................

50

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

51

Sandia National Laboratories: reducing carbon dioxide emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

carbon dioxide emissions Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine On February 27, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Facilities, News, News &...

52

Achieving Carbon Neutrality in the Global Aluminum Industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Table VII...illustrates a suggested carbon scoreboard. The global aluminum industry can become “carbon neutral,” reducing its current carbon print of 500 million metric tonnes per year... ...

Subodh Das

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Field Emission and Nanostructure of Carbon Films  

SciTech Connect

The results of field emission measurements of various forms of carbon films are reported. It is shown that the films nanostructure is a crucial factor determining the field emission properties. In particular, smooth, pulsed-laser deposited amorphous carbon films with both high and low sp3 contents are poor field emitters. This is similar to the results obtained for smooth nanocrystalline, sp2-bonded carbon films. In contrast, carbon films prepared by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HE-CVD) exhibit very good field emission properties, including low emission turn-on fields, high emission site density, and excellent durability. HF-CVD carbon films were found to be predominantly sp2-bonded. However, surface morphology studies show that these films are thoroughly nanostructured, which is believed to be responsible for their promising field emission properties.

Merkulov, V.I.; Lowndes, D.H.; Baylor, L.R.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

54

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Initiative (ICMI) Background The ICMI project is part of a larger program called Carbon Capture Simulation and Storage Initiative (C2S2I). The C2S2I has a goal of...

55

Estimated Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2008: United States  

SciTech Connect

Flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of state-level energy use patterns. Approximately 5,800 million metric tons of carbon dioxide were emitted throughout the United States for use in power production, residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation applications in 2008. Carbon dioxide is emitted from the use of three major energy resources: natural gas, coal, and petroleum. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and one national) carbon dioxide flow charts representing a comprehensive systems view of national CO{sub 2} emissions. Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL) has published flow charts (also referred to as 'Sankey Diagrams') of important national commodities since the early 1970s. The most widely recognized of these charts is the U.S. energy flow chart (http://flowcharts.llnl.gov). LLNL has also published charts depicting carbon (or carbon dioxide potential) flow and water flow at the national level as well as energy, carbon, and water flows at the international, state, municipal, and organizational (i.e. United States Air Force) level. Flow charts are valuable as single-page references that contain quantitative data about resource, commodity, and byproduct flows in a graphical form that also convey structural information about the system that manages those flows. Data on carbon dioxide emissions from the energy sector are reported on a national level. Because carbon dioxide emissions are not reported for individual states, the carbon dioxide emissions are estimated using published energy use information. Data on energy use is compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (U.S. EIA) in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). SEDS is updated annually and reports data from 2 years prior to the year of the update. SEDS contains data on primary resource consumption, electricity generation, and energy consumption within each economic sector. Flow charts of state-level energy usage and explanations of the calculations and assumptions utilized can be found at: http://flowcharts.llnl.gov. This information is translated into carbon dioxide emissions using ratios of carbon dioxide emissions to energy use calculated from national carbon dioxide emissions and national energy use quantities for each particular sector. These statistics are reported annually in the U.S. EIA's Annual Energy Review. Data for 2008 (US. EIA, 2010) was updated in August of 2010. This is the first presentation of a comprehensive state-level package of flow charts depicting carbon dioxide emissions for the United States.

Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

(Partner Organizations) Funding Lead Organization Location (City, State) Project Title - Project Description 1) Large Scale Testing of Advanced Gasification Technologies Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. $71,700,000 Allentown, PA Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Integration with Advanced Industrial Systems Air Products will accelerate commercial manufacture of ion transport membranes modules and initiate the development a 2,000 TPD pre- commercial scale facility ahead of schedule, enabling this technology

57

A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Industrial Development Organization Focus Area: Industry Topics: Pathways analysis, Technology characterizations Resource Type: Publications Website: www.unido.org/index.php?id=1000821 References: A Global Technology Roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industry[1] CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key technology option for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation. Recent studies suggest that CCS would contribute 19% of the total global mitigation that is needed for halving global GHG emissions by 2050. Overview

58

Cathodoluminescence from a device of carbon nanotube-field emission...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathodoluminescence from a device of carbon nanotube-field emission display with ZnO nanocluster phosphor. Cathodoluminescence from a device of carbon nanotube-field emission...

59

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy and GDP Per Capita, with China 2050 Scenarios Carbon EmissionsEnergy and GDP Per Capita, with China 2050 Scenarios .. 37 Figure 39 Carbon Emissions

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Prediction of noise emissions from industrial flares  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In many industries where combustible waste gases are obtained flares are used to burn these gases in a controlled manner. Among other environmental aspects the noise emissions associated with flaring are becoming increasingly important in many countries as population density goes up and residential and industrial areas move closer together. Installing noise control equipment on flares is almost impossible while they are in service since flares are typically a safety related plant component that can only be turned off after the connected plant has been shut down. Accordingly in order to plan appropriate noise controlmeasures in time and to avoid unnecessary costs predicting the noise emissions of flares as early in the design process as possible is crucial. This requires knowledge of the relevant individual noise sources associated to the flare system and the ability to calculate their respective contribution ? in the operating condition in question ? to the overall noise emission based on the data available in the planning stage. The present paper summarizes these sources and outlines some of the individual effects and parameters having an influence on the acoustical characteristics of flares.

Carl?Christian Hantschk; Edwin Schorer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

carbon dioxide emissions | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dioxide emissions dioxide emissions Dataset Summary Description Total annual carbon dioxide emissions by country, 2005 to 2009 (million metric tons). Compiled by Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source EIA Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords carbon dioxide emissions EIA world Data text/csv icon total_carbon_dioxide_emissions_from_the_consumption_of_energy_2005_2009million_metric_tons.csv (csv, 12.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period 2005 - 2009 License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

63

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Black Carbon Emissions by Rocket Engines Types of rocket engines Emissions Liquid Hydrogen. Note: Black carbon does not deplete ozone. What happens is the black carbon emissions from the rocket. Other black carbon emissions: The number one contributor to black carbon is burning biomass. Also

Toohey, Darin W.

64

Worker safety in a mature carbon capture and storage industry in the United States based upon analog industry experience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

attributable to carbon capture and storage in 2050.safety in a mature carbon capture and storage industry insafety in a mature carbon capture and storage (CCS) industry

Jordan, P.D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

28, 2013 28, 2013 Breakthrough Large-Scale Industrial Project Begins Carbon Capture and Utilization DOE-Supported Project in Texas Demonstrates Viability of CCUS Technology Washington, D.C. - A breakthrough carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) project in Texas has begun capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and piping it to an oilfield for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR). MORE INFO Read the project factsheet The project at Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facility in Port Arthur, Texas, is significant for demonstrating both the effectiveness and commercial viability of CCUS technology as an option in helping mitigate atmospheric CO2 emissions. Funded in part through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the project is managed by the U.S.

66

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Introduction Introduction Each year the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) generates estimates of carbon releases from fossil-fuel consumption and cement production. Emissions from fossil-fuel burning represent the largest anthropogenic source of carbon to the atmosphere and are an important contributor to elevated atmospheric CO2 levels. CDIAC produces annual fossil-fuel CO2 emission time series at global and national scales and these time series serve as building blocks for other data products including gridded (1 x 1) emission time series. Details regarding the methods used to produce these time series and data products may be found on the CDIAC website. This new interface allows users to query, visualize, and download the latest CDIAC fossil-fuel CO2 emission estimates. In the future, additional

67

Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions, and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions, Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions, and Eco-Driving Weekly Wrap-Up: Testing Wind Blades, Converting Carbon Emissions, and Eco-Driving July 23, 2010 - 5:17pm Addthis Elizabeth Meckes Elizabeth Meckes Director of User Experience & Digital Technologies, Office of Public Affairs On Thursday, Secretary Chu announced six projects that aim to find ways of convert captured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industrial sources into useful products. The innovative projects - funded with $106 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and matched with $156 million in private cost-share - will seek to use CO2 emissions from industrial sources to create useful products such as fuel, plastics, cement, and fertilizers. Find out more here.

68

Net carbon flux from agriculture: Carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, crop yield, and land-use change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a potential to sequester carbon in soil by changing agricultural management practices. ... fossil-fuel use, agricultural inputs, and the carbon emissions associated with fossil fuels and other ... with f...

Tristram O. West; Gregg Marland

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large Wildfires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimating Biomass Burnt and CarbonEstimating Biomass Burnt and Carbon Emissions from Large: Global Biomass Burning & Carbon Emissions Standard Emissions Inventories: Burned Area & GFED recently daily. Fire occurrenceoccurrence Roy et al.Roy et al. Carbon emissions (C) = burned area . fuel

70

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes of the air-sea system. The perturbation, dIc, includes carbon emissions and changes in the terrestrial), Analytical relationships between atmospheric carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, and ocean processes, Global

Follows, Mick

71

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

intensities and the carbon emission factor for each process.through fuel switching. Carbon emissions factors used infor reduction in carbon emissions was slightly larger than

Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

onward. Table A-4: Carbon Emission Factors of ElectricityAdjustment factor Carbon Emission Factor (kg C/kWh)L ABORATORY Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of

Lin, Jiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Model comparisons for estimating carbon emissions from North American wildland fire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hirsch (2001), Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forestin estimating carbon emissions from boreal forest fires, J.Law (2007), Pyrogenic carbon emission from a large wildfire

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionscontribute to atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest2008), Fire-related carbon emissions from land use

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Carbon Emissions of Infrastructure Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For buildings taller than three stories, however, the embodied energy per floor area rises due to exponentially increasing structural material demands. ... Figure 4. Impact of urban density and per-capita GDP (PPP, measured in current international dollars) based on network length and vehicle ownership: (A) water network, (B) wastewater network, (C) road network, (D) car ownership. ... Process efficiency improvement and recycling can contribute to reducing emissions per material output; however, long-term material demand and scrap availability for recycling depend fundamentally on the dynamics of societies' stocks of products in use, an issue that has been largely neglected in climate science. ...

Daniel B. Müller; Gang Liu; Amund N. Løvik; Roja Modaresi; Stefan Pauliuk; Franciska S. Steinhoff; Helge Brattebø

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

76

Graph Model for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Metallurgical Plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mathematical models are presented for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from metallurgical processes. The article also presents ... in graph form to calculate transit and net emissions of carbon dioxide based o...

Yu. N. Chesnokov; V. G. Lisienko; A. V. Lapteva

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No. 5 Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan INSTITUTE University of Massachusetts Amherst #12;Equitable Carbon Revenue Distribution Under an International Emissions Trading Regime Nathan E. Hultman and Daniel M. Kammen Energy & Resources Group Goldman

Kammen, Daniel M.

78

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon dioxide emissions per 1,000 cubic feet of natural gas. In this case, there is much less energy

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Carbon dioxide emissions, impact on Malaysia's manufacturing productivity growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methods used to measure productivity growth generally ignore the pollutants that are produced by the industrial processes. For example, pollutant emissions generated as undesirable output, apart from the main output of Malaysia's manufacturing sector, are excluded from the productivity accounting framework. This study aims at an extended productivity measure that takes pollutants into account by internalisation of Carbon dioxide (CO2) as a measure of air pollutant emissions into the production function, as an unpriced input. The results show that there was a slowdown in the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) growth in general, and a negative impact of CO2 emissions produced by the sector in particular, compared to other productivity indicators of the sector when CO2 is internalised in the models.

Elsadig Musa Ahmed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Carbon Fiber and Clean Energy: 4 Uses for Industry | Department...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

industry. Addthis Related Articles Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon fiber composite fuel tanks that help deliver hydrogen to fleets throughout the country. The company has more than...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

BNL-68198-AB COMPILATION OF INVENTORIES OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BNL-68198-AB COMPILATION OF INVENTORIES OF INDUSTRIAL EMISSIONS Carmen M. Benkovitz Atmospheric-5000 March 2001 To be presented at the International Workshop on Emissions ofChemical Species and Aerosols perspectives accurate inventories of emissions of the trace species at the appropriate spatial, temporal

82

World Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-U" relation with a within- sample peak between carbon dioxide emissions (and energy use) per capita and perWorld Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950 Ã? 2050 Richard Schmalensee, Thomas M. Stoker, andRuth A. Judson* Emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels, which may

83

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Production Policy under the Carbon Emission Market Radoin Belaouar Arash Fahim Nizar Touzi than what she used to do before the existence of the emission market. Key words: EU ETS, Carbon ETS) which provides a way to control the emission of CO2 within carbon polluters through trading

84

The National Energy Modeling System: An Overview 1998 - Carbon Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

CARBON EMISSIONS CARBON EMISSIONS A part of the integrating module, the carbon emissions submodule (CEM) computes the carbon emissions due to the combustion of energy. The coefficients for carbon emissions are derived from Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1996, published in October 1997. The calculations account for the fact that some fossil fuels are used for nonfuel purposes, such as feedstocks, and thus the carbon in the fuel is sequestered in the end product. CEM also allows for several carbon policy evaluation options to be imposed within NEMS. Although none of the policy options are assumed in the Annual Energy Outlook 1998, the options can be used in special analyses to simulate potential market-based approaches to meet national carbon emission

85

Carbon 40 (2002) 429436 Quantum-mechanical simulations of field emission from carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon 40 (2002) 429­436 Quantum-mechanical simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes *A simulations of field emission from 2-nm long open (5,5), closed (5,5) and open (10,0) carbon nanotubes recently where the carbon nanotubes [1,2], a vast literature has appeared on field-emission current from

Mayer, Alexandre

86

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012 ... U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels fell 3.8% last year to the lowest level since 1994, according to a report released last week by the Energy Information Administration. ... Consequently, looking just at carbon emissions and production, 2012 marks the largest annual drop in carbon emissions per GDP since 1948 when records were first kept. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

87

Carbon dioxide emission reduction using molten carbonate fuel cell systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The contribution of the molten carbonate fuel cell system (MCFCs) to carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction in power application is analyzed. \\{MCFCs\\} can separate and concentrate CO2 emitted from traditional thermal power plants (PPs) without reducing the plant's overall energy efficiency. \\{MCFCs\\} can also be used by itself as an effective CO2 separator or concentrator by managing the anode gas stream to increase the heat utilization of the system. The CO2 separated and concentrated by \\{MCFCs\\} is most effectively captured by condensation. \\{MCFCs\\} is currently used as a CO2 separator only to a limited extent due to its high cost and relatively small scale operation. However, \\{MCFCs\\} will substantially contribute to reduce CO2 emissions in power generation applications in the near future.

Jung-Ho Wee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

"1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Fuel Emission Factors" Fuel Emission Factors" "(From Appendix H of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1" "Fuel ",,"Emission Factor ",,"Units" "Coal2" "Anthracite",,103.69,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Bituminous",,93.28,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Sub-bituminous",,97.17,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Lignite",,97.72,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Electric Power Sector",,95.52,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Industrial Coking",,93.71,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Other Industrial",,93.98,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Residential/Commercial",,95.35,,"kg CO2 / MMBtu" "Natural Gas3"

89

Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors Title Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-4557E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Sathaye, Jayant A., Stephane Rue de la du Can, Maithili Iyer, Michael A. McNeil, Klaas Jan Kramer, Joyashree Roy, Moumita Roy, and Shreya Roy Chowdhury Date Published 5/2011 Publisher LBNL Keywords Buildings Energy Efficiency, CO2 Accounting Methodology, CO2 mitigation, Demand Side Management, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas (ghg), india, industrial energy efficiency, industrial sector, Low Carbon Growth, Low Growth, Non Residential Abstract This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analyses supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.

90

International Energy Outlook 2006 - Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Eneregy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions International Energy Outlook 2006 Chapter 7: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions In the coming decades, actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions could affect patterns of energy use around the world and alter the level and composition of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by energy source. Figure 65. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Region, 1990-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 66. World Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuel Type, 1980-2030 (Billion Metric Tons). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases in the

91

FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 October 6, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON -- The FutureGen Industrial Alliance today announced details of a process that will lead to the selection of an Illinois site for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in Meredosia, Illinois. Last month the Department of Energy signed two agreements, one with the FutureGen Industrial Alliance and one with Ameren Energy Resources that committed $1 billion in Recovery Act funding to design, build and

92

Green IS for GHG emission reporting on product-level? an action design research project in the meat industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas emission reporting gained importance in the last years, due to societal and governmental pressure. However, this task is highly complex, especially in interdependent batch production processes and for reporting on the product-level. Green ... Keywords: GHG emissions, Green IS, PCF, action design research, design science, meat industry, product carbon footprint

Hendrik Hilpert; Christoph Beckers; Lutz M. Kolbe; Matthias Schumann

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

94

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

95

Incorporating Carbon in Energy Planning at Industrial Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for emissions, or (3) purchases of carbon offsets (i.e., CO2 reduction or sequestration projects to offset emissions). Although much remains uncertain as to the nature of the legislation, the inevitability of a per-tonne emissions cost makes it important...

Smith, K.

96

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

goal to reduce its carbon intensity (CO2 emissions per unitmeet the national carbon intensity reduction target, China’sthe leakage issue of carbon intensity targets with trade

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project Begins Full-Scale Operations Breakthrough Industrial Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage Project Begins Full-Scale Operations May 10, 2013 - 11:36am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Energy Department's Acting Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Christopher Smith today attended a dedication ceremony at the Air Products and Chemicals hydrogen production facilities in Port Arthur, Texas. Supported by a $284 million Energy Department investment, the company has successfully begun capturing carbon dioxide from industrial operations and is now using that carbon for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and securely storing it underground. This first-of-a-kind, breakthrough project

98

New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development September 7, 2010 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the selection of 22 projects that will accelerate carbon capture and storage research and development for industrial sources. Funded with more than $575 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, these R&D projects complement the industrial demonstration projects already being funded through the Recovery Act. Together, these projects represent an unprecedented investment in the development of clean coal technologies. This program supports the President's goal to overcome the barriers to

99

New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Research and Development September 7, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the selection of 22 projects that will accelerate carbon capture and storage research and development for industrial sources. Funded with more than $575 million from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, these R&D projects complement the industrial demonstration projects already being funded through the Recovery Act. Together, these projects represent an unprecedented investment in the development of clean coal technologies. This program supports the President's goal of overcoming the barriers to

100

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Carbon Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit with a Spray Drier and Fabric Filter The intent of DOE's Phase I and II field tests was to work with industry to evaluate the most promising mercury control technologies at full-scale in a variety of configurations. Although longer-term tests were conducted, the test period was not sufficient to answer many fundamental questions about long-term consistency of mercury removal and reliability of the system when integrated with plant processes. As the technologies move towards commercial implementation, it is critical to accurately define the mercury removal performance and costs so that power companies and policy makers can make informed decisions. Therefore, the overall objective of this Phase III project is to determine the mercury removal performance, long-term emissions variability, and associated O&M costs of activated carbon injection for >90% mercury control over a 10 to 12 month period on a unit that represents the combination of coal and emission control equipment that will be used for many new and existing power plants.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction August 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Construction activities have begun at an Illinois ethanol plant that will demonstrate carbon capture and storage. The project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy, is the first large-scale integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration project funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to move into the construction phase. Led by the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), a member of DOE's Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, the Illinois-ICCS project is designed to sequester approximately 2,500 metric tons of carbon dioxide

102

Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Plant Begins Construction August 24, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Construction activities have begun at an Illinois ethanol plant that will demonstrate carbon capture and storage. The project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy, is the first large-scale integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS) demonstration project funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) to move into the construction phase. Led by the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM), a member of DOE's Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, the Illinois-ICCS project is designed to sequester approximately 2,500 metric tons of carbon dioxide

103

Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Special Topic: Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing 1 Report #: DOE/EIA-0573(2005) Released Date: November 2006 Next Release Date: Not applicable Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing Mark Schipper 1 , Energy Information Administration (EIA) Abstract Based on the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), this paper presents historical energy-related carbon dioxide emission estimates for energy-intensive sub-sectors and 23 industries. Estimates are based on surveys of more than 15,000 manufacturing plants in 1991, 1994, 1998, and 2002. EIA is currently developing its collection of manufacturing data for 2006.

104

Energy efficiency for greenhouse gas emission reduction in China: The case of the cement industry  

SciTech Connect

A project at LBNL has combined two different approaches to investigate changes in efficiency in China`s cement industry, which currently accounts for over 6% of China`s total commercial energy use and over 1% of global carbon emissions. Cement output has doubled over the past five years, and will double again within 15 years. Addressing cement industry carbon emissions will be a key element of any program to control China`s carbon emissions. Macro-level analysis was used to investigate industry-wide trends, and detailed case studies of individual plants illuminated key issues in technology choice that fundamentally affect efficiency. In general, enterprises adopted technologies that increased output and improved quality, and had little regard for energy efficiency, though most new technologies and practices did improve efficiency. Changes in energy prices were a surprisingly weak factor in adoption of efficient technologies. Unexpectedly, many enterprises developed a strong preference for the least fuel-efficient technology, which allows power generation with kiln waste heat. This preference was motivated in a large part by the desire to achieve security in electricity supply, and by some reforms. This alternative has become increasingly popular, and threatens to reverse some progress made in reducing the carbon-intensiveness of China`s cement industry. Foreign technical assistance and more importantly, greater participation in China`s cement industry of foreign cement companies would speed the adoption of large scale very efficient precalciner plants. Paradoxically, improving energy efficiency in China`s cement industry is also a supply-side issue, improved reliability in China`s power network will make the more fuel-efficient alternative more attractive.

Sinton, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

CO2 Mitigation Potential of Mineral Carbonation with Industrial Alkalinity Sources in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2 Mitigation Potential of Mineral Carbonation with Industrial Alkalinity Sources in the United States ... We show that in the U.S., industrial alkaline byproducts have the potential to mitigate approximately 7.6 Mt CO2/yr, of which 7.0 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 captured through mineral carbonation and 0.6 Mt CO2/yr are CO2 emissions avoided through reuse as synthetic aggregate (replacing sand and gravel). ... This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC36-08-GO28308 with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis. ...

Abby Kirchofer; Austin Becker; Adam Brandt; Jennifer Wilcox

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

106

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide dioxide separation and sequestration because the lower cost of carbon dioxide separation from for injection of carbon dioxide into oil or gas-bearing formations. An advantage of sequestration involving

107

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007. Who Owns China’s Carbon Emissions? Tyndall Centre for34 Key Words Carbon emissions forecasts, carbon intensity,s annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia Agency/Company /Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Focus Area Renewable Energy Topics GHG inventory Resource Type Publications Website http://www.lahmeyer.de/fileadm Country Russia Eastern Europe References Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia[1] References ↑ "Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Russia" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Development_of_the_Electricity_Carbon_Emission_Factors_for_Russia&oldid=383164" Category: Programs What links here Related changes Special pages

109

Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

capping an industry’s carbon emissions per unit of output.be an increase in carbon emissions. The LCFS may also reducestandard, which limits carbon emissions per unit of output,

Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Offsetting China's CO2 Emissions by Soil Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fossil fuel emissions of carbon (C) in China in 2000 was ... % or more of the antecedent soil organic carbon (SOC) pool.Some of the depleted ... . A crude estimated potential of soil C sequestration in China is 1...

R. Lal

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The effect of the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on world emissions of a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. We use a large unbalanced panel data ... the effects of the international agreement. While carbon

Risa Kumazawa; Michael S. Callaghan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Do Consumers Select Food Products Based on Carbon Dioxide Emissions?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates whether consumers select foods based on the levels of carbon dioxide emissions by a real choice experiment. Respondents are...2 emissions under no monetary incentives. The willingness to.....

Keiko Aoki; Kenju Akai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding and considering the distribution of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is important in designing international climate change ... incentives for participation. I evaluate historic internation...

Joseph E. Aldy

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility August 24, 2011 - 6:23pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy issued the following statement in support of today's groundbreaking for construction of the nation's first large-scale industrial carbon capture and storage (ICCS) facility in Decatur, Illinois. Supported by the 2009 economic stimulus legislation - the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - the ambitious project will capture and store one million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year produced as the result of processing corn into fuel-grade ethanol from the nearby Archer Daniels Midland biofuels plant. Since all of

115

Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility Energy Department Applauds Nation's First Large-Scale Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Facility August 24, 2011 - 6:23pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy issued the following statement in support of today's groundbreaking for construction of the nation's first large-scale industrial carbon capture and storage (ICCS) facility in Decatur, Illinois. Supported by the 2009 economic stimulus legislation - the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - the ambitious project will capture and store one million tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year produced as the result of processing corn into fuel-grade ethanol from the nearby Archer Daniels Midland biofuels plant. Since all of

116

Review of accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different spatial scales  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Carbon dioxide emission from tourism, as a focus of man-land relationship in tourism industry in the 21st century, is a vital index reflecting its effect on environment change. The article summarizes the contents of carbon dioxide emissions from tourism at different scales such as world, nation, region and unit. These results indicate that: (1) the accounting of the carbon dioxide emissions from tourism began from global and national scales at the end of the last century, then to regional and basic scales. (2) The Carbon dioxide emissions from tourism are mainly from high-developed countries and regions in terms of space, from the minority high-spending tourists in terms of behavior, from high-speed vehicles, high-grade accommodations and high-level tourism activities in terms of tourism element. The carbon dioxide emissions per capita of developing countries and regions are less than one tenth in developed countries and regions. As for the proportion of total emission, tourism transportation accounts for the largest, generally more than 65%, followed by accommodation, and the last is tourism activity. (3) Based on the systemic analysis of these coefficients of accounting carbon dioxide emissions in tourism, the paper indicates that there are progresses in the consistency of coefficients at global scale and diversity of coefficients at national, regional and unit scales, while the coefficients of developed countries and regions are higher than those of developing countries and regions. In addition, some recommendations including coefficients have given to China.

Yu-guo Tao; Zhen-fang Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with Bioenergy and Other Biogenic Sources Agency/Company /Organization: United States Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Biomass, - Biomass Combustion, - Biomass Gasification, - Biomass Pyrolysis, - Biofuels, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Evaluate Options Resource Type: Publications, Guide/manual User Interface: Website Website: www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/biogenic_emissions.html Cost: Free References: EPA, 40 CFR Part 60[1] Tailoring Rule[2] Biogenic Emissions[3] The 'EPA Climate Change - Green House Gas Emissions - Carbon Dioxide

118

Categorization of Scope 3 Emissions for Streamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For guidance in how to prepare their footprint inventories, these groups look to existing carbon footprint protocols including the GHG Protocol from the World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) (1), the General Reporting Protocol and sector-specific protocols from The Climate Registry (2), ISO 14064 from the International Organization for Standardization (3), PAS 2050 from the British Standards Institute (4), and the International Local Government GHG Emissions Analysis Protocol from the International Council on Local Government for Sustainability (5). ... Information, Financial, Insurance, Real Estate ... However, in reality, each detailed business type, and in actuality each company, has a unique Scope 3 profile, and there are probably some important Scope 3 categories that are unique to each sector that are not explicitly identified in industry-specific guidelines. ...

Y. Anny Huang; Christopher L. Weber; H. Scott Matthews

2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

119

Energy use and carbon emissions: Non-OECD countries  

SciTech Connect

This report surveys world energy use and carbon emissions patterns, with particular emphasis on the non-OECD countries. The non OECD is important not only because it currently makes up 84% of world population, but because its energy consumption, carbon emissions, population, and grow domestic product have all been growing faster than OECD`s. This presentation has seven major sections: (1) overview of key trends in non-OECD energy use and carbon emissions since 1970; (2) Comparison and contrasting energy use and carbon emissions for five major non OEDC regions (former Soviet Union and eastern Europe, Pacific Rim including China, Latin America, other Asia; Africa; 3-7) presentation of aggregate and sectoral energy use and carbon emissions data for countries within each of the 5 regions.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Regional Shares of World Carbon Emissions, 1997 and 2020  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Shares of World Carbon Emissions, 1997 and 2020 Shares of World Carbon Emissions, 1997 and 2020 Source: EIA, International Energy Outlook 2000 Previous slide Back to first slide View graphic version Notes: By country, the world's dominant coal consumers-the United States and China-were also the top two contributors to world carbon emissions in 1997, at 24 percent and 13 percent of the world total, respectively. By 2020, however, the U.S. share of world carbon emissions is projected to decline to 20 percent, with China's share increasing to 21 percent. The substantial increase in carbon emissions in China over the period is attributable to expectations of strong economic growth and the country's continuing heavy reliance on fossil fuels, especially coal which remains the country's primary source of energy.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO 2 : Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on thedescription of reduced carbon emission and oxidationInfluence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the

Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Randerson, James T; Krakauer, Nir; Logan, Jennifer A; Jacob, Daniel J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products  

SciTech Connect

We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

related carbon emissions per unit GDP. Energy intensity: thes per capita emissions of energy-related carbon dioxide weres carbon emissions, per se. On the basis of NBS energy data,

Levine, Mark D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Global carbon dioxide emissions scenarios: Sensitivity to social and technological factors in three regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

125

Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions Scenarios: Sensitivity to Social and Technological Factors in Three Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions from 1990 to 2100 AD are decomposed ... intensity (energy use per unit GDP) and carbon intensity (carbon dioxide emissions per unit energy). These emissions factors are further subdivided...

Christopher Yang; Stephen H. Schneider

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Parcel Per Parcel Toward A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A More Refined Carbon Emissions Estimation For Livermore, CAof lifestyle on carbon emissions in the residential sector [an all-time low in carbon emissions, though most use overall

Živanovi?, Ana

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Table 4. 2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " 2010 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector " "percent of total" ,"Shares" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation" "Alabama",0.01584875241,0.5778871607,0.02136328943,0.1334667239,0.2514340736 "Alaska",0.06448385239,0.0785744956,0.0462016929,0.4291084798,0.3816314793 "Arizona",0.02474932909,0.5668758159,0.02425067581,0.04966758421,0.334456595 "Arkansas",0.03882032779,0.4886410984,0.03509200153,0.1307772146,0.3066693577 "California",0.04308920353,0.1176161395,0.07822332929,0.1824277392,0.5786435885 "Colorado",0.04301641968,0.4131279202,0.08115394032,0.1545280216,0.3081736982

128

Global Carbon Cycle, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth’...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Title Quantification of Black Carbon and Other Pollutant Emissions from a Traditional and an Improved Cookstove Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-6062E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Kirchstetter, Thomas W., Chelsea Preble, Odelle L. Hadley, and Ashok J. Gadgil Keywords aethalometer, Berkeley Darfur Stove, black carbon, carbon monoxide, climate change, DustTrak, global warming, improved cookstoves, indoor air quality, LBNL Stove Testing Facility, particulate matter, photoacoustic absorption spectrometer, pollutant emission factor, three-stone fire Abstract Traditional methods of cooking in developing regions of the world emit pollutants that

132

Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions Control Novel Carbon Capture Solvent Begins Pilot-Scale Testing for Emissions Control January 13, 2015 -...

133

Carbon dioxide emissions from the U.S. electricity sector  

SciTech Connect

As climate change negotiators from around the world prepared together in 1996 to consider new international targets and policies for greenhouse-gas reductions, the US Department of Energy asked the authors to review the options available to the electricity sector to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The charge was to focus on supply-side options and utility demand-side management (DSM) programs because other researchers were considered energy efficiency options for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors. The next section presents the EIA baseline projections of electricity production, use, and CO{sub 2} emissions to the year 2010. Subsequent sections briefly summarize the options available to the electricity industry to reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions, speculate on how industry restructuring might affect the ability of the industry and its regulators to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and discuss the policies available to affect those emissions: research and development, voluntary programs, regulation, and fiscal policies.

Hirst, E.; Baxter, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Location Quotient EIO-LCA Method for Carbon Emission Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Promoting environmentally conscious energy policies to reduce carbon emissions is a mutual duty of the international community. Several cities or government regions have implemented strategies and means to reduce...

Amy J.C. Trappey; Charles V. Trappey…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Stochastic Dynamic Game of Carbon Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a computable stochastic equilibrium model to represent the possible competition between Russia and China on the international market of carbon emissions permits. The model includes a repres...

Alain Haurie; Laurent Viguier

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

137

Uncertainty in future carbon emissions : a preliminary exploration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to analyze competing policy approaches for addressing global climate change, a wide variety of economic-energy models are used to project future carbon emissions under various policy scenarios. Due to uncertainties ...

Webster, Mort David.

138

Reduction of Automobile Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The automotive industry is one of the major manufacture sectors in developed nations. It accounts for almost 5% of total manufacture value of industrialized countries such as USA, Japan, France and England. The a...

Abdelati Elalem; M. S. EL-Bourawi

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Relationship between industrial firms, high-carbon and low-carbon energy: An agent-based simulation approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present research is to describe an agent-based computational model that simulates the relationship between industrial firms and high-carbon and low-carbon energy. A set of behavioral rules for each agent involved was formalized in the ... Keywords: Agent-based simulation, High-carbon energy, Industrial firms, Low-carbon energy

Yong Liu

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Energy, carbon dioxide emissions, carbon taxes and the Chinese economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given the global characteristics of climate change and China's potential importance as a source of CO2 emissions, advocates of controlling CO2 emissions call for substantial efforts in China. However, the Chinese...

ZhongXiang Zhang

142

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrÃ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

143

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Monitoring Industrial Pharmaceutical Crystallization Processes Using Acoustic Emission in Pure and Impure Media.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monitoring Industrial Pharmaceutical Crystallization Processes Using Acoustic Emission in Pure processes was almost never evaluated in the field of industrial pharmaceutical crystallization. Few papers. Introduction The pharmaceutical industry is set against strong requests on behalf of both consumers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

Driving down corporate carbon emissions through sustainable property management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

portfolios, with buildings being responsible for some 45% of the UK's overall greenhouse gas emissions organisations are facing increasing cost challenges and pressure to reduce their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions" provides an holistic approach to maximising cost savings, reducing energy consumption and improving

146

Factors affecting stress assisted corrosion cracking of carbon steel under industrial boiler conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Failure of carbon steel boiler tubes from waterside has been reported in the utility boilers and industrial boilers for a long time. In industrial boilers,… (more)

Yang, Dong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

18 Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Modeling Carbon Emissions from Fires: A Perspective in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

18 Use of Satellite Remote Sensing Data for Modeling Carbon Emissions from Fires: A Perspective of the accurate estimation of carbon emissions from fires. So far, the continental-scale estimates of carbon conventional and satellite data to maximize their utility for fire emission estimation. 18.2 Carbon Emission

Li, Zhanqing

148

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon tax, combined heat and power, distributed energyuseful heat in combined heat and power systems, thermally-fossil-fuel based combined heat and power (CHP), thermally-

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ukraine Ukraine Jump to: navigation, search Name Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine Agency/Company /Organization European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Sector Energy Topics GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Co-benefits assessment, Pathways analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.lahmeyer.de/fileadm Country Ukraine UN Region Eastern Europe References Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine[1] "The study project "Development of the Electricity Carbon Emission Factors for Ukraine" was assigned by the European Bank for Development and Reconstruction (EBRD) to the consultant Lahmeyer International with Perspective as subcontractor on 16 July 2009. It is a baseline study with the overall goal to calculate reliable carbon

150

Household actions can provide a behavioral wedge to rapidly reduce US carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...substantial potential for carbon emissions reduction...faces well-known barriers (10), but more...Sovacool BK ( 2008 ) Carbon Lock-In: Barriers To Deploying Climate Change Mitigation...2008 ) Individual carbon emissions: The low-hanging...

Thomas Dietz; Gerald T. Gardner; Jonathan Gilligan; Paul C. Stern; Michael P. Vandenbergh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

CO2 emission and firm heterogeneity: a study of metals and metal-based industries in India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Industrial energy efficiency has emerged as one of the key issues in India. The increasing demand for energy that leads to growing challenge of climate change has resulted major issues. It is obvious that high-energy intensity leads to high carbon intensity of the economy. This paper is an attempt to estimate the firm level CO2 emissions for the metals and metal-based industries in Indian manufacturing. Calculation of firm level emissions is carried out following IPCC reference approach methodology of carbon dioxide emission from fuel combustion. We tried to find out the inter-firm differences of CO2 emission in the metals and metal-based industries. Data for this study is collated from the CMIE PROWESS online database from 2000-2008, IEA energy statistics and IPCC conversion factors for each of the fuel types. This study found size, age, energy intensity and technology import intensity as the major determinants of CO2 emission intensity of Indian metal and metal-based firms. In addition capital and labour intensity of the firms are also related to the firms' emission intensity.

Santosh Kumar Sahu; K. Narayanan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a legal analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Saunders Carbon sinks and emissions trading under the Kyoto Protocol: a...the issues of carbon sinks and emissions trading nearly aborted the Kyoto Protocol...third flexibility mechanism, emissions trading, compounded the complexity...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Atlantic South Atlantic Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 25, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA South Atlantic Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - South Atlantic- Reference Case (xls, 74.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

154

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Central North Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 23, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions East North Central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East North Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

155

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source, New England |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Source, New England Source, New England Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 21, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions New England Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source, New England- Reference Case (xls, 73.9 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

156

Table 3. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" "State","Commercial","Electric Power","Residential","Industrial","Transportation","Total" "Alabama",2.103862865,76.71236863,2.835897119,17.71721059,33.37693698,132.7462762 "Alaska",2.497277997,3.042968925,1.789261448,16.61816292,14.7795124,38.72718369 "Arizona",2.373783271,54.37078005,2.325955921,4.76376875,32.07874715,95.91303514 "Arkansas",2.566776983,32.30865878,2.320262268,8.646911643,20.27679552,66.11940519 "California",15.93482613,43.49564577,28.92778352,67.46363514,213.9882899,369.8101805 "Colorado",4.150125234,39.85763155,7.82954551,14.90850811,29.73188961,96.47770002

157

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Central North Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 24, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA west north central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West North Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

158

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Central South Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 27, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA West South Central Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - West South Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

159

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Mountain | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mountain Mountain Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 28, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA Mountain Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Mountain- Reference Case (xls, 74.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

160

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Central South Central Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 26, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions East South Central EIA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - East South Central- Reference Case (xls, 74.3 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - United States |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

United States United States Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 30, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA United States Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - United States- Reference Case (xls, 75.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

162

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Source- Middle Atlantic Source- Middle Atlantic Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 22, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords AEO carbon dioxide emissions middle atlantic Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source- Middle Atlantic- Reference Case (xls, 74.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage

163

AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Pacific | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pacific Pacific Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 29, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million metric tons carbon dioxide equivalent. The data is broken down into residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, electric power, and total by fuel. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO carbon dioxide emissions EIA Pacific Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Sector and Source - Pacific- Reference Case (xls, 74.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

164

Carbon emission trading in India and Sri Lanka  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kyoto Protocol has established three trading mechanisms, namely International Emission Trading (IET), Joint Implementation (JI) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) which enable industrialised countries to achieve carbon emission reduction targets as economically as possible. Out of these three mechanisms, CDM is the most important mechanism for the developing countries. CDM allows the carbon emission reductions achieved in developing countries from environmentally friendly projects to be transferred to developed countries so that the developed countries could use credits from emission reducing projects undertaken in developing countries towards meeting their emission reduction targets. Several developing countries, including India and Sri Lanka have taken initiatives to develop CDM projects. However, implementation of CDM projects has met various difficulties. This paper examines some of these difficulties and suggests improvements to achieve better results.

G.D. Sardana; S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000-Table 2. Carbon Emission  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Carbon Emission Factors Carbon Emission Factors (Kilograms-carbon per million Btu) Fuel Type Carbon Coefficient at Full Combustion Combustion Fraction Adjusted Emissions Factor Petroleum Motor Gasoline 19.33 0.990 19.14 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Used as Fuel 17.20 0.995 17.11 Used as Feedstock 16.87 0.200 3.37 Jet Fuel 19.33 0.990 19.14 Distillate Fuel 19.95 0.990 19.75 Residual Fuel 21.49 0.990 21.28 Asphalt and Road Oil 20.62 0.000 0.00 Lubricants 20.24 0.600 12.14 Petrochemical Feedstocks 19.37 0.200 3.87 Kerosene 19.72 0.990 19.52 Petroleum Coke 27.85 0.500 13.93 Petroleum Still Gas 17.51 0.995 17.42 Other Industrial 20.31 0.990 20.11 Coal Residential and Commercial 25.92 0.990 25.66 Metallurgical 25.55 0.990 25.29 Industrial Other 25.61 0.990 25.39 Electric Utility1 25.74 0.990 24.486 Natural Gas Used as Fuel

166

US uranium mining industry: background information on economics and emissions  

SciTech Connect

A review of the US uranium mining industry has revealed a generally depressed industry situation. The 1982 U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production from both open-pit and underground mines declined to 3800 and 6300 tons respectively with the underground portion representing 46% of total production. US exploration and development has continued downward in 1982. Employment in the mining and milling sectors has dropped 31% and 17% respectively in 1982. Representative forecasts were developed for reactor fuel demand and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production for the years 1983 and 1990. Reactor fuel demand is estimated to increase from 15,900 tons to 21,300 tons U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ respectively. U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ production, however, is estimated to decrease from 10,600 tons to 9600 tons respectively. A field examination was conducted of 29 selected underground uranium mines that represent 84% of the 1982 underground production. Data was gathered regarding population, land ownership and private property valuation. An analysis of the increased cost to production resulting from the installation of 20-meter high exhaust borehole vent stacks was conducted. An assessment was made of the current and future /sup 222/Rn emission levels for a group of 27 uranium mines. It is shown that /sup 222/Rn emission rates are increasing from 10 individual operating mines through 1990 by 1.2 to 3.8 times. But for the group of 27 mines as a whole, a reduction of total /sup 222/Rn emissions is predicted due to 17 of the mines being shutdown and sealed. The estimated total /sup 222/Rn emission rate for this group of mines will be 105 Ci/yr by year end 1983 or 70% of the 1978-79 measured rate and 124 Ci/yr by year end 1990 or 83% of the 1978-79 measured rate.

Bruno, G.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Young, J.K.

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Coal  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has developed factors for estimating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted, accounting for differences among coals, to reflect the changing "mix" of coal in U.S. coal consumption.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Tar Sands Plants in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of Carbon Dioxide from Tar Sands Plants in Canada ... When the CO2 emissions from the production of synthetic crude, refining, and utilization of fuels are combined, the emissions from utilization account for about 80 and about 70% of the emitted CO2 when fluid coking and delayed coking processes are considered, respectively. ... The combined production of 1 million barrels a day of synthetic crude would emit ?46 million tonnes of CO2 annually, which accounts for less than 8% of the Canadian CO2 emissions. ...

Edward Furimsky

2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

169

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Title Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Environmental Science and Technology Abstract Emission factors for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN) were measured from 226 individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel-fueled trucks driving through a 1 km-long California highway tunnel in August 2006. Emission factors were based on concurrent increases in BC, PN, and COB2B concentrations (measured at 1 Hz) that corresponded to the passage of individual HD trucks. The distributions of BC and PN emission factors from individual HD trucks are skewed, meaning that a large fraction of pollution comes from a small fraction of the in-use vehicle fleet. The highest-emitting 10% of trucks were

170

Very Stable Electron Field Emission From Strontium Titanate Coated Carbon Nanotube Matrices With Low Emission Thresholds  

SciTech Connect

PMMA-STO-CNT matrices were created by opened-tip vertically-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs) with conformal coating of strontium titanate and Poly(methyl methacrylate). Emission threshold of 0.8 V/?m was demonstrated, about five-fold lower than that of the as-grown VAMWCNTs. Theoretical simulation and modeling suggest that PMMA-STO-CNT matrices have suppressed screening effects and Coulombs’ repulsion forces between electrons in adjacent CNTs, leading to low emission threshold, high emission density, and prolong emission stability. These findings are important for practical application of VA-MWCNTs in field emission devices.

Pandey, Archana; Prasad, Abhishek; Moscatello, Jason; Engelhard, Mark H.; Wang, Chong M.; Yap, Yoke K.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

171

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not counted as part of emissions inventories, and biomass energy is sometimes referred to as being 'carbon neutral.' But what happens when a forest is harvested for fuel but takes 60 years to regrow or when biomass is harvested in a country that is not party to an international accord but is burned in a country that is party to an international accord? Biomass energy is only truly 'carbon neutral' if we get the system boundaries right. They need to make sure that the accounting methodology is compatible with our needs and realities in management and policy.

Marland, Gregg [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

California's Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Reduction in 2050 Title California's Carbon Challenge: Scenarios for Achieving 80% Emissions Reduction in 2050 Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5448E Year of Publication 2012 Authors Wei, Max, James H. Nelson, Michael K. Ting, Christopher Yang, J. Greenblatt, James E. McMahon, Daniel M. Kammen, Christopher M. Jones, Ana Mileva, Josiah Johnston, and Ranjit Bharvirkar Date Published 10/2012 Abstract Meeting the State of California's 2050 target of 80% lower greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from a 1990 baseline is a challenging goal that cannot be met without a portfolio of measures and strategies that span both energy demand and energy supply. This study focuses on energy emissions with the target of reducing energy emissions by 80% relative to 1990 energy emissions. Meeting the 2050 target requires both a sustained commitment to aggressively develop existing technologies as well as an aggressive and sustained policy commitment to reshape and ultimately transform the state's energy system. The 2050 GHG target for California appears achievable, but requires significant changes in the way we produce energy, deliver energy services, and utilize energy.

173

World Carbon Emissions: IEO2000 vs. IEO99  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

0 0 Notes: If world energy consumption rises to the levels projected in the IEO2000 reference case, carbon emissions would grow to 8.1 billion metric tons in 2010 (or 40 percent above the 1990 level) and 10.0 billion metric tons by 2020 (72 percent above the 1990 level). This year's forecasts are 129 million metric tons higher in 2010 relative to last year's forecast; and 192 million metric tons higher by 2020. The higher forecast for world carbon emissions can be attributed, in large part, to changes in the forecast for the FSU. Changes in the historical and projected carbon emissions for the FSU explain almost half of the increase between this year's IEO2000 and last year's report in 2010; and two-thirds of the difference in 2020. Historical data revisions

174

Convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In view of global warming, the concept of a low carbon world economy has been brought to center stage. In this paper, a systematical empirical investigation of the convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China is conducted based on provincial data for the period of 1995–2011. Using the log t test developed by Phillips and Sul (2007), evident divergence at the country level and convergence to three steady state equilibriums at provincial level was identified. Furthermore, estimates from the ordered logit model uncover important determinants underlying the formation of clubs, including the per capita GDP, energy consumption structure, energy intensity, and initial levels of economic development. The results from this study contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the carbon dioxide emissions status quo in China and serves as reference when launching region-based emissions mitigation policies.

Yiming Wang; Pei Zhang; Dake Huang; Changda Cai

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000 the emission of carbon (C) and carbon-containing trace gases including CO2, CO, CH4, and NMHC (nonmethane carbon emission from forest fires in China is about 11.31 Tg per year, ranging from a minimum level of 8

176

Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Uncertainty in Future Carbon Emissions: A Preliminary Exploration Mort D. Webster Abstract of economic-energy models are used to project future carbon emissions under various policy scenarios. Due distributions of carbon emissions from the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis model. From the specific

177

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

178

SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMULATIONS OF TRANSPORT AND FIELD-EMISSION PROPERTIES OF MULTI-WALL CARBON NANOTUBES Alexandre- emission properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The structure considered for the transport properties-saturation of the dangling bonds still improves the emission. I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission

Mayer, Alexandre

179

Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Ã?Â?Ã?¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Energy, Carbon-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Dioxide-Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC-based concrete with HFC in infrastructure we can reduce energy use in concrete production by 70%, and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 98%; thus the potential to reduce the impact of building materials on global warming and climate change is highly significant. Low Temperature Solidification (LTS) is a breakthrough technology that enables the densification of inorganic materials via a hydrothermal process. The resulting product exhibits excellent control of chemistry and microstructure, to provide durability and mechanical performance that exceeds that of concrete or natural stone. The technology can be used in a wide range of applications including facade panels, interior tiles, roof tiles, countertops, and pre-cast concrete. Replacing traditional building materials and concrete in these applications will result in significant reduction in both energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions.

Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

180

Is there causality from investment for real estate to carbon emission in China: A cointegration empirical study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper for the first time examines the EKC(environmental Kuznets curve) relationship for CO2 emission for China over the period of 1990-2009, employing of time series data and a multivariate model of carbon emission among GDP, investment for real estate, fixed capital, urban household and money (M1). The empirical result reveals that there is Granger causality running from investment for real estate, GDP and fixed capital to carbon emission in the long run. The result of this study also suggests that there is unidirectional Granger causality from M1 to real estate industry. Therefore, China's government should adapt economic development model to reduce carbon emission for example keeping the sustainable and rapid development of real estate.

Jinqiu Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

SWAMP Project Trip report Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 SWAMP Project Trip report Quantification of Carbon Stocks and Emissions from the Mangrove Forests University Corvallis, Oregon, USA. #12;2 1. Introduction Funding for this project came from a grant, Washington DC. This intensive study is part of the Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program

Tullos, Desiree

182

Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Barnsley Biomass Working towards carbon emissions reduction in Yorkshire objectives Fifteen years Yorkshire town are being replaced by a cleaner, green alternative: biomass. Barnsley's Communal Biomass on to residents. · To increase energy efficiency. · To develop biomass usage in new and refurbished public

183

The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;The Projected Impacts of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction Legislation on Electricity Prices on the projected prices of electricity and the use of electric energy in the state of Indiana. The analysis allowances and offsets, shifting production technology from coal-fired baseload resources to a combination

184

Climate Change: Global growth of carbon dioxide emissions continues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After declining 1.5% in 2009, global carbon dioxide emissions rose 5.8% in 2010, the largest yearly jump in two decades, according to a Worldwatch Institute report released on April 28. Worldwatch is a Washington, D.C.-based, environmental think tank. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

185

"Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from New Zealand" revised personal version of paper to appear in Energy Policy (in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international travel to and from.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.046 1 CARBON EMISSION OFFSETS FOR AVIATION-GENERATED EMISSIONS DUE TO INTERNATIONAL. It is then shown that no single #12;"Carbon emission offsets for aviation-generated emissions due to international

Otago, University of

186

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go?1° distribution of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

A Hybrid Method for Provincial Scale Energy-related Carbon Emission Allocation in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Empirical studies were conducted to examine the hybrid method and three indices, per capita GDP, resource endowment index and the proportion of energy-intensive industries, were screened to preliminarily interpret the differences among China’s regional carbon emissions. ... (4, 26-32) The approach used in these studies is often based on industrial sectors (bottom-up methodology), life-cycle methods (in which the city is considered as land with a certain boundary as well as an energy and material demand center) or input-output models (top-down approach using public data). ... The switch from coal-dominance to cleaner, renewable energies (wind, solar, natural gas, nuclear power, geothermal, biomass energy) will undoubtedly reduce CO2 emissions in China. ...

Hongtao Bai; Yingxuan Zhang; Huizhi Wang; Yanying Huang; He Xu

2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

EIA - AEO2010 - Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Accounting for carbon diioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions from biomass energy combustion CO2 emissions from the combustion of biomass [75] to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in AEO2010. According to current international convention [76], carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time [77]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

190

On the potential economic costs of cutting carbon dioxide emissions in Portugal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to estimate the impact of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion activities on economic ... €6,340. More importantly, and since carbon dioxide emissions are l...

Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui Manuel Marvão Pereira

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

Greenhouse gas emission by wastewater treatment plants of the pulp and paper industry – Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of the pulp and paper industry were modeled and estimated. Aerobic, anaerobic, and hybrid biological processes were used for the removal of contaminants. In addition to the removal of carbonaceous compounds, anaerobic digestion of the produced sludge and the removal of excess nitrogen in the effluent of treatment plants by nitrification/denitrification processes were incorporated in the model. Carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide were the major \\{GHGs\\} generated during the biological treatment, combustion, energy generation, and transportation. The generated biogas from the anaerobic processes was assumed to be recovered and used as a source of energy for the treatment plant, in an effort to reduce GHG emissions while decreasing the total energy needs of the WWTP. The established kinetic relationships of wastewater treatment processes along with mass and energy balances were employed for the simulation of different treatment systems and estimation of GHG emissions. Various sources of GHG emission were divided into on-site and off-site sources to simplify the modeling and simulation procedure. The overall GHG generation in the presence of biogas recovery was equal to 1.576, 3.026, and 3.271 kg CO2-equivalent/kg BOD by the three examined systems. The energy produced by the recovery and combustion of biogas could exceed the energy demands of all different treatment plants examined in this study and reduce off-site GHG emission. The generation of \\{GHGs\\} from aerobic and hybrid processes increased by 27% and 33.2%, respectively, when N2O emission from nitrogen removal processes was taken into consideration.

Omid Ashrafi; Laleh Yerushalmi; Fariborz Haghighat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper tests the convergence in per-capita carbon dioxide emissions for a collection of developed and developing...

Joakim Westerlund; Syed A. Basher

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

CDIAC::Carbon Emission::Time Series Global Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 2013 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° The 2013 version of this database presents a time series recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of million metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1751-2010. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional, and national annual estimates for 1751 through 2010 were published earlier (Boden et al. 2013). Those national, annual CO2 emission estimates were based on statistics about fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption, and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty (1984). The national annual estimates were combined with gridded 1° data on

195

Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field emission of individual carbon nanotube with in situ tip image and real work function Zhi Xu of the most promising applications of carbon nanotubes CNTs for flat panel displays1 and highly coherent field-emission studies on carbon nanotube field emission took the work function as a constant e.g., 5 eV . Actually

Wang, Zhong L.

196

Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube pn diode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p­n diode Thomas Mueller1 and Phaedon Avouris1 * Electrically driven light emission from carbon nanotubes1­8 could be used in nanoscale. Here, we report electrically induced light emission from individual carbon nanotube p­n diodes. A new

Perebeinos, Vasili

197

Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter-Morphologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Field Emission Properties of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with a Variety of Emitter@chemsys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Field emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which have been prepared through: single-walled carbon nanotube, field emission, alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition, ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

198

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Field emission from strained carbon nanotubes on cathode substrate D. Roy Mahapatra a, *, N. Sinha, Waterloo, Ont. N2L3C5, Canada 1. Introduction Field emission from carbon nanotube (CNT) was first reported Available online 27 June 2008 Keywords: Field emission Current density Carbon nanotube Strain phonon A B

Melnik, Roderick

199

Effects of palladium coating on field-emission properties of carbon nanofibers in a hydrogen plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effects of palladium coating on field-emission properties of carbon nanofibers in a hydrogen plasma Carbon nanofibers Metal coating Results from electron field-emission studies using arrays of patterned carbon nanofiber bundles are reported. We find that the desired field-emission characteristics were

Javey, Ali

200

Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer-matrix methodology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer- matrix simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes, using a transfer-matrix methodology. By repeating field, as shown by recent ab-initio calculations [10]. To study field emission from carbon nanotubes, we

Mayer, Alexandre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Science overview and knowledge needs William T: Available online 6 January 2014 Keywords: Wildland fire Climate Forests Carbon cycle Emissions a b s t r a c climate change and the principal emissions component of wildland fires, while black carbon and other

202

In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ imaging of field emission from individual carbon nanotubes and their structural damage; accepted for publication 27 November 2001 Field emission of individual carbon nanotubes was observed found to exhibit very low turn-on field and superior field emission performance. Carbon nanotubes grow

Wang, Zhong L.

203

Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Growth and field emission properties of small diameter carbon nanotube films Y.Y. Wanga,*, S of the emission site intensity. D 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Small diameter carbon nanotubes; MWCVD; Growth; Field emission 1. Introduction Single- or double-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT

Qin, Lu-Chang

204

Soil organic carbon enrichment of dust emissions: magnitude, mechanisms and its implications for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil organic carbon enrichment of dust emissions: magnitude, mechanisms and its implications of SOC enrichment in dust emissions is necessary to evaluate the impact of wind erosion on the carbon) across landscapes and soil carbon emissions (van Oost et al., 2007). The dust cycle rep- resents

205

High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in Gregory P. Asnera,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-resolution forest carbon stocks and emissions in the Amazon Gregory P. Asnera,1 , George V. N detection and ranging, and field plots, we mapped aboveground carbon stocks and emissions at 0.1-ha re emissions for REDD. We discovered previously unknown variation in carbon storage at multiple scales based

Saleska, Scott

206

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Carbon emission and mitigation cost comparisons between fossil fuel, nuclear and renewable energy resources for electricity generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study was conducted to compare the electricity generation costs of a number of current commercial technologies with technologies expected to become commercially available within the coming decade or so. The amount of greenhouse gas emissions resulting per kWh of electricity generated were evaluated. A range of fossil fuel alternatives (with and without physical carbon sequestration), were compared with the baseline case of a pulverised coal, steam cycle power plant. Nuclear, hydro, wind, bioenergy and solar generating plants were also evaluated. The objectives were to assess the comparative costs of mitigation per tonne of carbon emissions avoided, and to estimate the total amount of carbon mitigation that could result from the global electricity sector by 2010 and 2020 as a result of fuel switching, carbon dioxide sequestration and the greater uptake of renewable energy. Most technologies showed potential to reduce both generating costs and carbon emission avoidance by 2020 with the exception of solar power and carbon dioxide sequestration. The global electricity industry has potential to reduce its carbon emissions by over 15% by 2020 together with cost saving benefits compared with existing generation.

Ralph E.H. Sims; Hans-Holger Rogner; Ken Gregory

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Performance Comparison of Two Fuzzy Based Models in Predicting Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many studies have been carried out worldwide to predict carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using various methods. Most of the methods...2 emissions are not immediately known. This paper offers...2 emissions in Malays...

Herrini Mohd Pauzi; Lazim Abdullah

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Potential Urban Forest Carbon Sequestration and Storage Capacities in Burnside Industrial Park, Nova Scotia.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Urban and industrial settings represent potential areas for increased carbon (C) sequestration and storage through intensified tree growth. Consisting of an estimated 1270 ha of… (more)

Walsh, Alison

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Storing Industry's Carbon Dioxide in Real Time | U.S. DOE Office...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Storing Industry's Carbon Dioxide in Real Time Laboratory Policy (LP) LP Home About Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Laboratory Directed Research and...

211

Cumulative carbon emissions, emissions floors and short-term rates of warming: implications for policy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...link between peak human-induced global warming and cumulative carbon emissions...in avoiding some level of peak global warming. The recent Copenhagen Accord...impacts of climate change, even if global warming does remain below 2C [27,28...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Technological, economic and financial prospects of carbon dioxide capture in the cement industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cement is the second largest anthropogenic emission source, contributing approximately 7% of global CO2 emissions. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is considered by the International Energy Agency (IEA) as an essential technology capable of reducing CO2 emissions in the cement sector by 56% by 2050. The study compares CO2 capture technologies for the cement manufacturing process and analyses the economic and financial issues in deploying CO2 capture in the cement industry. Post-combustion capture with chemical absorption is regarded as a proven technology to capture CO2 from the calcination process. Oxyfuel is less mature but Oxyfuel partial capture—which only recycles O2/CO2 gas in the precalciner—is estimated to be more economic than post-combustion capture. Carbonate looping technologies are not yet commercial, but they have theoretical advantages in terms of energy consumption. In contrast with coal-fired power plants, CO2 capture in the cement industry benefits from a higher concentration of CO2 in the flue gas, but the benefit is offset by higher \\{SOx\\} and \\{NOx\\} levels and the smaller scale of emissions from each plant. Concerning the prospects for financing cement plant CO2 capture, large cement manufacturers on average have a higher ROE (return on equity) and lower debt ratio, thus a higher discount rate should be considered for the cost analysis than in power plants. IEA estimates that the incremental cost for deploying CCS to decarbonise the global cement sector is in the range US$350–840 billion. The cost estimates for deploying state-of-the art post-combustion CO2 capture technologies in cement plants are above $60 to avoid each tonne of CO2 emissions. However, the expectation is that the current market can only provide a minority of financial support for CO2 capture in cement plants. Public financial support and/or CO2 utilisation will be essential to trigger large-scale CCS demonstration projects in the cement industry.

Jia Li; Pradeep Tharakan; Douglas Macdonald; Xi Liang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry Ali Hasanbeigi, Lynn Price China Energy Group Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Marlene Arens Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) January 2013 This work was supported by the China Sustainable Energy Program of the Energy Foundation and Dow Chemical Company (through a charitable contribution) through the Department of Energy under contract No.DE- AC02-05CH11231. ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY LBNL-6106E ii Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States

214

Carbon Emission Targets for Driving Sustainable Mobility with US Light-Duty Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and many independent scientists warn that if global mean temperatures rise 1?5 °C from 1990 levels due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, risks of extreme climate events and widespread regional ecological and economic impacts will significantly increase (11, 12). ... PHEVs can displace on-road gasoline-powered vehicles and help to meet the defined targets if the average carbon intensity of the remaining conventional and PHEV vehicle mix is less than the LDV g/mile target. ... Keoleian, G. A.; Kar, K.; Manion, M.; Bulkley, J. W. Industrial Ecology of the Automobile: A Life Cycle Assessment; Society of Automotive Engineers: Warrendale, PA, 1997. ...

Hilary G. Grimes-Casey; Gregory A. Keoleian; Blair Willcox

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Dioxin and trace metal emissions from combustion of carbonized RDF slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the U.S. generated approximately 209 million tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 61% landfilled, 24% recycled, and 15% processed through Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC). In order to divert a larger portion of this generated MSW from landfills, MWC will have to play a growing role in MSW disposal. However, recently promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for MWC will add an additional financial burden, through mandated emission reductions and air pollution control technologies, to an already financially pressured MWC marketplace. In the past, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), a solid fuel produced from MSW, has been fired in industrial and coal boilers as an alternative means of MWC. While lower sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions provided the impetus, firing RDF in industrial and coal boilers frequently suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, increased air emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. This paper summarizes the latest emissions and combustion tests with the carbonized RDF slurry fuel. With EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process, a pumpable slurry of RDF is continuously pressurized with a pump to between 1200 and 2500 psi. The RDF slurry is pressurized above the saturated steam curve to maintain a liquid state when the slurry is heated to approximately 480-660{degrees}F. Slurry pressure and temperature then are maintained for less than 30 minutes in plug-flow reactors. At this temperature and pressure, oxygen functional groups in the molecular structure of the RDF are split off as carbon dioxide gas. This evolved carbon dioxide gas comprises a significant weight percentage of the feed RDF, but only a minimal percentage of the heating value.

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Fisher, M. [American Plastics Council, Washington, DC (United States); Singhania, A. [American Plastics Council/Amoco Chemicals, Alpharetta, GA (United States)] [and others

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from households and industry by the use of charcoal from sawmill residues in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Tanzania faces considerable challenges in meeting the future energy demands of its rapidly growing urban population without depleting its forests. Nonindustrial charcoal production generates large emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in the form of CO2 from forest degradation and methane from oxidation in traditional kilns. On a global scale, the GHG emissions from cement production are of considerable magnitude and are increasing rapidly. In this study, the impact of converting sawmill residues into charcoal briquettes and charcoal powder in Tanzania was assessed, using a cradle-to-grave approach. Furthermore, the net effects on GHG of substituting more GHG-intensive fuels with these charcoal products were evaluated. Replacing coal in cement manufacturing with this sawmill charcoal powder may reduce GHG emissions by 455–495 kg of CO2eq MWh?1, corresponding to an 83–91% decrease. The net GHG emission reduction when replacing charcoal from miombo woodlands with these sawmill charcoal briquettes is 78–557 kg of CO2eq MWh?1, or 42–84%, depending on whether the substituted charcoal can be considered carbon neutral or not. These replacements may considerably reduce the GHG emissions from the cement industry and in charcoal-dependent households in Tanzania. Due to the significant problems related to energy supply and forest deterioration in sub-Saharan countries, as well as the global growth of GHG emissions from the cement industry, this study might of relevance also outside Tanzania.

Hanne K. Sjølie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

total energy consumption, energy mix and carbon emission;current coal- dominated energy mix. In conjunction with theproduct mix; low production costs; high energy conversion

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Trend in Global Black Carbon Emissions from 1960 to 2007  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) warms the Earth system by absorbing sunlight and emitting infrared radiation, and by decreasing the ice/snow albedo. ... (2, 3) Therefore, any efforts to reduce BC emission can lead to the dual benefit of slowing down global warming and of protecting human health. ... This work measured PM (EFPM) and EC (EFEC) EF for 9 crop residues and 5 coals in actual rural cooking and coal stoves using the C mass balance method. ...

Rong Wang; Shu Tao; Huizhong Shen; Ye Huang; Han Chen; Yves Balkanski; Olivier Boucher; Philippe Ciais; Guofeng Shen; Wei Li; Yanyan Zhang; Yuanchen Chen; Nan Lin; Shu Su; Bengang Li; Junfeng Liu; Wenxin Liu

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy of Carbon Arc Plasma during Formation of Carbon Magnetic Encapsulates  

SciTech Connect

Plasma diagnostics of carbon arc discharge under conditions of carbon magnetic encapsulates formation was performed by emission and absorption spectroscopy. Content of C{sub 2} and Fe species, rotational temperatures of excited (d {sup 3} product {sub g}) and non-excited (a {sup 3} product {sub u}) states, and excitation temperatures of a {sup 5}F and a {sup 3}F levels relatively to the a {sup 5}D level of Fe atoms were determined. The results pointed to a non-equilibrium state of carbon arc plasma under prevailing discharge conditions.

Lange, H.; Labedz, O.; Huczko, A.; Bystrzejewski, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteur str. 1,02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

220

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Two U.S. Power-Plant Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data Sets ... The varying proportions of CO2 emitted from each fuel type over the course of a year lead to an annual cycle in the carbon isotope ratio (?13C), with a range of about 2 ‰. ... The large range of carbon emissions within the bituminous rank class suggests that rank-specific carbon emission factors are provincial rather than global. ...

Katherine V. Ackerman; Eric T. Sundquist

2008-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Global carbon emissions in the coming decades: the case of China  

SciTech Connect

China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in 2006, years ahead of published international and Chinese forecasts. Why were forecasts so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001. In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth.

Levine, M.D.; Aderi, N.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils impacts of carbon sequestration on net greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 23, GB1007, doi:10.1029/2008GB003180. 1. Introduction [2] Carbon (C) sequestration has

223

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission: June 8, 2005 Field emission studies were conducted on as-produced CoMoCAT single-walled carbon nanotube electron emitter. By adjusting the catalytic synthesis conditions, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT

Resasco, Daniel

224

Self-assembly of carbon nanohelices: Characteristics and field electron emission properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Self-assembly of carbon nanohelices: Characteristics and field electron emission properties Guangyu. Their field-emission properties were investigated. Carbon nanohelices were fabricated using microwave- plasma of self-assembled carbon nanohelices on iron needles using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor

Zhang, Guangyu

225

Simulations of field emission from a semiconducting ,,10,0... carbon nanotube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations of field emission from a semiconducting ,,10,0... carbon nanotube A. Mayera three-dimensional simulations of field emission from an ideal open 10,0 carbon nanotube without of carbon atoms and by repeating periodically a basic unit of the nanotube, band-structure effects

Mayer, Alexandre

226

New carbon cone nanotip for use in a highly coherent cold field emission electron microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 New carbon cone nanotip for use in a highly coherent cold field emission electron Jeanne Marvig, BP 94347, TOULOUSE, Cedex 4, FRANCE Abstract A new cathode for cold-field emission gun using a pyrolytic carbon-cone supported onto a carbon nanotube as the electron emitting tip has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

227

The European carbon balance. Part 1: fossil fuel emissions  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed the magnitude, the trends and the uncertainties of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions in the European Union 25 member states (hereafter EU-25), based on emission inventories from energy-use statistics. The stability of emissions during the past decade at EU-25 scale masks decreasing trends in some regions, offset by increasing trends elsewhere. In the recent 4 years, the new Eastern EU-25 member states have experienced an increase in emissions, reversing after a decade-long decreasing trend. Mediterranean and Nordic countries have also experienced a strong acceleration in emissions. In Germany, France and United Kingdom, the stability of emissions is due to the decrease in the industry sector, offset by an increase in the transportation sector. When four different inventories models are compared, we show that the between-models uncertainty is as large as 19% of the mean for EU-25, and even bigger for individual countries. Accurate accounting for fossil CO2 emissions depends on a clear understanding of system boundaries, i.e. emitting activities included in the accounting. We found that the largest source of errors between inventories is the use of distinct systems boundaries (e.g. counting or not bunker fuels, cement manufacturing, nonenergy products). Once these inconsistencies are corrected, the between-models uncertainty can be reduced down to 7% at EU-25 scale. The uncertainty of emissions at smaller spatial scales than the country scale was analyzed by comparing two emission maps based upon distinct economic and demographic activities. A number of spatial and temporal biases have been found among the two maps, indicating a significant increase in uncertainties when increasing the resolution at scales finer than 200 km. At 100km resolution, for example, the uncertainty of regional emissions is estimated to be 60 gCm2 yr1, up to 50% of the mean. The uncertainty on regional fossil-fuel CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere could be reduced by making accurate 14C measurements in atmospheric CO2, and by combining them with transport models.

Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Paris, J. D. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Peylin, Philippe [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Piao, S. L. [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; River, L. [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Levin, I. [University of Heidelberg; Pregger, T. [Universitat Stuttgart; Scholz, Y. [Universitat Stuttgart; Friedrich, R. [Universitat Stuttgart; Schulze, E.-D. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Where in the World is it Cheapest to Cut Carbon Emissions? David I. Stern  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Where in the World is it Cheapest to Cut Carbon Emissions? David I. Stern a, *, John C. V. Pezzey with low marginal costs of abating carbon emissions may have high total costs, and vice versa, for a given mitigation. We hypothesize that, under a common percentage cut in emissions intensity relative to business

Pezzey, Jack

229

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MASTER THESIS IN AQUATIC PHOTOCHEMISTRY Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from lakes The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet, the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical

Uppsala Universitet

230

Carbon leakage and competitiveness of cement and steel industries under the EU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

about nothing Abstract In a world of uneven climate policies, concerns about carbon leakage, compétitivité, fuites de carbone, industries énergie-intensives, ARIMA, Prais- Winsten CIRED Working Papers-Germain, 75006 Paris, France Abstract In a world of uneven climate policies, concerns about carbon leakage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

231

EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Overview  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Greenhouse Gas Tables (1990-2009) Table Title Formats Overview 1 U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases, based on global warming potential 2 U.S. greenhouse gas intensity and related factors 3 Distribution of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by end-use sector 4 World energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by region 5 Greenhouse gases and 100-year net global warming potentials Carbon dioxide emissions 6 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy and industry 7 U.S. energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by end-use sector 8 U.S. carbon dioxide emission from residential sector energy consumption 9 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from commercial sector energy consumption 10 U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sector energy consumption

232

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Cropland Production in the United States, 1990-2004 These data represent energy use and fossil-fuel CO2 emissions associated with cropland production in the U.S. Energy use and emissions occurring on the farm are referred to as on-site energy and on-site emissions. Energy use and emissions associated with cropland production that occur off the farm (e.g., use of electricity, energy and emissions associated with fertilizer and pesticide production) are referred to as off-site energy and off-site emissions. The combination of on-site and off-site energy and carbon is referred to as total energy and total carbon, respectively. Data provided here are for on-site and total energy and associated CO2 emissions. Units are Megagram C for CO2 estimates and Gigajoule for energy

233

Reduction of carbon monoxide emissions with regenerative thermal oxidizers  

SciTech Connect

Regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs) have been extensively used for the control of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from various sources. However, very little information is available on the ability of RTOs to control carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. This paper presents the results of extensive tests conducted on two RTOs to determine their VOC and CO control efficiencies. The inlet gas stream to the RTOs includes VOC and CO concentrations as high as 2,000 ppm and 3,600 ppm, respectfully. The testing demonstrated that both RTOs were capable of controlling greater than 98% of both inlet VOCs and CO. While the destruction efficiencies within the combustion chambers exceeded 99.9%, direct leakage past valves accounted for the lower control efficiencies. The tests indicated that the overall VOC and CO control efficiencies of the RTOs may be limited by valve leakage. The design and permitting of a RTO should include conservative control estimates which account for possible valve leakage.

Firmin, S.M.; Lipke, S.; Baturay, A.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Can Reducing Black Carbon Emissions Counteract Global Warming? ... It has been known for over 30 years that aerosols affect the Earth's radiative balance:? reflective particles (such as sulfates) have a cooling effect, and light-absorbing particles (such as BC) warm the system (3). ... Although Figure 3 shows many of the high-emitting devices that contribute most to global BC concentrations, much of the world's fuel is burned in low-emitting technologies such as pulverized coal burners and gasoline vehicles with current technology. ...

Tami C. Bond; Haolin Sun

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

235

Modeling ruminant methane emissions from the U.S. beef cattle industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer models were constructed to estimate methane emissions from cow/calf, replacement heifers, burs, stockers and feedlot sectors of the U.S. beef cattle industry. Methane (CH4) yields were calculated based on net energy values and forage...

Turk, Danny Carroll

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

Nam, Junsang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants  

SciTech Connect

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

2005-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

238

Emission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel (FF) combustion and biomass burning (BB), respectively. The enhancements of BC and LSP in BBEmission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over. (2012), Emission characteristics of black carbon in anthropogenic and biomass burning plumes over

Jimenez, Jose-Luis

239

Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and Aerosol Phase at a Sub-Urban Site Near Mexico City in March 2006 During Emission and Chemistry of Organic Carbon in the Gas and...

240

Table 22. Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual (million metric tons) 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 AEO 1982 AEO 1983 AEO 1984 AEO 1985 AEO 1986 AEO 1987 AEO 1989* AEO 1990 AEO 1991 AEO 1992 AEO 1993 5009 5053 5130 5207 5269 5335 5401 5449 5504 5562 5621 5672 5724 5771 5819 5867 5918 5969 AEO 1994 5060 5130 5185 5240 5287 5335 5379 5438 5482 5529 5599 5658 5694 5738 5797 5874 5925 AEO 1995 5137 5174 5188 5262 5309 5361 5394 5441.3 5489.0 5551.3 5621.0 5679.7 5727.3 5775.0 5841.0 5888.7 AEO 1996 5182 5224 5295 5355 5417 5464 5525 5589 5660 5735 5812 5879 5925 5981 6030 AEO 1997 5295 5381 5491 5586 5658 5715 5781 5863 5934 6009 6106 6184 6236 6268 AEO 1998 5474 5621 5711 5784 5893 5957 6026 6098 6192 6292 6379 6465 6542 AEO 1999 5522 5689 5810 5913 5976 6036 6084 6152 6244 6325 6418 6493 AEO 2000

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

242

Special Coating Emission Control System At Goulds Pumps ITT Industries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 required significant changes for users of industrial paints and coatings. New York State requires users of highly volatile coatings to meet additional regulations, and apply for special permits and variances...

Caropolo, B.; Evans, T.

243

Stabilizing a pulsed field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose a new design configuration for a carbon nanotube (CNT) array based pulsed field emission device to stabilize the field emission current. In the new design, we consider a pointed height distribution ...

Sinha, Niraj

244

Elucidating secondary organic aerosol from diesel and gasoline vehicles through detailed characterization of organic carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the SOA potential of diesel emissions, especially...improve heavy-duty diesel engine performance with postcombustion...attention to gasoline and diesel fuel composition and emissions...carbon. Although total consumption of oil is minor relative...

Drew R. Gentner; Gabriel Isaacman; David R. Worton; Arthur W. H. Chan; Timothy R. Dallmann; Laura Davis; Shang Liu; Douglas A. Day; Lynn M. Russell; Kevin R. Wilson; Robin Weber; Abhinav Guha; Robert A. Harley; Allen H. Goldstein

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the U.S. Economy: A Structural Decomposition Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides an empirical analysis of the impact of various influences on carbon dioxide emissions. It incorporates methodological refinements of input-output...2 emissions in the U.S. over the 1972 ... as...

Stephen D. Casler; Adam Rose

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Investigation of Energy, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Costs in Single Point Incremental Forming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The LCA of sheet metal forming processes is lacking in studies of sustainability issues and quantification of energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This paper summarizes an investigation of the...2 emissions

Kadra Branker; David W. Adams…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Field Emission from Carbon Films Deposited by Controlled-Low-Energy Beams and CVD Sources  

SciTech Connect

The principal interests in this work are energetic-beam control of carbon-film properties and the roles of doping and surface morphology in field emission.

Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Baylor, L.R.; Jellison, Jr., G.E.; Poker, D.B.; Kim, S.; Sohn, M.H.; Paik, N.W.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

Vietnam-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use AgencyCompany Organization Clean Air Asia, Chreod Ltd. Partner Asian...

249

State Externalities Policy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Who Bears the Risks of Future Regulation?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ITEM...: In January 1991, representatives of 38 state consumer advocacy offices and 17 environmental organizations warned utilities that failures to anticipate future carbon-dioxide-emission cost i...

Ralph Cavanagh; Ashok Gupta; Dan Lashof; Marika Tatsutani

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Industrial emissions cause extreme urban ozone diurnal variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...network of large coal-fired power plants. Anthropogenic...treatment of standard gas-phase and heterogeneous...emissions from utility power plants located to the...Description of the Fifth Generation Penn State/National...

Renyi Zhang; Wenfang Lei; Xuexi Tie; Peter Hess

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Industry  

SciTech Connect

This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Streamlined carbon footprint computation : case studies in the food industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the greatest barriers in product Carbon Footprinting is the large amount of time and effort required for data collection across the supply chain. Tesco's decision to downsize their carbon footprint project from the ...

Lee, Yin Jin

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)of installing carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Theoretical comparison between field emission from single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes A. Mayer,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical comparison between field emission from single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes A s : 73.63.Fg, 79.70. q, 85.35.Kt, 03.65.Nk I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission of field emission from carbon nanotubes,13­16 we now consider the depen- dence of the emission from single

Mayer, Alexandre

256

Compression ignition engine performance and emission evaluation of industrial oilseed biofuel feedstocks camelina, carinata, and pennycress across three fuel pathways  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial oilseeds camelina (Camelina sativa L.), carinata (Brassica carinata), and pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) offer great potential as biofuel feedstocks due to their non-food nature and positive agronomic attributes. This research focused on compression ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions of these industrial oilseeds as compared to both traditional feedstocks and petroleum diesel. A John Deere 4.5 L test engine was used to evaluate these oils using three fuel pathways (triglyceride blends, biodiesel, and renewable diesel). This engine research represents the first direct comparison of these new biofuel feedstocks to each other and to conventional sources. For some industrial oilseed feedstock and fuel pathway combinations, this study also represents the first engine performance data available. The results were promising, with camelina, carinata, and pennycress engine performance very similar to the traditional oils for each fuel pathway. Fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, and emissions were all were typical as compared to traditional oilseed feedstocks. Average brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) for the industrial oilseed biofuels was within ±1.3% of the conventional oilseed biofuels for each fuel type. Initial research with triglyceride blends (TGB), formed by blending straight vegetable oil with gasoline, indicate it may be an ideal fuel pathway for farm-scale fuel production, and was compatible with a direct injection CI engine without modification. TGB had lower fuel consumption and a higher thermal efficiency than biodiesel for each feedstock tested. For several categories, TGB performed similar to petroleum diesel. TGB volumetric bsfc was only 1.9% higher than the petroleum runs. TGB combustion characteristics were similar to biodiesel. Biodiesel runs had several emission benefits such as reductions in carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and formaldehyde (CH20) emissions as compared to TGB runs. The renewable diesels had petroleum-like engine performance and combustion characteristics, while still maintaining some of the benefits of biodiesel such as reduced CO emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were also 6% lower for renewable diesel runs than petroleum. Both crude and refined oil was used as feedstock, and did not significantly affect engine performance or emissions in a modern CI engine.

A.C. Drenth; D.B. Olsen; P.E. Cabot; J.J. Johnson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

DOE Seeks Proposals to Increase Investment in Industrial Carbon Capture and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Seeks Proposals to Increase Investment in Industrial Carbon DOE Seeks Proposals to Increase Investment in Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration Projects DOE Seeks Proposals to Increase Investment in Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration Projects June 15, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy has issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement soliciting projects to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources and to put CO2 to beneficial use. The successful development of advanced technologies and innovative concepts to prevent CO2 from being emitted into the atmosphere is a key component of national efforts to mitigate climate change. DOE anticipates making multiple awards under this FOA. The projects will be cost-shared, with the award recipients providing at least 20 percent of the

258

Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit  

SciTech Connect

The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Carbon dioxide capture and utilization in petrochemical industry: potentials and challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is an ever-increasing challenge for production units and power plants in view of the global warming concerns. Carbon dioxide capturing from petrochemical process streams ...

Maryam Takht Ravanchi; Saeed Sahebdelfar

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

An open-access method for targeting revegetation based on potential for emissions reduction, carbon sequestration and opportunity cost  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We propose a simple heuristic that uses open-access models and government data on agricultural activities to estimate total carbon emissions from agriculture, the gross carbon benefit and the opportunity cost per tonne CO2-e from revegetating to environmental plantings or plantation forestry. We test this across ten areas of mixed land-use that represent diverse Australian agricultural systems along a rainfall transect. The local value of agricultural production was obtained from government statistics and used to estimate the current economic opportunity cost of converting cleared agricultural land to mixed environmental plantings for carbon sequestration. Gross carbon benefit from revegetation was closely related to current agricultural use, as was financial opportunity cost. These were not related simply to site productivity potential or rainfall. The proportion of land cleared for agriculture that would need to be re-vegetated to achieve a localised zero-carbon land-use scenario was calculated by the ratio of current agricultural emissions to gross carbon benefit from revegetation; this ranged from 13% to 66% for groups of agricultural industries across Australian rainfall transects. While the heuristic does not capture the detail of models built specifically for local research questions it does provide a different lens on the questions policy makers and land managers may ask about the costs and benefits of revegetating agricultural land, and provides open-access methods to guide them.

Andrew Longmire; Chris Taylor; Craig J. Pearson

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Non-OECD Non-OECD Countries December 1994 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Non-OECD Countries was prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU). General questions concerning the content of the report may be referred to W. Calvin Kilgore (202-586-1617), Director of EMEU; Mark Rodekohr (202-586-1130), Director of Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division; or Derriel Cato (202-586-6574),

262

Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Some Some International Comparisons April 1994 Energy Information Administration Office of Energy Markets and End Use U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy position of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contacts Energy Use and Carbon Emissions: Some International Comparisons is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Energy Markets and End Use (EMEU). General questions concerning the content of the report may be referred to W. Calvin Kilgore (202-586- 1617), Director of EMEU; Arthur Andersen (202-586-1441), Director of Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division; or

263

Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions: lack of robustness to heterogeneity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). As indicated by Wagner (2008), the series of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita carbon focuses solely on the energy consumption, carbon dioxide ( 2CO ) emissions and economic growth nexus in countries' energy efficiencies and cross-country differences in the 2CO emissions trajectories are accounted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

Pricing Decision Theory and the Empirical Research on International Carbon Emissions Trading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper, through the literature on carbon emissions trading and the related pricing decision theory, first analyzes the pricing decision principles in the two carbon emissions trading systems, namely, cap and trade and baseline and credit approach; ... Keywords: CO2, baseline and credit, cap and trade, pricing decision

Yun Zhang

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Carbon tax based on the emission factor: a bilevel programming approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a bilevel programming approach to design an effective carbon tax scheme based on the production emission factor, used as an intensity measure, for a competitive market with multiple players. At the upper level, the government sets a target ... Keywords: Bilevel programming, Carbon tax, Emission factor, Environment, Social welfare

Hossa Almutairi, Samir Elhedhli

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Clean Development Mechanism and CER Price Formation in the Carbon Emission Markets Ren such as the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and offset certificates such as CERs generated within historically. Keywords. Environmental risk, energy economics, cap-and-trade, carbon mar- kets, Kyoto protocol

Carmona, Rene

267

New Recovery Act Funding Boosts Industrial Carbon Capture and...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

large volumes of CO2 in geologic formations; provide support to augment the National Carbon Sequestration (NATCARB) database through support of state geologic surveys and...

268

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees A cross-scale assessment of wildfire and carbon dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees ­ A cross, 59812, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Available online xxxx Keywords: Carbon Fire Emissions. Measurements of wildfire carbon emissions are thus highly biased by the spatial and temporal scales that bound

Montana, University of

269

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees A cross-scale assessment of wildfire and carbon dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Seeing the forest and the trees ­ A cross. Measurements of wildfire carbon emissions are thus highly biased by the spatial and temporal scales that bound.g., vegetation composition and structure, carbon emissions) occur and inter- act. Improved understanding

270

The Value of End-Use Energy Efficiency in Mitigation of U.S. Carbon Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a scenario analysis exploring the value of advanced technologies in the U.S. buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors in stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. The analysis was conducted by staff members of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), working at the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI) in support of the strategic planning process of the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The conceptual framework for the analysis is an integration of detailed buildings, industrial, and transportation modules into MiniCAM, a global integrated assessment model. The analysis is based on three technology scenarios, which differ in their assumed rates of deployment of new or presently available energy-saving technologies in the end-use sectors. These technology scenarios are explored with no carbon policy, and under two CO2 stabilization policies, in which an economic price on carbon is applied such that emissions follow prescribed trajectories leading to long-term stabilization of CO2 at roughly 450 and 550 parts per million by volume (ppmv). The costs of meeting the emissions targets prescribed by these policies are examined, and compared between technology scenarios. Relative to the reference technology scenario, advanced technologies in all three sectors reduce costs by 50% and 85% for the 450 and 550 ppmv policies, respectively. The 450 ppmv policy is more stringent and imposes higher costs than the 550 ppmv policy; as a result, the magnitude of the economic value of energy efficiency is four times greater for the 450 ppmv policy than the 550 ppmv policy. While they substantially reduce the costs of meeting emissions requirements, advanced end-use technologies do not lead to greenhouse gas stabilization without a carbon policy. This is due mostly to the effects of increasing service demands over time, the high consumption of fossil fuels in the electricity sector, and the use of unconventional feedstocks in the liquid fuel refining sector. Of the three end-use sectors, advanced transportation technologies have the greatest potential to reduce costs of meeting carbon policy requirements. Services in the buildings and industrial sectors can often be supplied by technologies that consume low-emissions fuels such as biomass or, in policy cases, electricity. Passenger transportation, in contrast, is especially unresponsive to climate policies, as the fuel costs are small compared to the time value of transportation and vehicle capital and operating costs. Delaying the transition from reference to advanced technologies by 15 years increases the costs of meeting 450 ppmv stabilization emissions requirements by 21%, but the costs are still 39% lower than the costs assuming reference technology. The report provides a detailed description of the end-use technology scenarios and provides a thorough analysis of the results. Assumptions are documented in the Appendix.

Kyle, G. Page; Smith, Steven J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.

2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

271

Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Jump to: navigation, search Name Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Agency/Company /Organization Clean Air Asia, Chreod Ltd. Partner Asian Development Bank (ADB), Ministry of Planning Sector Land Focus Area Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use, People and Policy, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Website http://cleanairinitiative.org/

272

Impact of Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions on 21st Century Carbon Dioxide Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The impact of light-duty passenger vehicle emissions on global carbon dioxide concentrations was estimated using the MAGICC reduced-form climate model combined with the PNNL contribution to the CCSP scenarios product. Our central estimate is that tailpipe light duty vehicle emissions of carbon-dioxide over the 21st century will increase global carbon dioxide concentrations by slightly over 12 ppmv by 2100.

Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page

2007-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

273

An analysis of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in the Chinese iron and steel industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With China's increasing pressures on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, Chinese iron and steel industry (ISI) is facing a great challenge. In this paper, we address the energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features, and driving forces in Chinese ISI for 2001–2010. First, energy related GHG inventory for ISI is made for both scope 1 (direct emissions) and scope 2 (including imported electricity emission). Then, the driving forces for such emission changes are explored by utilizing the method of logarithmic mean Divisa index (LMDI) decomposition analysis. Results indicate that Chinese ISI experienced a rapid growth of energy related GHG emission at average annual growth rate of 70 million tons CO2e. Production scale effect is the main driving factor for energy related GHG emission increase in Chinese ISI, while energy intensity effect and emission factor change effect offset the total increase and energy structure has marginal effect. Construction, manufacture of general purpose and special purpose machinery and manufacture of transport equipment sectors are main sectors for embodied emissions, amounting for more than 75% of the total embodied emissions from Chinese ISI. Such research findings propose that a detailed consideration can help make appropriate polices for mitigating ISI's energy-related GHG emission.

Yihui Tian; Qinghua Zhu; Yong Geng

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Inelastic light scattering and light emission from single and double wall carbon , Stephen Cronin2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

surfactant suspensions. Keywords: carbon nanotubes, optical transition energies, chirality, photoluminescence of excitation energy from a distribution of single wall carbon nanotubes, in a surfactant suspensionInelastic light scattering and light emission from single and double wall carbon nanotubes Yan Yin1

275

Carbon offsets as a cost containment instrument : a case study of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take advantage of lower abatement cost ...

Kim, Jieun, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Indoor air pollutants from unvented kerosene heater emissions in mobile homes: studies on particles, semivolatile organics, carbon monoxide, and mutagenicity ...

Judy L. Mumford; Ron W. Williams; Debra B. Walsh; Robert M. Burton; David J. Svendsgaard; Jane C. Chuang; Virginia S. Houk; Joellen Lewtas

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

(CO2) collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in...

278

A fast method for updating global fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We provide a fast and efficient method for calculating global annual mean carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels by combining data from an established data set with BP annual statistics. Using this method it is possible to retrieve an updated estimate of global CO2 emissions six months after the actual emissions occurred. Using this data set we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions have increased by over 40% from 1990 to 2008 with an annual average increase of 3.7% over the five-year period 2003?2007. In 2008 the growth rate in the fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions was smaller than in the preceding five years, but it was still over 2%. Global mean carbon dioxide emissions in 2008 were 8.8?GtC? yr?1. For the latter part of the last century emissions of carbon dioxide have been greater from oil than from coal. However during the last few years this situation has changed. The recent strong increase in fossil fuel CO2 emissions is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from coal, whereas emissions from oil and gas to a large degree follow the trend from the 1990s.

G Myhre; K Alterskj?r; D Lowe

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Offsets as a Cost Containment Instrument: A Case Study of Reducing Emissions from in Technology and Policy Abstract Carbon offset is one type of flexibility mechanism in greenhouse gas emission trading schemes that helps nations meet their emission commitments at lower costs. Carbon offsets take

280

Transfer-matrix simulations of field emission from bundles of open and closed ,,5,5... carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transfer-matrix simulations of field emission from bundles of open and closed ,,5,5... carbon simulations of field emission from bundles of metallic 5,5 carbon nanotubes, which are either ideally open.35.Kt, 03.65.Nk I. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission proper- ties

Mayer, Alexandre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Photon-stimulated field emission from semiconducting ,,10,0... and metallic ,,5,5... carbon nanotubes A. Mayer,1,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Photon-stimulated field emission from semiconducting ,,10,0... and metallic ,,5,5... carbon-stimulated field emission from semiconducting carbon nano- tubes may lead to important technological applications is an extension of our previous investigations of field emission from carbon nanotubes13­15 to include pho- tonic

Mayer, Alexandre

282

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2: Implications for inversion analyses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of reduced carbon emissions and oxidation on the distribution of atmospheric CO2 carbon emissions. We used TransCom3 annual mean simulations from three transport models to evaluate carbon emission and oxidation processes in deriving inversion estimates of CO2 surface fluxes. Citation

Krakauer, Nir Y.

283

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from various industrial sources  

SciTech Connect

This study characterized the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the stack flue gases of 17 industrial sources, which were classified into 10 categories. The results show that the mean PCDD/PCDF concentration of secondary zinc smelter (Zn-S) and secondary copper smelter (Cu-S) is 2.44 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm{sup 3} (N represents normal conditions at 0{sup o}C, 760 mmHg), which was found to be significantly greater than that of industrial waste incinerators (mean concentration = 0.15 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3}). These results imply that the controlling of secondary metallurgical melting processes is more important than industrial waste incineration for the reduction of PCDD/PCDF emissions. The mean emission factors of cement production, Zn-S and Cu-S, are 0.052, 1.99, and 1.73 {mu}g I-TEQ/t product, respectively. The cement plant uses bituminous coal as fuel. For industrial waste incineration, the mean emission factors of waste rubber, waste liquor, waste sludge, industrial waste solid (IWI)-1, IWI-2, IWI-3, and IWI-4 are 0.752, 0.435, 0.760, 6.64, 1.67, 2.38, and 0.094 {mu}g I-TEQ/t feed, respectively. Most of the PCDD/PCDF emission factors established in this study are less than those reported in previous studies, which could be because of the more stringent regulations for PCDD/PCDF emissions in recent years. 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

Long-Full Lin; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Department of Environmental Engineering, and Sustainable Environment Research Center

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Carbon Emissions Trading and Equity in International Agreements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explores the distributional consequences of alternative emissions trading schemes. It is argued that the distributional ... findings, by simulating the introduction of various emissions trading schemes...

Francesco Bosello; Roberto Roson

285

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials.

Sullivan, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Friedmann, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Method of depositing multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel field emitter device is disclosed for cold cathode field emission applications, comprising a multi-layer resistive carbon film. The multi-layered film of the present invention is comprised of at least two layers of a resistive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, such that the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure comprises a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film comprises a plurality of carbon layers, wherein adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. Field emitters made according the present invention display improved electron emission characteristics in comparison to conventional field emitter materials. 8 figs.

Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

287

Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non-dimensional parameters controlling RFC in furnaces were identified. These are: (i) The Boltzmann number; (ii) The Damkohler number, (iii) The dimensionless Arrhenius number, and (iv) The equivalence ratio. Together they define the parameter space where RFC is possible. It was also found that the Damkohler number must be small for RFC to exist and that the Boltzmann number expands the RFC domain. The experimental data obtained during the course of this work agrees well with the predictions made by the theoretical analysis. Interestingly, the equivalence ratio dependence shows that it is easier to establish RFC for rich mixtures than for lean mixtures. This was also experimentally observed. Identifying the parameter space for RFC is necessary for controlling the RFC furnace operation. It is hoped that future work will enable the methodology developed here to be applied to the operation of real furnaces, with consequent improvement in efficiency and pollutant reduction. To reiterate, the new furnace combustion technology developed enables intense radiation from combustion products and has many benefits: (i) Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions; (ii) Uniform and intense radiation to substantially increase productivity; (iii) Oxygen-free atmosphere to reduce dross/scale formation; (iv) Provides multi-fuel capability; and (v) Enables carbon sequestration if pure oxygen is used for combustion.

Atreya, Arvind

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Changes in carbon dioxide emissions and LMDI-based impact factor decomposition: the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region as a case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at provincial level can provide a scientific...2 reduction policies. We studied the variation of CO2 emissions of primary energy consumption and its influencing...2 emission

Li Zhang; Jun Lei; Xuan Zhou; XiaoLei Zhang; Wen Dong; Yu Yang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Carbon Strategy for the Food Industry FAPC Food Process Engineer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Kerr Food & Agricultural Products Center FOOD TECHNOLOGY FACT SHEET 405-744-6071 · www.fapc.bizAdding Value to Oklahoma f a p c Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service · Division of Agricultural Sciences issues for food processors: · Green house gas (GHG) · Carbon footprint · Life cycle assessment (LCA

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

290

NETL: News Release - FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6, 2010 6, 2010 FutureGen Industrial Alliance Announces Carbon Storage Site Selection Process for FutureGen 2.0 Washington, D.C. - The FutureGen Industrial Alliance today announced details of a process that will lead to the selection of an Illinois site for the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) collected at FutureGen 2.0, a landmark project that will advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage technology at an Ameren Energy Resources power plant in Meredosia, Illinois. Last month the Department of Energy signed two agreements, one with the FutureGen Industrial Alliance and one with Ameren Energy Resources that committed $1 billion in Recovery Act funding to design, build and operate FutureGen 2.0. MORE INFO FutureGen 2.0 Siting Guidance FutureGen 2.0 Fact Sheet

291

An examination of carbon budgets, carbon taxes, industry attitudes to global warming, and AAPG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Energy Corporation, 2014, Air, accessed November 13, 2014...social-responsibility/environment/air . DPA, 2007, Climate change...cfm . EPA, 2014, Carbon Pollution Standards, Regulatory Actions...www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards/regulatory-actions...

James M. Rine

292

Energy expenditures and carbon-dioxide emissions at blast furnaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction of iron and the material balances of carbon shows that the CO2 levels in the blast-furnace gas may be maintained by lowering the carbon consumption in the direct reduction ...

G. V. Korshikov; V. N. Titov; V. G. Mikhailov

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CarBen Version 3: Multisector Carbon Dioxide Emissions Accounting Tool Focus Area: Geothermal Power Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/refshelf/PubDetails.aspx?Action=View& Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/carben-version-3-multisector-carbon-d Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance The CarBen model enables users to conduct wedge anlayses of scenarios for mitigating U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. The spreadsheet-based tool relies upon expert opinion for scenario formulation and is not intended to be used

294

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

295

Emission factors for particles, elemental carbon, and trace gases from the Kuwait oil fires  

SciTech Connect

Emission factors are presented for particles, elemental carbon (i.e., soot), total organic carbon in particles and vapor, and for various trace gases from the 1991 Kuwait oil fires. Particle emissions accounted for {approximately} 2% of the fuel burned. In general, soot emission factors were substantially lower than those used in recent {open_quotes}nuclear winter{close_quotes} calculations. Differences in the emissions and appearances of some of the individual fires are discussed. Carbon budget data for the composite plumes from the Kuwait fires are summarized; most of the burned carbon in the plumes was in the form of CO{sub 2}. Fluxes are presented for several combustion products. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Laursen, K.K.; Ferek, R.J.; Hobbs, P.V. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1992-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

296

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissions Monitoring Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide18.7 to 36.8 *Combined Heat and Power (CHP) ** Uncertaintiesin electric and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants, diesel

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: quantile panel-type analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper samples the data of 138 countries during the 1971–2007 period, and performs an empirical test to validate the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. It first performs panel ...

Kuan-Min Wang

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Current status of waste to power generation in Japan and resulting reduction of carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the current status of waste to power generation (WPG) in Japan and various scenarios involving indirect reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by WPG. The number of WPG facilities ... power plants. If t...

Masaki Takaoka; Nobuo Takeda; Naruo Yamagata…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Some operational aspects and applications of dividing wall columns: energy requirements and carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the end of 20th century and beginning of the 21st, oil prices reached 100 USD per barrel, and more attention was given to environmental regulations on carbon dioxide emissions. As a result, applications of...

Raúl Delgado-Delgado; Salvador Hernández…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Methane and carbon dioxide emissions and nitrogen turnover during liquid manure storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of the greenhouse gas (GHG) methane...4) have increased significantly during the twentieth century (IPCC 2001). Compared to carbon dioxide (CO2), the amounts of CH4 are low in the atmosphe...

Sven G. Sommer; Søren O. Petersen; Peter Sørensen…

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Carbon dioxide emissions and governance: A nonparametric analysis for the G-20  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper applies nonparametric estimators to examine the carbon dioxide emissions–governance relationship. By using data for the twenty largest economies (Group of twenty, G-20) the dynamics of the considered relationship are analyzed for the time period 1996–2010. Six governance measures are included in our analysis (Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law and Control of Corruption) as have been defined by the World Bank. The empirical findings reveal a high nonlinear relationship between countries' carbon dioxide emissions and the examined governance measures. The results reveal significant differences on the number of governance measures influencing countries' carbon dioxide emission levels. It is evident that these differences are subject to countries' specific regional and development variations. Finally, it appears that increasing the quality of countries' different governance factors does not always result to lower carbon dioxide emission levels.

George E. Halkos; Nickolaos G. Tzeremes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Monte Carlo Approach To Generator Portfolio Planning And Carbon Emissions Assessments Of Systems With Large Penetrations Of Variable Renewables Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A new generator portfolio planning model is described that is capable of quantifying the carbon emissions associated with systems that include very high penetrations of variable renewables. The model combines a deterministic renewable portfolio planning module with a Monte Carlo simulation of system operation that determines the expected least-cost

303

Feedbacks in Emission-Driven and Concentration-Driven Global Carbon Budgets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emissions of CO2 into the atmosphere affect the carbon budgets of the land and ocean as biogeochemical processes react to increased CO2 concentrations. Biogeochemical processes also react to changes in temperature and other climate parameters. ...

G. J. Boer; V. K. Arora

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

NETL-Led Laboratory-Industry-Academia Collaboration Is Accelerating Carbon-Capture Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory established the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative to take carbon-capture concepts from the laboratory to the power plant more quickly, at a lower cost, and with reduced risk than would be accomplished following more traditional research and development pathways. Today, the NETL-led CCSI has proven itself to be a model of successful, effective collaboration among government, industry, and academia.

305

Carbon emissions and the Kyoto commitment in the European Union  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate reference CO? emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO? emissions ...

Viguier, Laurent L.; Babiker, Mustafa H.M.; Reilly, John M.

306

Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analysis supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.

Sathaye, Jayant; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Iyer, Maithili; McNeil, Michael; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Roy, Joyashree; Roy, Moumita; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Electricity-generation mix considering energy security and carbon emission mitigation: Case of Korea and Mongolia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To compare electricity-generation fuel mixes in two countries with multiple energy policy goals and unique circumstances, we look at three scenarios reflecting the carbon emissions mitigation targets, differences in energy security levels, and electricity-generating costs of each nation. Korea and Mongolia show clear differences in electricity-generation structure related to import dependency, the potential of renewable energy, and threats to energy security. These variations lead to different decisions on the power-generation fuel mix plan. Use of fossil fuel resources in Korea results in carbon dioxide emissions and energy insecurity, while in Mongolia carbon emissions, also from fossil fuels, and energy insecurity are separate concerns as Mongolia domestically operates coal-fired power plants and imports electricity. Policies targeting two objectives, carbon emissions mitigation and energy security improvement, show complementarity in Korea as fossil fuels are replaced by renewables or nuclear power, but represent trade-offs in Mongolia as emissions mitigation and improved energy security cannot be achieved with one strategy. In conclusion, national plans to achieve two goals differ by country: In Korea, the appropriate portion of nuclear energy is the determining policy factor. In Mongolia, carbon capture and storage is the clear alternative for mitigating carbon emissions despite large renewables potential.

Hanee Ryu; Shonkhor Dorjragchaa; Yeonbae Kim; Kyunam Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Carbon dioxide emission, institutional quality, and economic growth: Empirical evidence in Malaysia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In view of Malaysia's status as a fast-growing economy with accelerating carbon dioxide emissions, a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth and pollution is vital to the policy makers. This paper, therefore, attempts to investigate the existence of long run relationship among carbon dioxide emission, institutional quality, exports, and economic growth and further examines the causal relationship among these variables in Malaysia for the period 1984–2008. From the bounds test, it is found that a long run relationship does exist among the variables, even using different conditioning information sets. A positive and significant interaction term between carbon dioxide emission and institutional quality indicator (i.e. law and order) implies that good institutional quality is important in controlling carbon dioxide emission in the process of economic development. The results for Granger causality tests further confirm the importance of institutional frameworks in reducing carbon dioxide emissions since institutional quality is found not only affects economic growth directly, but also indirectly via carbon dioxide emissions. This indicates that sound institutional frameworks are essential for Malaysia to achieve high economic growth without sacrificing its environment.

Lin-Sea Lau; Chee-Keong Choong; Yoke-Kee Eng

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Large and stable emission current from synthesized carbon nanotube/fiber network  

SciTech Connect

In order to obtain a large and stable electron field emission current, the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized on carbon fibers by cold wall chemical vapor deposition method. In the hierarchical nanostructures, carbon fibers are entangled together to form a conductive network, it could provide excellent electron transmission and adhesion property between electrode and emitters, dispersed clusters of carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters have been synthesized on the top of carbon fibers as field emitters, this kind of emitter distribution could alleviate electrostatic shielding effect and protect emitters from being wholly destroyed. Field emission properties of this kind of carbon nanotube/fiber network have been tested, up to 30?mA emission current at an applied electric field of 6.4?V/?m was emitted from as-prepared hierarchical nanostructures. Small current degradation at large emission current output by DC power operation indicated that carbon nanotube/fiber network could be a promising candidate for field emission electron source.

Di, Yunsong [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Xiao, Mei; Zhang, Xiaobing, E-mail: bell@seu.edu.cn; Wang, Qilong; Li, Chen; Lei, Wei; Cui, Yunkang [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

Requirements Model for a High-Privacy Decentralized Carbon Emissions Trading Platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper elicits and models the requirements of a decentralized carbon emissions trading platform (CarboCoin). CarboCoin platform is based on the Bit coin, a peer-to-peer digital currency with no central authority. CarboCoin is focused on providing ... Keywords: privacy, carbon trading platform, crypto currency

Enas Alkawasmi; Edin Arnautovic; Davor Svetinovic

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the City Center of Firenze, Italy: Measurement, Evaluation, and Source Partitioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An eddy covariance station was installed in the city center of Firenze, Italy, to measure carbon fluxes at half-hourly intervals over a mostly homogeneous urban area. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission observations made over an initial period of 3.5 ...

A. Matese; B. Gioli; F. P. Vaccari; A. Zaldei; F. Miglietta

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films: Low temperature growth and electron field emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride nanotube films: Low temperature growth and electron field emission Dingyong Zhong, Shuang Liu, Guangyu Zhang, and E. G. Wanga) State Key Laboratory for Surface Received 2 January 2001; accepted for publication 13 March 2001 Large-scale well aligned carbon nitride

Zhang, Guangyu

313

Income inequality and carbon dioxide emissions: The case of Chinese urban households  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper draws on Chinese survey data to investigate variations in carbon dioxide emissions across households with different income levels. Rich households generate more emissions per capita than poor households via both their direct energy consumption and their higher expenditure on goods and services that use energy as an intermediate input. An econometric analysis confirms a positive relationship between emissions and income and establishes a slightly increasing marginal propensity to emit (MPE) over the relevant income range. The redistribution of income from rich to poor households is therefore shown to reduce aggregate household emissions, suggesting that the twin pursuits of reducing inequality and emissions can be achieved in tandem.

Jane Golley; Xin Meng

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

315

Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic Prioritization of Research Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry: A Systematic and Policy Program #12;- 2 - #12;Carbon Dioxide Capture Technology for the Coal-Powered Electricity Industry must be developed for capturing CO2 from power plants. Current CO2 capture technology is expensive

316

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions with Enhanced Oil Recovery Projects:? A Life Cycle Assessment Approach ... This capacity corresponds approximately to storing the emissions of a 5 MW power plant emitting 65 tons of CO2 per day for almost 1800 years27 or 14 years from a 300 MW coal power plant where 8000 tons of CO2 is captured per day. ... To overcome this CO2 emission problem, there is great interest, esp. in Canada, to capture carbon dioxide and utilize it as a flooding agent for the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. ...

Anne-Christine Aycaguer; Miriam Lev-On; Arthur M. Winer

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Storing Industry's Carbon Dioxide in Real Time | U.S. DOE Office of Science  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Storing Industry's Storing Industry's Carbon Dioxide in Real Time Laboratory Policy and Evaluation (LPE) LPE Home Staff M&O Contracts SC Laboratory Appraisal Process Laboratory Planning Process Work for Others in the Office of Science Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) DOE's Philosophy on LDRD Frequently Asked Questions Success Stories Brochures Additional Information LDRD Program Contacts Technology Transfer DOE National Laboratories Contact Information Laboratory Policy and Evaluation U.S. Department of Energy SC-32/Forrestal Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (202) 586-5447 F: (202) 586-3119 Success Stories Storing Industry's Carbon Dioxide in Real Time Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page PNNL researchers are developing new instruments that provide a first live

318

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

319

The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

emissions index, we use conversion factors. To determine theof Energy. 11 This conversion factor includes only thebe using different conversion factors for electricity in

Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Three-dimensional simulations of field emission through an oscillating barrier from a ,,10,0... carbon nanotube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of field emission through an oscillating barrier from an ideal open 10,0 carbon nanotube without adsorption is an extension of our previous investigations of field emission from carbon nanotubes12­14 to include pho- tonicThree-dimensional simulations of field emission through an oscillating barrier from a ,,10

Mayer, Alexandre

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Jump to: navigation, search Name Sri Lanka-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Agency/Company /Organization Clean Air Asia, Chreod Ltd. Partner Asian Development Bank (ADB), Ministry of Planning Sector Land Focus Area Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use, People and Policy, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Website http://cleanairinitiative.org/

322

Vietnam-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities:  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Vietnam-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Vietnam-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Jump to: navigation, search Name Vietnam-Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE) for Low Carbon Cities: Transport and Building Electricity Use Agency/Company /Organization Clean Air Asia, Chreod Ltd. Partner Asian Development Bank (ADB), Ministry of Planning Sector Land Focus Area Buildings, Economic Development, Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use, People and Policy, Transportation Topics Background analysis, Baseline projection, Co-benefits assessment, - Environmental and Biodiversity, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, -LEDS, Market analysis, Pathways analysis, Policies/deployment programs Website http://cleanairinitiative.org/

323

Attributing land-use change carbon emissions to exported biomass  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a simple, transparent and robust method is developed in which land-use change (LUC) emissions are retrospectively attributed to exported biomass products based on the agricultural area occupied for the production. LUC emissions account for approximately one-fifth of current greenhouse gas emissions. Increasing agricultural exports are becoming an important driver of deforestation. Brazil and Indonesia are used as case studies due to their significant deforestation in recent years. According to our study, in 2007, approximately 32% and 15% of the total agricultural land harvested and LUC emissions in Brazil and Indonesia respectively were due to exports. The most important exported single items with regard to deforestation were palm oil for Indonesia and bovine meat for Brazil. To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions effectively worldwide, leakage of emissions should be avoided. This can be done, for example, by attributing embodied LUC emissions to exported biomass products. With the approach developed in this study, controversial attribution between direct and indirect LUC and amortization of emissions over the product life cycle can be overcome, as the method operates on an average basis and annual level. The approach could be considered in the context of the UNFCCC climate policy instead of, or alongside with, other instruments aimed at reducing deforestation. However, the quality of the data should be improved and some methodological issues, such as the allocation procedure in multiproduct systems and the possible dilution effect through third parties not committed to emission reduction targets, should be considered. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions from land use changes are highly important. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Attribution of land use changes for products is difficult. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple and robust method is developed to attribute land use change emissions.

Saikku, Laura, E-mail: laura.saikku@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, P.O Box 65, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo, E-mail: sampo.soimakallio@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Pingoud, Kim, E-mail: kim.pingoud@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations  

SciTech Connect

This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

Dr. Atul Jain

2005-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

325

The Potential for Energy-Efficient Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions in the United States: Transport Sector  

SciTech Connect

The world is searching for a meaningful answer to the likelihood that the continued build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will cause significant changes in the earth`s climate. If there is to be a solution, technology must play a central role. This paper presents the results of an assessment of the potential for cost-effective technological changes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. transportation sector by the year 2010. Other papers in this session address the same topic for buildings and industry. U.S.transportation energy use stood at 24.4 quadrillion Btu (Quads) in 1996, up 2 percent over 1995 (U.S. DOE/EIA, 1997, table 2.5). Transportation sector carbon dioxide emissions amounted to 457.2 million metric tons of carbon (MmtC) in 1995, almost one third of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions (U.S. DOE/EIA,1996a, p. 12). Transport`s energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions are growing, apparently at accelerating rates as energy efficiency improvements appear to be slowing to a halt. Cost-effective and nearly cost-effective technologies have enormous potential to slow and even reverse the growth of transport`s CO{sub 2} emissions, but technological changes will take time and are not likely to occur without significant, new public policy initiatives. Absent new initiatives, we project that CO{sub 2} emissions from transport are likely to grow to 616 MmtC by 2010, and 646 MmtC by 2015. An aggressive effort to develop and implement cost-effective technologies that are more efficient and fuels that are lower in carbon could reduce emissions by about 12% in 2010 and 18% in 2015, versus the business-as- usual projection. With substantial luck, leading to breakthroughs in key areas, reductions over the BAU case of 17% in 2010 and 25% in 2015,might be possible. In none of these case are CO{sub 2} emissions reduced to 1990 levels by 2015.

Greene, D.L.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Decadal growth of black carbon emissions in India - article no. L02807  

SciTech Connect

A Geographical Information System (GIS) based methodology has been used to construct the black carbon (BC) emission inventory for the Indian geographical region. The distribution of emissions from a broader level to a spatial resolution of 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} grid has been carried out by considering micro level details and activity data of fossil fuels and bio-fuels. Our calculated total BC emissions were 1343.78 Gg and 835.50 Gg for the base years 2001 and 1991 respectively with a decadal growth of around 61%, which is highly significant. The district level analysis shows a diverse spatial distribution with the top 10% emitting districts contributing nearly 50% of total BC emission. Coal contributes more than 50% of total BC emission. All the metropolitan cities show high BC emissions due to high population density giving rise to high vehicular emissions and more demand of energy.

Sahu, S.K.; Beig, G.; Sharma, C. [Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

Portfolio analysis of carbon sequestration technologies and barriers to adoption.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The effective targeting of investment funds and research efforts to reduce industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, while preserving access to fossil fuel energy resources, requires… (more)

Young-Lorenz, Jillian D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Potential for reducing paper mill energy use and carbon dioxide emissions through plant-wide energy audits: A case study in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry is one of the most energy-intensive industries worldwide. In 2007, it accounted for 5% of total global industrial energy consumption and 2% of direct industrial carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. An energy audit is a primary step toward improving energy efficiency at the facility level. This paper describes a plant-wide energy audit aimed at identifying energy conservation and CO2 mitigation opportunities at a paper mill in Guangdong province, China. We describe the energy audit methods, relevant Chinese standards, methods of calculating energy and carbon indicators, baseline energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the audited paper mill, and nine energy-efficiency improvement opportunities identified by the audit. For each of the nine options, we evaluate the energy conservation and associated CO2 mitigation potential. The total technical energy conservation potential for these nine opportunities is 967.8 terajoules (TJ), and the total CO2 mitigation potential is equal to 93,453 tonnes CO2 annually, representing 14.4% and 14.7%, respectively, of the mill’s total energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the audit period.

Lingbo Kong; Lynn Price; Ali Hasanbeigi; Huanbin Liu; Jigeng Li

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Asia Carbon Emission Management India Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The company is an Indian subsidiary of Asia Carbon Global and it acts as a PDD consultant for CDM projects. Coordinates: 13.06397, 80.24311 Show Map Loading map......

330

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB® carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

overall, increasing total energy consumption. In this model,account for 47% of total energy consumption in 2050, downfor 47% of total industry energy consumption in 2050 in CIS,

Zhou, Nan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Estimating carbon emissions from less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Less-than-truckload (LTL) is a $32-billion sector of the trucking industry that focuses on moving smaller shipments, typically with weights between 100 and 10,000 pounds, that do not require a full trailer to be moved. ...

Veloso de Aguiar, Guilherme

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Convergence in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Among G7 Countries: A TAR Panel Unit Root Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subject of this paper is the examination the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions of the G7 countries during the 1960– ... Kingdom was the transition country whose per capita carbon dioxide (CO2

Nilgun Cil Yavuz; Veli Yilanci

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially reduce the energy used in buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11 KTA@Bath Challenge The only way to achieve low carbon emission targets is to substantially research and lead the education of highly skilled low carbon designers. These Centres will have strong

Burton, Geoffrey R.

335

Industrial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Products Industrial Institutional Multi-Sector Residential Momentum Savings Regional Efficiency Progress Report Utility Toolkit Energy Smart Industrial - Energy Management...

336

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004). US DOE’s Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) are anof Energy’s Industrial Assessment Center program in SMEs

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Carbon Emissions from Smouldering Peat in Shallow and Strong Fronts   

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A series of experiments of shallow and strong smouldering fronts in boreal peat have been conducted under laboratory conditions to study the CO and CO2 emissions. Peat samples of 100 mm by 100 mm in cross section and 50 ...

Rein, Guillermo; Cohen, Simon; Simeoni, Albert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Carbon Dioxide Emission Pathways Avoiding Dangerous Ocean Impacts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases could lead to undesirable effects on oceans in coming centuries. Drawing on recommendations published by the German Advisory Council on Global Change, levels of unacceptable global marine change (so-...

K. Kvale; K. Zickfeld; T. Bruckner; K. J. Meissner; K. Tanaka; A. J. Weaver

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Will Monetized Carbon Emission Reductions Buy Enhanced Building Operations?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Policies and Measures International and United State Programs - Kyoto Protocol - European Union Emission Trading Scheme - California Global Warming Solutions Act - Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative #0;z Strategies for Expanding Buildings Role Buildings... Emission Targets in 2008-2012 for 37 Annex I Countries Which Have Ratified It ? Relies Primarily on Policies and Measures ? Flexibility Measures Include CDMs and JIs #0;z European Climate Change Program ? Reflects EU’s Leadership in Implementing Kyoto...

Millhone, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Putting a Price on Carbon Econometric Essays on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and its Impacts.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aatola, P. 2013. Putting a Price on Carbon Econometric Essays on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and its Impacts. ABSTRACT This dissertation examines the… (more)

Aatola, Piia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth: The case of Saudi Arabia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper investigates the dynamic causal relationships between energy consumption, energy price and economic activity in Saudi Arabia based on a demand side approach. We use a Johansen multivariate cointegration approach and incorporate CO2 emissions as a control variable. The results indicate that there exists at least a long-run relationship between energy consumption, energy price, carbon dioxide emissions, and economic growth. Furthermore, a long-run unidirectional causality stands from energy consumption to economic growth and CO2 emissions, bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth, and a long-run unidirectional causality runs from energy price to economic growth and CO2 emissions. In the short-run, there is unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions to energy consumption and economic output and from energy price to CO2 emissions. Even though, the energy-led growth hypothesis is valid, the share of energy consumption in explaining economic growth is minimal. Energy price is the most important factor in explaining economic growth. Hence, policies aimed at reducing energy consumption and controlling for CO2 emissions may not reduce significantly Saudi?s economic growth. Investing in the use of renewable energy sources like solar and wind power is an urgent necessity to control for fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.

Atef Saad Alshehry; Mounir Belloumi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

An examination of carbon budgets, carbon taxes, industry attitudes to global warming, and AAPG  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consumption. To demonstrate how a market approach might limit carbon...equivalent = 40 MMBtu 161.3 (diesel fuel heating oil) Tar Sand...prices are expected to drive the market away from fossil fuels like...2013). There are a number of market-based plans to encourage the...

James M. Rine

343

INDUSTRIAL CARBON MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE (ICMI) NETL Team Technical Coordinator: Doug Straub  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

INDUSTRIAL CARBON MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE (ICMI) NETL Team Technical Coordinator: Doug Straub INDUSTRIAL CARBON MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE (ICMI) NETL Team Technical Coordinator: Doug Straub Name Project Role Affiliation University Project Title Lew is, James P PI WVU Haycock , Barry John Post Doc WVU Ranasingha, Oshadha Grad Student WVU Senty, Tess R Grad Student WVU Jordan, Kenneth D PI Pitt Thakur, Anshuman Grad Student Pitt Natesakhaw at, Sittichai PI Pitt Heterogeneous Catalysis of Photoactive Materials Kitchin, John PI CMU Curnan, Matthew Grad Student CMU Veser, Goetz PI Pitt Bhavsar, Saurabh Grad Student Pitt Greve, David W PI CMU Gao, Fan Post Doc CMU ARRA-Computational Support Sorbents and Catalysts of Photoactive Materials Computational Support Sorbents and Catalysts of Photoactive Materials ICMI Support for Oxygen Carrier Interaction Studies ICMI Support for Oxygen Carrier Interaction Studies

344

Webcast to Discuss Questions related to Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (I  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webcast to Discuss Questions related to Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) Technology Webcast to Discuss Questions related to Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage (ICCS) Technology Area 1 Phase 2 Renewal Applications DOE/NETL has received several questions from ICCS recipients regarding preparation of "Phase 2 Renewal Applications". NETL has scheduled a Webcast for Thursday, February 25, 2010 at 1pm Eastern Time, to discuss and provide answers to many of these questions. Questions and answers will be posted on the NETL website. Additional questions may be submitted through your NETL Project manager throughout the Renewal Application process. NETL will respond to these in writing and post them on a web site for all Phase 1 Recipients to see. This web site is currently under construction, and a link will be provided in the future.

345

Legislative Proposals to Control Carbon Emissions through Cap and Towards the end of 2007 the Climate Change Bill was introduced into the House of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Legislative Proposals to Control Carbon Emissions through Cap and Trade Towards the end of 2007 · efficiency of energy use · carbon pricing through economic mechanisms (taxation or emissions trading through measures aimed at producing reductions in carbon emissions, or otherwise at removing carbon from

Martin, Ralph R.

346

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Supplement to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 July 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views

347

Minimising emissions and energy wastage by improved industrial processes and integration of renewable energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article provides an introduction to this Special Issue of Journal of Cleaner Production (JCLP), which contains thirteen, carefully selected articles from the 12th Conference, “Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction” – PRES'09. This issue builds upon the multi-year co-operation between the PRES conference planners and the JCLP. The articles cover important subjects of increased efficiency in energy generation and usage and in improvements in industrial process optimisation. The first group of five papers focuses upon recent advances in emissions reduction and the resulting energy penalties. The second group of four papers deals with improving the efficiency and reliability in the utilisation of renewable energy, where hydrogen and biodiesel are the key energy carriers. The final group of three papers focus on process integration challenges of sustainable energy systems and upon the challenges of industrial/societal integration of sustainable energy systems into regional sustainable development planning.

Ji?í Jaromír Klemeš; Petar Sabev Varbanov; Sauro Pierucci; Donald Huisingh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Title Carbon Emissions Caps and the Impact of a Radical Change in Nuclear Electricity Costs Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Leibowicz, Benjamin, Maria Roumpani, and Peter H. Larsen Journal International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy Volume 3 Start Page 60 Issue 1 Date Published 2013 Keywords foresight, MARKAL, nuclear electricity, value of information Abstract In this study we analyze the impact of a radical change in nuclear electricity costs on the optimal electricity generation technology mix (EGTM) and constrain the value of information (VOI) on future nuclear costs. We consider three nuclear cost events and four carbon emissions caps. We develop a two-stage framework for energy-economic model MARKAL to eliminate foresight of future nuclear cost movements. We examine how the EGTM responds to these movements under alternative caps and analyze how these movements affect the cost of each cap. We define the expected savings from perfect foresight (ESPF), an upper bound on the VOI. We found that with current technologies, carbon mitigation that does not rely heavily on nuclear electricity is economically insensible. The Strong Cap is extremely costly because it restricts flexibility to respond to cost signals in choosing among technologies. The ESPF is highest under the Medium Cap by a substantial margin.

349

A Carbon Arc Process for Treatment of CF4 Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are reported for low molecular weight perfluorocarbons (C2F6 and CF4) and their dilute (10% molar) mixtures in N2 adsorbing unto slitlike graphite pores. ... The technological feasibility and chemical kinetics of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) decomposition with tandem packed-bed plasmas (TPBPs) are investigated in this study. ...

Daniel T. Chen; Moses M. David; George V. D. Tiers; Joseph N. Schroepfer

1998-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

350

Accounting for carbon dioxide emissions: A matter of time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...country can support consumption of goods and services...internal combustion engine. So, how much...emissions to the consumption of particular goods...internationally traded fossil fuels, foodstuffs...underemphasize the role of consumption of goods and services...from selling the fuel. Those who use...

Ken Caldeira; Steven J. Davis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...since it results in an e ciency reduction of the plant, CO2 output is increased. (d) Improve technology of combustion processes to reduce emissions A typical process is gasi cation, where the hot coal reacts with oxygen and steam to form...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Process-Related Emissions in the  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Process-Related Emissions in the Industrial Sector Process-Related Emissions in the Industrial Sector International Energy Outlook 2009 Process-Related Emissions in the Industrial Sector Carbon dioxide emissions in the industrial sector result from both energy use and production processes. Together, energy- and process-related emissions in the industrial sector account for about one-fourth of global carbon dioxide emissions.a Process-related emissions are a direct byproduct of production. Because releases of carbon dioxide are inherent in the production of iron and steel, cement, and aluminum, the potential for reducing process-related emissions is limited. As a result, carbon abatement will face significant technological challenges in the industrial sector. In addition, there are no economical substitutes for these materials or their production processes, and none is likely be available in the near term.

353

A new method for estimating carbon dioxide emissions from transportation at fine spatial  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed estimates of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at fine spatial scales are useful to both modelers and decision makers who are faced with the problem of global warming and climate change. Globally, transport related emissions of carbon dioxide are growing. This letter presents a new method based on the volume-preserving principle in the areal interpolation literature to disaggregate transportation-related CO2 emission estimates from the county-level scale to a 1?km2 grid scale. The proposed volume-preserving interpolation (VPI) method, together with the distance-decay principle, were used to derive emission weights for each grid based on its proximity to highways, roads, railroads, waterways, and airports. The total CO2 emission value summed from the grids within a county is made to be equal to the original county-level estimate, thus enforcing the volume-preserving property. The method was applied to downscale the transportation-related CO2 emission values by county (i.e.?parish) for the state of Louisiana into 1?km2 grids. The results reveal a more realistic spatial pattern of CO2 emission from transportation, which can be used to identify the emission 'hot spots'. Of the four highest transportation-related CO2 emission hotspots in Louisiana, high-emission grids literally covered the entire East Baton Rouge Parish and Orleans Parish, whereas CO2 emission in Jefferson Parish (New Orleans suburb) and Caddo Parish (city of Shreveport) were more unevenly distributed. We argue that the new method is sound in principle, flexible in practice, and the resultant estimates are more accurate than previous gridding approaches.

Yuqin Shu; Nina S N Lam; Margaret Reams

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Carbon emissions reductions for a specific new cement plant:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5346 5346 Evaluating Clean Development Mechanism Projects in the Cement Industry Using a Process-Step Benchmarking Approach Michael Ruth, Ernst Worrell, and Lynn Price Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, California 94720 July 2000 This work was supported by the Climate Policies and Program Division, Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 ii iii Evaluating Clean Development Mechanism Projects in the Cement Industry Using a Process-Step Benchmarking Approach Michael Ruth, Ernst Worrell, and Lynn Price Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division

355

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

356

Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon and metal surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon ­ and metal surfaces, 20080 San Sebastián, Spain Abstract Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined of carbon­fiber inforced graphite used as first­wall armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data

Muiño, Ricardo Díez

357

Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon-and metal surfaces bombarded by slow hydrogen ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Molecular projectile effects for kinetic electron emission from carbon- and metal surfaces, 20080 San Sebastián, Spain Abstract Total yields for kinetic electron emission (KE) have been determined of carbon-fiber inforced graphite used as first-wall armour in magnetic fusion devices. The data

Muiño, Ricardo Díez

358

Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young high and would subject young people, future generations and nature to irreparable harm. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel use must be reduced rapidly to avoid irreversible consequences

Hansen, James E.

359

Emissive and Cooling Properties of Carbon Based Materials for Microelectronics N. M. Miskovsky, P. H. Cutler, A. Mayera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emissive and Cooling Properties of Carbon Based Materials for Microelectronics N. M. Miskovsky, P The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 ABSTRACT Among carbon-based materials, diamond and nanotubes exhibit field emission characteristics, which can be very useful for applications. These include

Mayer, Alexandre

360

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE  

SciTech Connect

Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a proposed 570 km{sup 2} conservation area in temperate rainforest around the rural community of Curinanco, Chile, we compared three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions: extrapolation from Landsat observations, Geomod, and Forest Restoration Carbon Analysis (FRCA). Analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data show 1986-1999 net deforestation of 1900 ha in the analysis area, proceeding at a rate of 0.0003 y{sup -1}. The gross rate of loss of closed natural forest was 0.042 y{sup -1}. In the period 1986-1999, closed natural forest decreased from 20,000 ha to 11,000 ha, with timber companies clearing natural forest to establish plantations of non-native species. Analyses of previous field measurements of species-specific forest biomass, tree allometry, and the carbon content of vegetation show that the dominant native forest type, broadleaf evergreen (bosque siempreverde), contains 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon, compared to the carbon density of non-native Pinus radiata plantations of 240 {+-} 60 t ha{sup -1}. The 1986-1999 conversion of closed broadleaf evergreen forest to open broadleaf evergreen forest, Pinus radiata plantations, shrublands, grasslands, urban areas, and bare ground decreased the carbon density from 370 {+-} 170 t ha{sup -1} carbon to an average of 100 t ha{sup -1} (maximum 160 t ha{sup -1}, minimum 50 t ha{sup -1}). Consequently, the conversion released 1.1 million t carbon. These analyses of forest inventory and Landsat remote sensing data provided the data to evaluate the three methods to project future baseline carbon emissions. Extrapolation from Landsat change detection uses the observed rate of change to estimate change in the near future. Geomod is a software program that models the geographic distribution of change using a defined rate of change. FRCA is an integrated spatial analysis of forest inventory, biodiversity, and remote sensing that produces estimates of forest biodiversity and forest carbon density, spatial data layers of future probabilities of reforestation and deforestation, and a projection of future baseline forest carbon sequestration and emissions for an ecologically-defined area of analysis. For the period 1999-2012, extrapolation from Landsat change detection estimated a loss of 5000 ha and 520,000 t carbon from closed natural forest; Geomod modeled a loss of 2500 ha and 250 000 t; FRCA projected a loss of 4700 {+-} 100 ha and 480,000 t (maximum 760,000 t, minimum 220,000 t). Concerning labor time, extrapolation for Landsat required 90 actual days or 120 days normalized to Bachelor degree level wages; Geomod required 240 actual days or 310 normalized days; FRCA required 110 actual days or 170 normalized days. Users experienced difficulties with an MS-DOS version of Geomod before turning to the Idrisi version. For organizations with limited time and financing, extrapolation from Landsat change provides a cost-effective method. Organizations with more time and financing could use FRCA, the only method where that calculates the deforestation rate as a dependent variable rather than assuming a deforestation rate as an independent variable. This research indicates that best practices for the projection of baseline carbon emissions include integration of forest inventory and remote sensing tasks from the beginning of the analysis, definition of an analysis area using ecological characteristics, use of standard and widely used geographic information systems (GIS) software applications, and the use of species-specific allometric equations and wood densities developed for local species.

Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Short run effects of a price on carbon dioxide emissions from U.S. electric generators  

SciTech Connect

The price of delivered electricity will rise if generators have to pay for carbon dioxide emissions through an implicit or explicit mechanism. There are two main effects that a substantial price on CO{sub 2} emissions would have in the short run (before the generation fleet changes significantly). First, consumers would react to increased price by buying less, described by their price elasticity of demand. Second, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions would change the order in which existing generators are economically dispatched, depending on their carbon dioxide emissions and marginal fuel prices. Both the price increase and dispatch changes depend on the mix of generation technologies and fuels in the region available for dispatch, although the consumer response to higher prices is the dominant effect. We estimate that the instantaneous imposition of a price of $35 per metric ton on CO{sub 2} emissions would lead to a 10% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in PJM and MISO at a price elasticity of -0.1. Reductions in ERCOT would be about one-third as large. Thus, a price on CO{sub 2} emissions that has been shown in earlier work to stimulate investment in new generation technology also provides significant CO{sub 2} reductions before new technology is deployed at large scale. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Adam Newcomer; Seth A. Blumsack; Jay Apt; Lester B. Lave; M. Granger Morgan [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Carnegie Mellon Electricity Industry Center

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar,and the Dutch utility Nuon (Karnmen, 1999; Anderson and Duke, 2001). Evencomplete saturationof15 Energy for development: solar home systemsin Africa and global carbon emissions RICHARD D. DUKEl;market transformation;photovoltaics; solar home systems; buydown ABST RACT A growingnumberofrural

Kammen, Daniel M.

363

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 31 JULY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1211 Carbon emission from hydroelectric * Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 Ã? 105 km2 and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed

364

Benchmarking Energy Efficiency, Power Costs and Carbon Emissions on Heterogeneous Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......interested in electricity costs and carbon emissions...proportional to energy use, but this turns...with the mix of energy sources such as...stations, nuclear and renewable, changing all the...kinds of metrics--energy efficiency, cost per simulation and......

Simon McIntosh-Smith; Terry Wilson; Amaurys Ávila Ibarra; Jonathan Crisp; Richard B. Sessions

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Announcing the 2012-2013 Energy Innovation Contest for undergraduates to stamp out carbon emissions on  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the best innovative plans to reduce student energy consumption and promote eco-friendly practices April 1, 2013. Read more... go to Energy Contest page at http://rei.rutgers.edu/ Check us out at www.facebook.com/RutgersEnergyAnnouncing the 2012-2013 Energy Innovation Contest for undergraduates to stamp out carbon emissions

Garfunkel, Eric

366

Hydrocarbon emissions from industrial release events in the Houston-Galveston area and their impact on ozone formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ambient measurements have shown that ozone formation in the Houston-Galveston area of Texas is frequently much more rapid than in other urban areas. One of the contributing factors is believed to be short-term episodic or “event” emissions from industrial facilities, particularly releases that contain significant mass fractions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOCs). In this work, time series analyses are used to compare average annual flow rates for air pollutant emissions with those released during reported emission events. The results indicate that the magnitude and frequency of HRVOC event emissions are an important element in accurately reflecting ozone precursor emission patterns in the Houston-Galveston area, particularly in Harris, Brazoria, Galveston, and Chambers counties. More than 50% of the reported episodic (event) emissions of \\{HRVOCs\\} are ethene and approximately a third are propene; the remainders are isomers of butene and 1,3-butadiene. Most events last less than 24 h. The mass released in an event can vary from a few hundred to more than 100,000 lb, and the dominant type of industrial source is chemical manufacturers (SIC 2869). Daily emissions from a single facility can vary from annual average emissions by multiple orders of magnitude at a frequency of several times a year. Because there are so many facilities in the Houston-Galveston area, HRVOC emission variability of this magnitude can be expected daily, at some time and some location in the Houston-Galveston area. If the emission variability occurs at times and locations where atmospheric conditions are conducive to ozone formation, both ambient data and photochemical modeling indicate that industrial emission events can lead to elevated concentrations of ozone. Specifically, peak, area-wide ozone concentration can be increased by as much as 100 ppb for large HRVOC emission events.

Cynthia Folsom Murphy; David T. Allen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov [AO Mittal Steel Temirtau, Temirtau (Kazakhstan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The road from Kyoto: The evolution of carbon dioxide emissions from energy use in IEA countries  

SciTech Connect

Building on earlier analysis of energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in 13 member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the authors quantify energy use and carbon emissions for nearly three dozen activities and economic branches from the early 1970s to the mid 1990s. They show how lifestyles, economic structure, and overall economic growth affect the structure and rate of CO{sub 2} emissions. Similarly they show how energy intensities, final fuel mixes, and utility fuel mixes shape emissions. Using Laspeyres indices, they calculate the relative importance of each of these factors in affecting sectoral and total emissions over time. They focus on consumer sectors, homes and personal travel, but extend the analysis to all sectors of the economies studied. The authors find that emissions reductions in all sectors after 1990 have been slower than in the previous fifteen years, a period that saw emissions reductions in spite of economic growth. Manufacturing and households led the reductions in most cases, but progress has slowed markedly. In almost all cases, emissions from the transportation sector showed the least reduction and indeed some increases. Findings do not give an optimistic view of the recently concluded accords at the Third Conference of Parties (COP-3) in Kyoto, Japan. The authors conclude that the current rate of energy saving and fuel switching must be greatly accelerated if the IEA countries studied here are to affect reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions to meet their Kyoto targets.

Schipper, L.; Unander, F.; Marie, C.; Gorham, R.; Justus, D.; Ting, M.; Khrushch, M.; Krackeler, T.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Estimation of carbon dioxide emission in highway construction: a case study in southwest region of China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The large-scale transportation infrastructure construction in developing countries such as China requires emission estimation method for better project design. This study proposed an empirical method to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which was generated from highway construction based on four real projects in southwest region of China. The proposed method estimated the total emission from different steps of construction process (raw material production, material transportation and onsite construction) by different project types (e.g. subgrade, pavement, bridge, and tunnels). The results show that in general over 80 percent of the CO2 emission was generated from raw material production; the onsite construction and material transportation only accounted for 10 and 3 percent of the whole CO2 emission, respectively. Moreover, the CO2 emission from bridge and tunnel constructions was much larger than subgrade and pavement construction. The total CO2 emission from road, bridge and tunnel constructions was 5229 kg/m, 35,547 kg/m and 42,302 kg/m, respectively. The empirical estimation method of the CO2 emission proposed in this study can be considered as references for CO2 emission estimation in other regions which are similar as southwest region of China.

Xianwei Wang; Zhengyu Duan; Lingsheng Wu; Dongyuan Yang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

New York MARKAL: An evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce 2 emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO2 emissions by an equal percentage (say by 20 per cent), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Leonard D. Hamilton

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State. Final report, 1990--1991  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state`s energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evaluation of carbon dioxide emission control strategies in New York State  

SciTech Connect

A MARKAL model was developed for the State of New York. It represents the state's energy system as a set of typical technologies for generating, converting, and using energy as it evolves over a 45-year period. NYMARKAL was applied here in demonstration analyses to explore strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. NYMARKAL was installed at the State Energy Office and in the Offices of the New York Power Pool. Staff members from both organizations and other state agencies were trained in its use. Example scenarios showed that it is more difficult and more expensive to reduce carbon emissions in New York State than in the United States as a whole. Were a common carbon tax instituted, it would have less effect in New York and most carbon emissions reduction would take place elsewhere in the country where it is more cost-effective. Alternatively, were all states required to reduce CO{sub 2} emission an equal percentage (say by 20%), the cost per unit emissions reduction to New York would be much greater than in the rest of the country.

Morris, S.C.; Lee, J.; Goldstein, G.; Hill, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2012 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2009. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

374

Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010)" State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000 - 2010)" "million metric tons carbon dioxide" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,," 2000 to 2010 " "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",140.4264977,131.9521389,136.7103146,137.2323195,139.6896437,141.493798,143.9716001,146.076107,139.2224128,119.7962734,132.7462762,-0.05469211069,-7.680221558 "Alaska",44.32104312,43.40375114,43.56121812,43.5078746,46.76217106,48.06229125,45.79367017,44.11576503,39.46205329,37.91867389,38.72718369,-0.1262122693,-5.593859429 "Arizona",85.96984024,88.33838336,87.66914741,89.29026566,96.58329461,96.7032775,100.0087541,102.1950438,103.1458188,94.63481918,95.91303514,0.1156591064,9.943194897

375

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2013 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2010. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

376

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2011 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of del 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2008. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric del 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

377

Table 2. 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " 2010 state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel " "million metric tons of carbon dioxide" ,,,,,," Shares " "State","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas ","Total","Coal","Petroleum","Natural Gas" "Alabama",67.81545193,35.95576449,28.97505976,132.7462762,0.5108651925,0.2708608145,0.218273993 "Alaska",1.364880388,19.58916888,17.77313443,38.72718369,0.03524347131,0.5058247724,0.4589317562 "Arizona",43.2377726,34.82066125,17.85460129,95.91303514,0.4508018387,0.3630440972,0.1861540641 "Arkansas",27.72445786,23.82768621,14.56726112,66.11940519,0.4193089424,0.3603735717,0.2203174859 "California",5.157135123,241.2575077,123.3955377,369.8101805,0.01394535736,0.6523820067,0.3336726359

378

Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 201  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 2010)" Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by state (2000 - 2010)" "metric tons carbon dioxide per person" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"Change" ,,,,,,,,,,,,"2000 to 2010" "State",2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,"Percent","Absolute" "Alabama",31.54590416,29.56352198,30.5739632,30.56483509,30.96927578,31.14605742,31.33283758,31.52225314,29.78727412,25.44798199,28.06679306,-0.1102872527,-3.479111105 "Alaska",70.60324067,68.51009907,67.8551127,67.17588806,70.92646205,72.04509462,67.81012638,64.8863351,57.56413017,54.58358965,54.63289567,-0.2261984697,-15.97034499 "Arizona",16.64049197,16.65546102,16.08173855,15.97087112,16.77174168,16.18743942,16.15392734,16.06780183,15.87052371,14.3654833,14.36549251,-0.1367146759,-2.274999466

379

Screening effects on field emission from arrays of (5,5) carbon nanotubes: Quantum mechanical simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simulation of field electron emission from arrays of micrometer-long open-ended (5,5) carbon nanotubes is performed in the framework of quantum theory of many electrons. It is found that the applied external field is strongly screened when the spacing distance is shorter than the length of the carbon nanotubes. The optimal spacing distance is two to three times of the nanotube length, slightly depending on the applied external fields. The electric screening can be described by a factor that is an exponential function of the ratio of the spacing distance to the length of the carbon nanotubes. For a given length, the field enhancement factor decreases sharply as the screening factor is larger than 0.05. The simulation implies that the thickness of the array should be larger than a value, but it does not help the emission much by increasing the thickness a great deal.

Guihua Chen; Weiliang Wang; Jie Peng; Chunshan He; Shaozhi Deng; Ningsheng Xu; Zhibing Li

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

State Emissions Estimates  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Estimates of state energy-related carbon dioxide emissions Because energy-related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) constitutes over 80 percent of total emissions, the state energy-related CO 2 emission levels provide a good indicator of the relative contribution of individual states to total greenhouse gas emissions. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) emissions estimates at the state level for energy-related CO 2 are based on data contained in the State Energy Data System (SEDS). 1 The state-level emissions estimates are based on energy consumption data for the following fuel categories: three categories of coal (residential/commercial, industrial, and electric power sector); natural gas; and ten petroleum products including-- asphalt and road oil, aviation gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gases

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World  

SciTech Connect

Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

Price, Lynn

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry — impact of possible design options for an emissions trading scheme on innovation strategies in the German electricity industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper examines what impact different design options of emissions trading have on the innovation process in the ... examined before taking a closer look at different emissions trading design options and their ...

Martin Cames; Anke Weidlich

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide concentrations in Santiago de Chile associated with traffic emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO/CO2 ratios have been measured in different locations of Santiago de Chile city. Measurements were carried out in a tunnel (prevailing emissions from cars with catalytic converter) and close to heavy traffic st...

María A. Rubio; Irene Fuenzalida…

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Energy Storage/Conservation and Carbon Emissions Reduction Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded the Center for Transportation and the Environment (CTE) federal assistance for the management of a project to develop and test a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system in partnership with Test Devices, Inc. (TDI). TDI specializes in the testing of jet engine and power generation turbines, which uses a great deal of electrical power for long periods of time. In fact, in 2007, the company consumed 3,498,500 kW-­?hr of electricity in their operations, which is equivalent to the electricity of 328 households. For this project, CTE and TDI developed and tested a prototype flywheel-­?based energy recovery and storage system. This technology is being developed at TDI’s facilities to capture and reuse the energy necessary for the company’s core process. The new technology and equipment is expected to save approximately 80% of the energy used in the TDI process, reducing total annual consumption of power by approximately 60%, saving approximately two million kilowatt-­?hours annually. Additionally, the energy recycling system will allow TDI and other end users to lower their peak power demand and reduce associated utility demand charges. The use of flywheels in this application is novel and requires significant development work from TDI. Flywheels combine low maintenance costs with very high cycle life with little to no degradation over time, resulting in lifetimes measured in decades. All of these features make flywheels a very attractive option compared to other forms of energy storage, including batteries. Development and deployment of this energy recycling technology will reduce energy consumption during jet engine and stationary turbine development. By reengineering the current inefficient testing process, TDI will reduce risk and time to market of efficiency upgrades of gas turbines across the entire spectrum of applications. Once in place the results from this program will also help other US industries to utilize energy recycling technology to lower domestic energy use and see higher net energy efficiency. The prototype system and results will be used to seek additional resources to carry out full deployment of a system. Ultimately, this innovative technology is expected to be transferable to other testing applications involving energy-­?based cycling within the company as well as throughout the industry.

Bigelow, Erik

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

386

EIA - AEO2011 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 Early Release Overview 1 Early Release Overview Release Date: December 16, 2011 | Next Release Date: January 2012 | Report Number: DOE/EIA-0383ER(2011) Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions Figure DataAfter falling by 3 percent in 2008 and nearly 7 percent in 2009, largely driven by the economic downturn, total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to 2005 levels (5,980 million metric tons) until 2027, and then rise by an additional 5 percent from 2027 to 2035, reaching 6,315 million metric tons in 2035 (Figure 13). Energy-related CO2 emissions grow by 0.2 percent per year from 2005 to 2035. Emissions per capita fall by an average of 0.8 percent per year from 2005 to 2035, as growth in demand for electricity and transportation fuels is moderated by higher energy prices, effi ciency standards, State RPS requirements, and Federal

387

Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Vegetation-Kill Zones Around The Resurgent Dome Of Long Valley Caldera, Eastern California, Usa Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A survey of diffuse CO2 efflux, soil temperature and soil-gas chemistry over areas of localized vegetation-kill on and around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera California was performed to evaluate the premise that gaseous and thermal anomalies are related to renewed intrusion of magma. Some kill sites are long-lived features and others have developed in the past few years. Total anomalous CO2 emissions from the

388

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released to the reference case. This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 to significant gains in public and environmental health. "When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions

Mather, Patrick T.

389

Simulations of transport and field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, Facultes Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulations of transport and field-emission properties of carbon nanotubes A. Mayera) Laboratoire. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes show interesting field-emission proper- ties such as low extraction fields, high the transfer-matrix methodology17­19 already used to simulate field emission from carbon nanotubes,7,8,20­22 we

Mayer, Alexandre

390

Electron emission and structural characterization of a rope of single-walled carbon nanotubes Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron emission and structural characterization of a rope of single-walled carbon nanotubes D with a one-dimensional conductor.1,17,18 Also, many studies of field emission from carbon fiber tips19 devices. It is known that carbon fibers are capable of maintaining large, stable emission currents 2

391

Universal field-emission model for carbon nanotubes on a metal tip D. Y. Zhong, G. Y. Zhang, and S. Liu  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Universal field-emission model for carbon nanotubes on a metal tip D. Y. Zhong, G. Y. Zhang, and S Electron-field-emission properties have been investigated systematically for carbon nanotubes CNTs.1063/1.1430507 Carbon nanotubes CNTs have excellent electron-field- emission properties because of their electronic

Zhang, Guangyu

392

Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

Huffman, Gerald P

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

393

Just Say No to Carbon Emissions (LBNL Science at the Theater)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Learn about three efforts our grandchildren may thank us for: cheap solar energy, bringing energy efficiency to China, and learning how to store carbon deep underground. Can solar energy be dirt cheap? We're all potentially billionaires when it comes to solar energy. The trick is learning how to convert sunlight to electricity using cheap and plentiful materials. Ramamoorthy Ramesh, an innovative materials scientist at Berkeley Lab, will discuss how he and other researchers are working to make photovoltaic cells using the most abundant elements in the Earth's crust -- materials that are literally as common as dirt. Energy efficiency in China: Nan Zhou is a researcher with Berkeley Labs China Energy Group. She will speak about Chinas energy use and the policies that have been implemented to increase energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emission growth. Her work focuses on building China's capacity to evaluate, adopt and implement low-carbon development strategies. Zhou has an architecture degree from China, and a Master and Ph.D. in Engineering from Japan. Understanding geologic carbon sequestration: Even with continued growth of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, fossil fuels will likely remain cheap and plentiful for decades to come. Geologist Curt Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Lab's Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will discuss a strategy to reduce carbon emissions from coal and natural gas. It involves pumping compressed CO2 captured from large stationary sources into underground rock formations that can store it for geological time scales.

Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Zhou, Nan; Oldenburg, Curt

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Low emissions combustor development for an industrial gas turbine to utilize LCV fuel gas  

SciTech Connect

Advanced coal-based power generation systems such as the British Coal Topping Cycle offer the potential for high-efficiency electricity generation with minimum environmental impact. An important component of the Topping cycle program is the gas turbine, for which development of a combustion system to burn low calorific value coal derived fuel gas, at a turbine inlet temperature of 1,260 C (2,300 F), with minimum pollutant emissions, is a key R and D issue. A phased combustor development program is underway burning low calorific value fuel gas (3.6--4.1 MJ/m[sup 3]) with low emissions, particularly NO[sub x] derived from fuel-bound nitrogen. The first phase of the combustor development program has now been completed using a generic tubo-annular, prototype combustor design. Tests were carried out at combustor loading and Mach numbers considerably greater than the initial design values. Combustor performance at these conditions was encouraging. The second phase of the program is currently in progress. This will assess, initially, an improved variant of the prototype combustor operating at conditions selected to represent a particular medium sized industrial gas turbine. This combustor will also be capable of operating using natural gas as an auxiliary fuel, to suite the start-up procedure for the Topping Cycle. The paper presents the Phase 1 test program results for the prototype combustor. Design of the modified combustor for Phase 2 of the development program is discussed, together with preliminary combustor performance results.

Kelsall, G.J.; Smith, M.A. (British Coal Corp., Glos (United Kingdom). Coal Research Establishment); Cannon, M.F. (European Gas Turbines Ltd., Lincoln (United Kingdom). Aero and Technology Products)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Economic feasibility of carbon emission reduction in electricity generation, a case study based on Sri Lanka  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main purpose of this paper is an assessment of economic feasibility in reducing carbon dioxide emission of electricity generation in Sri Lanka. The paper shows that the present annual green house gas (GHG) emission with respect to electricity generation in Sri Lanka is about 2.8 million metric tons. The identified total GHG emission reduction potential in electricity generation is about 37 GW. The total reduction in GHG will be 16 million metric tons per year. Considering the savings on fossil fuel combustion, the total investment on CHG reduction methods would be recovered within a reasonable period as confirmed by a sensitivity analysis. To achieve these benefits, broad policies and guidelines are presented in-line with the country's environmental obligations. This is the first time that this type of scientific research study has been carried out in Sri Lanka to ascertain the current situation of GHG emission of electricity generation, to identify possible methods in reducing carbon dioxide emission and their economic feasibility. The methodology employed and the policies derived can be used as guides to similar types of research in other countries as well.

S.W.S.B. Dasanayaka; W. Jayarathne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Return to 1990: The cost of mitigating United States carbon emissions in the post-2000 period  

SciTech Connect

The Second Generation Model (SGM) is employed to examine four hypothetical agreements to reduce emissions in Annex 1 nations (OECD nations plus most of the nations of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) to levels in the neighborhood of those which existed in 1990, with obligations taking effect in the year 2010. The authors estimate the cost to the US of complying with such agreements under three distinct conditions: no trading of emissions rights, trading of emissions rights only among Annex 1 nations, and a fully global trading regime. The authors find that the marginal cost of returning to 1990 emissions levels in the US in the absence of trading opportunities is approximately $108 per metric ton carbon in 2010. The total cost in that year is approximately 0.2% of GDP. International trade in emissions permits lowers the cost of achieving any mitigation objective by equalizing the marginal cost of carbon mitigation among countries. For the four mitigation scenarios in this study, economic costs to the US remain below 1% of GDP through at least the year 2020.

Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; MacCracken, C.N.; Sands, R.D.; Wise, M.A.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Prescribed Fire As a Means of Reducing Forest Carbon Emissions in the Western United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prescribed Fire As a Means of Reducing Forest Carbon Emissions in the Western United States ... National Center for Atmospheric Research, 1850 Table Mesa Drive, Boulder, Colorado 80301 and Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climatic Change Research, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 6077, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011 ... Daily estimates of fire emissions of CO2 were calculated for 2001?2008 for eleven states in the western U.S. (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming). ...

Christine Wiedinmyer; Matthew D. Hurteau

2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

398

Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for U.S. Coal by Origin and Destination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In-ground coal quality data, including C, S, ash, fixed carbon, and heating values, are from COALQUAL (11), IGS (12), and Keystone (13, 14). ... For example, examination of 2082 bituminous Kentucky coals led Sakulpitakphon et al. (28) to reject the notion that a single CO2 emission factor can “be used as typical for any given rank of coal.” ... Quick, J. C.; Tabet, D. E.; Wakefield, S.; Bon, R. L. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants: A GIS Study of Coal Chemistry, ...

Jeffrey C. Quick

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

399

Conceptual design of syngas production systems with almost net-zero carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This work describes three different configurations of syngas production processes using a combination of SMR (steam methane reforming) and DRM (dry reforming of methane). The ideal SMR + DRM process ensures the maximum product yield, the heat-integrated SMR + DRM process fulfills the maximum heat recovery, and the stand-alone SMR + DRM process effectively suppress net CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions. Through specific optimization algorithms, the syngas production systems subject to almost net-zero CO2 emissions are successfully verified by simulations in Aspen Plus environment.

Wei Wu; Hsiao-Tung Yang; Jenn-Jiang Hwang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Coping with carbon: a near-term strategy to limit carbon dioxide emissions from power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of 3500C, far too high for the best of modern...results in the most efficient power plant? Table...represents the most efficient plant type. This reflects the higher efficiency of this...ultra-supercritical boiler. (c) Carbon sequestration...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Implications for decision making: Industrial sector perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Implications for decision making in areas related to policy towards greenhouse gas emissions are discussed from the perspective of the industrial sector. Industry is presented as supportive of energy conservation measures in spite of the large uncertainties in the global warming issue. Perspectives of developed and developing countries are contrasted, and carbon dioxide emissions are compared. Socioeconomic implications of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, particularly in the form of higher prices for goods and services, are outlined.

Mangelsdorf, F.E. [Texaco, Inc., Beacon, NY (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

"Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual" "Projected" " (million metric tons)" ,1993,1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000,2001,2002,2003,2004,2005,2006,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011 "AEO 1994",5060,5129.666667,5184.666667,5239.666667,5287.333333,5335,5379,5437.666667,5481.666667,5529.333333,5599,5657.666667,5694.333333,5738.333333,5797,5874,5925.333333,5984 "AEO 1995",,5137,5173.666667,5188.333333,5261.666667,5309.333333,5360.666667,5393.666667,5441.333333,5489,5551.333333,5621,5679.666667,5727.333333,5775,5841,5888.666667,5943.666667 "AEO 1996",,,5181.817301,5223.645142,5294.776326,5354.687297,5416.802205,5463.67395,5525.288005,5588.52771,5660.226888,5734.87972,5812.398031,5879.320068,5924.814575,5981.291626,6029.640422,6086.804077,6142.120972

403

Coping with carbon: a near-term strategy to limit carbon dioxide emissions from power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dioxide from power stations. According to the...source, natural gas. On top of this...can be applied to gas-fired plants too...build large power stations. Individual plants...A nuclear power station is both cost effective...lower greenhouse gas emissions than any...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2  

SciTech Connect

Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the research, technology transfer/outreach was a large component of CPCPC's activities. Efficient technology transfer was critical for the deployment of new technologies into the field. CPCPC organized and hosted technology transfer meetings, tours, and tutorials, attended outreach conferences and workshops to represent CPCPC and attract new members, prepared and distributed reports and publications, and developed and maintained a Web site. The second contract ended December 31, 2010, and it is apparent that CPCPC positively impacted the carbon industry and coal research. Statistics and information were compiled to provide a comprehensive account of the impact the consortium had and the beneficial outcomes of many of the individual projects. Project fact sheet, success stories, and other project information were prepared. Two topical reports, a Synthesis report and a Web report, were prepared detailing this information.

Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

409

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Information on corn wet milling. Corn Refiners Association corn wet milling industry: An ENERGYas an automotive fuel. Corn wet milling is the most energy-

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

increased use of biomass and energy efficiency improvements,Moreira, J. , 2006: Global biomass energy potential. Journal1971–2004 Notes 1) Biomass energy included 2) Industrial

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants in Greece in Relation to Mined Lignite Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions were shown to vary with the calorific value and carbonate content of lignite burned at three large power plants. ... The annual carbon dioxide emissions, Q, in a lignite-fired power plant can be calculated on the basis of the total carbon mass balance, using the following formula:(18)Specific emission factor, Qs, expressed in tons of CO2 generated per MW h is given bywhere Q is the annual CO2 emissions (in tons), Qs is the specific CO2 emissions (in tons MW?1 h?1), L is the annual lignite consumption (in tons/year), CL is the total carbon content of lignite on an as-received basis (%), W is the annual production of bottom ash ( in tons/year), CW is the total carbon content of bottom ash on an as-received basis (%), F is the annual production of fly ash (in tons/year), CF is the total carbon content of fly ash on an as-received basis (%), and E is the annual production of electricity ( in MW h). ... The carbon dioxide emitted as a product of combustion of coal (fossil fuels) is currently responsible for over 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. ...

Despina Vamvuka; Michael Galetakis

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

412

Probing the mass loss history of carbon stars using CO line and dust continuum emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An extensive modelling of CO line emission from the circumstellar envelopes around a number of carbon stars is performed. By combining radio observations and infrared observations obtained by ISO the circumstellar envelope characteristics are probed over a large radial range. In the radiative transfer analysis the observational data are consistently reproduced assuming a spherically symmetric and smooth wind expanding at a constant velocity. The combined data set gives better determined envelope parameters, and puts constraints on the mass loss history of these carbon stars. The importance of dust in the excitation of CO is addressed using a radiative transfer analysis of the observed continuum emission, and it is found to have only minor effects on the derived line intensities. The analysis of the dust emission also puts further constraints on the mass loss rate history. The stars presented here are not likely to have experienced any drastic long-term mass loss rate modulations, at least less than a factor of about 5, over the past thousands of years. Only three, out of nine, carbon stars were observed long enough by ISO to allow a detection of CO far-infrared rotational lines.

F. L. Schoeier; N. Ryde; H. Olofsson

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

413

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission reduction at Engen refinery in South Durban. Paperenergy consumed in refineries and other energy conversionCement Membrane separation Refinery gas Natural gas Bio-

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of world production and typically uses 60–70% less energy (world steel production, finding potential CO 2 emission reductions due to energy

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (DB-1015) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.db1015 This data has been updated. Please see NDP-081. Contributed by: James W. Raich 1 and Christopher S. Potter2 1Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 USA Email: jraich@iastate.edu 2NASA Ames Research Center MS 242-2 Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA Email: cpotter@gaia.arc.nasa.gov Prepared by L.M. Olsen. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Date Published: March, 1996 (Revised for the web: 2002) The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center is a part of the Environmental Sciences Division of the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ORNL) and is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290. The ORNL is managed by University of Tennessee-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

416

The 'Mine/Yours' method of international comparisons of carbon emissions  

SciTech Connect

In previous work (Schipper, Unander & Lilliu 1999), we summarized a new method for comparing energy use and carbon emissions among various countries. We call this the ''Mine/Yours'' comparison. In this paper, we provide details of the comparisons methodology, and carry out the comparison on a number of IEA countries. We calculate the average energy intensities I for a sample of countries (''yours'') and multiply them by structural parameters S for a particular country (''mine''). Comparing the results with the actual energy use of the country in question gives us an estimate of how much energy that country would use with average intensities but with its own structural conditions. The converse can be calculated as well, that is, average structure and own intensities. Emissions can be introduced through the F (fuel mix) term. These calculations show where differences in the components of emissions lead to large gaps among countries, and where those differences are not important. We show which components cause the largest variance in emissions by sector. In households, home size, average winter climate, and energy intensity appear to be the most important differentiating characteristics for space heating. For other residential energy uses the mix of fuels used to generate electricity (utility mix) is most important. Because some of the differences are ''built in'' - geography, climate, natural resources endowment - we conclude by questioning whether uniform emissions reductions targets make sense. Indeed, the ''Mine/Yours'' tool provides a valuable guide to important ways in which emissions may or may not be flexible.

Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee; Unander, Fridtjof

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

VLA Observations of Carbon 91$?$ Recombination Line Emission in W49 North  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have detected C91$\\alpha$ (8.5891 GHz) emission toward 4 ultra-compact \\HII regions (\\UCHII s; W49G, J, L & C) in the W49 North massive star forming region with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 3\\arcsec resolution. No carbon line emission was detected toward \\UCHII s W49F, A, O, S and Q at this frequency to a 3$\\sigma$ level of 2 mJy. We also observed the same region in the C75$\\alpha$ line (15.3 GHz) with no detection at a 3$\\sigma$ level of 6 mJy with a 1\\arcsec.7 beam. Detection of line emission toward these sources add supporting data to the earlier result of \

D. Anish Roshi; C. G. De Pree; W. M. Goss; K. R. Anantharamaiah

2006-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

418

Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from cement kilns result from the sulfur in the fuel and the sulfur in the feed materials. Sulfur in the fuel will oxidize to SO2during pyroprocessing and a significant amount is li...

Ravi K. Srivastava; Samudra Vijay…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Fostering a triple response mechanism to combat global climate change: Emission abatement, carbon capture and water improvement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Kyoto Protocol has established emission abatement and carbon sink increase to cope with climate change. However, in recent years, developed countries tend to focus more on the former. The simplifying of GH...

Ke Zhou; Xia Cao

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Using Vehicle Taxes to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Rates of New Passenger Vehicles: Evidence from France, Germany, and Sweden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

France, Germany, and Sweden link vehicle taxes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions rates of passenger vehicles. Based on new vehicle registration data from 2005–2010, a vehicle’s tax is negatively correlated with its ...

Klier, Thomas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide from soil receiving urban wastewater for maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated how amending maize with wastewater at 120 kg N ha?1 affected crop growth, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) compared to plants ferti...

Fabián Fernández-Luqueño; Verónica Reyes-Varela…

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

State-By-State Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in the United States 1960–2000  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time series of fossil fuel carbon emissions from 1960–2000 for each of the U.S. states and the District of Columbia are presented and discussed. Comparison of the nationally summarized results with other natio...

T. J. Blasing; Christine Broniak…

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Impact of emissions, chemistry, and climate on atmospheric carbon monoxide : 100-year predictions from a global chemistry-climate model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The possible trends for atmospheric carbon monoxide in the next 100 yr have been illustrated using a coupled atmospheric chemistry and climate model driven by emissions predicted by a global economic development model. ...

Wang, Chien.; Prinn, Ronald G.

424

Existing and anticipated technology strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Korea’s petrochemical and steel industries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study examines the existing and anticipated technology strategies for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Korea’s petrochemical and steel industries. The results of the cluster analysis identify three types of technology strategies employed by firms for reducing GHG emissions: “wait-and-see” “in-process-focused”, and “all-round” strategies. The “in-process-focused” strategy was the most widely used strategy, followed by the “all-round” strategy. However, firms in these industries are expected to change their technology strategies to “treatment-reliance”, “inbound-substitution”, and “all-round” strategies in 5–10 years by employing a wider range of technology options to respond more effectively to the issue of GHG emissions. The demand for new energy sources and raw material substitutes is expected to strengthen in the near future as related technologies advance rapidly and become more widely available.

Su-Yol Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

426

Industry  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Exploration of Innovation and An Exploration of Innovation and Energy Efficiency in an Appliance Industry Prepared by Margaret Taylor, K. Sydny Fujita, Larry Dale, and James McMahon For the European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy March 29, 2012 ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY LBNL - 5689E An Exploration of Innovation and Energy Efficiency in an Appliance Industry Abstract This report provides a starting point for appliance energy efficiency policy to be informed by an understanding of: the baseline rate and direction of technological change of product industries; the factors that underlie the outcomes of innovation in these industries; and the ways the innovation system might respond to any given intervention. The report provides an overview of the dynamics of energy efficiency policy and innovation in the appliance

427

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for im- proving energy efficiency of corn wet milling havefor the corn wet milling industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide forfuel. Corn wet milling is the most energy-intensive food

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

options for combined heat and power in Canada. Office ofpolicies to promote combined heat and power in US industry.with fuel inputs in combined heat and power plants being

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EJ of primary energy, 40% of the global total of 227 EJ. Bytotal energy use by industry and on the fraction of electricity use consumed by motor driven systems was taken as representative of global

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Carbon dioxide emission index as a mean for assessing fuel quality  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide emission index, defined as the amount of CO{sub 2} released per unit of energy value, was used to rate gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. The direct utilization of natural gas is the most efficient option. The conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas for production of liquid fuels represents a significant decrease in fuel value of the former. The fuel value of liquids, such as gasoline, diesel oil, etc. is lower than that of natural gas. Blending gasoline with ethanol obtained either from bio-mass or via synthesis may decrease fuel value of the blend when CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the production of ethanol are included in total emissions. The introduction of liquid fuels produced by pyrolysis and liquefaction of biomass would result in the increase in the CO{sub 2} emissions. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the utilization of coal and petroleum coke are much higher than those from gaseous and liquid fuels. However, for petroleum coke, this is offset by the high value gaseous and liquid fuels that are simultaneously produced during coking. Conversion of low value fuels such as coal and petroleum coke to a high value chemicals via synthesis gas should be assessed as means for replacing natural gas and making it available for fuel applications.

Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Abstract--Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused by an increase  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this project is to provide the airport manager at major airports, such as Dulles International Airport of emissions offset. The case study of this project will be Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD Abstract-- Historic data shows an increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at airports caused

432

Agriculture, Land Use, Energy and Carbon Emission Impacts of Global Biofuel Mandates to Mid-Century  

SciTech Connect

Three potential future scenarios of expanded global biofuel production are presented here utilizing the GCAM integrated assessment model. These scenarios span a range that encompasses on the low end a continuation of existing biofuel production policies to two scenarios that would require an expansion of current targets as well as an extension of biofuels targets to other regions of the world. Conventional oil use is reduced by 4-8% in the expanded biofuel scenarios, which results in a decrease of in CO2 emissions on the order of 1-2 GtCO2/year by mid-century from the global transportation sector. The regional distribution of crop production is relatively unaffected, but the biofuels targets do result in a marked increase in the production of conventional crops used for energy. Producer prices of sugar and corn reach levels about 12% and 7% above year 2005 levels, while the increased competition for land causes the price of food crops such as wheat, although not used for bioenergy in this study, to increase by 1 to 2%. The amount of land devoted to growing all food crops and dedicated bioenergy crops is increased by about 10% by 2050 in the High biofuel case, with concurrent decreases in other uses of land such as forest and pasture. In both of the expanded biofuels cases studied, there is an increase in net cumulative carbon emissions for the first couple of decades due to these induced land use changes. However, the difference in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels expansion decline by about 2035 as the reductions in energy system emissions exceed further increases in emissions from land use change. Even in the absence of a policy that would limit emissions from land use change, the differences in net cumulative emissions from the biofuels scenarios reach zero by 2050, and are decreasing further over time in both cases.

Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Water extraction kinetics of metals, arsenic and dissolved organic carbon from industrial contaminated poplar leaves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In industrial areas, tree leaves contaminated by metals and metalloids could constitute a secondary source of pollutants. In the present study, water extraction kinetics of inorganic elements (IE: Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Fe and Mn), dissolved organic carbon, pH and biological activity were studied for industrial contaminated poplar leaves. Moreover, the distribution of the IE through the size fractions of the associated top soil was measured. High quantities of Mn, Zn and As and polysaccharides were released in the solution from the strongly contaminated leaves. The kinetic of release varied with time and metal type. The solution pH decreased while dissolved organic contents increased with time after 30 days. Therefore, these contaminated leaves could constitute a source of more available organic metals and metalloids than the initial inorganic process particles. However, the distribution of the IE through the size fractions of the top soil suggested that a great part of the released IE was adsorbed, reducing in consequence their transfers and bioavailability. It's concluded that mobility/bioavailability and speciation of metals and metalloids released from the decomposition of polluted tree leaves depends on soil characteristics, pollutant type and litter composition, with consequences for environmental risk assessment.

Muhammad Shahid; Tiantian Xiong; Maryse Castrec-Rouelle; Tibo Leveque; Camille Dumat

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Striving To Capture Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Striving To Capture Carbon ... Energy ministers from around the world met in Washington, D.C., for three days earlier this month to wrestle with how to reenergize efforts to cut carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants. ... Their solution, not surprisingly, is a rapid acceleration of R&D for technologies that capture and sequester underground carbon dioxide emitted by power plants, refineries, and industrial manufacturers that burn fossil fuels. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

435

Atomic Carbon and CO Isotope Emission in the Vicinity of DR15  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present observations of the 3P1-3P0 fine structure transition of atomic carbon [CI], the J=3-2 transition of CO, as well as of the J=1-0 transitions of 13CO and C18O toward DR15, an HII region associated with two mid-infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The 13CO and C18O J=1-0 emissions closely follow the dark patches seen in optical wavelength, showing two self-gravitating molecular cores with masses of 2000 Msun and 900 Msun, respectively, at the positions of the catalogued IRDCs. Our data show a rough spatial correlation between [CI] and 13CO J=1-0. Bright [CI] emission occurs in relatively cold gas behind the molecular cores, neither in highly excited gas traced by CO J=3-2 emission nor in HII region/molecular cloud interface. These results are inconsistent with those predicted by standard photodissociation region (PDR) models, suggesting an origin for interstellar atomic carbon unrelated to photodissociation processes.

T. Oka; S. Yamamoto; M. Iwata; H. Maezawa; M. Ikeda; T. Ito; K. Kamegai; T. Sakai; Y. Sekimoto; K. Tatematsu; Y. Arikawa; Y. Aso; T. Noguchi; S-C. Shi; K. Miyazawa; S. Saito; H. Ozeki; H. Fujiwara; M. Ohishi; J. Inatani

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

436

An assessment of operations of oil-exporting countries in terms of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions from 16 oil-exporting countries are studied using Data Envelopment Analysis using indicators representing economic growth, energy consumption and emissions. The analysis for 1996 shows that Norway, Gabon and Nigeria are efficient and that Russia is inefficient. Malmquist Productivity Index analysis shows that there is progress in achieving higher values of GDP and non-fossil fuel consumption and in achieving lower values of fossil fuel consumption and carbon emissions in the year 1996 when compared with 1992 for Norway, Russia, Mexico, Algeria, Libya, Gabon and Oman.

Ramakrishnan Ramanathan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

T E C H N I C A L A D V A N C E Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T E C H N I C A L A D V A N C E Soil organic carbon dust emission: an omitted global source emission, soil organic carbon Received 16 April 2013 and accepted 21 May 2013 Introduction Uncertainty, Gunnedah, NSW 2380, Australia Abstract Soil erosion redistributes soil organic carbon (SOC) within

438

Intention to change activities that reduce carbon dioxide emissions related to worry about global climate change consequences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introduction Mitigating the global climate change requires actions at different levels including that lay people change their consumption patterns, which cause emissions of greenhouse gases. Recent research suggests that inducing affects such as fear and worry may have positive effects. Objective To investigate whether worry in addition to personalized information about emissions of carbon dioxide would influence lay people's intentions to change consumption-related personal activities causing carbon-dioxide emissions. Method A municipality-provided tool to calculate their annual carbon dioxide emissions was used by 135 university students who after being informed about negative consequences of global climate change stated their intentions to change a number of personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions during the following 12 months. They also rated how worried they were about eight global climate change consequences. Results Intentions to change travel, energy use at home, food consumption, involvement in environmental organizations, and support of environmental policies increased with worry. An interaction was also observed such that high-emitters’ intentions to invest in energy-efficient infrastructure increased more with worry than did low- and medium-emitters’ intentions. Conclusions In line with recent research positing that affect increases preventive actions, the hypothesis was supported that intentions to change personal activities to reduce carbon dioxide emissions increased with participants’ worry about the consequences of global climate change.

E.-L. Sundblad; A. Biel; T. Gärling

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Emission features of femtosecond laser ablated carbon plasma in ambient K. F. Al-Shboul, S. S. Harilal, and A. Hassanein  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission features of femtosecond laser ablated carbon plasma in ambient helium K. F. Al-Shboul, S carbon species in the plume were obtained using time of flight emission spectroscopy. These contours 2013; published online 30 April 2013) We investigated the optical emission features of plasmas produced

Harilal, S. S.

440

Shale Gas Formations and Their Potential for Carbon Storage: Opportunities and Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shale gas resources are proving to be globally abundant...2...(carbon dioxide) to mitigate the climate impacts of global carbon emissions from power and industrial sectors. This paper reviews global shale gas res...

Roozbeh Khosrokhavar; Steve Griffiths; Karl-Heinz Wolf

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Solubilities of 21 Commonly Used Industrial Solid Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Solubilities of 21 Commonly Used Industrial Solid Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ... Artificial neural networks are composed of simple elements working in a parallel computational strategy. ... These elements are inspired by biological nervous systems(36-40) and are called neurons. ...

Farhad Gharagheizi; Ali Eslamimanesh; Amir H. Mohammadi; Dominique Richon

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

442

Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Co. (2008) Carbon capture and storage: Assessing theof Carbon Dioxide, in Carbon Capture and SequestrationWilson and Gerard, editors, Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Oldenburg, C.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Carbon nanotube (CNT) gas sensors for emissions from fossil fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fossil fuels endow wide applications in industrial, transportation, and power generation sectors. However, smoke released by burning fossil fuels contains toxic gases, which pollutes the environment and severely affects human health. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potential material for gas sensors due to their high structural porosity and high specific surface area. Defects present on the CNT sidewalls and end caps facilitate adsorption of gas molecules. The chemical procedures adopted to purify and disperse carbon nanotubes create various chemical groups on their surface, which further enhance the adsorption of gas molecules and thus improve the sensitivity of CNTs. Present review focuses on CNT chemiresistive gas sensing mechanisms, which make them suitable for the development of next generation sensor technology. The resistance of carbon nanotubes decreases when oxidizing gas molecules adsorb on their surface, whereas, adsorption of reducing gas molecules results in increasing the resistance of CNTs. Sensing ability of carbon nanotubes for the gases namely, NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and SO2, released on burning of fossil fuels is reviewed. This review provides basic understanding of sensing mechanisms, creation of adsorption sites by chemical processes and charge transfer between adsorbed gas molecules and surface of CNTs. In addition, useful current update on research and development of CNT gas sensors is provided.

M. Mittal; A. Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries  

SciTech Connect

As part of the effort to understand the sources of carbon dioxide and other major greenhouse gases, the Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network (F-7) was established. The countries taking part in the F-7 Network -- Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria and Thailand -- possess large tracts of tropical forests and together experience the bulk of large scale tropical deforestation. Integreation of work of indigenous researchers and institutions from the participating countries should allow for the gathering of on-site information into the more general and universally available base of knowledge. The information contained in this report represents the results of the first phase of the F-7 project, which had the explicit aim of providing quantitative data on forestry-related carbon emissions from India and China.

Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ravindranath, N.H.; Somashekhar, B.S.; Gadgil, M. (Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, (India). Center for Ecological Sciences and ASTRA); Deying, Xu (Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, (China). Research Inst. of Forestry)

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

10 Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK Yasmin E. Bushby Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage, School  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

10 Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK Yasmin E. Bushby � Scottish Centre for Carbon Storage fossil fuels which in turn produces approximately one third of total UK CO2 emissions. Carbon Capture stations and industrial facilities. Existing power stations can be retrofitted with carbon capture

446

Taxing Car-produced Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Matching the Cure to the Disease  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced by cars is a linear (albeit fuel specific) function of the amount of fuel consumed. Because CO2 emissions generate social costs, through their effect on climate change, which escape the price mechanism, a tax on CO2 is indicated. An ideal tax would alter the consumer prices so that they match the marginal social costs. This setting thus calls for a specific tax on fuel equal to the value of externality resulting from the combustion of a unit of fuel. Since such tax scheme is readily available, we study to what extent the existing CO2 tax policies make use of it. We find that they do only to a limited extent. Thus our policy prescription is to drop existing CO2 taxes and use the existing fuel taxes to adjust fuel prices so that they match the marginal social costs related to burning of fuel.

Petr David; Josef Montag

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Amp\\`ere-Class Pulsed Field Emission from Carbon-Nanotube Cathodes in a Radiofrequency Resonator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pulsed field emission from cold carbon-nanotube cathodes placed in a radiofrequency resonant cavity was observed. The cathodes were located on the backplate of a conventional $1+\\frac{1}{2}$-cell resonant cavity operating at 1.3-GHz and resulted in the production of bunch train with maximum average current close to 0.7 Amp\\`ere. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristic, transverse emittance, and pulse duration are presented and, when possible, compared to numerical simulations. The implications of our results to high-average-current electron sources are briefly discussed.

Mihalcea, D; Hartzell, J; Panuganti, H; Boucher, S M; Murokh, A; Piot, P; Thangaraj, J C T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

way of reducing total energy consumption and CO2 emissions.deducted from the total energy consumption to avoid double-However, total energy consumption and CO2 emissions will

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom during the past four decades: An empirical analysis  

SciTech Connect

We use data from a unique 40-year record of 150 urban and rural stations in the ''Black Smoke and SO2 Network'' in Great Britain to infer information about sources of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The data show a rapid decline of ambient atmospheric BC between 1962 and the early 1990s that exceeds the decline in official estimates of BC emissions based only on amount of fuel use and mostly fixed emission factors. This provides empirical confirmation of the existence and large impact of a time-dependent ''technology factor'' that must multiply the rate of fossil fuel use. Current ambient BC amounts in Great Britain comparable to those in western and central Europe, with diesel engines being the principal present source. From comparison of BC and SO2 data we infer that current BC emission inventories understate true emissions in the U.K. by about a factor of two. The results imply that there is the potential for improved technology to achieve large reduction of global ambient BC. There is a need for comparable monitoring of BC in other countries.

Novakov, T.; Hansen, J.E.

2004-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

450

Carbon dioxide emissions under different soil tillage systems in mechanically harvested sugarcane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil tillage and other methods of soil management may influence CO2 emissions because they accelerate the mineralization of organic carbon in the soil. This study aimed to quantify the CO2 emissions under conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and reduced tillage (RT) during the renovation of sugarcane fields in southern Brazil. The experiment was performed on an Oxisol in the sugarcane-planting area with mechanical harvesting. An undisturbed or no-till (NT) plot was left as a control treatment. The CO2 emissions results indicated a significant interaction (p??2 of CO2 in CT, and 51.7 and 5.5 g m?2 of CO2 in RT and MT respectively. The amount of C lost in the form of CO2 due to soil tillage practices was significant and comparable to the estimated value of potential annual C accumulation resulting from changes in the harvesting system in Brazil from burning of plant residues to the adoption of green cane harvesting. The CO2 emissions in the CT system could respond to a loss of 80% of the potential soil C accumulated over one year as result of the adoption of mechanized sugarcane harvesting. Meanwhile, soil tillage during the renewal of the sugar plantation using RT and MT methods would result in low impact, with losses of 12% and 2% of the C that could potentially be accumulated during a one year period.

A M Silva-Olaya; C E P Cerri; N La Scala Jr; C T S Dias; C C Cerri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

The Spatial Distribution of Atomic Carbon Emission in the Giant Molecular Cloud NGC 604-2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have mapped a giant molecular cloud in the giant HII region NGC 604 in M33 in the 492 GHz ^3P_1 -- ^3P_0 transition of neutral atomic carbon using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find the distribution of the [CI] emission to be asymmetric with respect to the CO J=1--0 emission, with the peak of the [CI] emission offset towards the direction of the center of the HII region. In addition, the line ratio I_{[CI]}/I_{CO} is highest (~ 0.2) facing the HII region and lowest (emission is strongest on the side of the cloud facing the center of the HII region, and not detected at all on the opposite side This suggests that the sources of the incident flux creating C from the dissociation of CO are the massive stars of the HII region. The lowest line ratios are similar to what is observed in Galactic molecular clouds, while the highest are similar to starburst galaxies and other regions of intense star formation. The column density ratio, N(C)/N(H_2) is a few times 10^{-6}, in general agreement with models of photodissociation regions.

Christopher L. Taylor; Christine D. Wilson

2000-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

452

Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C. [University of Mahallesi, Trabzon (Turkey)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

FE’s Advanced Combustion R&D Seeks Innovative Ways to Lower Cost of Capturing Carbon Emissions from Coal Fired Power Plants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

You’ve probably heard about carbon capture and storage (CCS), a suite of technologies designed to capture and store carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plants and industrial sources.  Because CCS can...

455

Practical guide: Tools and methodologies for an oil and gas industry emission inventory  

SciTech Connect

During the preparation of Title V Permit applications, the quantification and speciation of emission sources from oil and gas facilities were reevaluated to determine the {open_quotes}potential-to-emit.{close_quotes} The existing emissions were primarily based on EPA emission factors such as AP-42, for tanks, combustion sources, and fugitive emissions from component leaks. Emissions from insignificant activities and routine operations that are associated with maintenance, startups and shutdowns, and releases to control devices also required quantification. To reconcile EPA emission factors with test data, process knowledge, and manufacturer`s data, a careful review of other estimation options was performed. This paper represents the results of this analysis of emission sources at oil and gas facilities, including exploration and production, compressor stations and gas plants.

Thompson, C.C. [C-K Associates, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Killian, T.L. [Conoco, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparison of Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Embodied Energy in Four Renewable Electricity Generation Technologies in New Zealand ... Fugitive emissions from geothermal fields were noted, though not added to the result for geothermal power generation, but all other “CO2 emissions” pertaining to this study arose from construction, maintenance, and decommissioning of power stations, since renewable technologies (apart from geothermal) do not emit CO2 during normal operation. ... Hondo, H. Life cycle GHG emission analysis of power generation systems: Japanese case Energy 2005, 30 ( 11?12 SPEC. ...

Bridget M. Rule; Zeb J. Worth; Carol A. Boyle

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

457

Preliminary Study on Coal Industrial Safety Evaluation Index System Under Low-Carbon Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal industry occupies a dominant position in our ... problems becoming increasingly prominent, the constraints on economic development are increasingly influencing the stable and ... of the industrial security. ...

Lei Zhang; Cheng Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Field emission effects of nitrogenated carbon nanotubes on chlorination and oxidation  

SciTech Connect

With reference to our recent reports [Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 192107 (2007); Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202102 (2007)] about the electronic structure of chlorine treated and oxygen-plasma treated nitrogenated carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs), here we studied the electron field emission effects on chlorination (N-CNT:Cl) and oxidation (N-CNT:O) of N-CNT. A high current density (J) of 15.0 mA/cm{sup 2} has been achieved on chlorination, whereas low J of 0.0052 mA/cm{sup 2} is observed on oxidation compared to J=1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} for untreated N-CNT at an applied electric field E{sub A} of {approx}1.9 V/{mu}m. The turn-on electric field (E{sub TO}) was {approx}0.875. The 1.25 V/{mu}m was achieved for N-CNT:Cl and N-CNT:O, respectively, with respect to E{sub TO}=1.0 V/{mu}m for untreated one. These findings are due to the formation of different bonds with carbon and nitrogen in the N-CNT during the process of chlorine (oxygen)-plasma treatment by the charge transfer, or else that changes the density of free charge carriers and hence enhances (reduces) the field emission properties of N-CNTs:Cl (N-CNTs:O)

Ray, S. C.; Palnitkar, U.; Pao, C. W.; Tsai, H. M.; Pong, W. F.; Lin, I-N. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 251, Taiwan (China); Papakonstantinou, P. [NRI, School of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey, County Antrim BT37OQB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ganguly, Abhijit; Chen, L. C. [Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, K. H. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

460

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

world best practice energy intensity and implements currently available aggressive energy efficiency and carbonworld best practice energy intensity level and implement all aggressive energy efficiency and carbon

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "industry carbon emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursors and Conversion Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet overviewing project that reduces the cost of carbon fiber raw materials and processing technologies

462

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

report of cement industry waste heat power generation. ChinaWorrell et al. , 2001). Waste heat recovery (WHR) poweradoption and utilization of waste heat recovery (WHR) power

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2000. “Potentials for Energy Efficiency Improvement in theBenefits of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” EnergyC. , and Price, L. , 2008. Energy Efficiency Improvement

Morrow III, William R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Industrial  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Industrial 8,870,422 44.3% Commercial 3,158,244 15.8% Electric Utilities 2,732,496 13.7% Residential 5,241,414 26.2% Source: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-176, "Annual Report of Natural and Supplemental Gas Supply and Disposition." T e x a s L o u i s i a n a C a l i f o r n i a A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Industrial Billion Cubic Meters T e x a s C a l i f o r n i a F l o r i d a A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Electric Utilities Billion Cubic Meters N e w Y o r k C a l i f o r n i a I l l i n o i s A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Commercial Billion Cubic Meters I l l i n o i s C a l i f o r n i a N e w Y o r k A l l O t h e r S t a t e s 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 30 60 90 120 Trillion Cubic Feet Residential Billion Cubic Meters 11. Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers in the United States, 1996 Figure Volumes in Million Cubic Feet Energy Information Administration

465

Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

industries, mainly including wind power equipment, solarnuclear, wind, solar and other renewable power at calorific

Fridley, David

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Detecting z > 10 objects through carbon, nitrogen and oxygen emission lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By redshift of 10, star formation in the first objects should have produced considerable amounts of Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen. The submillimeter lines of C, N and O redshift into the millimeter and centimeter bands (0.5 mm -- 1.2 cm), where they may be detectable. High spectral resolution observations could potentially detect inhomogeneities in C, N and O emission, and see the first objects forming at high redshift. We calculate expected intensity fluctuations and discuss frequency and angular resolution required to detect them. For CII emission, we estimate the intensity using two independent methods: the line emission coefficient argument and the luminosity density argument. We find they are in good agreement. At 1+z \\sim 10, the typical protogalaxy has a velocity dispersion of 30 km s^{-1} and angular size of 1 arcsecond. If CII is the dominant coolant, then we estimate a characteristic line strength of \\sim 0.1 K km s^{-1}. We also discuss other atomic lines and estimate their signal. Observations with angular resolution of 10^{-3} can detect moderately nonlinear fluctuations of amplitude 2 \\cdot 10^{-5} times the microwave background. If the intensity fluctuations are detected, they will probe matter density inhomogeneity, chemical evolution and ionization history at high redshifts.

Maki Suginohara; Tatsushi Suginohara; David N. Spergel

1998-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

467

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalinventory of black carbon emissions. Atmos. Environ. 1993,commonly studied form of carbon emissions. Black carbon (BC)

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Understanding the link between aggregated industrial production and the carbon price  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Introduction The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is arguably the flagship of Europe's climate policy

Boyer, Edmond

469

Towards an efficient and low carbon economy post-2012: opportunities and barriers for foreign companies in the Russian energy market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Russia is one of the most energy- and carbon-intensive countries in the world ... level of investments into modernization of the Russian energy industry cause huge energy wastage and carbon emissions. This situat...

Maria Garbuzova…

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Use of continuous emission monitoring in the electric utility industry. Paper 81. 48. 3  

SciTech Connect

Steam electric generating plants are subject to continuous monitoring regulations. Reliable emission data are recorded to be reported to regulatory agencies. The continuous monitor is being used as a diagnostic tool for optimizing operation of control equipment also. Monitored data identify the magnitude, duration, and time of any emissions exceeding compliance standards so that corrective actions may be taken.

Van Gieson, J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers'' was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. (eds.)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Summary of the presentations at the international workshop on reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the developing world: Assessment of benefits, costs and barriers  

SciTech Connect

The ``International Workshop on Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of Benefits, Costs and Barriers`` was the second workshop held as part of a project being conducted by the International Energy Studies Group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, in collaboration with experts from leading institutions across the developing world. The goal of the project is to analyze long-range energy consumption in developing countries and its potential contribution to global climate change. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is supporting this work, the results of which already have made a key contribution to the technical analysis being used as the basis for discussion by the Energy and Industry Sub-group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The main purpose of this workshop was two-fold: (1) to discuss the feasibility of implementing the efficiency improvements and fuel switching measures incorporated into the long-term energy scenarios created for 17 developing countries and (2) to examine the costs and benefits of reducing energy-related carbon dioxide emissions generated by developing countries.

Sathaye, J.; Goldman, N. [eds.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Energy and complex industrial systems environmental emissions data reporting and acquisition  

SciTech Connect

The Joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UNEP and WHO Project on Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental risks from Energy and Other Complex Technologies intends to complile emissions data for mportant energy systems and other complex technologies from a wide variety of countries. To facilitate data generation and compilation, this report: outlines data reporting protocols; identifies potential information sources; demonstrates how to estimate coefficients; presents some compiled US emission coefficients or criteria air pollutants for some energy process; and, compares national air emission standards for electricity generating plants in OECD member countries. 27 refs., 2 fis., 1 tabs.

Moskowitz, P.D.; Hamilton, L.D.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z