National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for industries copper indium

  1. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  2. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S.; Nekuda, Jennifer A.

    2011-11-15

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  3. Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Since its initial development, copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) thin-film technology has been considered promising for solar cells because of its favorable electronic and optical ...

  4. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L. , Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-08-08

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  5. Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

  6. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  7. Preparation of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Hasoon, Falah S.; Wiesner, Holm; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel; Ramanathan, Kannan

    1999-02-16

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of 13.6% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide precursor thin film. The film is fabricated by first simultaneously electrodepositing copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a glass/molybdenum substrate (12/14). The electrodeposition voltage is a high frequency AC voltage superimposed upon a DC voltage to improve the morphology and growth rate of the film. The electrodeposition is followed by physical vapor deposition to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In.sub.1-n Ga.sub.x)Se.sub.2, with the ratio of Ga/(In+Ga) being approximately 0.39.

  8. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Stanley R.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  9. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Cluster Tool Capabilities The Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) cluster tool in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers ...

  10. Industrial applications of high-power copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.; Boley, C.D.; Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Havstad, M.A.; Martinez, M.; McLean, W. II

    1995-08-01

    A growing appreciation has developed in the last several years for the copper vapor laser because of its utility in ablating difficult materials at high rates. Laser ablation at high rates shows promise for numerous industrial applications such as thin film deposition, precision hole drilling, and machining of ceramics and other refractories.

  11. Source category survey: secondary copper smelting and refining industry. Final report Oct 79-Jan 80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, M.K.; Shobe, F.D.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of the secondary copper smelting and refining industry to determine the probable impact of the development of new source performance standards under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act. The surveyed industry processes copper scrap to produce pure copper or copper alloy, other than brass and bronze. Secondary copper foundries, which melt and cast high-quality copper scrap without refining it, are excluded. Primary copper smelters and refiners, which produce copper from ore, are also excluded, although they also process copper scrap. Process, emissions, and economic data were gathered by literature searches, contacts with representatives of the industry, trade associations, federal government agencies, and state and local air pollution control agencies, and visits to two plants. The industry's production processes, actual and allowable air emissions, and emission control systems are described. State and local emission regulations are compared. Production and capacity are projected to 1989 and the impact of new source performance standards is assessed.

  12. Energy savings by recovered materials used in the copper industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    An overview of the copper industry is presented. Process descriptions and energy consumption are given for both primary and secondary zinc production. Energy savings due to recycling are discussed. (MHR)

  13. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Chun; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com; Wang, Yu; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W. E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com

    2014-06-30

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10?mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30?mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  14. Heat treatment effect on the mechanical properties of industrial drawn copper wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beribeche, Abdellatif Boumerzoug, Zakaria; Ji, Vincent

    2013-12-16

    In this present investigation, the mechanical properties of industrial drawn copper wires have been studied by tensile tests. The effect of prior heat treatments at 500°C on the drawn wires behavior was the main goal of this investigation. We have found that the mechanical behavior of drawn wires depends strongly on those treatments. SEM observations of the wire cross section after tensile tests have shown that the mechanism of rupture was mainly controlled by the void formation.

  15. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burghoorn, M.; Kniknie, B.; Deelen, J. van; Ee, R. van; Xu, M.; Vroon, Z.; Belt, R. van de; Buskens, P. E-mail: buskens@dwi.rwth-aachen.de

    2014-12-15

    Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-)selenide (CIGS) solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the J{sub sc} and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (d{sub CIGS}) of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (n{sub resist} = 1.792 vs. n{sub AZO} = 1.913 at 633 nm) to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, J{sub sc} increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%). No trend towards a larger relative increase in J{sub sc} with decreasing d{sub CIGS} was observed. Ergo, the increase in J{sub sc} can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in J{sub sc} based on an increased photon path length.

  16. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    stresses, defects, and dislocations. In addition, the small as-deposited indium grains grow into large crystals at ambient conditions. Indium and its compounds have many...

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.3.2 to investigate the small-scale mechanics of indium nanostructures. Scanning x-ray microdiffraction (SXRD) studies revealed that the indium microstructure is typical...

  18. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended...

  19. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale

  20. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  1. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  2. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  4. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  5. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical conductivity. With the size of electronic devices continuing to shrink and the promise of indium-based nanotechnologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of this material's small-scale mechanical properties and reliability. Researchers from the University of

  6. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have a significant impact on the commercial success of these novel devices. Scanning electron microscopy image of an indium pillar characterized by scanning x-ray...

  7. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Print Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical...

  8. Mechanical Behavior of Indium Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    26 May 2010 00:00 Indium is a key material in lead-free solder applications for microelectronics due to its excellent wetting properties, extended ductility, and high electrical...

  9. Traps identification in Copper-Indium-Gallium-Sulfur-Selenide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solar Cells Completed with Various Buffer Layers by Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Current-voltage ... devices cells with high and low efficiencies were studied. ...

  10. Fractionation of elements during copper smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germani, M.S.; Zoller, W.H.; Small, M.; Moyers, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    A recent study of the elemental composition of particulate material collected from the plumes of five copper smelters in southeastern Arizona indicated that arsenic, lead, selenium, cadmium, zinc, tungsten, indium, and other chalcophilic elements are highly enriched in the plume materials relative to the background aerosol. Enrichments are due to the volatilization of these elements during copper smelting. Significant differences in the elemental compositions of plumes from the various smelters appear to be due to differences in the feed material, smelting conditions, and equipment use by the smelters. (3 graphs, 13 references, 7 tables)

  11. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  12. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detoxifying Copper in Soils Copper is essential to life, but also toxic if consumed in ... application, sewage sludge deposition, mining, smelting, and industrial activities. ...

  13. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics.

  14. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  15. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  16. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon ...

  17. Indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-12-28

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  18. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, M.R.

    1998-12-15

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

  19. Kennecott Utah Copper Retrofits Smelting Applications from Air-Fuel to Oxy-Fuel Burners: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Best Practices Mining Technical Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy

    2001-08-06

    This case study is the latest in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. The case studies document the activities, savings, and lessons learned on these projects.

  20. The n-type conduction of indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films fabricated by direct current magnetron co-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Xing-Min; Su, Xiao-Qiang; Ye, Fan Wang, Huan; Tian, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Dong-Ping; Fan, Ping; Luo, Jing-Ting; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Liang, Guang-Xing; Roy, V. A. L.

    2015-08-24

    Indium-doped Cu{sub 2}O thin films were fabricated on K9 glass substrates by direct current magnetron co-sputtering in an atmosphere of Ar and O{sub 2}. Metallic copper and indium disks were used as the targets. X-ray diffraction showed that the diffraction peaks could only be indexed to simple cubic Cu{sub 2}O, with no other phases detected. Indium atoms exist as In{sup 3+} in Cu{sub 2}O. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that the transmittance of the samples was relatively high and that indium doping increased the optical band gaps. The Hall effect measurement showed that the samples were n-type semiconductors at room temperature. The Seebeck effect test showed that the films were n-type semiconductors near or over room temperature (<400 K), changing to p-type at relatively high temperatures. The conduction by the samples in the temperature range of the n-type was due to thermal band conduction and the donor energy level was estimated to be 620.2–713.8 meV below the conduction band. The theoretical calculation showed that indium doping can raise the Fermi energy level of Cu{sub 2}O and, therefore, lead to n-type conduction.

  1. AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting | Department of Energy Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting June 29, 2016 - 4:40pm Addthis AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting Industry plays a large role in the work that the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) undertakes. The relationship between AMO, academia, national labs, and industry partners is symbiotic - we each bring

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of Indium-Filled Skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Tao; Chen, Jiazhong; Rosenfeld, H. David; Subramanian, M.A.

    2008-09-18

    Structural, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CoSb{sub 3} partially filled with indium are reported. Polycrystalline samples of In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (0 {le} x {le} 0.3) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H{sub 2} and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of the indium filling voids in CoSb{sub 3} was found to be close to 0.22. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinement of the x = 0.2 sample showed that the indium is located in the classic rattler site and has a substantially larger thermal factor than those of Co and Sb. The electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivity of the In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} samples were measured in the temperature range of 300-600 K. All samples showed metal-like behavior, and the large negative Seebeck coefficients indicated n-type conduction. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature for all samples. A thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) {ge} 1 (n-type) has been achieved when x {ge} 0.2 in In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} at 575 K.

  3. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-10-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident {approximately}4 keV Ar{sup +} ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In{sub 32} were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In{sub 18}{sup +} were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be {minus}5.6 and {minus}4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions.

  4. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  5. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  6. Introduction of sulfur into copper converter slags to produce copper matte. Report of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paige, J.I.; Anable, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    The Bureau of Mines investigated a method to totally utilize copper converter slags without recycling them back through the matte smelting furnace. The research was directed toward (1) recovering the contained copper in converting slags by producing a recyclable copper-iron matte, (2) carbothermically reducing the slags to recover the iron, and (3) producing slag wool from the depleted slags. This report deals with the reduction of three industrial converting slags, containing 2.0 to 7.3 wt-pct Cu, in an 800-kVA electric arc furnace to produce a recyclable copper-iron matte.

  7. The influence of random indium alloy fluctuations in indium gallium nitride quantum wells on the device behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Tsung-Jui; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Shivaraman, Ravi; Speck, James S.

    2014-09-21

    In this paper, we describe the influence of the intrinsic indium fluctuation in the InGaN quantum wells on the carrier transport, efficiency droop, and emission spectrum in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). Both real and randomly generated indium fluctuations were used in 3D simulations and compared to quantum wells with a uniform indium distribution. We found that without further hypothesis the simulations of electrical and optical properties in LEDs such as carrier transport, radiative and Auger recombination, and efficiency droop are greatly improved by considering natural nanoscale indium fluctuations.

  8. J/{psi} production in indium-indium collisions at SPS energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pillot, P.; Ducroux, L.; Guichard, A.; Tieulent, R.; Arnaldi, R.; Colla, A.; Cortese, P.; Ferretti, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Scomparin, E.; Averbeck, R.; Drees, A.; Banicz, K.; Keil, M.; Castor, J.; Devaux, A.; Force, P.; Manso, F.; Chaurand, B.; Cicalo, C.

    2006-01-12

    The NA60 experiment collected data on dimuon production in indium-indium collisions at 158 GeV/c per incident nucleon, in year 2003, to contribute to the clarification of several questions raised by previous experiments studying high-energy heavy-ion physics at the CERN SPS in search of the quark gluon plasma. Among these previous results stands the observation, by NA50, that the production yield of J/{psi} mesons is suppressed in central Pb-Pb collisions beyond the normal nuclear absorption defined by proton-nucleus data. By comparing the centrality dependence of the suppression pattern between different colliding systems, S-U, Pb-Pb and In-In, we should be able to identify the corresponding scaling variable, and the physics mechanism driving the suppression. In this paper, we will present the ratio of J/{psi} and Drell-Yan production cross-sections in indium-indium collisions, in three centrality bins, and how these values compare to previous measurements. We will also present a study of the transverse momentum distributions of the J/{psi} mesons, in seven centrality bins.

  9. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion; Industrial Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Industry Applications Steel Reheat, soaking pits, ladles Aluminum Melting Copper Smelting and melting Glass Melting Pulp and Paper Lime kilns, black liquor boilers ...

  10. Mining Industry Profile | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These mined minerals include coal, metals such as iron, copper, or zinc, and industrial ... Furthermore, coal accounts for nearly 50% of electric power generated in the United ...

  11. Low frequency pressure modulation of indium antimonide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Gary A.; Meier, Mark A.

    2012-07-15

    A lumped parameter resonator capable of generating megapascal pressures at low frequency (kilohertz) is described. Accelerometers are used to determine the applied pressure, and are calibrated with a piezoelectric sample. A laser diagnostic was also developed to measure the pressure in semiconductor samples through the band gap pressure dependence. In addition, the laser diagnostic has been used to measure the attenuation coefficient {alpha} of commercially available indium antimonide (InSb) wafers. The resonator and laser diagnostic have been used with InSb samples to verify the pressure response.

  12. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methanol. There are theoretical models used to explain this reaction, but a complete understanding of the process has been lacking. However, recent research at the ALS has shed light on the process, giving scientists key data about how copper-based catalysts function at the atomic level. These catalysts

  13. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methanol. There are theoretical models used to explain this reaction, but a complete understanding of the process has been lacking. However, recent research at the ALS has shed light on the process, giving scientists key data about how copper-based catalysts function at the atomic level. These catalysts

  14. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ozone | Argonne National Laboratory Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Title Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Mane, AU, Allen, AJ, Kanjolia, RK, Elam, JW Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry C Volume 120 Start Page 9874 Issue 18 Pagination 10 Date Published 04182016 Abstract We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  15. Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on Metal Foil for PV Applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on Metal Foil for PV Applications Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Zheng, M., Yu, Z., Seok, T.J., Chen, Y-Z., Kapadia, R., Takei, K., Aloni, S., Ager, J.W., Wu, M., Chueh, Y-L., Javey, A. "High optical quality polycrystalline indium phosphide grown on metal substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Journal of Applied Physics 111,

  16. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  17. Indium tin oxide and indium phosphide heterojunction nanowire array solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Masatoshi Nakai, Eiji; Fukui, Takashi; Tomioka, Katsuhiro; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , Honcho Kawaguchi, 3320012 Saitama

    2013-12-09

    Heterojunction solar cells were formed with a position-controlled InP nanowire array sputtered with indium tin oxide (ITO). The ITO not only acted as a transparent electrode but also as forming a photovoltaic junction. The devices exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 0.436?V, short-circuit current of 24.8?mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor of 0.682, giving a power conversion efficiency of 7.37% under AM1.5?G illumination. The internal quantum efficiency of the device was higher than that of the world-record InP cell in the short wavelength range.

  18. Method for forming indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1984-03-13

    A high photo-conversion efficiency indium oxide/n-silicon heterojunction solar cell is spray deposited from a solution containing indium trichloride. The solar cell exhibits an Air Mass One solar conversion efficiency in excess of about 10%.

  19. Mobility of indium on the ZnO(0001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinhold, R.; Reeves, R. J.; Allen, M. W.; Williams, G. T.; Evans, D. A.

    2015-02-02

    The mobility of indium on the Zn-polar (0001) surface of single crystal ZnO wafers was investigated using real-time x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A sudden transition in the wettability of the ZnO(0001) surface was observed at ∼520 °C, with indium migrating from the (0001{sup ¯}) underside of the wafer, around the non-polar (11{sup ¯}00) and (112{sup ¯}0) sidewalls, to form a uniform self-organized (∼20 Å) adlayer. The In adlayer was oxidized, in agreement with the first principles calculations of Northrup and Neugebauer that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitation can only be avoided under a combination of In-rich and Zn-rich conditions. These findings suggest that unintentional In adlayers may form during the epitaxial growth of ZnO on indium-bonded substrates.

  20. COPPER COATED URANIUM ARTICLE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1958-10-01

    Various techniques and methods for obtaining coppercoated uranium are given. Specifically disclosed are a group of complex uranium coatings having successive layers of nickel, copper, lead, and tin.

  1. Equation of state of liquid Indium under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaming E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Li, Mo E-mail: mo.li@gatech.edu; Sun, Yongli

    2015-09-15

    We apply an equation of state of a power law form to liquid Indium to study its thermodynamic properties under high temperature and high pressure. Molar volume of molten indium is calculated along the isothermal line at 710K within good precision as compared with the experimental data in an externally heated diamond anvil cell. Bulk modulus, thermal expansion and internal pressure are obtained for isothermal compression. Other thermodynamic properties are also calculated along the fitted high pressure melting line. While our results suggest that the power law form may be a better choice for the equation of state of liquids, these detailed predictions are yet to be confirmed by further experiment.

  2. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  3. Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe.sub.2) crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1987-01-01

    A process for preparing CuInSe.sub.2 crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B.sub.2 O.sub.3 along with stoichiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2 percent over the stoichiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The crystal is grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B.sub.2 O.sub.3 encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe.sub.2 melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

  4. Method of synthesizing and growing copper-indium-diselenide (CuInSe/sub 2/) crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciszek, T.F.

    1984-11-29

    A process for preparing CuInSe/sub 2/ crystals includes melting a sufficient quantity of B/sub 2/O/sub 2/ along with stochiometric quantities of Cu, In, and Se in a crucible in a high-pressure atmosphere of inert gas to encapsulate the CuInSe/sub 2/ melt and confine the Se to the crucible. Additional Se in the range of 1.8 to 2.2% over the stochiometric quantity is preferred to make up for small amounts of Se lost in the process. The melt can then be cooled slowly to form the crystal as direct solidification, or the crystal can be grown by inserting a seed crystal through the B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ encapsulate into contact with the CuInSe/sub 2/ melt and withdrawing the seed upwardly to grow the crystal thereon from the melt.

  5. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  6. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Geoffrey L.; Kanazirev, Vladislav

    1996-01-01

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  7. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  8. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 12:20 Copper-based catalysts are widely used in chemical industries to convert water and carbon monoxide to hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methanol. There are theoretical models used to explain this reaction, but a complete understanding of the process has been lacking. However, recent research at the ALS has shed light on the process, giving scientists key

  9. Method for enhancing the solubility of boron and indium in silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadigh, Babak; Lenosky, Thomas J.; Diaz de la Rubia, Tomas; Giles, Martin; Caturla, Maria-Jose; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Theiss, Silva; Foad, Majeed; Quong, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    A method for enhancing the equilibrium solubility of boron and indium in silicon. The method involves first-principles quantum mechanical calculations to determine the temperature dependence of the equilibrium solubility of two important p-type dopants in silicon, namely boron and indium, under various strain conditions. The equilibrium thermodynamic solubility of size-mismatched impurities, such as boron and indium in silicon, can be raised significantly if the silicon substrate is strained appropriately. For example, for boron, a 1% compressive strain raises the equilibrium solubility by 100% at 1100.degree. C.; and for indium, a 1% tensile strain at 1100.degree. C., corresponds to an enhancement of the solubility by 200%.

  10. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  11. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  12. Chromated Copper Arsenate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peter S. Nico1, Scott E. Fendorf2, Yvette W. Lowney3, Stewart E. Holm4, and Michael V. Ruby3 1Chemistry Department, Cal State University, Stanislaus, Turlock, CA 2Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 3Exponent, Boulder, CO 4Georgia-Pacific Corporation, Atlanta, Georgia wood playground In recent years, regulatory and public attention has become focused on the potential risks associated with exposure to chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood - the most

  13. Industrial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Industrial Manufacturing Buildings Industrialmanufacturing buildings are not considered commercial, but are covered by the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey...

  14. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seager, Carleton H.; Evans, Jr., Joseph Tate

    1998-01-01

    A method for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100.degree. C. and 300.degree. C. for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer.

  15. Method for restoring the resistance of indium oxide semiconductors after heating while in sealed structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seager, C.H.; Evans, J.T. Jr.

    1998-11-24

    A method is described for counteracting increases in resistivity encountered when Indium Oxide resistive layers are subjected to high temperature annealing steps during semiconductor device fabrication. The method utilizes a recovery annealing step which returns the Indium Oxide layer to its original resistivity after a high temperature annealing step has caused the resistivity to increase. The recovery anneal comprises heating the resistive layer to a temperature between 100 C and 300 C for a period of time that depends on the annealing temperature. The recovery is observed even when the Indium Oxide layer is sealed under a dielectric layer. 1 fig.

  16. Tunable morphologies of indium tin oxide nanostructures using nanocellulose templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Ozcan, Soydan; Lu, Yuan; Poole, II, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures have emerged as an important family of materials for various device applications. The performance is highly dependent on the morphology of the metal oxide nanostructures. Here we report a completely green approach to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles using only water and cellulose nanofibril (CNF) in addition to the ITO precursor. Surface hydroxyl groups of the CNFs allow for efficient conjugation of ITO precursors (e.g., metal ions) in aqueous solution. The resulting CNF film allows for controllable spatial arrangement of metal oxide precursors, which results in tunable particle morphology (e.g., nanowires, nanospheres, and octahedral nanoparticles). These ITO nanoparticles can also form conductive and transparent ITO films. This study opens a new perspective on developing metal oxide nanostructures.

  17. Tunable morphologies of indium tin oxide nanostructures using nanocellulose templates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aytug, Tolga; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Ozcan, Soydan; Lu, Yuan; Poole, II, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide nanostructures have emerged as an important family of materials for various device applications. The performance is highly dependent on the morphology of the metal oxide nanostructures. Here we report a completely green approach to prepare indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticles using only water and cellulose nanofibril (CNF) in addition to the ITO precursor. Surface hydroxyl groups of the CNFs allow for efficient conjugation of ITO precursors (e.g., metal ions) in aqueous solution. The resulting CNF film allows for controllable spatial arrangement of metal oxide precursors, which results in tunable particle morphology (e.g., nanowires, nanospheres, and octahedral nanoparticles). Thesemore » ITO nanoparticles can also form conductive and transparent ITO films. This study opens a new perspective on developing metal oxide nanostructures.« less

  18. Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A.

    2014-07-28

    Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(SrO){sub x} were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T?=?20300?C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x?=?10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An unusual property of high level (x?=?10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100200?C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3??10{sup ?13}?cm{sup 2}/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

  19. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  20. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  1. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  2. KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    * ?a, a5 fF#LG 44 it .L &=d ,,*, " ~=iL.oeL~~ KENNECOTT COPPER CORPORATION 101 EAST 42.. STREET $7/$ ,2 : -$ NEW YORU 17, N. Y. AND KOPPERS COMPAN,Y, INC. KOppERS B",'o,,,,G PITTSBURGH 19. PA. Classification Officer, OR0 October ,30, l!% ?!r. S. R. Saptile, Mmagez Oak Ridge Operations Office II. S. Atomic Enerfg Comission P. 0. BOX R. Oak Ridge, Tennessee Attention; Hr. John It. Moore, Director Contract Dltisloa Subjects Addendum (A) to F~oposal for a Feed Materials Processing

  3. Copper smelters and atmospheric visibility in the southwest, seasonal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nochumson, D.H.; Williams, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    Seasonal results from a study which evaluated the effects of sulfur oxides (SO/sub x/) emitted from 11 copper smelters on atmospheric visibility in 14 national parks and wilderness areas are presented. In addition two alternative strategies for controlling SO/sub x/ are compared. They are supplementary control systems (SCS) and continuous emission controls (CEC). The objective of each strategy is not to improve visibility but is to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/). SCS is a strategy that has been used by almost all of the 11 copper smelters. It reduces SO/sub x/ emissions during adverse meteorological conditions through production curtailment. SCS has not been successful at eliminating NAAQS violations. The emissions used for the SCS control alternative are based upon actual copper smelter SO/sub x/ emissions and operating conditions during 1979. The year 1979 was selected because it is fairly representative of production levels, though highly variable, from 1965 to 1978 and copper smelter SO/sub x/ emissions during the latter half of the 1970s. In more recent years, the copper industry has been economically depressed and copper smelter production and SO/sub x/ emissions have been lower. The southwestern states are implementing the CEC strategy to control SO/sub x/ emissions from copper smelters as part of their state implementation plans. For production levels typical of 1979, the CEC regulations would require about a two-thirds reduction in SO/sub x/ emissions from that allowed under SCS. The study estimates the effect of this reduction upon the improvement of visibility in southwestern national parks and wilderness areas.

  4. Control of copper smelter fugitive emissions. Final report Mar 76-Oct 79

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devitt, T.W.

    1980-05-01

    This report deals with fugitive emissions from copper smelting and with related emission control measures. The study involved evaluation of the controls now used in the copper smelting industry and development of suggestions for alternative control devices and practices. A brief overview of copper smelting processes is followed by a more detailed analysis of the conventional processes identifying portions of the operating cycle that produce fugitive emissions. Emphasis is placed on Pierce-Smith Converting which is one of the major emission sources in copper smelting. Some alternate processes now in limited use in the U.S. are described including estimations of fugitive emissions from these conventional and alternative copper smelting processes. A specific report on the utilization of the Hoboken Converter is being prepared at the time of this report. The USEPA should be contacted if a copy of this report is desired.

  5. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated iron with an aluminum sulfide ferrous sulfide flux.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.; Energy Technology

    1998-04-01

    Scrap iron and steel have long been considered as resources in the steelmaking industry, and their value is largely determined by the impurity content. Copper is a particularly troublesome impurity because of its role in causing hot shortness and should be kept below ==0.1 wt pct. A method for reducing copper content in steel to <0.1 wt pct could lead to increased use of lower-quality scrap.

  6. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  7. Hydrogenation of palladium rich compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H.

    2010-02-15

    Palladium rich intermetallic compounds of aluminium, gallium and indium have been studied before and after hydrogenation by powder X-ray diffraction and during hydrogenation by in situ thermal analysis (DSC) at hydrogen gas pressures up to 39 MPa and temperatures up to 700 K. Very weak DSC signals and small unit cell increases of below 1% for AlPd{sub 2}, AlPd{sub 3}, GaPd{sub 2}, Ga{sub 5}Pd{sub 13}, In{sub 3}Pd{sub 5}, and InPd{sub 2} suggest negligible hydrogen uptake. In contrast, for both tetragonal modifications of InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} and TiAl{sub 3} type), heating to 523 K at 2 MPa hydrogen pressure leads to a rearrangement of the intermetallic structure to a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type with an increase in unit cell volume per formula unit by 3.6-3.9%. Gravimetric analysis suggests a composition InPd{sub 3}H{sub a}pprox{sub 0.8} for the hydrogenation product. Very similar behaviour is found for the deuteration of InPd{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: In situ differential scanning calorimetry of the hydrogenation of tetragonal InPd{sub 3} (ZrAl{sub 3} type) at 1.3 MPa hydrogen pressure.

  8. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  9. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Users The facility has been used for more than a decade by a virtual Who's Who of the semiconductor industry to simulate the potential failures posed by cosmic-ray-induced neutrons upon miniature electronic devices, such as chips that help control aircraft or complex integrated circuits in automobiles. Industrial User Information The Neutron and Nuclear Science (WNR) Facility welcomes proposals for beam time experiments from industry users. Proprietary and non-proprietary industrial

  10. The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The Type Zero Copper Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The New Face of Protein-bound Copper: The Type Zero Copper Site Nature adapts copper ions to a multitude of tasks, yet in doing so forces the metal into only a few different ...

  11. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  12. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  13. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0νββ). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  14. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Davis, John W.

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  15. Vapor phase tri-methyl-indium seeding system suitable for high temperature spectroscopy and thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiddon, R.; Zhou, B.; Borggren, J.; Aldén, M.; Li, Z. S.

    2015-09-15

    Tri-methyl-indium (TMI) is used as an indium transport molecule to introduce indium atoms to reactive hot gas flows/combustion environments for spectroscopic diagnostics. A seeding system was constructed to allow the addition of an inert TMI laden carrier gas into an air/fuel mixture burning consequently on a burner. The amount of the seeded TMI in the carrier gas can be readily varied by controlling the vapor pressure through the temperature of the container. The seeding process was calibrated using the fluorescent emission intensity from the indium 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions as a function of the calculated TMI seeding concentration over a range of 2–45 ppm. The response was found to be linear over the range 3–22.5 ppm; at concentrations above 25 ppm there is a loss of linearity attributable to self-absorption or loss of saturation of TMI vapor pressure in the carrier gas flow. When TMI was introduced into a post-combustion environment via an inert carrier gas, molecular transition from InH and InOH radicals were observed in the flame emission spectrum. Combined laser-induced fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy were applied to detect indium atoms in the TMI seeded flame and the measured atomic indium concentration was found to be at the ppm level. This method of seeding organometallic vapor like TMI to a reactive gas flow demonstrates the feasibility for quantitative spectroscopic investigations that may be applicable in various fields, e.g., chemical vapor deposition applications or temperature measurement in flames with two-line atomic fluorescence.

  16. Evaluation of Models for Solubility and Volatility of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; COPPER; COPPER COMPOUNDS; EVALUATION; POWER PLANTS; SOLUBILITY; STEAM; STEAM GENERATION; VOLATILITY; WATER

  17. Copper recycling project in Japan: Super smelter and super dust concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Masafumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishimura, Yuuji

    1995-12-31

    The aim in this project was to develop a new copper refining technology utilizing pyrometallurgical treatment and a raw materials preparation technique. In the recycling process, raw material is not an idealized concentrate of copper sulfide but is composed of various types of scrap, industrial wastes such as sludge, ash and slag, and municipal wastes. Since the authors cannot expect oxidation heat in this process as in sulfide smelting, organic materials are viewed as an alternative energy source. Quality of the copper produced is targeted as 99.99% and an intermediate grade will also be marketable. To benefit the plant, rare metals and other nonferrous metals will also be recovered. The overall system is described in this paper, specific topics outlined and preliminary research presented. Current Japanese technology for recycling copper based materials is briefly reviewed.

  18. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Koliwad, Krishna M.; Daud, Taher

    1981-01-01

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  19. Novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McColl, W.B.; Ching, H.; Bosch, R.; Brake, M.; Gilgenbach, R.

    1990-12-31

    Microwave and intense electron beam excitation of copper vapor are being investigated to be used in copper vapor lasers for isotope separation. Both methods use copper chloride vapor by heating copper chloride. Helium was used as the buffer gas at 2 to 100 torr. In the microwave system, intense copperlines at 510 nm and 578 nm were observed. Initial electron beam results indicate that light emission follows the beam current.

  20. Copper (II) chloride-tetrachloroaluminate battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erbacher, J.K.; Hussey, C.L.; King, L.A.

    1980-06-10

    A pelletized, light weight, thermal battery having copper (II) chloride and an alkali tetrachloroaluminate as electrolytic components is disclosed.

  1. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2010-01-08

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  2. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2009-06-09

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  3. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

  4. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1989-05-23

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

  5. Liquid precursor for deposition of indium selenide and method of preparing the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-22

    Liquid precursors containing indium and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and method of depositing a liquid precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  6. Time-resolved photoluminescence of ytterbium in indium phosphide. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bumgarner, T.F.

    1988-12-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence of ytterbium (Yb) implanted in indium phosphide (Inp) was the primary emphasis of this research. The decay lifetimes of the 1002-nm Yb emission were investigated as a function of temperature. Initial attempts were made to investigate as a function of temperature. Initial attempts were made to investigate aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) implanted with ytterbium.

  7. Industrial Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Permit Industrial Permit The Industrial Permit authorizes the Laboratory to discharge point-source effluents under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. October 15, 2012 Outfall from the Laboratory's Data Communications Center cooling towers Intermittent flow of discharged water from the Laboratory's Data Communications Center eventually reaches perennial segment of Sandia Canyon during storm events (Outfall 03A199). Contact Environmental Communication & Public

  8. Industry Economists

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industry Economists The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the Industry Economist, whose work is associated with the performance of economic analyses using economic techniques. Responsibilities: Industry Economists perform or participate in one or more of the following

  9. OTHER INDUSTRIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AMO funded research results in novel technologies in diverse industries beyond the most energy intensive ones within the U.S. Manufacturing sector. These technologies offer quantifiable energy...

  10. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Users - Media Publications and Information The Invisible Neutron Threat Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices Nuclear Science Research at the LANSCE-WNR...

  11. Tetraphenylphosphonium copper(I) dicyanamide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlueter, J. A.; Geiser, U.; Materials Science Division

    2007-01-01

    In the title compound, {l_brace}(C{sub 24}H{sub 20}P)[Cu(C{sub 2}N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}, the copper(I) dicyanamide anion forms a distorted three-dimensional single diamondoid network. Templating tetraphenylphosphonium cations reside within the cavities of the polymeric anion.

  12. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  13. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  14. Identification of copper-copper and copper-hydrogen complexes in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2013-02-15

    The centers formed in silicon as a result of interaction between the substitutional copper impurity (Cu{sub s}) and interstitial copper (Cu{sub i}) or hydrogen (H) atoms, which are mobile at room temperature, are investigated in this study using the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. It is shown that a well-known photoluminescence center, which includes four copper atoms, is formed from Cu{sub s} via the subsequent addition of Cu{sub i}. Both intermediate complexes (Cu{sub s}-Cu{sub i} and Cu{sub s}-2Cu{sub i}) are identified by their deep levels in the lower half of the band gap. It is found that Cu{sub s} atoms form complexes with one, two, and three hydrogen atoms, with Cu{sub s}-H and Cu{sub s}-2H being electrically active. It is noted that the addition of either hydrogen or copper has a similar effect on the deep-level structure of Cu{sub s}.

  15. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  16. Effects of copper on immune system parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dethloff, G.M.; Bailey, H.C.

    1998-09-01

    Agricultural, urban, industrial, and mining sources release metals into waterways. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on integrated physiological processes in fish, such as immunocompetency, are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of a range of sublethal copper concentrations on Shasta-strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in soft water. Trout were sampled after 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of exposure to copper. The percentage of monocytes was consistently elevated at 26.9 {micro}g Cu/L, and the percentage of lymphocytes was decreased. A consistent increase in the percentage of neutrophils occurred at 26.9 and 6.4 {micro}g Cu/L. Respiratory burst activity was decreased for all concentrations at all sampling days, but a significant reduction occurred only at 14 and 21 d of exposure to copper. B-like cell proliferation was decreased by exposure to the higher copper concentrations. Proliferation results, however, had high variability. T-like cell proliferation and phagocytosis were not altered. Hepatic copper concentration was consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 {micro}g Cu/L; no correlation was found between hepatic copper concentration and the immune system responses investigated. Consistent alterations in immunological parameters suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of chronic metal toxicity in natural systems.

  17. Industry Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cell and biogas industries perspectives. Presented by Mike Hicks, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  18. Industry @ ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry @ ALS Industry @ ALS Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 11:21 For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research, including vanadium dioxide phase transitions and atomic movement during memristor operation. Summary Slide Read more... ALS, Molecular Foundry,

  19. Solar cogeneration for copper smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curto, P.; Gillespie, A.

    1981-01-01

    Work is reported on designing a system for solar repowering of a cogenerating flash smelting furnace that produces copper and sulfuric acid. Smelter energy requirements are listed and the proposed project is described. Several modifications to existing equipment and additional investment in the plant are listed that are necessary as a result of the solar power system improvement. Expected enhancements of the smelting process performance are discussed and the economics of the project are examined. (LEW)

  20. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Fatih Kilicaslan, M.; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.

  1. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  2. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more » With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  3. Temperature sensibility of the birefringence properties in side-hole photonic crystal fiber filled with Indium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes-Vera, Erick Gmez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Chesini, Giancarlo; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Torres, Pedro

    2014-11-17

    We report on the temperature sensitivity of the birefringence properties of a special kind of photonic crystal fiber containing two side holes filled with Indium metal. The modulation of the fiber birefringence is accomplished through the stress field induced by the expansion of the metal. Although the fiber was made at low gas pressures during the indium infiltration process, the birefringence showed anomalous property at a relatively low temperature value, which is completely different from those reported in conventional-like fibers with two holes filled with metal. By modeling the anisotropic changes induced by the metal expansion to the refractive index within the fiber, we are able to reproduce the experimental results. Our results have practical relevance for the design of devices based on this technology.

  4. Synthesis and Raman spectrum of crystalline indium oxide micro-rods with rectangular cross-section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Kavita Mehta, B. R. Singh, J. P.

    2014-04-24

    Indium oxide (IO) micro-rods with rectangular cross section were synthesized without catalyst in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system by carbothermal reduction of indium oxide at 900 °C. The rectangular micro-rods (RMRs) were grown on Si substrate in presence of water vapors and Ar atmosphere. Water was used as oxidizing reagent which controls the In/O stoichiometry in RMRs. The IO RMRs have dimensions of about 20 μm in length and about 1 μm width. The growth process involved in formation of RMRs is vapor-solid (VS) mechanism. Raman analysis was performed to obtain the phonon modes of the RMRs and the peaks of Raman spectrum were indexed to the modes being associated with bcc−In{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  6. Health risks associated with residence near a primary copper smelter: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, M.E.; Guidotti, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality for three groups of ICD codes covering acute, chronic, and malignant respiratory diseases were studied for adult white women in communities near or adjacent to primary copper smelting facilities in the United States between 1968 and 1975, a period when women had not as yet entered the industrial work force. A previous comprehensive survey, sponsored by the EPA, of all U.S. counties used multiple regression analysis as a method of statistical surveillance to assess the association of mortality with industrial activity. This preliminary study suggested an excess mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases in copper mining and smelting counties. We directly examined town mortality rates for white female residents, aged 35 to 74, in eight U.S. copper smelting communities and compared them to demographically and geographically matched communities without industries likely to produce significant air pollution, using death certificates obtained from state sources. Site-specific air quality data were also obtained for these communities. Our direct examination of community death rates for copper smelting towns confirmed the preliminary observation at the county level of an excess risk from acute respiratory diseases but did not detect evidence of an elevated mortality from chronic respiratory diseases or cancer of the respiratory tract.

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of highly crystalline copper nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Gupta, Tanish; Kumar, Akshay; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Karamjeet; Thakur, Anup

    2015-05-15

    Copper nanowires were fabricated within the pores of anodic alumina template (AAT) by template synthesis method at pH = 2.9. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to investigate the structure, morphology and composition of fabricated nanowires. These characterizations revealed that the deposited copper nanowires were highly crystalline in nature, dense and uniform. The crystalline copper nanowires are promising in application of future nanoelectronic devices and circuits.

  8. Novel solar light driven photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate for photodegradation of aqueous phenol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahapure, Sonali A.; Ambekar, Jalindar D.; Nikam, Latesh K.; Marimuthu, R.; Kulkarni, Milind V.

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: Novel photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate (ZnIn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9}) demonstrated and showed an excellent photocatalytic activity for phenol degradation under visible light. Research highlights: {yields} Designing and identification of a photocatalyst having prospective potential application to be used in visible light (400-800 nm). {yields} Successful synthesis of novel ZnIn{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 9} by solid state route. {yields} Confirmation of the designed product using characterization techniques. {yields} Application study comprising photodegradation of aqueous phenol at visible light despite of UV radiations. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, we have demonstrated the synthesis of novel photocatalyst, zinc indium vanadate (ZIV) by solid-solid state route using respective oxides of zinc, indium and vanadium. This novel photocatalyst was characterized using XRD, FESEM, UV-DRS and FTIR in order to investigate its structural, morphological and optical properties. XRD clearly shows the formation of phase pure ZIV of triclinic crystal structure with good crystallinity. FESEM micrographs showed the clustered morphology having particle size between 0.5 and 1 {mu}m. Since, optical study showed the band gap around 2.8 eV, i.e. in visible region, we have performed the photocatalytic activity of phenol degradation under visible light irradiation. The photodecomposition of phenol by ZIV is studied for the first time and an excellent photocatalytic activity was obtained using this novel photocatalyst. Considering the band gap of zinc indium vanadate in visible region, it will also be the potential candidate for water splitting.

  9. Indium diffusion through high-k dielectrics in high-k/InP stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; Cabrera, W.; Santosh KC,; Brennan, B.; Qin, X.; McDonnell, S.; Hinkle, C. L.; Cho, K.; Chabal, Y. J.; Galatage, R. V.; Zhernokletov, D.; Wallace, R. M.; Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080

    2013-08-05

    Evidence of indium diffusion through high-k dielectric (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}) films grown on InP (100) by atomic layer deposition is observed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The analysis establishes that In-out diffusion occurs and results in the formation of a PO{sub x} rich interface.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): a possible cause of lung cancer mortality among nickel/copper smelter and refinery workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, D.K.; Julian, J.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Muir, D.C.; Jadon, N.; Shaw, D.S. )

    1992-05-01

    A retrospective industrial hygiene investigation was undertaken to explain the cause of a statistically significant excess lung cancer mortality observed in a subset of a large cohort of nickel workers involved in mining, smelting, and refining of nickel and copper in Ontario. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate how an industrial hygiene follow-up assessment of an epidemiologic finding can help to identify a likely cause. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) alone or in association with particulate and gaseous contaminants (e.g., SO2) were likely the causative agents of the excess lung cancer observed among the lead welders, cranemen, and arc furnace workers of the copper refinery.

  11. Predicting Magnetic Behavior in Copper Oxide Superconductors...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Predicting Magnetic Behavior in Copper Oxide Superconductors New theoretical techniques ... Accurate theoretical calculations could open the door for discovery of new materials in ...

  12. An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts An Atomic-Level Understanding of Copper-Based Catalysts Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 12:20 Copper-based catalysts are widely ...

  13. Commercial / Industrial Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Commercial & Industrial Lighting Efficiency Program The Commercial & Industrial...

  14. Environmental assessment for the recycling of slightly activated copper coil windings from the 184-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    The proposed action is to recycle slightly activated copper that is currently stored in a warehouse leased by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) to a scrap metal dealer. Subsequent reutilization of the copper would be unrestricted. This document addresses the potential environmental effects of recycling and reutilizing the activated copper. In addition, the potential environmental effects of possible future uses by the dealer are addressed. Direct environmental effects from the proposed action are assessed, such as air emissions from reprocessing the activated copper, as well as indirect beneficial effects, such as averting air emissions that would result from mining and smelting an equivalent quantity of copper ore. Evaluation of the human health impacts of the proposed action focuses on the pertinent issues of radiological doses and protection of workers and the public. Five alternatives to the proposed action are considered, and their associated potential impacts are addressed. The no-action alternative is the continued storage of the activated copper at the LBL warehouse. Two recycling alternatives are considered: recycling the activated copper at the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) facility for re-use at a DOE facility and selling or giving the activated copper to a foreign government. In addition, two disposal alternatives evaluate the impacts attributable to disposing of the activated copper either at a local sanitary landfill or at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Site. The proposed project and alternatives include no new construction or development of new industry.

  15. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other.

  16. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. ...

  17. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of ... The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 ...

  18. COPPER-ASSISTED, ANTI-REFLECTION ETCHING OF SILICON SURFACES...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search COPPER-ASSISTED, ... The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 ...

  19. AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting AMO Director Delivers Keynote at Copper Development Association Spring Meeting June 29, 2016 - 4:40pm Addthis AMO ...

  20. Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils Technology available for licensing: A method for coating a ceramic film on copper foil. Process creates higher performing and ...

  1. Exciton-Exciton Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine Single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exciton-Exciton Annihilation in Copper-Phthalocyanine ...

  2. Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating Cavities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling of Electromagnetic Heating in RF Copper Accelerating ...

  3. Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Single-Phase Copper Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microstructural Effects on Void Nucleation in Single-Phase Copper Polycrystals You are ...

  4. Common Sense Copper and RF Guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulhollan, G.

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this document is to gather together both fundamental information on copper and on the cleaning and operation of copper in RF gun structures. While incomplete, this is a living document and will be added to and updated as necessary.

  5. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-07-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  6. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  7. Copper and organisms in the Fly River: Linking laboratory testing and field responses to copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.E.W.; Ahsanullah, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Ok Tedi copper mine has operated in the headwaters of the Fly River system in Papua New Guinea since 1984, and has discharged both tailings and waste rock into the river system. ANCOVA modelling of total catches of fish by standardized effort indicated that the suspended particulate copper concentration was negatively correlated with fish catches, but that the concentrations of suspended solids and dissolved copper were not significantly related to fish catches. Multivariate analyses of fish catch compositions have indicated that the effects caused by dissolved and particulate copper have differed, and that the observed changes in fish catch composition have trended in a direction similar to the particulate copper vectors. The types of catch composition changes do not match the natural assemblages found to be associated with high uncontaminated suspended solids concentrations. Laboratory toxicity testing of native fish, prawns, cladocerans, mayflies, algae and higher plants has demonstrated that the dissolved copper concentrations in the Fly River system ({approximately}up to 20 pg/L) have low bioavailability and would not be expected to cause acute toxicity. Provided the dissolved copper concentration is in this range, particulate copper, as derived from mine wastes, has low acute and chronic toxicity at concentrations up to 8.5 times observed levels. Hypotheses put forward to explain the apparent paradox include: total particulate copper is a better measure of the toxic fraction of dissolved copper than is the concentration of copper passing a 0.45 {micro}m filter; or that fish are able to avoid particulate copper when the associated dissolved copper concentrations are less than the detectable threshold. Behavioral toxicity testing is being used to test these hypotheses.

  8. Copper removal from solid ferrous scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fruehan, R.J.; Cramb, A.W.

    1991-04-01

    As discussed in detail in the Appendix, copper is detrimental to the properties of steel. Copper is present in most forms of recycled scrap, such as bundles and shredded scrap. Typical levels of copper in these forms of scrap are 0.2 to 0.4%, whereas critical grades of steel require less than 0.1 and often 0.06% Cu. Therefore, these forms of scrap cannot be used alone to produce quality steels. Steelmakers must dilute the copper from lower quality scrap with expensive high quality scrap or direct reduced iron pellets. Currently there is no effective method for removing copper from scrap. The only proven method is improved physical separation which is labor intensive, expensive, and only marginally reduces the copper content. Chemical treatments, such as sulfide treatment of liquid metal and vacuum, are not effective as discussed in the Appendix in detail. Carnegie Mellon University developed a concept for removing copper from solid ferrous scrap at 900--1000{degrees}C using a FeS-Na{sub 2}S reagent. Small laboratory tests showed 90% of the Cu from simulated solid scrap could be removed. The major results of this study are summarized in this report. Details are given in the reports in the Appendix.

  9. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chan-Shan; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Pan, Ru-Pin; Yu, Peichen; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2014-04-07

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  10. Using indium tin oxide material to implement the imaging of microwave plasma ignition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qiang; Hou, Lingyun; Zhang, Guixin Zhang, Boya; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Zhi; Huang, Jian

    2014-02-17

    In this paper, a method is introduced to get global observation of microwave plasma ignition process at high pressure. A microwave resonator was designed with an indium tin oxide coated glass at bottom. Microwave plasma ignition was implemented in methane and air mixture at 10 bars by a 2?ms-3?kW-2.45?GHz microwave pulse, and the high speed images of the ignition process were obtained. The images visually proved that microwave plasma ignition could lead to a multi-point ignition. The system may also be applied to obtain Schlieren images, which is commonly used to observe the development of flame kernel in an ignition process.

  11. Alternating layers of plutonium and lead or indium as surrogate for plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudin, Sven Peter

    2009-01-01

    Elemental plutonium (Pu) assumes more crystal structures than other elements, plausibly due to bonding f electrons becoming non-bonding. Complex geometries hamper understanding of the transition in Pu, but calculations predict this transition in a system with simpler geometry: alternating layers either of plutonium and lead or of plutonium and indium. Here the transition occurs via a pairing-up of atoms within Pu layers. Calculations stepping through this pairing-up reveal valuable details of the transition, for example that the transition from bonding to non-bonding proceeds smoothly.

  12. Real-time x-ray studies of indium island growth kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demasi, Alexander; Rainville, Meliha G.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2015-03-15

    The authors have investigated the early stages of indium island formation and growth by vapor phase deposition on room temperature sapphire using real-time grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS), followed by ex-situ atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results are consistent with the formation and coalescence of hemispherical islands, as described by Family and Meakin. Monte Carlo simulations of systems of coalescing islands were used to supplement and quantify the results of GISAXS, and a good agreement is seen between the data and the simulations.

  13. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30?V to 0.55?V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  14. Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowiresvia Chemical Vapor Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    2006-03-13

    We utilized a vapor-liquid-solid growth technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tin oxide nanowires using chemical vapor transport with gold nanoparticles as the catalyst. Using identical growth parameters we were able to synthesize single crystal nanowires typically 40-100 nm diameter and more than 10-100 microns long. The products were characterized by means of XRD, SEM and HRTEM. All the wires were grown under the same growth conditions with growth rates inversely proportional to the source metal vapor pressure. Initial experiments show that different transparent oxide nanowires can be grown simultaneously on a single substrate with potential application for multi-component gas sensors.

  15. Industry Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    idatech.com info@idatech.com 63065 NE 18 th Street Bend, OR 97701 541.383.3390 Industry Perspective Biogas and Fuel Cell Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory June 11 - 13, 2012 Mike Hicks Chairman of the Board of Directors, FCHEA Treasurer of the Board of Directors, FCS&E Engineering Manager, Technology Development & Integration, IdaTech Outline 1. Critical Factors * Fuel Purity * Fuel Cost 2. Natural Gas - The Wild Card & Competition 3. IdaTech's Experience Implementing

  16. Industrial recovered-materials-utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-03-01

    The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 directs DOE to set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials for certain industries. These targets are to be established at levels representing the maximum feasible increase in utilization of recovered materials that can be achieved progressively by January 1, 1987 and is consistent with technical and economic factors. A benefit to be derived from the increased use of recoverable materials is in energy savings, as state in the Act. Therefore, emhasis on different industries in the metals sector has been related to their energy consumption. The ferrous industry (iron and steel, ferrour foundries and ferralloys), as defined here, accounts for approximately 3%, and all others for the remaining 3%. Energy consumed in the lead and zinc segments is less than 1% each. Emphasis is placed on the ferrous scrap users, followed by the aluminum and copper industries. A bibliography with 209 citations is included.

  17. Effect of indium and antimony doping in SnS single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaki, Sunil H. Chaudhary, Mahesh D.; Deshpande, M.P.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystals growth of pure SnS, indium doped SnS and antimony doped SnS by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. • Doping of In and Sb occurred in SnS single crystals by cation replacement. • The replacement mechanism ascertained by EDAX, XRD and substantiated by Raman spectra analysis. • Dopants concentration affects the optical energy bandgap. • Doping influences electrical transport properties. - Abstract: Single crystals of pure SnS, indium (In) doped SnS and antimony (Sb) doped SnS were grown by direct vapour transport (DVT) technique. Two doping concentrations of 5% and 15% each were employed for both In and Sb dopants. Thus in total five samples were studied viz., pure SnS (S1), 5% In doped SnS (S2), 15% In doped SnS (S3), 5% Sb doped SnS (S4) and 15% Sb doped SnS (S5). The grown single crystal samples were characterized by evaluating their surface microstructure, stoichiometric composition, crystal structure, Raman spectroscopy, optical and electrical transport properties using appropriate techniques. The d.c. electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power variations with temperature showed semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The room temperature Hall Effect measurements further substantiated the semiconducting and p-type nature of the as-grown single crystal samples. The obtained results are deliberated in detail.

  18. Copper mercaptides as sulfur dioxide indicators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eller, Phillip G.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    1979-01-01

    Organophosphine copper(I) mercaptide complexes are useful as convenient and semiquantitative visual sulfur dioxide gas indicators. The air-stable complexes form 1:1 adducts in the presence of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide gas, with an associated color change from nearly colorless to yellow-orange. The mercaptides are made by mixing stoichiometric amounts of the appropriate copper(I) mercaptide and phosphine in an inert organic solvent.

  19. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-12

    The Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scales. The copper-dye Laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages {approximately}9000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <{lambda}/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. The dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz.

  20. The copper-pumped dye laser system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hackel, R.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-12

    The Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program has developed a high-average-power, pulsed, tunable, visible laser system. Testing of this hardware is in progress at industrial scales. The copper-dye Laser system is prototypical of a basic module of a uranium-AVLIS plant The laser demonstration facility (LDF) system consists of copper vapor lasers arranged in oscillator-amplifier chains providing optical pump power to dye-laser master-oscillator-power-amplifier chains. This system is capable of thousands of watts (average) tunable between 550 and 650 mm. The copper laser system consists of 12 chains operating continuously. The copper lasers operate at nominally 4.4 kHz, with 50 ns pulse widths and produce 20 W at near the diffraction limit from oscillators and >250 W from each amplifier. Chains consist of an oscillator and three amplifiers and produce >750 W average, with availabilities >95% (i.e., >8300 h/y). The total copper laser system power averages [approximately]9000 W and has operated at over 10,000 W for extended intervals. The 12 copper laser beams are multiplexed and delivered to the dye laser system where they pump multiple dye laser chains. Each dye chain consists of a master oscillator and three or four power amplifiers. The master oscillator operates at nominally 100 mW with a 50 MHz single mode bandwidth. Sustained dye chain powers are up to 1400 W with dye conversion efficiency >50%, ASE content <5%, and wavefront quality correctable to <[lambda]/10 RMS, using deformable mirrors. The dye laser system is capable of repetition rates which are multiples of 4.4 kHz, up to 26 kHz.

  1. Industrial Carbon Management Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- July 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- July 2015 Read the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- July 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers Quarterly Update, July 2015 (845.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Industrial Assessment Centers Update, Fall 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers Quarterly Update, Spring 2014 IAC Factsheet

    Industrial Assessment Centers Update, Fall 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers

  2. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  3. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-15

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 {epsilon}/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1} on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  4. Indium oxide thin film as potential photoanodes for corrosion protection of stainless steel under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jianqiang; Sun, Kai; Zhu, Yukun; Bu, Yuyu; Chen, Zhuoyuan

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: If the conduction band potential of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} is more negative than the corrosion potential of stainless steel, photo-induced electrons will be transferred from In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the steel, thus shifting the potential of the steel into a corrosion immunity region and preventing the steel from the corrosion. - Highlights: • Indium oxide performed novel application under visible light. • Indium oxide by sol–gel method behaved better photoelectrochemical properties. • Electrons were transferred to stainless steel from indium oxide once light on. - Abstract: This paper reports the photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of 304 stainless steel by In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin-film under visible-light. The films were fabricated with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, synthesized by both sol–gel (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg) and solid-state (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss) processes. The photo-induced open circuit potential and the photo-to-current efficiency measurements suggested that In{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be a promising candidate material for photoelectrochemical cathodic protection of metallic alloys under visible light. Moreover, the polarization curve experimental results indicated that In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film can mitigate the corrosion potential of 304 stainless steel to much more negative values with a higher photocurrent density than the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss film under visible-light illumination. All the results demonstrated that the In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg thin-film provides a better photoelectrochemical cathodic protection for 304 stainless steel than In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ss thin-film under visible-light illumination. The higher photoelectrochemical efficiency is possibly due to the uniform thin films produced with the smaller particle size of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-sg, which facilitates the transfer of the photo-induced electrons from bulk to the surface and suppresses the charge recombination of the electrons and holes.

  5. Copper corrosion and its relationship to solar collectors:a compendium.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.; Mahoney, Alan Roderick

    2007-07-01

    Copper has many fine qualities that make it a useful material. It is highly conductive of both heat and electricity, is ductile and workable, and reasonably resistant to corrosion. Because of these advantages, the solar water heating industry has been using it since the mid-1970s as the material of choice for collectors, the fundamental component of a solar water heating system. In most cases copper has performed flawlessly, but in some situations it has been known to fail. Pitting corrosion is the usual failure mode, but erosion can also occur. In 2000 Sandia National Laboratories and the Copper Development Association were asked to analyze the appearance of pin-hole leaks in solar collector units installed in a housing development in Arizona, and in 2002 Sandia analyzed a pitting corrosion event that destroyed a collector system at Camp Pendleton. This report includes copies of the reports and accounts of these corrosion failures, and provides a bibliography with references to many papers and articles that might be of benefit to the solar community. It consolidates in a single source information that has been accumulated at Sandia relative to copper corrosion, especially as it relates to solar water heaters.

  6. Organic ligands reduce copper toxicity in Pseudomonas syringae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azenha, M.; Vasconcelos, M.T.; Cabral, J.P.S.

    1995-03-01

    Pseudomonas syringae cells were exposed to 100 {mu}M copper alone, or to previously equilibrated copper sulfate-ligand solutions. Ligand concentrations were determined experimentally as those that reduced the free copper concentration to 5 {mu}M (determined with a Cu{sup 2+}-selective electrode). These values were in agreement with those calculated by computational equilibrium simulation based on published stability constants. Exposure of P. syringae cells to copper sulfate, chloride, or nitrate resulted in similar high mortality, suggesting that copper was responsible for cell death. Acetate, succinate, proline, lysine, cysteine, and EDTA significantly reduced both the amount of copper bound to the cells and cell death, indicating that not only strong chelating agents but also weak and moderate copper ligands can effectively antagonize copper toxicity. However, cysteine and EDTA were considerably more effective than acetate, succinate, proline, and lysine, indicating that copper toxicity is not simply a function of free copper concentration but depends on the nature of the ligand. The results suggested that a significant fraction of copper bound to acetate, succinate, proline, or lysine was displaced to the bacteria or, alternatively, mixed copper-ligand-cell complexes could be formed. On the contrary, none of these phenomena occurred for the copper complexes with cysteine or EDTA.

  7. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  8. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, Andr

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 ?cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.

  9. Optimisation of the material properties of indium tin oxide layers for use in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doggart, P.; Bristow, N.; Kettle, J.

    2014-09-14

    The influence of indium tin oxide [(In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Sn), ITO] material properties on the output performance of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices has been modelled and investigated. In particular, the effect of altering carrier concentration (n), thickness (t), and mobility (?{sub e}) in ITO films and their impact on the optical performance, parasitic resistances and overall efficiency in OPVs was studied. This enables optimal values of these parameters to be calculated for solar cells made with P3HT:PC{sub 61}BM and PCPDTBT:PC{sub 71}BM active layers. The optimal values of n, t and ?{sub e} are not constant between different OPV active layers and depend on the absorption spectrum of the underlying active layer material system. Consequently, design rules for these optimal values as a function of donor bandgap in bulk-heterojunction active layers have been formulated.

  10. Ferromagnetism of manganese-doped indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Isozaki, Shinichi; Tanabe, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2009-04-01

    Mn-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of the films deposited on PEN substrates were investigated by comparing with the properties of films grown on glass substrates at the same growth conditions. Thin films on PEN substrates exhibited low electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and high optical transmittance between 75% and 90% in the visible region. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature for the samples grown on PEN substrates. Mn-doped ITO films can be one of the most promising candidates of transparent ferromagnetic materials for flexible spintronic devices.

  11. Effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of heteroepitaxial indium phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J.

    1990-12-01

    Metallorganic chemical-vapor-deposited heteroepitaxial indium phosphide (InP) solar cell experimental results were simulated by using a PC-1D computer model. The effect of emitter parameter variation on the performance of n(+)/p/p(+) heteroepitaxial InP/GaAs solar cell was presented. The thinner and lighter doped emitters were observed to offer higher cell efficiencies. The influence of emitter thickness and minority carrier diffusion length on the cell efficiency with respect to dislocation density was studied. Heteroepitaxial cells with efficiencies similar to present day homojunction InP efficiencies (greater than 16 percent AMO) were shown to be attainable if a dislocation density lower than 10(exp 6)/sq cm could be achieved. A realistic optimized design study yielded InP solar cells of over 22 percent AMO efficiency at 25 C.

  12. Phosphonic Acid Functionalized Asymmetric Phthalocyanines: Synthesis, Modification of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), and Charge Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polaske, Nathan W.; Lin, Hsiao-Chu; Tang, Anna; Mayukh, Mayank; Oquendo, Luis E.; Green, John; Ratcliff, Erin L.; Armstrong, Neal R.; Saavedra, S. Scott; McGrath, Dominic V.

    2011-12-20

    Metalated and free-base A?B-type asymmetric phthalocyanines (Pcs) bearing, in the asymmetric quadrant, a flexible alkyl linker of varying chain lengths terminating in a phosphonic acid (PA) group have been synthesized. Two parallel series of asymmetric Pc derivatives bearing aryloxy and arylthio substituents are reported, and their synthesis and characterization through NMR, combustion analysis, and MALDI-MS are described. We also demonstrate the modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using the PA functionalized asymmetric Pc derivatives and monitoring their electrochemistry. The PA functionalized asymmetric Pcs were anchored to the ITO surface through chemisorption and their electrochemical properties characterized using cyclic voltammetry to investigate the effects of PA structure on the thermodynamics and kinetics of charge transfer. Ionization energies of the modified ITO surfaces were measured using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy.

  13. Indium tin oxide nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for near-field radiative heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta Wang, Liping

    2015-02-07

    We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowire arrays which behave as type 1 and 2 hyperbolic metamaterials. Using spatial dispersion dependent effective medium theory to model the dielectric function of the nanowires, the impact of filling fraction on the heat transfer is analyzed. Depending on the filling fraction, it is possible to achieve both types of hyperbolic modes. At 150?nm vacuum gap, the heat transfer between the nanowires with 0.5 filling fraction can be 11 times higher than that between two bulk ITOs. For vacuum gaps less than 150?nm the heat transfer increases as the filling fraction decreases. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of ITO nanowires as hyperbolic metamaterials for energy systems.

  14. Defect structure of indium tin oxide and its relationship to conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, G. B.; Cohen, J. B.; Hwang, J.-H.; Mason, T. O.; Hodges, J. P.; Jorgensen, J. D.

    2000-05-09

    Doping In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with tin results in an improved transparent conducting oxide (TCO). Although indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most frequently used commercial TCO, its defect structure is still uncertain. Previously, its defect chemistry has been inferred based on the conductivity of the material. To directly study the defect structure of ITO, the authors prepared powders under different processing environments and performed neutron powder diffraction. Structural information was obtained by performing Rietveld analysis. The results include positions of the atoms, their thermal displacements, the fractional occupancy of the defect oxygen site, and the fractional occupancies of Sn on each of the two nonequivalent cation sites, showing a strong preference for the b site. These structural results are correlated with the measured electrical properties of the same samples.

  15. ZnO:H indium-free transparent conductive electrodes for active-matrix display applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shuming Wang, Sisi

    2014-12-01

    Transparent conductive electrodes based on hydrogen (H)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) have been proposed for active-matrix (AM) display applications. When fabricated with optimal H plasma power and optimal plasma treatment time, the resulting ZnO:H films exhibit low sheet resistance of 200 Ω/◻ and high average transmission of 85% at a film thickness of 150 nm. The demonstrated transparent conductive ZnO:H films can potentially replace indium-tin-oxide and serve as pixel electrodes for organic light-emitting diodes as well as source/drain electrodes for ZnO-based thin-film transistors. Use of the proposed ZnO:H electrodes means that two photomask stages can be removed from the fabrication process flow for ZnO-based AM backplanes.

  16. Exploration of Novel Reaction Pathway for Formation of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-03-121

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2014-11-01

    The investigation will explore a potentially low-cost method of forming CIGS for use in solar cells. Investigators from HelioVolt will work in NREL laboratories to modify and apply our tools in fabrication of the CIGS layer. Investigators from NREL will assist in preparing substrates and in compleing solar cells composed of these CIGS layers to evaluate the effectiveness of the HelioVolt processes.

  17. Partnerships For Industry - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    115.jpg Partnerships For Industry Connect With JCAP Contact Us Partnerships For Researchers Partnerships For Industry Visit JCAP Connect with JCAP Contact Us Partnerships For Researchers Partnerships For Industry Visit JCAP partnerships for industry JCAP has established an Industrial Partnership Program. For more information on Industrial Partnership Program or to learn more about other modes of industrial interactions with JCAP, please contact: California Institute of Technology Office of

  18. Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper is Key in Burning Fat, New Study Finds A new study led by a Berkeley Lab scientist ... Researchers want to explore if a copper deficiency is linked to obesity and obesity ...

  19. A Neutral Beam Pole Shield with Copper Plates and Serviceable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Neutral Beam Pole Shield with Copper Plates and Serviceable Molybdenum Inserts The copper pole shields for the neutral beam lines that have been in service at DIII-D have ...

  20. An Updated Assessment of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... LexisNexis search of U.S. newspapers and U.S. newswires. ... copper theft, if not in terms of absolute numbers, at ... how quickly thieves can enter and remove copper wire from ...

  1. Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Valley Elec Assn, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Copper Valley Elec Assn, Inc Place: Alaska Phone Number: Copper Basin: 907-822-3211 or Valdez: 907-835-4301 Website:...

  2. Copper uptake and regulation in a copper-tolerant decapod Cambarus bartoni (Fabricius)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zia, S.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Large amounts of acid forming sulfur dioxide, and heavy metals including copper, are continuously being released into the environment by mining and smelting operation at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Consequently, a number of lakes in this region have become acidic and metal stressed. In the current study the uptake and accumulation of copper by various tissues of a copper-tolerant crayfish, Cambarus bartoni, were monitored in the laboratory to ascertain the dynamic nature (i.e., the pattern in time) of responses of crayfish to increased levels of these two metals in the water.

  3. Indium out-diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks during anneal at different ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, Igor; Winter, Roy; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2014-06-16

    Indium out-diffusion during anneal enhances leakage currents in metal/dielectric/InGaAs gate stacks. In this work, we study the influence of ambient conditions during anneal on indium out-diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures, prior to the gate metal deposition. Using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry, we observed much lower indium concentrations in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer following vacuum and O{sub 2} anneals compared to forming gas or nitrogen anneals. The electrical characteristics of the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack following these pre-metallization anneals as well as after subsequent post metallization anneals are presented. Possible explanations for the role of the annealing ambient conditions on indium out-diffusion are presented.

  4. Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1983-06-01

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  5. Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1984-11-06

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  6. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  7. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  8. Increased p-type conductivity through use of an indium surfactant in the growth of Mg-doped GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, Erin C. H. Kaun, Stephen W.; Young, Erin C.; Speck, James S.

    2015-06-01

    We have examined the effect of an indium surfactant on the growth of p-type GaN by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. p-type GaN was grown at temperatures ranging from 700 to 780 °C with and without an indium surfactant. The Mg concentration in all films in this study was 4.5–6 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. All p-type GaN films grown with an indium surfactant had higher p-type conductivities and higher hole concentrations than similar films grown without an indium surfactant. The lowest p-type GaN room temperature resistivity was 0.59 Ω-cm, and the highest room temperature carrier concentration was 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}. Fits of the temperature-dependent carrier concentration data showed a one to two order of magnitude lower unintentional compensating defect concentration in samples grown with the indium surfactant. Samples grown at higher temperature had a lower active acceptor concentration. Improvements in band-edge luminescence were seen by cathodoluminescence for samples grown with the indium surfactant, confirming the trends seen in the Hall data.

  9. Formation of conductive copper lines by femtosecond laser irradiation of copper nitride film on plastic substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Yuan, Ningyi; Qiu, Jianhua; Ding, Jianning

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, we report a simple method to form conductive copper lines by scanning a single-beam femtosecond pulse laser on a plastic substrate covered with copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N) film. The Cu{sub 3}N films were prepared by DC magnetron sputtering in the presence of an Ar + N{sub 2} atmosphere at 100 °C. The influence of the laser power and scanning speed on the formed copper line width, surface features, and morphology was analyzed by means of optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, non-contact 3D profilometer, and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results demonstrate that low laser power and low scanning speed favor the formation of uniform and flat Cu lines. After process optimization, copper lines with a width less than 5 μm were obtained, which provides an attractive application prospect in the field of flexible electronic devices.

  10. Electric Utility Industry Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers significant electric industry trends and industry priorities with federal customers.

  11. Uranium industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-04-01

    This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

  12. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  13. Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends Despite a 54-percent increase in industrial shipments, industrial energy consumption increases by only 19 percent from 2009 to 2035 in the AEO2011 Reference case....

  14. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  15. Effect of temperature and rare-earth doping on charge-carrier mobility in indium-monoselenide crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdinov, A. Sh.; Babayeva, R. F.; Amirova, S. I.; Rzayev, R. M.

    2013-08-15

    In the temperature range T = 77-600 K, the dependence of the charge-carrier mobility ({mu}) on the initial dark resistivity is experimentally investigated at 77 K ({rho}d{sub 0}), as well as on the temperature and the level (N) of rare-earth doping with such elements as gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), and dysprosium (Dy) in n-type indium-monoselenide (InSe) crystals. It is established that the anomalous behavior of the dependences {mu}(T), {mu}({rho}d{sub 0}), and {mu}(N) found from the viewpoint of the theory of charge-carrier mobility in crystalline semiconductors is related, first of all, to partial disorder in indium-monoselenide crystals and can be attributed to the presence of random drift barriers in the free energy bands.

  16. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  17. LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd formerly LG Industrial Systems ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd formerly LG Industrial Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd (formerly LG Industrial Systems) Place: Anyang,...

  18. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.

    1985-03-01

    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  19. Users from Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Users from Industry Users from Industry Print The Advanced Light Source (ALS) welcomes industrial users from large and small companies whose projects advance scientific knowledge, investigate the development of new products and manufacturing methods, and/or provide economic benefits and jobs to the economy. The nature of industrial research can be different from traditional university and government sponsored projects, so the ALS has created unique opportunities for new and existing industrial

  20. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, André

    2012-11-26

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). In this study, it is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 x 10-5 Ωcm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80% from 500-1250 nmmore » (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.« less

  1. A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

  2. METHOD OF APPLYING COPPER COATINGS TO URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protecting metallic uranium, which comprises anodic etching of the uranium in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution containing chloride ions, cleaning the etched uranium in aqueous nitric acid solution, promptly electro-plating the cleaned uranium in a copper electro-plating bath, and then electro-plating thereupon lead, tin, zinc, cadmium, chromium or nickel from an aqueous electro-plating bath.

  3. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, T.W.; Ault, E.R.; Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment. 2 figs.

  4. Copper vapor laser modular packaging assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alger, Terry W.; Ault, Earl R.; Moses, Edward I.

    1992-01-01

    A modularized packaging arrangement for one or more copper vapor lasers and associated equipment is disclosed herein. This arrangement includes a single housing which contains the laser or lasers and all their associated equipment except power, water and neon, and means for bringing power, water, and neon which are necessary to the operation of the lasers into the container for use by the laser or lasers and their associated equipment.

  5. Rotating copper plasmoid in external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, Pramod K.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-02-15

    Effect of nonuniform magnetic field on the expanding copper plasmoid in helium and argon gases using optical emission spectroscopy and fast imaging is presented. We report a peculiar oscillatory rotation of plasmoid in magnetic field and argon ambient. The temporal variation and appearance of the dip in the electron temperature show a direct evidence of the threading and expulsion of the magnetic field lines from the plasmoid. Rayleigh Taylor instability produced at the interface separating magnetic field and plasma is discussed.

  6. World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towle, S.W. )

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

  7. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  8. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    October 2010 | Department of Energy An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability monitors changes, threats, and risks to the energy infrastructure in the United States. This report updates a previously published report on copper wire theft. The combined efforts of electric

  9. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  10. EERE INDUSTRY DAY

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On September 23-24, 2015 the inaugural EERE Industry Day was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to foster relationships and encourage dialog among researchers, industry representatives, and U.S. Department of Energy representatives.

  11. Geothermal Industry Partnership Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you'll find links to information about partnership opportunities and programs for the geothermal industry.

  12. Industrial Strength Pipes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-23

    Industrial Strength Pipes (ISP) is a toolkit for construction pipeline applications using the UNIX pipe and filter model.

  13. Dependence of Band Renormalization Effect on the Number of Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Dependence of Band Renormalization Effect on the Number of Copper-oxide ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  14. Effects of copper exposure on hatching success and early larval...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Rand GM. 2009. Effects of copper in flooded Florida agricultural soils on Hyalella azteca. ... to coal combustion wastes decrease survival of larval southern toads (Bufo terrestris). ...

  15. Hot-junction electrode members for copper/silver chalcogenides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hampl, Jr., Edward F.

    1979-12-25

    Tungsten, molybdenum, and alloys thereof are useful as electrode members for thermoelectric legs made from chalcogenides of copper and/or silver.

  16. Method of imaging the heart using copper-64 citrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crook, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A method of imaging the heart to provide a distinct image using positron emission tomography comprises administering copper-64 citrate and a compatible carrier.

  17. Copper Canyon, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Copper Canyon, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.0959546, -97.0966777 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  18. Ag-Pd-Cu alloy inserted transparent indium tin oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyo-Joong; Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Noh, Yong-Jin; Na, Seok-In

    2014-09-01

    The authors report on the characteristics of Ag-Pd-Cu (APC) alloy-inserted indium tin oxide (ITO) films sputtered on a glass substrate at room temperature for application as transparent anodes in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effect of the APC interlayer thickness on the electrical, optical, structural, and morphological properties of the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer were investigated and compared to those of ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer electrodes. At the optimized APC thickness of 8 nm, the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer exhibited a resistivity of 8.55 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, an optical transmittance of 82.63%, and a figure-of-merit value of 13.54 × 10{sup −3} Ω{sup −1}, comparable to those of the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer. Unlike the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer, agglomeration of the metal interlayer was effectively relieved with APC interlayer due to existence of Pd and Cu elements in the thin region of the APC interlayer. The OSCs fabricated on the ITO/APC/ITO multilayer showed higher power conversion efficiency than that of OSCs prepared on the ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer below 10 nm due to the flatness of the APC layer. The improved performance of the OSCs with ITO/APC/ITO multilayer electrodes indicates that the APC alloy interlayer prevents the agglomeration of the Ag-based metal interlayer and can decrease the thickness of the metal interlayer in the oxide-metal-oxide multilayer of high-performance OSCs.

  19. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  20. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Assessments Lynn Price Staff Scientist China Energy Group Energy Analysis Department Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Definition and overview of key components - International experience - Chinese situation and recommendations - US-China collaboration Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments - Analysis of the use of energy and potential for energy efficiency in an industrial facility *

  1. Industrial Dojo Program Fosters Industrial Internet Development...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAN RAMON, CA-May 11, 2015-GE Software (NYSE: GE) today announced its 'Industrial Dojo,' ... The Cloud Foundry Dojo program allows software developers to immerse themselves in open ...

  2. Investigation on effects of surface morphologies on response of LPG sensor based on nanostructured copper ferrite system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Satyendra; Yadav, B.C.; Gupta, V.D.; Dwivedi, Prabhat K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure shows the variations in resistance with time for copper ferrite system synthesized in various molar ratio. A maximum variation in resistance was observed for copper ferrite prepared in 1:1 molar ratio. Highlights: ? Evaluation of structural, optical and surface morphologies. ? Significant variation in LPG sensing properties. ? Surface modification of ferric oxide pellet by copper ferrite. ? CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} pellets for LPG sensing at room temperature. -- Abstract: Synthesis of a copper ferrite system (CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) via chemical co-precipitation method is characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface morphology (scanning electron microscope) and optical absorption spectroscopy. These characteristics show their dependence on the relative compositions of the two subsystems. They are further confirmed by the variation in the band gap. A study of gas sensing properties shows the spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized in 1:1 molar ratio exhibit best response to LPG adsorption/resistance measurement. Thus resistance based LPG sensor is found robust, cheap and may be applied for kitchens and industrial applications.

  3. Studies in reduction-roast leaching ion exchange of copper converter slag from an Indian copper complex, Ghatshila

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodas, M.G.; Mathur, S.B.

    1997-12-01

    Large quantities of converter and anode slags are generated in different unit operations for the production of copper in I.C.C. Ghatshila. The converter slag contains about 2.75% copper, 0.9% nickel, 52.0% iron, and 0.6% cobalt and cannot be rejected due to its economic importance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed the presence of copper in elemental, oxide, and silicate phases and iron in silicate (Feyalite) and oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) phases. From the earlier work on leaching by an acetic acid lixiviant up to 55% copper could be extracted at 250 mL of acetic acid/100 g of slag, 125 C temperature, and 35 atm of oxygen pressure. Low copper recovery was attributed to the presence of copper silicate and sulfide phases which could not be detected by XRD. Therefore, reduction roasting by noncoking coal was done to increase the copper recovery. A coal sample from Talchar which contained 30% fixed carbon, 40% volatile, and 30% ash was used for reduction roasting. Maximum percent extraction of copper and nickel (97% Cu and 20% Ni) could be achieved at the temperature of 720 C for 90 min of roasting with 20% reductant. The acetic acid requirement was 130 mL/100 g of reduced pellets, while leaching at the oxygen pressure of 35 atm for 120 min at 120 C. Iron dissolution was minimum (max 1%) in all the experiments. The ion-exchange technique was employed to separate copper from acetate solution. Zeolite resin was found to be suitable for the separation of copper from leach liquor. About 92% copper was recovered by geolite. 2.5 N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was found to be most effective for the stripping of the copper from resin.

  4. Recommended method for indium-111 platelet survival studies. International Committee for Standardization in Hematology. Panel on Diagnostic Applications of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    Radioactive indium (/sup 111/In) has been introduced as an alternative to /sup 51/Cr as a platelet label because of its shorter half-life, higher photon yield and greater affinity for platelets. Furthermore, platelet labelling with /sup 111/In is possible at lower platelet counts than with /sup 51/Cr. In healthy individuals, the kinetics of simultaneously injected /sup 111/In-labeled and /sup 51/Cr-labeled platelets are similar. The document describes the technical and analytic aspects of platelet survival determination with /sup 111/In-labeled platelets and is intended to supplement the previously published recommendations for platelet survival studies.

  5. Low Temperature, Self-nucleated Growth of Indium Tin Oxide Nanostructures by Pulsed Laser Deposition in Argon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, S. S.; Lee, W. K.; Kee, Y. Y.; Wong, H. Y.; Tou, T. Y.

    2011-03-30

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) nanostructures were successfully deposited on glass substrate by pulsed laser ablation in argon gas at 250 deg. C. Microstructural changes were observed in the argon gas pressure between 30 to 50 mTorr. The as-grown, nanostructured ITO exhibit In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bixbyite structure orientated at <111> direction. At the initial stage of growth, there was a large number of nucleation sites detected which eventually evolved into needle-like branches. The presence of spheres at the tip of these branches indicates that these nanostructured ITO were likely governed by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism.

  6. Uranium industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-05

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1994 (UIA 1994) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing during that survey year. The UIA 1994 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the 10-year period 1985 through 1994 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` (UIAS) provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1994, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. A feature article, ``Comparison of Uranium Mill Tailings Reclamation in the United States and Canada,`` is included in the UIA 1994. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, and uranium inventories, enrichment feed deliveries (actual and projected), and unfilled market requirements are shown in Chapter 2.

  7. Uranium industry annual 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-22

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1998 (UIA 1998) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. It contains data for the period 1989 through 2008 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey.`` Data provides a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s activities for the survey year and also include some information about industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1989 through 1998, including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment, are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2008, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, and uranium inventories, are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1998 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. The Form EIA-858 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is shown in Appendix D. For the readers convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix E along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  8. A New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Slant on a Cellular Balancing Act - The Copper-sensing Repressor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Copper is a required micronutrient for all living cells, being an essential ...

  9. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers ...

  10. Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in supercondu...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxygen distance in superconducting cuprate bilayers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Anomalous expansion of the copper-apical-oxy...

  11. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  12. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  13. Copper slag thermal storage -- projections of performance and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curto, P.A.

    1984-02-01

    A solid residual regarded as waste from copper smelters, known as copper slag, offers an excellent medium for the storage of heat energy. Over one billion tons of slag is available at hundreds of smelters around the world. Copper slag is predominantly iron orthosilicate (2FeO.SiO/sub 2/), with sizable amounts of calcium, aluminum, magnesium and copper oxides. Formed in a highly oxidized environment at temperatures in excess of 1400/sup 0/C, copper slag is thermally, mechanically, chemically and physically stable when utilized as a thermal storage medium below 1000/sup 0/C. Conceptual designs for copper slag thermal storage systems have been proposed wherein a packed bed of copper slag is thermally cycled with air or some other gases utilized as transport media. Simply constructed with a metallic sheet liner and buried with an earthen berm, projected costs are literally one order of magnitude less than for molten salt, hot oils or other thermal storage techniques proposed for high-temperature systems. Applications for copper slag thermal storage include heat recovery systems for intermittent or uncontrolled heat sources, or peak-shaving power systems. A specific design for a solar combined cycle system is evaluated.

  14. Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

  15. Metal-Organic Frameworks Incorporating Copper-Complexed Rotaxanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coskun, Ali; Hmadeh, Mohamad; Barin, Gokhan; Gándara, Felipe; Li, Qiaowei; Choi, Eunwoo; Strutt, Nathan L.; Cordes, David B.; Slawin, Alexandra M.Z.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2013-07-26

    MOFs on the move: A copper-coordinated [2]pseudorotaxanate which reacts with zinc nitrate to form threefold interpenetrated networks retains most of its solution-state chemistry, including its ability to undergo electronic switching of some of the copper(I) ions under redox control.

  16. Transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon decorated with copper clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berahman, M.; Sheikhi, M. H.

    2014-09-07

    Using non-equilibrium green function with density functional theory, the present study investigates the transport properties of decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon with a copper cluster. We have represented the decoration of zigzag graphene nanoribbon with single copper atom and cluster containing two and three copper atoms. In all the cases, copper atoms tend to occupy the edge state. In addition, we have shown that copper can alter the current-voltage characteristic of zigzag graphene nanoribbon and create new fluctuations and negative differential resistance. These alternations are made due to discontinuity in the combination of orbitals along the graphene nanoribbon. Decoration alters these discontinuities and creates more visible fluctuations. However, in low bias voltages, the changes are similar in all the cases. The study demonstrates that in the decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon, the edge states are the main states for transporting electron from one electrode to another.

  17. Uranium industry annual, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-09-29

    This report provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, federal and state agencies, the uranium and utility industries, and the public. It utilizes data from the mandatory ''Uranium Industry Annual Survey,'' Form EIA-858; historical data collected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and by the Grand Junction (Colorado) Project Office of the Idaho Operations Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE); and other data from federal agencies that preceded the DOE. The data provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry's annual activities and include some information about industry plans and commitments over the next several years. Where these data are presented in aggregate form, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific data while still conveying an accurate and complete statistical representation of the industry data.

  18. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum–copper alloys at the single-atom limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Yang, Ming; Allard, Lawrence F.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2015-10-09

    Platinum is ubiquitous in the production sectors of chemicals and fuels; however, its scarcity in nature and high price will limit future proliferation of platinum-catalysed reactions. One definite approach to conserve platinum involves understanding the smallest number of platinum atoms needed to catalyse a reaction, then designing catalysts with the minimal platinum ensembles. Here we design and test a new generation of platinum–copper nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene,, an industrially important reaction. Isolated platinum atom geometries enable hydrogen activation and spillover but are incapable of C–C bond scission that leads to loss of selectivity and catalyst deactivation. γ-Alumina-supported single-atom alloy nanoparticle catalysts with <1 platinum atom per 100 copper atoms are found to exhibit high activity and selectivity for butadiene hydrogenation to butenes under mild conditions, demonstrating transferability from the model study to the catalytic reaction under practical conditions.

  19. Systems and Industry Analyses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems and industry analyses Go to the NETL Gasification Systems Program's Systems and Industry Analyses Studies Technology & Cost/Performance Studies NETL Gasification Systems Program's Systems and Industry Analyses Studies provide invaluable information, and help to ensure that the technologies being developed are the best ones to develop. System studies are often used to compare competing technologies, determine the best way to integrate a technology with other technologies, and predict

  20. Method for removing copper from molten metal with a molten slag and for recovering the copper from the slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, L.L.

    1993-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to a method for removing impurity metal from a molten metal such as iron and steel. It is a method for removing copper from molten iron and steel with a molten slag and thereafter recovering the copper from the slag.

  1. Presentations for Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Learn energy-saving strategies from leading manufacturing companies and energy experts. The presentations are organized below by topic area. In addition, industrial energy managers, utilities, and...

  2. Appendix C - Industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-12-20

    This report describes the results, calculations, and assumptions underlying the GPRA 2004 Quality Metrics results for all Planning Units within the Office of Industrial Technologies.

  3. Window Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2000-04-01

    The Window Industry Technology Roadmap looks at the trends in window design and installation in 2000 and projects trends for the future.

  4. Baytown Industrial Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-06-01

    This is a combined heat and power (CHP) project profile on an 830 MW combined-cycle CHP application at Baytown Industrial Park in Baytown, Texas.

  5. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  6. Commercial & Industrial Demand Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand Response Cross-sector Demand Response...

  7. Keystone coal industry manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The 1994 Keystone Coal Industry Manual is presented. Keystone has served as the one industry reference authority for the many diverse organizations concerned with the supply and utilization of coal in the USA and Canada. Through the continuing efforts of coal producers, buyers, users, sellers, and equipment designers and manufacturers, the coal industry supplies an abundant and economical fuel that is indispensable in meeting the expanding energy needs of North America. The manual is divided into the following sections: coal sales companies, coal export, transportation of coal, consumer directories, coal associations and groups, consulting and financial firms, buyers guide, industry statistics and ownership, coal preparation, coal mine directory, and coal seams.

  8. Sustainable Nanomaterials Industry Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Perspective U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office Sustainable ... Uses renewable resources grown with sustainable forestry practices Encourages ...

  9. Industrial Green | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Green Industrial Green Industrial Green - This giant bag may not look green, but it keeps a potent greenhouse gas from being released into the atmosphere. It's part of a system at the Free-Electron Laser that retains sulfur hexafluoride gas when it isn't being used in the FEL's gun test stand. The concept received a 2011 Virginia Governor's Environmental Excellence Program Gold Award. Industrial Green On behalf of work done by Kevin Jordan, a senior engineer in the Free-Electron Laser

  10. Users from Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industrial users from large and small companies whose projects advance scientific knowledge, investigate the development of new products and manufacturing methods, andor...

  11. Industries & Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Chemicals Forest Products Glass Metal Casting Mining Other Industries Petroleum ... Information & Communications Technology Data Centers Materials for Industrial Use ...

  12. Midwest Industrial Energy Efficiency Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This Industrial Technologies Program handbook connects industry with the various energy efficiency resources available in the midwest.

  13. The methanol industry`s missed opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokes, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Throughout its history the methanol industry has been backward in research and development and in industry cooperation on public image and regulatory matters. It has been extremely reticent as to the virtue of its product for new uses, especially for motor fuel. While this is perhaps understandable looking back, it is inexcusable looking forward. The industry needs to cooperate on a worldwide basis in research and market development, on the one hand, and in image-building and political influence, on the other, staying, of course, within the US and European and other regional antitrust regulations. Unless the industry develops the motor fuel market, and especially the exciting new approach through fuel cell operated EVs, to siphon off incremental capacity and keep plants running at 90% or more of capacity, it will continue to live in a price roller-coaster climate. A few low-cost producers will do reasonably well and the rest will just get along or drop out here and there along the way, as in the past. Having come so far from such a humble beginning, it is a shame not to realize the full potential that is clearly there: a potential to nearly double sales dollars without new plants and to produce from a plentiful resource, at least for the next half-century, all the methanol that can be imagined to be needed. Beyond that the industry can turn to renewable energy--the sun--via biomass growth, to make their product. In so doing, it can perhaps apply methanol as a plant growth stimulant, in effect making the product fully self-sustainable. The world needs to know what methanol can do to provide--economically and reliably--the things upon which a better life rests.

  14. Geothermal industry assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  15. Uranium industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1996 (UIA 1996) provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1996 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1987 through 1996 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2006, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. A feature article, The Role of Thorium in Nuclear Energy, is included. 24 figs., 56 tabs.

  16. Uranium industry annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    The Uranium Industry Annual 1995 (UIA 1995) provides current statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing. The UIA 1995 is prepared for use by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and nuclear electric utility industries, and the public. It contains data for the period 1986 through 2005 as collected on the Form EIA-858, ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey``. Data collected on the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` provide a comprehensive statistical characterization of the industry`s plans and commitments for the near-term future. Where aggregate data are presented in the UIA 1995, care has been taken to protect the confidentiality of company-specific information while still conveying accurate and complete statistical data. Data on uranium raw materials activities for 1986 through 1995 including exploration activities and expenditures, EIA-estimated reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities for 1994 through 2005, including purchases of uranium and enrichment services, enrichment feed deliveries, uranium fuel assemblies, filled and unfilled market requirements, uranium imports and exports, and uranium inventories are shown in Chapter 2. The methodology used in the 1995 survey, including data edit and analysis, is described in Appendix A. The methodologies for estimation of resources and reserves are described in Appendix B. A list of respondents to the ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey`` is provided in Appendix C. For the reader`s convenience, metric versions of selected tables from Chapters 1 and 2 are presented in Appendix D along with the standard conversion factors used. A glossary of technical terms is at the end of the report. 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  17. Economical Recovery of By-products in the Mining Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, J.B.

    2001-12-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies, Mining Industry of the Future Program, works with the mining industry to further the industry's advances toward environmental and economic goals. Two of these goals are (1) responsible emission and by-product management and (2) low-cost and efficient production (DOE 1998). DOE formed an alliance with the National Mining Association (NMA) to strengthen the basis for research projects conducted to benefit the mining industry. NMA and industry representatives actively participate in this alliance by evaluating project proposals and by recommending research project selection to DOE. Similarly, the National Research Council (NRC) has recently and independently recommended research and technology development opportunities in the mining industry (NRC 2001). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Colorado School of Mines engineers conducted one such project for DOE regarding by -product recovery from mining process residue. The results of this project include this report on mining industry process residue and waste with opportunity for by-product recovery. The U.S. mineral processing industry produces over 30,000,000 metric tons per year of process residue and waste that may contain hazardous species as well as valuable by-products. This study evaluates the copper, lead, and zinc commodity sectors which generate between 23,300,000 and 24,000,000 metric tons per year. The distribution of residual elements in process residues and wastes varies over wide ranges* because of variations in the original ore content as it is extracted from the earth's crust. In the earth's crust, the elements of interest to mining fall into two general geochemical classifications, lithophiles and chalcophiles** (Cox 1997). Groups of elements are almost always present together in a given geochemical classification, but the relative amounts of each element are unique to a particular ore body. This paper generally describes

  18. Authorized limits for Fernald copper ingots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frink, N.; Kamboj, S.; Hensley, J.; Chen, S. Y.

    1997-09-01

    This development document contains data and analysis to support the approval of authorized limits for the unrestricted release of 59 t of copper ingots containing residual radioactive material from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The analysis presented in this document comply with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, {open_quotes}Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,{close_quotes} as well as the requirements of the proposed promulgation of this order as 10 CFR Part 834. The document was developed following the step-by-step process described in the Draft Handbook for Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material.

  19. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  20. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Kullberg, Marc L.

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  1. Recovery process for complexed copper-bearing rinse waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spearot, R.M.; Peck, J.V.

    1984-05-01

    Conventional chemical treatment methods of removing the copper from metal finishing waste streams prior to discharge generate large quantities of hazardous sludge with associate disposal problem. The advantages and disadvantages of currently available technologies are reviewed. Newer technologies provide economical recovery of the copper, which may be used for other purposes, but not for reuse in the bath. The resulting copper-depleted rinse solutions can then be discharged with other treated metal finishing wastes to publicly owned treatment works (POTW) or to receiving surface waters. Of these newer technologies, selective electrochemical displacement appears to be the best approach in terms of operational efficiency and cost.

  2. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  3. Patterned electrochemical deposition of copper using an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijer, Mark den; Shao, Ingrid; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Radisic, Alex

    2014-02-01

    We describe a technique for patterning clusters of metal using electrochemical deposition. By operating an electrochemical cell in the transmission electron microscope, we deposit Cu on Au under potentiostatic conditions. For acidified copper sulphate electrolytes, nucleation occurs uniformly over the electrode. However, when chloride ions are added there is a range of applied potentials over which nucleation occurs only in areas irradiated by the electron beam. By scanning the beam we control nucleation to form patterns of deposited copper. We discuss the mechanism for this effect in terms of electron beam-induced reactions with copper chloride, and consider possible applications.

  4. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  5. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  6. CASL Industry Council Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 CASL Industry Council Meeting March 26-27, 2013 - Cranberry Township, PA Minutes The sixth meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held on March 26-27, 2013 at Westinghouse in Cranberry Township, PA. The first day of the Industry Council was chaired by John Gaertner and the second day was chaired by Heather Feldman. The meeting attendees and their affiliations are listed on Attachment 1 to these minutes. Attendance was

  7. CASL Industry Council Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Council Meeting 4 - 5 November 2015 Meeting Minutes The autumn 2015 meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held on 4 - 5 November 2015 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN. The first day of meeting was a joint meeting of the CASL Industry and Science Councils and was held at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility at ORNL. An independent IC meeting was held the morning of the second

  8. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  9. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  10. Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui Cheng, Chuan, E-mail: chengchuanhui@dlut.edu.cn; Shan Liang, Ze; Gang Wang, Li; Dong Gao, Guo; Zhou, Ting; Ming Bian, Ji; Min Luo, Ying [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tong Du, Guo, E-mail: dugt@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup ?} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2?eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91?cd/A, 102?lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.

  11. Recovery from ultraviolet-induced threshold voltage shift in indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by positive gate bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2013-11-11

    The effect of short-duration ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) and its recovery characteristics were investigated. The V{sub th} exhibited a significant negative shift after UV exposure. The V{sub th} instability caused by UV illumination is attributed to the positive charge trapping in the dielectric layer and/or at the channel/dielectric interface. The illuminated devices showed a slow recovery in threshold voltage without external bias. However, an instant recovery can be achieved by the application of positive gate pulses, which is due to the elimination of the positive trapped charges as a result of the presence of a large amount of field-induced electrons in the interface region.

  12. Enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a silicon nanocrystal light-emitting diode by indium tin oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, Chul, E-mail: chuh@etri.re.kr; Kim, Bong Kyu; Ahn, Chang-Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyeob [IT Convergence Technology Research Laboratory, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Chel-Jong [Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21

    We report an enhancement in light emission and electrical efficiencies of a Si nanocrystal (NC) light-emitting diode (LED) by employing indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowires (NWs). The formed ITO NWs (diameter?

  13. Indium (In)- and tin (Sn)-based metal induced crystallization (MIC) on amorphous germanium (α-Ge)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Dong-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • In- and Sn-based MIC phenomenon on amorphous (α)-Ge is newly reported. • The In- and Sn-MIC phenomenon respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. • The Sn-MIC process presents higher sheet resistance and bigger crystal grains. - Abstract: In this paper, metal-induced crystallization (MIC) phenomenon on α-Ge by indium (In) and tin (Sn) are thoroughly investigated. In- and Sn-MIC process respectively started at 250 °C and 400 °C. Compared to the previously reported MIC samples including In-MIC, Sn-MIC process presented higher sheet resistance (similar to that of SPC) and bigger crystal grains above 50 nm (slightly smaller than that of SPC). According to SIMS analysis, Sn atoms diffused more slowly into Ge than In at 400 °C, providing lower density of heterogeneous nuclei induced by metals and consequently larger crystal grains.

  14. Large-scale patterning of indium tin oxide electrodes for guided mode extraction from organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geyer, Ulf; Hauss, Julian; Riedel, Boris; Gleiss, Sebastian; Lemmer, Uli; Gerken, Martina

    2008-11-01

    We describe a cost-efficient and large area scalable production process of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with photonic crystals (PCs) as extraction elements for guided modes. Using laser interference lithography and physical plasma etching, we texture the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode layer of an OLED with one- and two-dimensional PC gratings. By optical transmission measurements, the resonant mode of the grating is shown to have a drift of only 0.4% over the 5 mm length of the ITO grating. By changing the lattice constant between 300 and 600 nm, the OLED emission angle of enhanced light outcoupling is tailored from -24.25 deg. to 37 deg. At these angles, the TE emission is enhanced up to a factor of 2.14.

  15. CX-002541: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Emerging Renewables Industries: Copper, Indium, Gallium, Selenium (CIGS) Linear Source Thermal DepositionCX(s) Applied: B2.2, B5.1Date: 05/19/2010Location(s): St. Paul, MinnesotaOffice(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Golden Field Office

  16. In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbonaceous microspheres with electrochemical glucose sensing properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiaoliang; Yan, Zhengguang Han, Xiaodong

    2014-02-01

    Graphical abstract: In situ growth of copper nanoparticles from hydrothermal copper-containing carbonaceous microspheres was induced by annealing or electron beam irradiation. Obtained micro-nano carbon/copper composite microspheres show electrochemical glucose sensing properties. - Highlights: • We synthesized carbonaceous microspheres containing non-nanoparicle copper species through a hydrothermal route. • By annealing or electron beam irradiation, copper nanoparticles would form from the carbonaceous microspheres in situ. • By controlling the annealing temperature, particle size of copper could be controlled in the range of 50–500 nm. • The annealed carbon/copper hierarchical composite microspheres were used to fabricate an electrochemical glucose sensor. - Abstract: In situ growth of copper nanocrystals from carbon/copper microspheres was observed in a well-controlled annealing or an electron beam irradiation process. Carbonaceous microspheres containing copper species with a smooth appearance were yielded by a hydrothermal synthesis using copper nitrate and ascorbic acid as reactants. When annealing the carbonaceous microspheres under inert atmosphere, copper nanoparticles were formed on carbon microspheres and the copper particle sizes can be increased to a range of 50–500 nm by altering the heating temperature. Similarly, in situ formation of copper nanocrystals from these carbonaceous microspheres was observed on the hydrothermal product carbonaceous microspheres with electron beam irradiation in a vacuum transmission electron microscopy chamber. The carbon/copper composite microspheres obtained through annealing were used to modify a glassy carbon electrode and tested as an electrochemical glucose sensor.

  17. Researchers Uncover Copper's Potential for Reducing CO2 Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    When used as a part of a promising coal combustion technology known as chemical looping, copper can help economically remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel emissions. In ...

  18. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In 2003, SEW Eurodrive of Bruchsal, Germany, was the first company, worldwide, to bring the technology to market. A line of high-efficiency gear motors (1.1-5.5 kW) use copper ...

  19. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:

  20. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-04-02

    A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

  1. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  2. Caraustar Industries Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This plant-wide assessment case study is about commissioned energy assessments by the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program at two of Caraustar's recycled paperboard mills.

  3. Presentations for Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Industrial energy managers, utilities, and energy management professionals can find online trainings and information dissemination at no-cost. AMO has provided these energy-saving strategies from leading manufacturing companies and energy experts through several different presentation series.

  4. Uranium Industry Annual, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    The Uranium Industry Annual provides current statistical data on the US uranium industry for the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the uranium and electric utility industries, and the public. The feature article, ``Decommissioning of US Conventional Uranium Production Centers,`` is included. Data on uranium raw materials activities including exploration activities and expenditures, resources and reserves, mine production of uranium, production of uranium concentrate, and industry employment are presented in Chapter 1. Data on uranium marketing activities including domestic uranium purchases, commitments by utilities, procurement arrangements, uranium imports under purchase contracts and exports, deliveries to enrichment suppliers, inventories, secondary market activities, utility market requirements, and uranium for sale by domestic suppliers are presented in Chapter 2.

  5. Steel Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The steel industry is critical to the U.S. economy. Steel is the material of choice for many elements of manufacturing, construction, transportation, and various consumer products. Traditionally...

  6. Macro Industrial Working Group

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... 22 Industrial Team Washington DC, September 29, 2014 Macro Team: Kay Smith (lead) (202) 586-1132 | kay.smith@eia.gov Vipin Arora (202) 586-1048 | vipin.arora@eia.gov Russell ...

  7. SO[sub 2] abatement, energy conservation, and productivity at Copper Cliff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landolt, C.A.; Dutton, A.; Edwards, J.D.; McDonald, R.N. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that Inco pioneered the use of tonnage oxygen in nonferrous metallurgy when it commissioned the first industrial oxygen flash smelting process for the treatment of copper concentrates in the early 1950s. This was followed by other applications of oxygen such as the enrichment of reverberatory furnace and Peirce-Smith converter blasts; oxy-fuel smelting in reverb furnaces; and, very recently, flash conversion of chalcocite to copper. Inco is currently implementing a sulfur dioxide abatement project designed to reduce SO[sub 2] emissions form the smelter by 60 percent (to 265 kt) in 1994. At that time, oxygen consumption at the smelter will reach about 1.7 t O[sub 2]/t Cu + Ni. Oxygen smelting and converting technology will lead to a substantial decrease in the use of fossil fuels and to the generation of high-strength SO[sub 2] off-gases suitable for cost-effective fixation in a new acid plant.

  8. Premium Efficiency Motor Selection And Application Guide: A Guidebook for Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PREMIUM EFFICIENCY MOTOR SELECTION AND APPLICATION GUIDE A HANDBOOK FOR INDUSTRY PREMIUM EFFICIENCY MOTOR SELECTION AND APPLICATION GUIDE DISCLAIMER This publication was prepared by the Washington State University Energy Program for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Neither the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy, the Copper Development Association, the Washington State University Energy Program, the National Electrical Manufacturers

  9. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  10. Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency Report to Congress June 2015 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Department of Energy | June 2015 Message from the Assistant Secretary The industrial sector has shown steady progress in improving energy efficiency over the past few decades and energy efficiency improvements are expected to continue. Studies suggest, however, that there is potential to accelerate the rate of adopting energy efficient technologies and practices that

  11. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Sandina Ponte, a member of the University of Missouri's Industrial Assessment Center, inspects equipment at a manufacturing facility during an energy audit. | Photo courtesy of University of Missouri IAC. Sandina Ponte, a member of the University of Missouri's Industrial Assessment Center, inspects equipment at a manufacturing facility during an energy audit. | Photo courtesy of University of Missouri IAC. Cassie Mills Communications Associate in the Advanced

  12. CASL Industry Council Members:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CASL Industry Council Members: We are looking forward to hosting you at the upcoming CASL Industry Council Meeting on Tuesday, April 12, 2016 through Wednesday, April 13, 2016 at the following location: ALOFT Greenville Downtown Converge Conference Room 5 North Laurens Street Greenville, SC 29601 864-297-6100 Meeting Contact: Lorie Fox (865) 548-5178 Lodging: ALOFT Greenville Downtown: http://www.aloftgreenvilledowntown.com/ Hotel Information * Check-in time: 4 PM * Checkout time: 12 PM * Fast

  13. An overview of copper-laser development for isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, B.E.

    1987-03-13

    We have developed a copper-laser pumped dye-laser system that addresses all of the requirements for atomic vapor laser isotope separation. The requirement for high average power for the laser system has led to the development of copper-laser chains with injection-locked oscillators and multihundred-watt amplifiers. By continuously operating the Laser Demonstration Facility, we gain valuable data for further upgrade and optimization.

  14. Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-06

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. As a result, data are compared with various theoretical models.

  15. Sodium sulfide slagging for removing copper from scrap steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leis, J.R.; Sanghvi, S.M.; Steinberg, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Fundamental studies of sodium sulfide slagging for removing copper from scrap steel indicate that the copper distribution coefficient is 10, and that if 30 wt % FeS exists in the slag phase, no iron will be transferred to the slag from the metal phase. This process can be used commercially as an added fluxing step with minimal modifications to current electric-furnace steelmaking operations. Preliminary economic analysis shows an incremental return on investment equal to 100% per year.

  16. Hydrostatic Microextrusion of Steel and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berti, Guido; Monti, Manuel; D'Angelo, Luciano

    2011-05-04

    The paper presents an experimental investigation based on hydrostatic micro extrusion of billets in low carbon steel and commercially pure copper, and the relevant results. The starting billets have a diameter of 0.3 mm and are 5 mm long; a high pressure generator consisting of a manually operated piston screw pump is used to pressurize the fluid up to 4200 bar, the screw pump is connected through a 3-way distribution block to the extrusion die and to a strain gauge high pressure sensor. The sensor has a full scale of 5000 bar and the extrusion pressure is acquired at a sampling rate of 2 kHz by means of an acquisition program written in the LabVIEW environment. Tests have been conducted at room temperature and a lubricant for wire drawing (Chemetall Gardolube DO 338) acts both as the pressurizing fluid and lubricant too. In addition, billets were graphite coated. Different fluid pressures and process durations have been adopted, resulting in different extrusion lengths. The required extrusion pressure is much higher than in non-micro forming operations (this effect is more evident for steel). On the cross section of the extruded parts, hardness and grain size distribution have been measured, the former through Vickers micro hardness (10 g load) tests. In the case of the extrusion of copper, the material behaves as in microdrawing process. In the case of the extrusion of steel, the hardness increases from the core to the surface as in the drawing process, but with lower values. The analysis evidenced the presence of the external layer, but its thickness is about 1/3 of the external layer in the drawn wire and the grains appear smaller than in the layer of the drawn wire. The extruding force required along the extruding direction is higher (22-24 N) than the drawing force along the same direction (12 N): being the material, the reduction ratio, the die sliding length the same in both cases, the higher extrusion force should be caused by a higher tangential friction

  17. Industry Cluster Development Grant winners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Cluster Development Grant winners Community Connections: Your link to news and ... All Issues submit Industry Cluster Development Grant winners Recipients include Picuris ...

  18. Eolica Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industrial Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eolica Industrial Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 01020-901 Sector: Wind energy Product: Brazil based wind turbine steel...

  19. Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Jumpstarting the carbon capture industry: Science on the Hill Carbon capture, utilization, and storage can provide a...

  20. Agile Biomanufacturing Industry Listening Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A consortium of nine national laboratories is holding the Agile Biomanufacturing Industry Listening Workshop on March 15, 2016 in Berkeley, California, to increase understanding of industry needs...

  1. Guardian Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Guardian Industries Place: Auburn Hills, MI Website: www.guardian.com References: Results of NREL Testing (Glass Magazine)1 Guardian...

  2. Hydrogen ingress into copper-nickel alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pound, B.G. . Materials Research Center)

    1994-04-01

    Hydrogen (H) ingress into two copper (Cu)-nickel (Ni) alloys -- a commercial 77% Cu-15% Ni alloy (aged) and alloy K-500 (UNS N05500, aged and unaged) --- was studied using a technique referred to as hydrogen ingress analysis by potentiostatic pulsing (HIAPP). Anodic current transients obtained for these alloys in an acetate buffer (1 mol/L acetic acid + 1 mol/L sodium acetate [NaAc]) were analyzed using a diffusion-trapping model to determine trapping constants and H entry fluxes. A small increase was observed in the irreversible trapping constant for alloy K-500 with aging. Trapping constants of the aged alloys were similar within the limits of uncertainty, but H entry flux for the 77% Cu alloy was lower than that for aged or unaged alloy K-500. The lower flux may have accounted at least partly, for the Cu alloy's higher resistance to H embrittlement. Trap densities were consistent qualitatively with levels of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P) in the two alloys. This finding supported an assumption that S and P provided the primary irreversible traps.

  3. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O'Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  4. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Video Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Video Addthis Description Industrial ...

  5. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments Details about the Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments program and its implementation in...

  6. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  7. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  8. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Berry, J. J.; Ginley, D. S.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2010-02-15

    The availability of economically-produced and environmentally-stable transparent conductive oxide (TCO) coatings is critical for the development of a variety of electronic devices requiring transparent electrodes. Such devices include liquid crystal display pixels and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),[1, 2] solar cell applications,[3, 4] and electrically heated windows.[5, 6] The materials fulfilling these requirements are usually wide band gap inorganic transparent conductive oxides (TCOs). Tin-doped indium oxide, or ITO, has traditionally been used for electronic TCO applications because of its low resistivity, high work function and transparency. Due to the increasing cost and limited supply of indium and its tendency to migrate in to the device, there has been increasing research interest to substitute ITO with an indium-free material. A number of alternative metal oxides and doped oxides have been evaluated as TCO materials with varying degrees of success.[7, 8] Among these alternatives to ITO, gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) [2, 9] and aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) [10, 11] have drawn particular attention. These materials have been demonstrated to have resistivities and transparencies approaching those of the best ITO, low toxicity, and much lower materials cost. Although AZO is attractive as a TCO electrode material, GZO features a greater resistance to oxidation as a result of gallium’s greater electronegativity compared to Submitted to 2 aluminum.[12, 13

  9. UAIEE and Industrial Assessment Centers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    55-62011| Industrial Assessment Centers * Started in 1976 * Currently 26 Centers across the US * Almost...

  10. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phasesmore » as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.« less

  11. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-δ S and Cu 2-δ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-δ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phases as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-δ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.

  12. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher; Sarobol, Pylin; Argibay, Nicolas; Clark, Blythe; Diantonio, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  13. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L. Salamanca-Riba, L. G.; Mansour, A.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Rabin, O.

    2015-05-11

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  14. Industry Partners Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Industry Panel presenters include: Michael G. Andrew, Director - Academic and Technical Programs, Advanced Products and Materials, Johnson Controls Power Solutions Michael A. Fetcenko, Vice President and Managing Director, BASF Battery Materials – Ovonic, BASF Corporation Adam Kahn, Founder and CEO, AKHAN Technologies, Inc. Stephen E. Zimmer, Executive Director, United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR)

  15. INTERMOUNTAIN INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MELINDA KRAHENBUHL

    2010-05-28

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s Intermountain Industrial Assessment Center (IIAC) at the University of Utah has been providing eligible small- and medium-sized manufacturers with no-cost plant assessments since 2001, offering cost-effective recommendations for improvements in the areas of energy efficiency, pollution prevention, and productivity improvement.

  16. Petroleum industry in Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farideh, A.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the oil industry in Iran from the early discovery of oil nearly two hundred years ago in Mazandaran (north part) to the development of a giant modern industry in the twentieth century. Chapter I presents a brief historical setting to introduce the reader to the importance of oil in Iran. It focuses on the economic implications of the early oil concessions in the period 1901 to 1951. Chapter II discusses the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry and creation of NIOC in 1951 and the international political and economic implication of these activities. Chapter III explains the activities of NIOC in Iran. Exploration and drilling, production, exports, refineries, natural gas, petrochemicals and internal distributions are studied. Chapter IV discusses the role of the development planning of Iran. A brief presentation of the First Development Plan through the Fifth Development Plan is given. Sources and uses of funds by plan organization during these Five Plans is studied. The Iran and Iraq War is also studied briefly, but the uncertainty of its resolution prevents any close analysis of its impact on the Iranian oil industry. One conclusion, however, is certain; oil has been a vital resource in Iran's past and it will remain the lifetime of its economic development in the future.

  17. Odersun AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Odersun AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Odersun AG Place: Frankfurt, Germany Zip: 15236 Product: German manufacturer of copper indium disulphide on copper tape (CISCuT)...

  18. Local structures of copper-doped ZnO films (Journal Article)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Local structures of copper-doped ZnO films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Local structures of copper-doped ZnO films Authors: Ma, Q. ; Buchholz, D.B. ; Chang, R.P.H. ...

  19. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells Complete FiberCopper Cable Solution for Long-Term ...

  20. Copper-base alloy for liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Chen, Meng-Hsiu

    1978-01-01

    A copper-base alloy composition consisting essentially of 85 - 89% copper, 2 - 4% manganese, and 8 - 11% silicon and use of same in liquid phase sintering of ferrous powders.

  1. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am ... The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray ...

  2. Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Copper Mountain Expansion I and II Solar Power Plant Facility Copper Mountain Expansion I and II...

  3. Interstitial carbon formation in irradiated copper-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a copper impurity on the spectrum of defects induced in p-Si crystals containing a low oxygen concentration by irradiation with electrons with an energy of 5 MeV at room temperature is studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is found that interstitial carbon atoms (C{sub i}) which are the dominant defects in irradiated samples free of copper are unobservable immediately after irradiation, if the concentration of mobile interstitial copper atoms (Cu{sub i}) is higher than the concentration of radiation defects. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of (Cu{sub i}, C{sub i}) complexes, which do not introduce levels into the lower half of the band gap. It is shown that these complexes dissociate upon annealing at temperatures of 300–340 K and, thus, bring about the appearance of interstitial carbon.

  4. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles: Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A. Bondarchuk, Illya S.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.

    2014-08-07

    Anomalous temperature dependence of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles embedded in a silica host matrix has been observed. The quantum yield of photoluminescence increases as the temperature increases. The key role of such an effect is the interplay between the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transitions in the copper nanoparticles occurring at change of the temperature. Namely, the increase of temperature leads to the red shift of the resonance. The shift leads to increase of the spectral overlap of the resonance with photoluminescence band of copper as well as to the decrease of plasmon damping caused by interband transitions. Such mechanisms lead to the increase of surface plasmon enhancement factor and, consequently, to increase of the quantum yield of the photoluminescence.

  5. Quantification and impact of nonparabolicity of the conduction band of indium tin oxide on its plasmonic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaoge; Park, Junghyun; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Yuan, Hongtao; Cui, Yi; Hwang, Harold Y.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2014-11-03

    Doped indium tin oxide (ITO) behaves as a Drude metal with a plasma frequency that is controlled by its free carrier density. In this work, we systematically tune this frequency across the mid-infrared range by annealing treatments in a reducing environment that produce high electron concentrations (∼10{sup 21 }cm{sup −3}). The changes in ITO's optical properties that result from the changes in carrier density are measured by attenuated total reflection measurements. These optical frequency measurements are complemented by Hall measurements to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Drude response of the ITO films. It was found that a complete description of the optical properties at very high carrier densities needs to account for the nonparabolicity of the conduction band of ITO and a reduced carrier mobility. More specifically, an increase in carrier concentration from 6.2 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} to 1.4 × 10{sup 21 }cm{sup −3} comes with a change of the effective electron mass from 0.35 m{sub 0} to 0.53 m{sub 0} and a decrease in the optical frequency mobility from about 20 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} to 9 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}.

  6. Hydrogen Sensor Based on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte and Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Sensing Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, L P; Glass, R S

    2004-03-26

    A solid state electrochemical sensor has been developed for hydrogen leak detection in ambient air. The sensor uses an yttria-stabilized electrolyte with a tin-doped indium oxide sensing electrode and a Pt reference electrode. Excellent sensitivity, and response time of one second or less, are reported for hydrogen gas over the concentration range of 0.03 to 5.5% in air. Cross-sensitivity to relative humidity and to CO{sub 2} are shown to be low. The response to methane, a potentially significant source of interference for such a sensor, is significantly less than that for hydrogen. The sensor shows good reproducibility and was unaffected by thermal cycling over the course of this investigation. The effects of sensing electrode thickness and thermal aging are also reported, and the sensing mechanism is discussed. The sensor is intended for use in vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen internal combustion engines. Those vehicles will use and/or store significant quantities of hydrogen, and will require safety sensor for monitoring potential hydrogen leakage in order to ensure passenger safety.

  7. Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie

    2011-12-01

    Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

  8. Ohmic contact formation process on low n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Shik; Lee, In-Yeal; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Gil-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: We propose a method to fabricate non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs with IGZO. 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current and 1.5 on/off-current ratio are achieved in the junction. InAs and InGaAs formed by this process decrease an electron barrier height. Traps generated by diffused O atoms also induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon. - Abstract: Here, an excellent non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs is demonstrated by using indium gallium zinc oxide and investigating through time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, JV measurement, and H [enthalpy], S [entropy], Cp [heat capacity] chemistry simulation. In is diffused through GaAs during annealing and reacts with As, forming InAs and InGaAs phases with lower energy bandgap. As a result, it decreases the electron barrier height, eventually increasing the reverse current. In addition, traps generated by diffused O atoms induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon, increasing generation current and subsequently the reverse current. Therefore, an excellent Ohmic contact with 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current density and 1.5 on/off-current ratio is achieved on n-type GaAs.

  9. Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wissman, J.; Finkenauer, L.; Deseri, L.; Majidi, C.

    2014-10-14

    We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage Φ to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ϑ. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of Φ. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ϑ on Φ that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.

  10. Superconductivity in epitaxially grown self-assembled indium islands: progress towards hybrid superconductor/semiconductor optical sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gehl, Michael; Gibson, Ricky; Zandbergen, Sander; Keiffer, Patrick; Sears, Jasmine; Khitrova, Galina

    2016-02-01

    Currently, superconducting qubits lead the way in potential candidates for quantum computing. This is a result of the robust nature of superconductivity and the non-linear Josephson effect which make possible many types of qubits. At the same time, transferring quantum information over long distances typically relies on the use of photons as the elementary qubit. Converting between stationary electronic qubits in superconducting systems and traveling photonic qubits is a challenging yet necessary goal for the interface of quantum computing and communication. The most promising path to achieving this goal appears to be the integration of superconductivity with optically active semiconductors,more » with quantum information being transferred between the two by means of the superconducting proximity effect. Obtaining good interfaces between superconductor and semiconductor is the next obvious step for improving these hybrid systems. As a result, we report on our observation of superconductivity in self-assembled indium structures grown epitaxially on the surface of semiconductor material.« less

  11. The comparison between gallium arsenide and indium gallium arsenide as materials for solar cell performance using Silvaco application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahari, Suhaila Mohd; Norizan, Mohd Natashah; Mohamad, Ili Salwani; Osman, Rozana Aina Maulat; Taking, Sanna

    2015-05-15

    The work presented in this paper is about the development of single and multilayer solar cells using GaAs and InGaAs in AM1.5 condition. The study includes the modeling structure and simulation of the device using Silvaco applications. The performance in term of efficiency of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) and GaAs material was studied by modification of the doping concentration and thickness of material in solar cells. The efficiency of the GaAs solar cell was higher than InGaAs solar cell for single layer solar cell. Single layer GaAs achieved an efficiency about 25% compared to InGaAs which is only 2.65% of efficiency. For multilayer which includes both GaAs and InGaAs, the output power, P{sub max} was 8.91nW/cm² with the efficiency only 8.51%. GaAs is one of the best materials to be used in solar cell as a based compared to InGaAs.

  12. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M.

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  13. Final report on the Copper Mountain conference on multigrid methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The Copper Mountain Conference on Multigrid Methods was held on April 6-11, 1997. It took the same format used in the previous Copper Mountain Conferences on Multigrid Method conferences. Over 87 mathematicians from all over the world attended the meeting. 56 half-hour talks on current research topics were presented. Talks with similar content were organized into sessions. Session topics included: fluids; domain decomposition; iterative methods; basics; adaptive methods; non-linear filtering; CFD; applications; transport; algebraic solvers; supercomputing; and student paper winners.

  14. Observation of diamond turned OFHC copper using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigg, D.A.; Russell, P.E.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    Diamond turned OFHC copper samples have been observed within the past few months using the Scanning Tunneling Microscope. Initial results have shown evidence of artifacts which may be used to better understand the diamond turning process. The STM`s high resolution capability and three dimensional data representation allows observation and study of surface features unobtainable with conventional profilometry systems. Also, the STM offers a better quantitative means by which to analyze surface structures than the SEM. This paper discusses findings on several diamond turned OFHC copper samples having different cutting conditions. Each sample has been cross referenced using STM and SEM.

  15. Utilization of solar cogeneration in conjunction with a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prieto, R.; Damsker, P.J.

    1982-08-01

    The results of a study investigating solar cogeneration in conjunction with a flash furnace copper smelting operation in southwest New Mexico are presented. Results include a discussion of the overall system configuration with particular emphasis on system design, operation and control. Preliminary findings of the study indicate the potential for an increase in copper production of up to 90 percent due to the higher oxygen content of ambient air relative to the currently combusted air source. Projected capital costs estimates for the facility coupled with appropriate schedule and economic assumptions indicate that a return on investment in excess of 30 percent is achievable.

  16. High pressure melting curves of silver, gold and copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hieu, Ho Khac

    2013-11-15

    In this work, based on the Lindemann's formula of melting and the pressure-dependent Grüneisen parameter, we have investigated the pressure effect on melting temperature of silver, gold and copper metals. The analytical expression of melting temperature as a function of volume compression has been derived. Our results are compared with available experimental data as well as with previous theoretical studies and the good and reasonable agreements are found. We also proposed the potential of this approach on predicting melting of copper at very high pressure.

  17. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  18. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  19. US cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  1. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-06-01

    This article is the `Industry Briefs` portion of Nuexco`s June 1992 `Recent Developments` section. Specific items mentioned in this article include: (1) a new fuel fabrication facility in South Korea, (2) use of mixed-oxide fuel in Belgium, (3) privatization of nuclear plants in Argentina, (4) startup of Ohi-4 in Japan, (5) purchase of uranium properties in Wyoming, and (6) formation of an international utilities forum.

  2. Fermilab | Resources | Industrial Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources Navbar Toggle About Quick Info Science History Leadership and Organization Leadership Organizational chart Committees and Councils Photo and Video Gallery Diversity Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Related Links DOE FRA UChicago URA Newsroom Spotlight Press releases Fact sheets and brochures symmetry Interactions.org Photo and video archive Resources for ... Employees Researchers, postdocs and graduate students Job seekers Neighbors Industry K-12 students,

  3. wave energy industry research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industry research - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  4. Natural Gas Industrial Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Electric Power Price Gross Withdrawals Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Oil Wells Gross Withdrawals From Shale Gas Wells Gross Withdrawals From Coalbed Wells Repressuring Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed Vented and Flared Marketed Production NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Dry Production Imports By Pipeline LNG Imports Exports Exports By Pipeline LNG Exports Underground Storage Capacity Gas in Underground

  5. Automotive Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology Developments Automotive Turbocharging: Industrial Requirements and Technology Developments Significant improvements in ...

  6. Career Map: Industrial Engineer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Engineer Career Map: Industrial Engineer Two industrial engineers analyze data on a computer. Industrial Engineer Position Title Industrial Engineer Alternate Title(s) Production Engineer, Process Engineer, Manufacturing Engineer, Industrial Production Manager Education & Training Level Advanced, Bachelors required, prefer graduate degree Education & Training Level Description Industrial engineers should have a bachelor's degree in industrial engineering. Employers also value

  7. Industrial Dojo Program Fosters Industrial Internet Development | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Launches Cloud Foundry 'Industrial Dojo,' Contributes to Open Source to Foster Continued Development of the Industrial Internet Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) GE Launches Cloud Foundry 'Industrial Dojo,' Contributes to Open Source to Foster Continued Development of the Industrial Internet

  8. Recovery of iron and copper from copper smelting furnace slags by carbon injection. Report of investigations/1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paige, J.I.; Paulson, D.L.; Hunter, W.

    1982-09-01

    The Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, conducts research on methods to minimize the requirements for mineral raw materials through conservation, substitution, and increased minerals and metals recovery from primary and secondary domestic resources. To further this goal, prior Bureau research had devised a pyrometallurgical technique (RI 8211) to recover metallic iron and copper from molten copper smelting furnace slags by carbothermic reduction. As a continuation of this Bureau research on the carbon injection technique, reverberatory and electric furnace slags were treated in an 800-kva electric arc furnace by simultaneously top feeding the slag and injecting coke breeze into the bottom of the molten bath.

  9. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. Reid Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reid Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Reid Industries Address: PO Box 503 Place: San Francisco, CA Zip: 94104 Phone Number: 415-947-1050 Coordinates: 37.7923058,...

  11. Industrial Process Heating - Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Process Heating - Technology Assessment 1 2 Contents 3 4 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 5 1.1. Industrial Process Heating Overview ............................................................................................ 2 6 2. Technology Assessment and Potential ................................................................................................. 6 7 2.1. Status

  12. Forest Products Industry Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-04-01

    This document describes the forest products industry's research and development priorities. The original technology roadmap published by the industry in 1999 and was most recently updated in April 2010.

  13. Enviromech Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Enviromech Industries Place: Thousands Palms, California Zip: 92276 Product: Alternative fuel system design and integration company. References: Enviromech...

  14. Industry Interactive Procurement System (IIPS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interactive Industry Interactive Procurement System Procurement System (IIPS) (IIPS) Douglas Baptist, Project Manager Information Management Systems Division US Department of ...

  15. CEMI Industrial Efficiency (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity Video.  

  16. Copper oxide/N-silicon heterojunction photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1982-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having characteristics of a high efficiency solar cell comprising a Cu.sub.x O/n-Si heterojunction. The Cu.sub.x O layer is formed by heating a deposited copper layer in an oxygen containing ambient.

  17. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  18. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  19. Cryogenic properties of dispersion strengthened copper for high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Han, K.; Walsh, R. P.; Swenson, C. A.

    2014-01-27

    Cold deformed copper matrix composite conductors, developed for use in the 100 tesla multi-shot pulsed magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), have been characterized. The conductors are alumina strengthened copper which is fabricated by cold drawing that introduces high dislocation densities and high internal stresses. Both alumina particles and high density of dislocations provide us with high tensile strength and fatigue endurance. The conductors also have high electrical conductivities because alumina has limited solubility in Cu and dislocations have little scattering effect on conduction electrons. Such a combination of high strength and high conductivity makes it an excellent candidate over other resistive magnet materials. Thus, characterization is carried out by tensile testing and fully reversible fatigue testing. In tensile tests, the material exceeds the design criteria parameters. In the fatigue tests, both the load and displacement were measured and used to control the amplitude of the tests to simulate the various loading conditions in the pulsed magnet which is operated at 77 K in a non-destructive mode. In order to properly simulate the pulsed magnet operation, strain-controlled tests were more suitable than load controlled tests. For the dispersion strengthened coppers, the strengthening mechanism of the aluminum oxide provided better tensile and fatigue properties over convention copper.

  20. The E1 copper binding domain of full-length amyloid precursor protein mitigates copper-induced growth inhibition in brain metastatic prostate cancer DU145 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gough, Mallory Blanthorn-Hazell, Sophee Delury, Craig Parkin, Edward

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Copper levels are elevated in the tumour microenvironment. • APP mitigates copper-induced growth inhibition of DU145 prostate cancer (PCa) cells. • The APP intracellular domain is a prerequisite; soluble forms have no effect. • The E1 CuBD of APP is also a prerequisite. • APP copper binding potentially mitigates copper-induced PCa cell growth inhibition. - Abstract: Copper plays an important role in the aetiology and growth of tumours and levels of the metal are increased in the serum and tumour tissue of patients affected by a range of cancers including prostate cancer (PCa). The molecular mechanisms that enable cancer cells to proliferate in the presence of elevated copper levels are, therefore, of key importance in our understanding of tumour growth progression. In the current study, we have examined the role played by the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in mitigating copper-induced growth inhibition of the PCa cell line, DU145. A range of APP molecular constructs were stably over-expressed in DU145 cells and their effects on cell proliferation in the presence of copper were monitored. Our results show that endogenous APP expression was induced by sub-toxic copper concentrations in DU145 cells and over-expression of the wild-type protein was able to mitigate copper-induced growth inhibition via a mechanism involving the cytosolic and E1 copper binding domains of the full-length protein. APP likely represents one of a range of copper binding proteins that PCa cells employ in order to ensure efficient proliferation despite elevated concentrations of the metal within the tumour microenvironment. Targeting the expression of such proteins may contribute to therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancers.

  1. Industry outreach a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, D.; Sen, R.

    1995-09-01

    The Outreach Project was initiated in October 1994 with the objective of developing a multi-year plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for targeted outreach activities for stakeholders in industry and the general public. This status report summarizes the work on industry outreach that has been completed since the inception of the project in October 1994. A three-pronged approach was taken to ascertain issues related to industry outreach. First, there was a review of on-going and past industry outreach activities at DOE and NHA. Next, a series of meetings with industry decision makers was arranged to get a better understanding of industry interests and concerns, and to discuss how DOE and industry could work collaboratively to develop hydrogen energy systems. Third, a workshop is scheduled where representatives from industry, DOE and other federal agencies can identify issues that would enhance partnering between the federal government and industry in the development of hydrogen energy systems. At this tiny, the review of on-going and past activities has been completed. Industry interviews are in progress and a majority of meetings have been held. Analysis of the information gained is in progress. The preliminary analysis of this information indicates that for appropriate near-term demonstration-type projects, the level of interest for collaboration between DOE and industry is high. The data also identifies issues industry is concerned with which impact the commercialization of hydrogen energy systems.

  2. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  3. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  4. Recent developments: Industry briefs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1990-04-01

    Recent nuclear industry briefs are presented. These briefs include: Soviet Union to build Iran nuclear plant; Dension announces cuts in Elliot Lake production; Soviet environmental study delays Rostov startup; Cogema closes two mines; Namibian sanctions lifted by USA and Canada; US Energy and Kennecott restructors joint venture; Australians reelect Hawke; China to buy Soviet nuclear plant; Olympic Dam`s first sale of concentrates to USA; Uranevz buys one-third of Cogema`s Rabbit Lake operations; East and West Germany forming joint nuclear law; and Nova Scotia extends uranium exploration plan.

  5. CASL Industry Council Meeting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meeting 12-13 April 2016 Meeting Minutes Page | 1 The spring 2016 meeting of the Industry Council (IC) for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) was held on April 12-13, 2016 at the Aloft Hotel in Greenville, South Carolina and was led by the CASL IC Chairman Scott Thomas of Duke Energy and the new CASL IC Executive Director Erik Mader from the EPRI Fuel Reliability Program. The meeting location and logistics were excellent and the group profusely thanked Lorie

  6. Reuse of industrial sludge as pelletized aggregate for concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, J.H.; Hong, S.Y.; Show, K.Y.

    2000-03-01

    Industrial sludge is generated at a rate of 100 metric tons/day, from a copper slag recycling plant. The industrial sludge is currently being landfilled. However, limited availability of landfill sites has raised the need of an alternative disposal. A renewed interest in converting the industrial sludge into construction materials has been prompted to achieve a viable disposal option in saving the depleting natural resources of raw materials as well as the environment. This study describes the use of sintered sludge pellets as a complete replacement for regular granite aggregates in concrete. The pelletized sludge was fired to a temperature of 1,135 C at which the sintering process occurs, producing a hard fused basalt-like mass. In comparison with normal granite aggregates, the sintered sludge pellets display a higher aggregate strength, a higher porosity, and a lower aggregate density that manifests attributes better than that required of construction aggregates. The concrete cast with the pelletized aggregates achieved a compressive strength of 38.5 N/mm{sup 2} after 28 days and was comparable to the control specimen. Leaching tests conducted on the sludge pellets and concrete showed that all leachate contamination levels determined using the column leaching test are within acceptable ranges after 130 days of stabilization. The experimental results indicated that a complete replacement of conventional aggregates with sintered sludge pellets for structural concrete is both technically and environmentally feasible.

  7. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D.; Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  8. Copper contamination effects on hydrogen-air combustion under SCRAMJET (supersonic combustion ramjet) testing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Berry, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of copper catalytic reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous) in hydrogen flames were found in a literature survey. Hydrogen atoms in flames recombine into hydrogen molecules through catalytic reactions, and these reactions which affect the timing of the combustion process. Simulations of hydrogen flames with copper contamination were conducted by using a modified general chemical kinetics program (GCKP). Results show that reaction times of hydrogen flames are shortened by copper catalytic reactions, but ignition times are relatively insensitive to the reactions. The reduction of reaction time depends on the copper concentration, copper phase, particle size (if copper is in the condensed phase), and initial temperature and pressure. The higher the copper concentration of the smaller the particle, the larger the reduction in reaction time. For a supersonic hydrogen flame (Mach number = 4.4) contaminated with 200 ppm of gaseous copper species, the calculated reaction times are reduced by about 9%. Similar reductions in reaction time are also computed for heterogeneous copper contamination. Under scramjet testing conditions, the change of combustion timing appears to be tolerable (less than 5%) if the Mach number is lower than 3 or the copper contamination is less than 100 ppm. The higher rate the Mach number, the longer the reaction time and the larger the copper catalytic effects. 7 tabs., 8 figs., 34 refs.

  9. Hydrogenated indium oxide window layers for high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jäger, Timo Romanyuk, Yaroslav E.; Nishiwaki, Shiro; Bissig, Benjamin; Pianezzi, Fabian; Fuchs, Peter; Gretener, Christina; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.; Döbeli, Max

    2015-05-28

    High mobility hydrogenated indium oxide is investigated as a transparent contact for thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells. Hydrogen doping of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films is achieved by injection of H{sub 2}O water vapor or H{sub 2} gas during the sputter process. As-deposited amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:H films exhibit a high electron mobility of ∼50 cm{sup 2}/Vs at room temperature. A bulk hydrogen concentration of ∼4 at. % was measured for both optimized H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}-processed films, although the H{sub 2}O-derived film exhibits a doping gradient as detected by elastic recoil detection analysis. Amorphous IOH films are implemented as front contacts in CIGS based solar cells, and their performance is compared with the reference ZnO:Al electrodes. The most significant feature of IOH containing devices is an enhanced open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of ∼20 mV regardless of the doping approach, whereas the short circuit current and fill factor remain the same for the H{sub 2}O case or slightly decrease for H{sub 2}. The overall power conversion efficiency is improved from 15.7% to 16.2% by substituting ZnO:Al with IOH (H{sub 2}O) as front contacts. Finally, stability tests of non-encapsulated solar cells in dry air at 80 °C and constant illumination for 500 h demonstrate a higher stability for IOH-containing devices.

  10. Experimental evidence on removing copper and light-induced degradation from silicon by negative charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulfrad, Yacine Lindroos, Jeanette; Yli-Koski, Marko; Savin, Hele; Wagner, Matthias; Wolny, Franziska

    2014-11-03

    In addition to boron and oxygen, copper is also known to cause light-induced degradation (LID) in silicon. We have demonstrated previously that LID can be prevented by depositing negative corona charge onto the wafer surfaces. Positively charged interstitial copper ions are proposed to diffuse to the negatively charged surface and consequently empty the bulk of copper. In this study, copper out-diffusion was confirmed by chemical analysis of the near surface region of negatively/positively charged silicon wafer. Furthermore, LID was permanently removed by etching the copper-rich surface layer after negative charge deposition. These results demonstrate that (i) copper can be effectively removed from the bulk by negative charge, (ii) under illumination copper forms a recombination active defect in the bulk of the wafer causing severe light induced degradation.

  11. Effect of roasting with ammonium sulfate and sulfuric acid on the extraction of copper and cobalt from copper converter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamamci, C.; Ziyadanogullari, B. )

    1991-08-01

    Copper converter slag, provided by Ergani Copper Co. of Etibank and containing 2.56% copper and 0.22% cobalt, was roasted with ammonium sulfate. The effects of such parameters as temperature (200-600C), duration of roasting (15-120 min), and amount of ammonium sulfate (0.5-2.5 times stoichiometric) have been studied. Under optimum conditions (slag size, {minus}100 mesh; stoichiometric requirement of ammonium sulfate; roasting temperature of 400 C for 60 min), the authors obtained 88% Cu and 67% Co by extraction. Similar studies were carried out with concentrated sulfuric acid. The influence of experimental variables such as roasting temperature (25-300C), roasting period (30-120 min), and amount of sulfuric acid (0.5-2 times stoichiometric) has been studied. Under atmospheric conditions, i.e., at 200C and a roasting period of 60 min with 1.5 times the stoichiometric amount of sulfuric acid, recoveries of copper and cobalt were 82 and 96% respectively.

  12. Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of indium filled In x Co 4 Sb 12 ( x=0.05, 0.2) and indium cerium filled Ce 0.05 In 0.1 Co 4 Sb 12 skutterudites: Neutron diffraction and thermoelectric properties of In/Ce skutterudites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sesselmann, Andreas; Klobes, Benedikt; Dasgupta, Titas; Gourdon, Olivier; Hermann, Raphael; Mueller, Eckhard

    2015-09-25

    The thermoelectric properties on polycrystalline single (In) and double filled (Ce, In) skutterudites are characterized between 300 and 700 K. Powder neutron diffraction measurements of the skutterudite compositions InxCo4Sb12 (x= 0.05, 0.2) and Ce0.05In0.1Co4Sb12 as a function of temperature (12- 300 K) were carried out, which gives more insight into the structural data of single and double-filled skutterudites. Our results show that due to the annealing treatment, a Sb deficiency is detectable and thus verifies defects at the Sb lattice site of the skutterudite. Furthermore, we show by electron microprobe analysis that a considerable amount of indium is lost duringmore » synthesis and post-processing for the single indium filled samples, but not for the double cerium and indium skutterudite sample. The double-filled skutterudite is superior to the single-filled skutterudite composition due to a higher charge carrier density, a comparable lattice thermal resistivity, and a higher density of states effective mass in our experiment. Finally, we obtained a significantly higher Einstein temperature for the double-filled skutterudite composition in comparison to the single-filled species, which reflects the high sensitivity due to filling of the void lattice position within the skutterudite crystal.« less

  13. Biofuel Industries Group LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Group LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biofuel Industries Group LLC Place: Adrian, Michigan Zip: 49221 Product: Biofuel Industries Group, LLC owns and operates the...

  14. Energy Intensity Indicators: Industrial Source Energy Consumption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The industrial sector comprises manufacturing and other nonmanufacturing industries not included in transportation or services. Manufacturing includes 18 industry sectors, generally defined at the...

  15. Assessment of Replicable Innovative Industrial Cogeneration Applicatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replicable Innovative Industrial Cogeneration Applications, June 2001 Assessment of Replicable Innovative Industrial Cogeneration Applications, June 2001 U.S. industrial facilities ...

  16. Industrial Assessment Centers Update, March 2015 | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Read the Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) Update -- March 2015 Industrial Assessment Centers Quarterly Update, March 2015 More Documents & Publications Industrial Assessment...

  17. MRL Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MRL Industries Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MRL Industries Inc Place: Sonora, California Zip: 95370 Sector: Solar Product: MRL Industries is a US company committed to...

  18. Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable - List of Participants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuels Industry Roundtable - List of Participants Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable - List of Participants List of Participants from the May 18 Advanced Biofuels Industry ...

  19. Meehan s Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Meehan s Industrial Jump to: navigation, search Name: Meehan's Industrial Place: Milton, Ontario, Canada Zip: L9T 5C1 Product: Meehan's Industrial is a manufacturer, project...

  20. Local Option- Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Utah Industrial Facilities and Development Act, counties, municipalities, and state universities in Utah may issue Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRBs) or Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs)...

  1. Ternion Bio Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ternion Bio Industries Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ternion Bio Industries Name: Ternion Bio Industries Address: 1060 Minnesota Ave., Suite 6 Place: San Jose, California Zip:...

  2. Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation Place: Taipei, Taiwan Product: Lien Hwa Industrial Corporation is an agricultural,...

  3. Equity Industrial Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Equity Industrial Partners Jump to: navigation, search Name Equity Industrial Partners Facility Equity Industrial Partners Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility...

  4. TG Agro Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    TG Agro Industrial Jump to: navigation, search Name: TG Agro Industrial Place: Brazil Product: Maranhao-based ethanol producer. References: TG Agro Industrial1 This article is a...

  5. EA-1686: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee to SoloPower Inc. for the Electrodeposition-based Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) Solar Technology Manufacturing Facility near San Jose, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EA cancelled due to a change in project scope; DOE prepared a categorical exclusion determination (8/15/11).

  6. Research Projects in Industrial Technology.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Industrial Technology Section.

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this booklet is to briefly describe ongoing and completed projects being carried out by Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Industrial Technology Section. In the Pacific Northwest, the industrial sector is the largest of the four consuming sectors. It accounted for thirty-nine percent of the total firm demand in the region in 1987. It is not easy to asses the conservation potential in the industrial sector. Recognizing this, the Northwest Power Planning Council established an objective to gain information on the size, cost, and availability of the conservation resource in the industrial sector, as well as other sectors, in its 1986 Power Plan. Specifically, the Council recommended that BPA operate a research and development program in conjunction with industry to determine the potential costs and savings from efficiency improvements in industrial processes which apply to a wide array of industrial firms.'' The section, composed of multidisciplinary engineers, provides technical support to the Industrial Programs Branch by designing and carrying out research relating to energy conservation in the industrial sector. The projects contained in this booklet are arranged by sector --industrial, utility, and agricultural -- and, within each sector, chronologically from ongoing to completed, with those projects completed most recently falling first. For each project the following information is given: its objective approach, key findings, cost, and contact person. Completed projects also include the date of completion, a report title, and report number.

  7. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum–copper alloys at the single-atom limit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Yang, Ming; Allard, Lawrence F.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2015-10-09

    Platinum is ubiquitous in the production sectors of chemicals and fuels; however, its scarcity in nature and high price will limit future proliferation of platinum-catalysed reactions. One definite approach to conserve platinum involves understanding the smallest number of platinum atoms needed to catalyse a reaction, then designing catalysts with the minimal platinum ensembles. Here we design and test a new generation of platinum–copper nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene,, an industrially important reaction. Isolated platinum atom geometries enable hydrogen activation and spillover but are incapable of C–C bond scission that leads to loss of selectivity and catalyst deactivation.more » γ-Alumina-supported single-atom alloy nanoparticle catalysts with <1 platinum atom per 100 copper atoms are found to exhibit high activity and selectivity for butadiene hydrogenation to butenes under mild conditions, demonstrating transferability from the model study to the catalytic reaction under practical conditions.« less

  8. Copper substrate as a catalyst for the oxidation of chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhiting; Zhou, Feng; Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh J.; Muldoon, Patrick; Liu, Haitao

    2015-04-15

    We report the catalytic effect of copper substrate on graphene–oxygen reaction at high temperature. Previous studies showed that graphene grown on copper are mostly defect-free with strong oxidation resistance. We found that a freshly prepared copper-supported graphene sample can be completely oxidized in trace amount of oxygen (<3 ppm) at 600 °C within 2 h. Both X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) suggest that upon ambient air exposure, oxygen molecules diffuse into the space between graphene and copper, resulting in the formation of copper oxide which acts as catalytic sites for the graphene-oxygen reaction. This result has important implications for the characterization, processing, and storage of copper-supported graphene samples. - Graphical abstract: The copper substrate enhances the thermel oxidation of single-layer graphene. - Highlights: • A copper-supported graphene can be oxidized in Ar (O{sub 2}<3 ppm, 600 °C, 2 h). • O{sub 2} intercalates between graphene and copper upon exposure to air. • The copper foil should not be considered as an inert substrate.

  9. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S.; Leisch, Jennifer; Taylor, Matthew; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  10. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang; Yang, Runxiang; Cai, Xinyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Jin, Congguo; Huang, Yunchao

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  11. Amorphous copper tungsten oxide with tunable band gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Le; Shet, Sudhakar; Tang Houwen; Wang Heli; Yan Yanfa; Turner, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Ahn, Kwang-soon

    2010-08-15

    We report on the synthesis of amorphous copper tungsten oxide thin films with tunable band gaps. The thin films are synthesized by the magnetron cosputtering method. We find that due to the amorphous nature, the Cu-to-W ratio in the films can be varied without the limit of the solubility (or phase separation) under appropriate conditions. As a result, the band gap and conductivity type of the films can be tuned by controlling the film composition. Unfortunately, the amorphous copper tungsten oxides are not stable in aqueous solution and are not suitable for the application of photoelectrochemical splitting of water. Nonetheless, it provides an alternative approach to search for transition metal oxides with tunable band gaps.

  12. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  13. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  14. Simulations for Tracking Cosmogenic Activation in Germanium and Copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-11-01

    High-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in copper cryostats and shielding materials are used in measurements of the extraordinarily rare nuclear decay process, neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???), and for dark matter searches. Cosmogenic production of 68Ge and 60Co in the germanium and copper represent an irreducible background to these experiments as the subsequent decays of these isotopes can mimic the signals of interest. These radioactive isotopes can be removed by chemical and/or isotopic separation, but begin to grow-in to the material after separation until the material is moved deep underground. This work is motivated by the need to have a reliable, experimentally benchmarked simulation tool for evaluating shielding materials used during transportation and near-surface manufacturing of experiment components. The resulting simulations tool has been used to enhance the effectiveness of an existing transport shield used to ship enriched germanium from the separations facility to the detector manufacturing facility.

  15. Linking strain anisotropy and plasticity in copper metallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Conal E. Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Nguyen, Son

    2015-05-04

    The elastic anisotropy of copper leads to significant variation in the x-ray elastic constants (XEC), which link diffraction-based strain measurements to stress. An accurate depiction of the mechanical response in copper thin films requires a determination of an appropriate grain interaction model that lies between Voigt and Reuss limits. It is shown that the associated XEC weighting fraction, x*, between these limits provides a metric by which strain anisotropy can be quantified. Experimental values of x*, as determined by a linear regression scheme of diffraction data collected from multiple reflections, reveal the degree of strain anisotropy and its dependence on plastic deformation induced during in-situ and ex-situ thermal treatments.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P. S.

    2012-11-02

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non‐adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350‐450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

  17. Industrial Hygiene | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hygiene Ames Laboratory's Industrial Hygiene (IH) Program is dedicated to providing employees a workplace free from or protected against recognized hazards that could potentially cause illness or injury. The basic principles of industrial hygiene are applied: Anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of workplace hazards. The industrial hygienist participates on Readiness Review committees to assist in anticipation and recognition of chemical, physical, biological, or ergonomic hazards.

  18. The role of cobalt doping on magnetic and optical properties of indium oxide nanostructured thin film prepared by sol–gel method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baqiah, H.; Ibrahim, N.B.; Halim, S.A.; Flaifel, Moayad Husein; Abdi, M.H.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Cobalt doped indium oxide thin films have been prepared by a sol–gel method. • The films have a thickness less than 100 nm and grain size less than 10 nm. • The lattice parameters and grain size of films decrease as Co content increase. • The optical band gap of films increases as the grain size decrease. • The films' magnetic behaviour is sensitive to ratio of oxygen defects per Co ions. - Abstract: The effect of Co doping concentration, (x = 0.025–0.2), in In{sub 2−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 3} thin film was investigated by X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer (UV–vis) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). All films were prepared by sol–gel technique followed by spin coating process. The XRD and XPS measurements indicate that Co{sup +2} has been successfully substituted in In{sup +3} site. The TEM measurement shows nanostructure morphology of the films. The doping of Co in indium oxide resulted in a decrease in the lattice parameters and grain size while the band gap increased with increasing Co concentration. Further, by comparing VSM and XPS results, the magnetic behaviour of the films were found to be sensitive to Co concentrations, oxygen vacancies and ratio of oxygen defects to Co concentrations. The magnetic behaviour of the prepared films was explained using bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model.

  19. Coloration and oxygen vacancies in wide band gap oxide semiconductors: Absorption at metallic nanoparticles induced by vacancy clustering—A case study on indium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, M. Schewski, R.; Irmscher, K.; Galazka, Z.; Markurt, T.; Naumann, M.; Schulz, T.; Uecker, R.; Fornari, R.; Meuret, S.; Kociak, M.

    2014-02-07

    In this paper, we show by optical and electron microscopy based investigations that vacancies in oxides may cluster and form metallic nanoparticles that induce coloration by extinction of visible light. Optical extinction in this case is caused by generation of localized surface plasmon resonances at metallic particles embedded in the dielectric matrix. Based on Mie's approach, we are able to fit the absorption due to indium nanoparticles in In{sub 2}O{sub 3} to our absorption measurements. The experimentally found particle distribution is in excellent agreement with the one obtained from fitting by Mie theory. Indium particles are formed by precipitation of oxygen vacancies. From basic thermodynamic consideration and assuming theoretically calculated activation energies for vacancy formation and migration, we find that the majority of oxygen vacancies form just below the melting point. Since they are ionized at this temperature they are Coulomb repulsive. Upon cooling, a high supersaturation of oxygen vacancies forms in the crystal that precipitates once the Fermi level crosses the transition energy level from the charged to the neutral charge state. From our considerations we find that the ionization energy of the oxygen vacancy must be higher than 200 meV.

  20. Nitrogen molecule activation by excited states of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez-Zamora, M.; Novaro, O.; Ruiz, M.E. )

    1990-04-05

    Ab initio molecular orbital studies that include variational (with a multiconfiguration reference state of 200 states) and perturbational (including over 3 million configurations) configuration interaction calculations were addressed to the interaction of nitrogen molecules with copper. The Cu ground state {sup 2}S and first two excited states {sup 2}P and {sup 2}D were studied as they interact in different geometrical approaches (including side-on and end-on geometries) with ground-state N{sub 2} molecules.

  1. Arsenic distribution in soils surrounding the Utah copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, A.L.; Rom, W.N.; Glenne, B.

    1983-05-01

    We investigated the extent of arsenic contamination from a Utah copper smelter as reflected by arsenic residue accumulated in the surface soil. The highest arsenic concentrations occurred within 3 km of the smelter. Arsenic soil contamination was evident up to 10 km from the smelter, with the major transport direction being ESE. Data from the subsurface soil samples indicated that arsenic has also leached through the soil.

  2. Fluid bed dryer efficient with abrasive copper concentrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marczeski, C.D.; Hodel, A.E.

    1985-11-01

    Thermally efficient dryers were needed to remove 11-12% moisture from very fine (70%, -325 mesh), copper concentrate at Asarco, Inc., in Hayden, AZ. More than 128 t/hr of the wet, dust-like material produced by the copper mine's grinders had to be made bone dry (0.1% moisture) before being fed to a flash smelting furnace. Two 12 ft diam fluidized bed dryers, each with a capacity of 64 wet t/hr, were installed to dry the copper concentrate. Each dryer's push/pull air system employs a 1250 hp fluidizing air fan to provide air at 80 in (wc) static pressure. A natural gas fired heater raises the air temperature to 600/sup 0/F to dry the dense (100 lb/cu ft bulk density) ore. The dense, wet copper concentrate is fed to the dryer from the top, countercurrent to the flow of the light, dry product. Drying begins when the wet feed reaches the fluidized bed of gravel rock. Lighter, dried material is conveyed by the air back to the top of the dryer and out through a duct to the baghouse. The throughput of the dryer is determined by the wetness of the concentrate and the temperature of the fluidizing air. Asarco, Inc. has found the fluid bed drying system simple and efficient to operate. Fuel gas consumption of the dryer is on the order of 1000 cu ft/ton of wet feed. The abrasion resistant lining provided in the dryer (a hard brick lining in the rock bed zone; castable refractory in the top and in the ducting) and ceramic tiles at the inlet of the dust collector have been effective in long term operation with the highly abrasive product.

  3. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  4. Microtextural characterization of copper shaped charge jet fragments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.I.; Bingert, J.F.; Zernow, L.

    1995-09-01

    The microstructures of two soft-caught copper shaped charge jet particles were investigated. In particular, the spatial distributions of crystallographic texture within the particles were characterized using point specific measurements of crystallographic orientation. Significant variations in preferred orientation were observed. These results are discussed in fight of previous computer simulations of the jetting process which showed significant radial gradients in both strain and strain rate.

  5. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumarkin, A. V. Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  6. DMI Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (NASDAQ: OTTR), is a diversified heavy steel manufacturer with a primary concentration on wind tower fabrication. References: DMI Industries1 This article is a stub....

  7. Greenline Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Place: San Rafael, California Zip: 94901 Product: Small to medium scale biodiesel plants designer and producer. They also run a biodiesel plant in Vallejo,...

  8. Jax Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jax Industries Place: Hillsboro, Oregon Product: Developer of recharge systems for CZ process silicon ingot growers, some of which produce PV silicon feedstock. Coordinates:...

  9. Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozokwelu, Dickson; Margolis, Nancy; Justiniano, Mauricio; Monfort, Joe; Brueske, Sabine; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-08-01

    This report (PDF 649 KB) summarizes the results of the 2009 Industrial Feedstock Flexibility Workshop, which took place in Atlanta, GA on August 19-20, 2009.

  10. Commercial & Industrial Renewable Energy Grants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) offers grant funding for renewable energy projects installed at commercial, industrial, public, non-profit, municipal or school facilities, or ...

  11. Industrial energy management and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, L.C.; Schmidt, P.S.; Brown, D.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the principles of industrial energy conservation and energy conservation applications, with emphasis on the energy-intensive industries. Topics covered include energy consumption, alternative energy sources, elements of energy audits, economic investment analysis, management of energy conservation programs, boilers and fired heaters, steam and condensate systems, classification and fouling of heat exchangers, heat transfer augmentation, waste heat sources, heat recovery equipment, properties and characteristics of insulation, energy conservation in industrial buildings, cogeneration, power circuit components and energy conversion devices, electrical energy conservation. A review of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics, as well as examples, problems, and case studies from specific industries are included.

  12. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on deaerators provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency A Study Pursuant to Section 7 of the American Energy Manufacturing Technical Corrections Act June 2015 Blank Page iii Statutory Requirement ...

  14. Collaborating with Industry for Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-03-01

    This is a brochure describing Laboratory Coordinating Council's network of labs and facilities to promote partnership between industry and national laboratories.

  15. AEO2014: Preliminary Industrial Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Elizabeth Sendich, Analyst, and Kay Smith, Team Leader Macroeconomic Analysis Team ... Macro-Industrial Working Group, Sendich & Smith, 92613 DO NOT CITE OR DISTRIBUTE ...

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Office (Formerly Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Office (Formerly Industrial Technologies Program) Advanced Manufacturing Office (Formerly Industrial Technologies Program) Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  17. ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursors and Conversion Technologies ITP Industrial Materials: Development and ...

  18. ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Materials: Development and Commercialization of Alternative Carbon Fiber Precursors and Conversion Technologies ITP Industrial Materials: Development and...

  19. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of ...

  20. Southeast Electronic Book of Industrial Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This Industrial Technologies Program handbook connects industry with the various energy efficiency resources available in the midwest.

  1. Midstate Electric Cooperative - Commercial and Industrial Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Midstate Electric Cooperative - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial...

  2. China National Machinery Industry Complete Engineering Corporation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industry Complete Engineering Corporation CMCEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: China National Machinery Industry Complete Engineering Corporation (CMCEC) Place: Beijing,...

  3. Guiding Principles for Successfully Implementing Industrial Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guiding Principles for Successfully Implementing Industrial Energy Assessment Recommendations Guiding Principles for Successfully Implementing Industrial Energy Assessment ...

  4. Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation Kinfra...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation Kinfra Jump to: navigation, search Name: Kerala Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation (Kinfra) Place:...

  5. Behavior and removal of associated metals in the secondary metallurgy of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanusch, K.; Bussmann, H.

    1995-12-31

    Copper in recycling material is accompanied by various groups of metals: (1) Metals which are much more negative than copper, such as Fe, Al, Si, P, Be. They are mainly removed by fire refining during the recovery of copper and leave the process in form of slag. (2) Metals which are more positive than copper or difficult to separate by fire refining and which are partly reduced together with the copper. These metals are for example As, Sb, Ni, Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn. They are enriched in intermediate products and recovered from these or remain for their major part in the fire-refined copper and can be separated by electrolytic refining and recovered from the electrolyte or anode slime. This report describes the process of Huettenwerke Kayser AG in Germany and illustrates how considerable returns of material are partly required to separate or recover associated metals. They are finally removed in saleable products.

  6. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  7. Layered Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film-Based Devices | Argonne National Laboratory Copper-Based Electrode for High-Dielectric Constant Oxide Thin-Film-Based Devices Technology available for licenisng: A multilayer thin-film device containing copper layers protected by amorphous TiAl oxide and devices incorporating TiAl. Offers high conductivity and protection against oxidation Low-cost process PDF icon copper_based_electrode

  8. Method for aqueous gold thiosulfate extraction using copper-cyanide pretreated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Courtney; Melashvili, Mariam; Gow, Nicholas V

    2013-08-06

    A gold thiosulfate leaching process uses carbon to remove gold from the leach liquor. The activated carbon is pretreated with copper cyanide. A copper (on the carbon) to gold (in solution) ratio of at least 1.5 optimizes gold recovery from solution. To recover the gold from the carbon, conventional elution technology works but is dependent on the copper to gold ratio on the carbon.

  9. Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Time-resolved Spectroscopy of Laser-heated Copper Foils Tuesday, July 16, 2013 - 11:00am SLAC, Conference Room 137-322 Presented by Kelly Cone, PhD Engineering, Dept. of Applied Science, University of California, Davis The volumetric heating of a thin copper target has been studied with time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. The copper target was heated by a plasma produced using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET)

  10. AVLIS industrial access program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    This document deals with the procurements planned for the construction of an Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) production plant. Several large-scale AVLIS facilities have already been built and tested; a full-scale engineering demonstration facility is currently under construction. The experience gained from these projects provides the procurement basis for the production plant construction and operation. In this document, the status of the AVLIS process procurement is presented from two viewpoints. The AVLIS Production Plant Work Breakdown Structure is referenced at the level of the items to be procured. The availability of suppliers for the items at this level is discussed. In addition, the work that will result from the AVLIS enrichment plant project is broken down by general procurement categories (construction, mechanical equipment, etc.) and the current AVLIS suppliers are listed according to these categories. A large number of companies in all categories are currently providing AVLIS equipment for the Full-Scale Demonstration Facility in Livermore, California. These companies form an existing and expanding supplier network for the AVLIS program. Finally, this document examines the relationship between the AVLIS construction project/operational facility and established commercial suppliers. The goal is to utilize existing industrial capability to meet the needs of the project in a competitive procurement situation. As a result, costs and procurement risks are both reduced because the products provided come from within the AVLIS suppliers' experience base. At the same time, suppliers can benefit by the potential to participate in AVLIS technology spin-off markets. 35 figures.

  11. Industrial Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies » Technology Marketing Summaries Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Marketing Summaries (356) Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories

  12. Industrial energy management and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, L.C.; Schmidt, P.S.; Brown, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents a study of the technical, economic and management principles of effective energy use. The authors report on: energy consumption, conservation, and resources. They present an analysis of thermal-fluid systems. Energy conservation in combustion systems. Heat exchangers, heat recovery, energy conservation in industrial buildings, and industrial cogeneration are discussed.

  13. Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladden, J.B.

    2002-02-28

    The A-01 effluent outfall, which collects both normal daily process flow and stormwater runoff from a industrial park area, did not meet the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit limits for metals, toxicity, and total residual chlorine at the outfall sampling point. Copper was the constituent of primary concern and the effluent consistently failed to meet that NPDES limit. Installation of a constructed wetland system including a basin to manage stormwater surges was required to reduce the problematic constituent concentrations to below the NPDES permit limits before the effluent reaches the sampling point. Both bench-scale and on-site pilot scale physical models were constructed to refine and optimize the preliminary design as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach prior to construction, which was completed in October 2000. The constructed treatment wetlands system has prov en its ability to treat industrial wastewaters containing metals with low O and M costs since there are no mechanical parts. With an anticipated life of over 50 years, this system is exceptionally cost effective.

  14. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  15. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  16. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  17. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  18. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print Wednesday, 26 March 2008 00:00 The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the

  19. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  20. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  1. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  2. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface Print The first commercial fungicide-the "Bordeaux mixture" of copper sulfate and lime-was used to fight downy mildew in French vineyards. The fungicide worked by catalyzing the production of free radicals that damage proteins and enzymes involved in cycling copper between Cu(I) and Cu(II) oxidation states in the cellular electron transport chain. However, not all fungi are sensitive to copper toxicity. Some, called

  3. Isentropic expansion of copper plasma in Mbar pressure range at “Luch” laser facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bel'kov, S. A.; Derkach, V. N.; Garanin, S. G.; Mitrofanov, E. I.; Voronich, I. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Levashov, P. R.; Minakov, D. V.

    2014-01-21

    We present experimental results on thermodynamic properties of dense copper plasma in Mbar pressure range. The laser facility “Luch” with laser intensity 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} is used to compress copper up to ∼8 Mbar by a strong shock wave; subsequent expansion of copper plasma into Al, Ti, Sn allows us to obtain release isentropes of copper by the impedance–matching method. A theoretical analysis and quantum simulations show that in our experiments strongly coupled quantum plasma is generated.

  4. Formation kinetics of copper-related light-induced degradation in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindroos, J. Savin, H.

    2014-12-21

    Light-induced degradation (LID) is a deleterious effect in crystalline silicon, which is considered to originate from recombination-active boron-oxygen complexes and/or copper-related defects. Although LID in both cases appears as a fast initial decay followed by a second slower degradation, we show that the time constant of copper-related degradation increases with increasing boron concentration in contrast to boron-oxygen LID. Temperature-dependent analysis reveals that the defect formation is limited by copper diffusion. Finally, interface defect density measurements confirm that copper-related LID is dominated by recombination in the wafer bulk.

  5. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  6. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  7. Preparation of CIGS-based solar cells using a buffered electrodeposition bath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2007-11-20

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of at least 9.0% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide thin film. The thin film is prepared by simultaneously electroplating copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a substrate using a buffered electro-deposition bath. The electrodeposition is followed by adding indium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film.

  8. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function

  9. Recovery of waste heat from industrial slags via modified float glass process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serth, R.W.; Ctvrtnicek, T.E.; McCormick, R.J.; Zanders, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A novel process for recovering waste heat from molten slags produced as by-products in the steel, copper, and elemental phosphorus industries is investigated. The process is based on technology developed in the glass industry for the commercial production of flat glass. In this process, energy is recovered from molten slag as it cools and solidifies on the surface of a pool of molten tin. In order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of the process, an energy recovery facility designed to handle the slag from a large elemental phosphorus plant is studied. Results indicate that the process is marginally economical at current energy price levels. A number of technical uncertainties in the process design are also identified. 9 refs.

  10. Industrial process fuel switching analysis. Topical report, September 1990-March 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study was undertaken to develop accurate, up-to-date profiles of process heat energy consumption and assess the fuel switching capability from natural gas to No. 6 oil for the industrial sector. Energy profiles of drying, calcining, clay firing, petroleum refining, copper smelting, chemical fluid heating, steel heating, iron melting, iron smelting, and ferrous heat treating processes were developed. The natural gas capacity switchable to No. 6 residual oil was also determined. It was determined that 18% (262 trillion Btu) of the natural gas capacity was convertible to No. 6 oil in these processes. Fuel switching capability of No. 6 oil is on the decline in many of the industrial processes. This is due to: replacement of aging equipment capable to burning both natural gas and No. 6 oil, availability and cost effectiveness of natural gas utilization, and emission standards set by amendments to the Clean Air Act and other environmental regulations.

  11. Peculiarities of plastic deformation nucleation in copper under nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S. Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.; Zolnikov, Konstantin P.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2015-10-27

    The computer simulation results on the atomic structure of the copper crystallite and its behavior in nanoindentation demonstrate the key role of local structural transformations in nucleation of plasticity. The generation of local structural transformations can be considered as an elementary event during the formation of higher scale defects, including partial dislocations and stacking faults. The cause for local structural transformations, both direct fcc-hcp and reverse hcp-fcc, is an abrupt local increase in atomic volume. A characteristic feature is that the values of local volume jumps in direct and reverse structural transformations are comparable with that in melting and lie in the range 5–7%.

  12. Synthesis, characterisation, electrical and optical properties of copper borate compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kipcak, Azmi Seyhun; Senberber, Fatma Tugce; Aydin Yuksel, Sureyya; Derun, Emek Moroydor; Piskin, Sabriye

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu(BO{sub 2}){sub 2} was synthesized at the form of with pdf number of “00-001-0472”. • Particle sizes were found between 162.72 and 56.44 nm and 195.76 and 75.73 nm at CuSNaH. • Reaction yields were 90.4 ± 0.84, 96.9 ± 0.78 and 78.9 ± 0.76% for CuST, CuSB and CuSNaH. • The resistivity of CuST, CuSB and CuSNaH are 1.10 × 10{sup 7}, 7.02 × 10{sup 6} and 8.62 × 10{sup 5} Ωm. • The optical energy gap was 3.76 eV. - Abstract: The hydrothermal synthesis of copper borate compounds [Cu(BO{sub 2}){sub 2}] was studied, and several parameters were found to affect the synthesis. Raw materials, including CuSO{sub 4}·5H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}·5H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}·10H{sub 2}O, NaOH and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}, were used. Reaction temperatures and reaction times between 40 °C and 100 °C and 15 and 240 min, respectively, were used. The as-synthesised copper borate was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The yields of the reactions were also calculated. Single-phase, nanoparticulate copper borate compounds (Cu(BO{sub 2}){sub 2}) possessing high XRD crystal scores were obtained; the reactions used to obtain these materials were highly efficient. Electrical resistivity and optical absorbance measurements were carried out on the compounds obtained from the highest yielding reactions. The results of this study showed that even using a reaction time of 15 min, copper borate formation was successfully achieved.

  13. Copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for latent heat storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbs, P. J.; Withey, E. A.; Coker, E. N.; Kruizenga, A. M.; Andraka, C. E.

    2016-06-21

    The systematic development of microstructure, solidification characteristics, and heat of solidification with composition in copper-silicon-magnesium alloys for thermal energy storage is presented. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to relate the thermal characteristics to microstructural development in the investigated alloys and clarifies the location of one of the terminal three-phase eutectics. Repeated thermal cycling highlights the thermal storage stability of the transformation through multiple melting events. In conclusion, two near-terminal eutectic alloys display high enthalpies of solidification, relatively narrow melting ranges, and stable transformation hysteresis behaviors suited to thermal energy storage.

  14. Enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence by ordered Ag nanodot array on indium tin oxide anode in organic light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Mi E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Mo Yoon, Dang; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Chulki; Lee, Taikjin; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Seok; Woo, Deokha E-mail: Dockha@kist.re.kr; Lim, Si-Hyung

    2014-07-07

    We report the enhancement of hole injection and electroluminescence (EL) in an organic light emitting diode (OLED) with an ordered Ag nanodot array on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) anode. Until now, most researches have focused on the improved performance of OLEDs by plasmonic effects of metal nanoparticles due to the difficulty in fabricating metal nanodot arrays. A well-ordered Ag nanodot array is fabricated on the ITO anode of OLED using the nanoporous alumina as an evaporation mask. The OLED device with Ag nanodot arrays on the ITO anode shows higher current density and EL enhancement than the one without any nano-structure. These results suggest that the Ag nanodot array with the plasmonic effect has potential as one of attractive approaches to enhance the hole injection and EL in the application of the OLEDs.

  15. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Oh, Byung Su; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  16. High-power blue laser diodes with indium tin oxide cladding on semipolar (202{sup }1{sup }) GaN substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourhashemi, A. Farrell, R. M.; Cohen, D. A.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.; Nakamura, S.

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate a high power blue laser diode (LD) using indium tin oxide as a cladding layer on semipolar oriented GaN. These devices show peak output powers and external quantum efficiencies comparable to state-of-the-art commercial c-plane devices. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated on (202{sup }1{sup }) oriented GaN substrates using InGaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 451?nm at room temperature, an output power of 2.52?W and an external quantum efficiency of 39% were measured from a single facet under a pulsed injection current of 2.34?A. The measured differential quantum efficiency was 50%.

  17. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P. Chen, T. P. Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  18. United States Electricity Industry Primer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The United States Electricity Industry Primer provides a high-level overview of the U.S. electricity supply chain, including generation, transmission, and distribution; markets and ownership structures, including utilities and regulatory agencies; and system reliability and vulnerabilities.

  19. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  20. Industrial Hygienist/Health Physicist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position wil l serve as an Industrial Hygienist/Health Physicist in the Operations and Oversight Division, providing technical oversight of the Oak Ridge National...

  1. Learning in Emerging Energy Industries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-16

    This software is a learning model excerpted from the BSM that can be used to examine effects of different learning rates and different techno-economics on industry evolution.

  2. Industrial Plans for AEO2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 10 Industrial Team Washington DC, July 30, 2013 Macro Team: Kay Smith (202) 586-1132 | kay.smith@eia.gov Vipin Arora (202) 586-1048 | vipin.arora@eia.gov Russell Tarver ...

  3. Industrial Plans for AEO2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    30, 2013 | Washington, DC WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Industrial team plans for AEO2014 Overview -- AEO2014 * Process flow status & updates * Other model updates * Major data updates * CHP updates 2 Industrial Team Washington DC, July 30, 2013 WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Process flow models * General: - Replace energy consumption based on

  4. Working with SRNL - AMC - Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry The dynamic, long-term relationships that would emerge from this laboratory, industry, and academic collaborative would generate new concepts and approaches that not only "spin in" modern manufacturing methods that support DOE mission success but also "spin out" new innovations to support overall chemical and manufacturing competitiveness within the United States. Technology and innovation are being driven by the need to work smarter to reduce risk. The Advanced

  5. CMMS in the Wind Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10617P Unlimited_Release Printed January 2013 CMMS in the Wind Industry Dennis Belanger MRG, Vice President Doug Hart MRG Consultant Bob Crull MRG Consultant Brian Maier MRG Consultant Management Resources Group, Inc. 27 Glen Road, Sandy Hook, CT 06482 Abstract Through a wide variety of activities and interactions, Sandia has observed limited adoption of electronic work orders in the wind industry. To explore some of the contributing factors for this limited adoption, the CREW team looked to

  6. Industry Cluster Development Grant winners

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Cluster Development Grant winners Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Industry Cluster Development Grant winners Recipients include Picuris Pueblo and Rio Arriba County February 1, 2015 A new community mural on the Hunter Ford facility in Española celebrates the building's planned revitalization and the future location of the Northern New Mexico Food Hub. A new

  7. 1994 Nuclear Industry Conference review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    The 1994 Nuclear Industry Conference, held in London United Kingdom, September 14--15, 1994, was the first serious nuclear energy conference to take place for more than 12 years. It had a challenging agenda, no less than whether the industry would sustain its role into the twenty-fist century. The conference focused on the world`s nuclear industry, which is in a crucial period of development, with few new reactors being built in Western Europe and none in the US. Attention in the industry is moving eastward to the troubled legacy of eastern Europe and to the dynamic new markets of the Far East. The immediate future of the reactor builders lies in these regions, for without new orders, the industry will decline. At the same time, the industry faces challenges at home. The end of the Cold War has brought a new appraisal of the fuel cycle, the ever-present dangers of proliferation, and the problems of long-term waste-disposal and decommissioning remain. New challenges include the role for nuclear energy as privatization of power utilities and liberalization of electricity markets takes place. Whether short-term market trends will dominate new orders for power plants or whether supply security considerations count was also discussed.

  8. Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

    1986-09-30

    This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

  9. Assessment of energy requirements in proven and new copper processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitt, C.H.; Wadsworth, M.E.

    1980-12-31

    Energy requirements are presented for thirteen pyrometallurgical and eight hydrometallurgical processes for the production of copper. Front end processing, mining, mineral processing, gas cleaning, and acid plant as well as mass balances are included. Conventional reverberatory smelting is used as a basis for comparison. Recommendations for needed process research in copper production are presented.

  10. Methanobactin: a copper binding compound having antibiotic and antioxidant activity isolated from methanotrophic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia

    2007-04-03

    A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.

  11. Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Maiti, Tapas C.; Soin, Aleksandr

    2014-04-15

    Determination of Method Detection Limits for Trace 232-Thorium and 238-Uranium in Copper using Ion Exchange and ICPMS

  12. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, Bhima; Brueske, Sabine; de los Reyes, Pamela; Jamison, Keith; Justiniano, Mauricio; Margolis, Nancy; Monfort, Joe; Raghunathan, Anand; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  13. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Solar swimming pool heating -- A copper collector after 26 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winter, F. de

    1999-07-01

    This paper is a progress report and a technology overview for a do-it-yourself solar swimming pool heater built by the author. Since March 1973 the heater has operated successfully day in day out for over 26 years, as a simple component in the pool circulation system, for three successive homeowners. The heater project was sponsored by the Copper Development Association (CDA), and used a copper flat plate collector design mounted on a small building, which provided both the roofing and the solar collection function. The heater was built in Pasadena, California, at 34.2 degrees north latitude and 118.2 degrees west longitude. A do-it-yourself manual was written so others could build such heaters, and about 100,000 copies of this manual have been distributed. The manual has helped many to get a better understanding of solar energy, has allowed many around the world to build similar swimming pool heater, and caused this author to get into the solar energy field.

  15. Equilibrium uptake, sorption dynamics, process development, and column operations for the removal of copper and nickel from aqueous solution and wastewater using activated slag, a low-cost adsorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    Activated slag developed from blast furnace waste material has been used for the removal of copper and nickel. The effects of particle size distribution, contact time, and surface loading of these metal ions on the adsorbent for their removal have been studied at the optimum pH (5.0 for Cu{sup 2+} and 4.0 for Ni{sup 2+}). Kinetic studies were performed to decide the mechanistic steps of the process and to obtain the thermodynamic parameters. Sorption data have been correlated with both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. Column operations were also performed in an attempt to simulate industrial conditions. The bed-depth-service-time (BDST) model has successfully been applied to the sorptive removal of nickel and copper. Some feasibility experiments have been performed with a goal to recover adsorbate and chemical regeneration of the spent columns without dismantling the same.

  16. Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments Details about the Industrial Energy Efficiency Assessments program and its implementation in China. session_2_industry_track_price_en.pdf (1.27 MB) session_2_industry_track_price_cn.pdf (1.47 MB) More Documents & Publications UAIEE and Industrial Assessment Centers The Second US-China Energy Efficiency Forum: Energy Management Standards and Implementation Energy Efficiency Financing

  17. Grain refinement of permanent mold cast copper base alloys. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadayappan, M.; Thomson, J. P.; Elboujdaini, M.; Gu, G. Ping; Sahoo, M.

    2004-04-29

    Grain refinement behavior of copper alloys cast in permanent molds was investigated. This is one of the least studied subjects in copper alloy castings. Grain refinement is not widely practiced for leaded copper alloys cast in sand molds. Aluminum bronzes and high strength yellow brasses, cast in sand and permanent molds, were usually fine grained due to the presence of more than 2% iron. Grain refinement of the most common permanent mold casting alloys, leaded yellow brass and its lead-free replacement EnviroBrass III, is not universally accepted due to the perceived problem of hard spots in finished castings and for the same reason these alloys contain very low amounts of iron. The yellow brasses and Cu-Si alloys are gaining popularity in North America due to their low lead content and amenability for permanent mold casting. These alloys are prone to hot tearing in permanent mold casting. Grain refinement is one of the solutions for reducing this problem. However, to use this technique it is necessary to understand the mechanism of grain refinement and other issues involved in the process. The following issues were studied during this three year project funded by the US Department of Energy and the copper casting industry: (1) Effect of alloying additions on the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys and their interaction with grain refiners; (2) Effect of two grain refining elements, boron and zirconium, on the grain size of four copper alloys, yellow brass, EnviroBrass II, silicon brass and silicon bronze and the duration of their effect (fading); (3) Prediction of grain refinement using cooling curve analysis and use of this method as an on-line quality control tool; (4) Hard spot formation in yellow brass and EnviroBrass due to grain refinement; (5) Corrosion resistance of the grain refined alloys; (6) Transfer the technology to permanent mold casting foundries; It was found that alloying elements such as tin and zinc do not change the grain size of Cu-Zn alloys

  18. Industrial Utility Webinar: Public Power Open Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-02-10

    The Industrial Utility Webinars focus on providing utilities with information on how to develop sucessful energy efficeincy programs for industrial energy consumers.

  19. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition ...

  20. Orion Bus Industries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bus Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Orion Bus Industries Place: Ontario, Canada Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL Yes Partnership Type...

  1. Hebei Huazheng Industry | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hebei Province, China Zip: 53500 Product: Hebei Huazheng Industry manufactures electrical semiconductor devices. References: Hebei Huazheng Industry1 This article is a stub. You...

  2. Goat Industries Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Goat Industries Fuels Place: Gwynedd, Wales, United Kingdom Zip: LL56 4PZ Product: Welsh manufacturer of biodiesel equipment that...

  3. Residential Building Industry Consulting Services | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Residential Building Industry Consulting Services Jump to: navigation, search Name: Residential Building Industry Consulting Services Place: New York, NY Information About...

  4. Sierra Pacific Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industries Inc Place: California Website: www.spi-ind.com Twitter: @SierraPacificIn Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesSierra-Pacific-Industries295910403780823 References:...

  5. Colorado Industrial Challenge and Recognition Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program 2009 State Award Fact Sheet that offers details of the Colorado Industrial program.

  6. Analyzing Your Compressed Air System; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program For additional information on industrial energy efficiency measures, contact the EERE Information Center at 1-877-337-3463 or visit ...

  7. EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS EIS-0428: Mississippi Gasification, LLC, Industrial Gasification Facility in Moss Point, MS ...

  8. Industrial Activities at DOE: Efficiency, Manufacturing, Process...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Activities at DOE: Efficiency, Manufacturing, Process, and Materials R&D Industrial Activities at DOE: Efficiency, Manufacturing, Process, and Materials R&D Overview of ...

  9. Future Bottlenecks for Industrial Water Recycling. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Future Bottlenecks for Industrial Water Recycling. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Future Bottlenecks for Industrial Water Recycling. Authors: Brady, Patrick V....

  10. IMPACTS: Industrial Technologies Program, Summary of Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IMPACTS: Industrial Technologies Program, Summary of Program Results for CY2009 IMPACTS: Industrial Technologies Program, Summary of Program Results for CY2009 ...

  11. Agro Industrial Taruma | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industrial Taruma Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agro Industrial Taruma Place: Sao Pedro do Turvo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 18940-000 Product: Brazil based ethanol producer...

  12. California Solar Energy Industries Association | Open Energy...

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    Solar Energy Industries Association Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Solar Energy Industries Association Place: Rio Vista, California Zip: 94571 Sector: Solar Product:...

  13. Passive Solar Industries Council | Open Energy Information

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    Passive Solar Industries Council Jump to: navigation, search Name: Passive Solar Industries Council Place: Ashland, OR Information About Partnership with NREL Partnership with NREL...

  14. Integrated Biodiesel Industries Ltd | Open Energy Information

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    Industries Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Integrated Biodiesel Industries Ltd Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 01418-200 Product: Sao Paulo-based biodiesel producer....

  15. Industrial Assistance and Projects Databases | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Project Profiles Database Arrow DOE's CHP Technical ... Industrial Assessment Centers Database Arrow Industrial Assessment Centers (IAC) perform ...

  16. Sanyo Chemical Industries | Open Energy Information

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    Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Sanyo Chemical Industries Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 103-0023 Product: String representation "Sanyo is a petr ... uction process." is...

  17. Toray Industries Inc | Open Energy Information

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    Industries Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Toray Industries Inc Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 103 8666 Sector: Carbon, Vehicles, Wind energy Product: String representation "A...

  18. Vikram Group of Industries | Open Energy Information

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    Vikram Group of Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: Vikram Group of Industries Place: Kolkatta, West Bengal, India Zip: 700001 Product: Kolkata-based tea processing...

  19. South Jersey Industries | Open Energy Information

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    Jersey Industries Jump to: navigation, search Name: South Jersey Industries Place: Folsom, New Jersey Zip: 8037 Sector: Services Product: An energy services holding company....

  20. AgroIndustrial Capela | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgroIndustrial Capela Jump to: navigation, search Name: AgroIndustrial Capela Place: Capela, Sergipe, Brazil Product: Brazil based ethanol producer located in Sergipe, part of...