National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for industrial wood byproducts

  1. Creating Value Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry Creating Value for the Wood Products Industry for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all assistance to the primary and value-added processing wood products industries in Louisiana. Since its

  2. Integrated Industrial Wood Chip Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, E. T.

    1984-01-01

    The sources of supply of wood residues for energy generation are described and the rationale for exploring the potential available from forest harvesting is developed. Details of three industrial-scale projects are presented and the specific...

  3. An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry Working Paper #1 Louisiana Forest Director Louisiana Furnishings Industry Association Ponchatoula, LA Dr. O. Victor Harding Assistant secondary wood products industry is underway at the Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory, Louisiana State

  4. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  5. CEICEI--BoisBois European Confederation of Woodworking IndustriesEuropean Confederation of Woodworking Industries ValueValue--added wood productsadded wood products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Woodworking Industries ValueValue--added wood productsadded wood products markets: flooringmarkets: flooring of Woodworking Industries Wood flooring and woodWood flooring and wood--based flooringbased flooring · "Genuine" wood ­ Solid products (parquet, planks, ...) ­ Products with a "genuine" top layer · Multilayer parquet

  6. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial by-product slags (Slag2PCC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from industrial by-product slags (Slag2PCC) Saostetun silicates, can be found in industrial waste materials and by-products besides its natural sources (Huijgen this makes iron- 304 #12;and steelmaking slags attractive raw materials for carbonation. The product from

  7. An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry Working Paper #2 Louisiana Forest Paper #1 that examined the Louisiana secondary wood products industry (Vlosky et al. 1994). The broad (including pulp and paper) and secondary manufacturing establishments (Jacob et al. 1987). The forest

  8. FIEA Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    FIEA ­ Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship Forest Industry, including any NZQA Unit Standards that you have completed. NOTES: 1. The Regulations for this award be received by the Dunedin office of Forest Industry Engineering Association by 1 March 2012

  9. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

  11. Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Check Correct All Grammar Errors And Enhance Your Writing. Try Now! www.Grammarly.com Free TradingHome Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009

  12. Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1994-11-01

    In November 1994, the forest products industry published Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood and Paper Industry, which articulated the industry's vision. This document set the foundation for collaborative efforts between the industry and the federal government.

  13. Opportunities for UPC Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Opportunities for UPC Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry Working Paper #4, profitability and competitiveness through point-of-sale scanning. Home center suppliers have been encouraged competitors. Accordingly, wood products suppliers have begun the process of adopting UPC capabilities to serve

  14. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  15. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

  16. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubictheThe U.S.DecemberChinnConcernsStartingWood

  17. Opportunities for Quick Response Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Opportunities for Quick Response Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry Working University Agricultural Center #12;2 February 8, 1995 #12;3 Quick Response Products and Service Suppliers, 104 suppliers of Quick Response (EDI and Automatic Identification) products and services were surveyed

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, such as bark, twigs, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and cokeCenter for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC

  19. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a path forward to utilize both fossil and alternative liquid fuels in the same combustion system. In particular, experiments show that straight VO can be cleanly combusted without the need for chemical processing or preheating steps, which can result in significant economic and environmental benefits. Next, low-emission combustion of glycerol/methane was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine droplets of highly viscous glycerol. Heat released from methane combustion further improves glycerol pre-vaporization and thus its clean combustion. Methane addition results in an intensified reaction zone with locally high temperatures near the injector exit. Reduction in methane flow rate elongates the reaction zone, which leads to higher CO emissions and lower NOx emissions. Similarly, higher air to liquid (ALR) mass ratio improves atomization and fuel pre-vaporization and shifts the flame closer to the injector exit. In spite of these internal variations, all fuel mixes of glycerol with methane produced similar CO and NOx emissions at the combustor exit. Results show that FB concept provides low emissions with the flexibility to utilize gaseous and highly viscous liquid fuels, straight VO and glycerol, without preheating or preprocessing the fuels. Following these initial experiments in quartz combustor, we demonstrated that glycerol combustion can be stably sustained in a metal combustor. Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements in glycerol/methane flames resulted in flow-weighted Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) of 35 to 40 ?m, depending upon the methane percentage. This study verified that lab-scale dual-fuel burner using FB injector can successfully atomize and combust glycerol and presumably other highly viscous liquid fuels at relatively low HRR (<10 kW). For industrial applications, a scaled-up glycerol burner design thus seemed feasible.

  20. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    developing countries, like India, adoption of efficient electricitydeveloping countries the sugar in- dustry uses bagasse and the edible oils industry uses byproduct wastes to generate steam and/or electricity (

  1. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  2. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  4. 20 Engineered Wood Journal Spring 2004 re wood design course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    20 Engineered Wood Journal · Spring 2004 A re wood design course offerings in civil, architectural, just maintaining the status quo could spell trouble for a wood products industry facing ever-greater competition from non-wood building materials. University education about wood as an engineering material

  5. Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Wood Resources International Production of energy from wood fuels in 2000 Source: EUBIONET 0 50 100 150.3% Sweden 5.3% Finland 4.1% Russia 13.8% US 37.3% Germany 3.3% France 2.8% Poland 2.1% Other Europe 14 #12;Wood Resources International Global Industrial Roundwood Production in 2002 Other Europe 6.9% CIS

  6. Wood products What is wood?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slik, Ferry

    Products Particleboard sheets of woods consisting of small wood pieces Production - Wood chipping - Sorting Fiberboard sheets of wood produced from wood fibers (often feels a bit papery) Production - Wood chips for horizontal connections Functions - Protection (secondary compounds) - Horizontal transport - Storage The rays

  7. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  8. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-09-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology EUROPEAN trees are very crucial for the wood industry, ornamental industry and many species of wildlife: The beetles construct the egg gal- leries perpendicular to the grain of the wood which can be found under

  9. Wood pelletization sourcebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, S.; Whittier, J. [NEOS Corporation, Lakewood, CO (United States); Fisher, J. [Pellet Fuels Institute, Edina, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The Wood Pelletization Sourcebook is a document that provides business guidelines and technical information to those considering entering the wood pelleting business. Also, the sourcebook is a useful supplementary document for lenders to refer to in their analysis of a potential manufacturer`s business plan. A survey of wood pellet manufacturers was conducted during the spring and summer of 1994 to gather information on marketing, pelletization technology, environmental regulations, raw material supply and costs, production costs, and the overall outlook of the industry. The study characterizes different sized pelleting operations, creates a sample business plan for potential manufacturers, and identifies key industry success factors.

  10. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied Science THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MILWAUKEE #12;USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH combustion by-products (such as clean-coal ash) from power plants. Maximum recycling of such by- products

  12. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    dioxide control technologies. Figure 1 shows clean coal technology benefits(2) . In 1977, the conceptCenter for By-Products Utilization CLEAN COAL BY-PRODUCTS UTILIZATION IN ROADWAY, EMBANKMENTS electricity production is from the use of coal-based technologies(1) . This production is estimated

  13. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    combustion by-products #12;3 generated by using both conventional and clean-coal technologies. A clean-coal that obtained from clean-coal technology, are not utilized in cast-concrete masonry products (bricks, blocksCenter for By-Products Utilization RECENT ADVANCES IN RECYCLING CLEAN- COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik

  14. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F-fly ash. Some developed technologies have similar potential in the longer term. (3) Laboratory studies have been completed that indicate that much higher amounts of fly ash could be added in cement-concrete applications under some circumstances. This could significantly increase use of fly ash in cement-concrete applications. (4) A study of the long-term environmental effects of structural fills in a surface mine in Indiana was completed. This study has provided much sought after data for permitting large-volume management options in both beneficial as well as non-beneficial use settings. (5) The impact of CBRC on CCBs utilization trends is difficult to quantify. However it is fair to say that the CBRC program had a significant positive impact on increased utilization of CCBs in every region of the USA. Today, the overall utilization of CCBs is over 43%. (6) CBRC-developed knowledge base led to a large number of other projects completed with support from other sources of funding. (7) CBRC research has also had a large impact on CCBs management across the globe. Information transfer activities and visitors from leading coal producing countries such as South Africa, Australia, England, India, China, Poland, Czech Republic and Japan are truly noteworthy. (8) Overall, the CBRC has been a truly successful, cooperative research program. It has brought together researchers, industry, government, and regulators to deal with a major problem facing the USA and other coal producing countries in the world.

  15. NEW EDITION! The most comprehensive review of international trade in wood fiber, for the pulp, MDF and biomass industries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the business of international trade of woodchips, pulplogs and biomass fiber. This annual report examines in more than 35 countries. This study also includes data on specialized woodchip carriers, examines the international market for biomass wood fiber and provides projections for the Asian woodchip markets in 2010

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization DRAFT REPORT CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS-MILWAUKEE #12;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS Progress Report by Tarun R. Naik, Rakesh of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Technologies

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Presented at Residue-to-Revenue: Residual Wood Conference, Richmond, BC, CANADA November 2001 Department properties of wood ash derived from various sources in the USA and Canada; and, to determine its potential C 618 [13] developed for volcanic ash and coal fly ash for use in concrete, was used to determine

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R #12;1 HIGH-STRENGTH HVFA CONCRETE CONTAINING CLEAN COAL ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Shiw S. Singh, and Bruce for manufacture of cement-based products using ashes generated from combustion of high-sulfur coals. A clean coal

  19. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN COAL ASH AS SETTING TIME REGULATOR IN PORTLAND OF WISCONSIN ­ MILWAUKEE #12;2 Use of Clean Coal Ash as Setting Time Regulator in Portland Cement by Zichao Wu as setting time regulator for portland cement production. In this paper a source of clean coal ash (CCA

  20. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLY ASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL #12;-1- CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF CLASSF FLYASHCOAL AND CLEAN-COAL ASHFOR CEMENT -Milwaukee (UWM) Daniel D.Banerjee, Project Manager,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST OF CLASS F FLYASHAND CLEAN-COAL ASHBLENDS FOR CAST CONCRETE PRODUCTS Authors: TarunR.Naik, Director, Center,Illinois Clean Coal Institute RudolphN.Kraus, Research Associate, UWM Center forBy-Products Utilization Shiw S

  2. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    CONTAINING CLEAN-COAL ASH AND CLASS F FLY ASH By Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Rafat Siddique of HVFA Concrete Containing Clean-Coal Ash and Class F Fly Ash By Tarun R. Naik Director, UWM Center for By-Products Utilization and Francois Botha Project Manager, Illinois Clean Coal Institute Synopsis

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Center for By-Products Utilization CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE By Tarun R;CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN NO-FINES CONCRETE ABSTRACT By Tarun, R. Naik, Yoon-moon Chun, Rudolph N. Kraus, and Fethullah Canpolat This paper presents a detailed experimental study on the sequestration

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    flue gas. Detailed results are presented. Keywords: carbon dioxide sequestration, carbonation, carbonCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS #12;1 CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN FOAMED CONTROLLED LOW STRENGTH MATERIALS by Tarun R. Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus

  5. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean coal technology combustors. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products from advanced clean coal technology clean coal technology combustors. Over 60% of the CCBs are generated as fly ash. An estimate

  6. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    clean coal technology, are not extensively utilized in the cast concrete masonry products (bricks both conventional and clean coal technologies. A clean coal ash is defined as the ash derived from SO2Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLASS F FLY ASH AND CLEAN-COAL ASH BLENDS FOR CAST

  7. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Issued to the Illinois Clean Coal Institute For Project 02-1/3.1D-2 Department of Civil Engineering of technology and market development for controlled low-strength material (CLSM) slurry using Illinois coal ashCenter for By-Products Utilization IMPLEMENTATION OF FLOWABLE SLURRY TECHNOLOGY IN ILLINOIS

  8. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    in a combination with a number of fuels including coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, etc. In the mid 1990s, the unit was firing a combination of coal and petroleum coke to generate energy. It has been established;1 PROJECT 1 - COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OPTIONS Introduction An AFBC system

  9. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    Refining Cement Membrane separation Refinery gas Natural gasgas pressure Charcoal recovery, Byproduct gas combined cycle Scrap High strength steel Non-Ferrous Metals Chemicals Scrap Membrane separations,

  10. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  11. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly newsletter WOOD Markets 2002 - The Solid Wood

  12. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    Planta- tion Products and Paper Industry Council, Paper Industry, Confederationof European Paper Industries, Brussels, March 2001. CESP,

  13. Wood Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    Wood ­ Curriculum vitae 1 ERIC MATTHEW WOOD Spatial Analysis for Conservation and Department. C. Radeloff, C. A. Lepczyk, E. M. Wood, S. I. Stewart, and R. B. Hammer. Systematic temporal

  14. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    A. , 2004: Feedstock recycling of plastics in Japan. PolymerRecycling, (bark, black Non-wood liquor) fibres Biomass, Biogas, Solar drying n.a. Blended cement Geo-polymers

  15. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    for the European Pulp and Paper Industry, Confederation ofin food and pulp and paper industry wastes, turbines tocement, and pulp and paper industries and in the control of

  16. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

  17. California Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this natural and renewable energy resource for centuries. The timber industry in California has for many and environmental cost, benefits, and feasibility of utilizing wood for energy produc tion. We are also ableCalifornia Wood Energy Program1 Gary Brittner2 The California Department of Forestry Wood Energy

  18. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    pp. IEA, 2006b: Industrial motor systems energy efficiency:industrial energy efficiency. Presented at Energy Efficiency in Motorenergy-efficient electric motors and motor-systems. These include: (1) industrial

  19. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    and waste management that take place within industrialpolicies Waste management policies can reduce industrialWaste management policies.56 7.10 Co-benefits of industrial

  20. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    R.R. ,et al. , 2004: Eco-industrial park initiatives in theCHP plant) form an eco-industrial park that serves as an ex-

  1. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    cement and pulp and paper industries in China, and in thePulp and Paper Industry, Confederation of European Paper Industries, Brussels, March 2001. CESP, 2004: China’pulp and paper industries (GOI, 2005). There are 39.8 million SMEs in China,

  2. STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Hubert G.

    2013-01-01

    co 2 By decomposition to (2) - 0 in H cf 0 in wood TABLE VForced Balance - Wood to Char Output - 55 lbs char lbsuc -61 STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION Hubert G. Davis

  3. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    specified in the ‘Energy Technology List’ during the yearenergy consumers in the chemical industry, and list examples of technology

  4. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    disposal routes, several countries have set incen- tives to promote the use of various wastes in industrial processes in direct

  5. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    of its electricity requirements in the USA (US DOE, 2002)USA, where motor-driven systems account for 63% of industrial electricity

  6. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    increased use of biomass and energy efficiency improvements,Moreira, J. , 2006: Global biomass energy potential. Journal1971–2004 Notes 1) Biomass energy included 2) Industrial

  7. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    of Industrial Electrical Switchgear and Control Gear in the6 from use in electrical switchgear and magnesium processinggas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production

  8. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    options for combined heat and power in Canada. Office ofpolicies to promote combined heat and power in US industry.conversions, such as combined heat and power and coke ovens,

  9. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    iron and steel production. IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,tempera- ture range. IEA/Caddet, Sittard, The Netherlands.industry. Cheltenham, UK, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme,

  10. Woodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1.3. Other Industry/Commercial Heat Only Wood Fuel Use 3.2. Pellet plants 3 in previous reports: Virgin wood fibre Imported fibre (in the form of wood pellets) Recycled fibre EnergyWoodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009 Woodfuel

  11. WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION V #12;#12;443USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Section Overview Wood Products and Utilization1 John R. Shelly2 Forests are obviously a very important asset to California, and their economic and social value to the state is well documented. Wood

  12. International Experience with Key Program Elements of Industrial Energy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-Setting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2008-01-01

    manufacturing, and the pulp and paper industry were fullylime, pulp/paper, rubber, and solid wood industries. 51 The

  13. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities Richard Vlosky, Ph.D. Professor-Forest Products Marketing Interim Director-Louisiana Forest Products Laboratory School of Renewable Natural, R.E. Taylor & Associates Ltd. Forest Industry Strategic Services & Publisher: WOOD Markets Monthly

  14. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  15. International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 Year Amount(inmillioncubicmetresWRME) Recovered paper Net pulp fossil fuel prices · Energy security · Policies to reduce climate change · Wood industries' wood needs consumption, e.g. China ­ Nuclear safety #12;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA

  16. Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! · Powerful energy industry · Future? · Today´s discussion! #12;Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http is the main international energy source · Climate change ­ Energy production ­ CO2 · European Union different

  17. Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    - plications in the wood industry for pulsed terahertz radiation.5,6 This is so primarily because pulsed tera is split into pump and probe beams. The pump is lightly focused on the pho- toconductive switch

  18. Seismic design of a current woodframe structure and study of innovative products and damping systems in wood construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahjoub, Nina A. (Nina Azadeh)

    2007-01-01

    Wood structures have seen resurgence in popularity over the past several decades, especially in Western States of America, such as California. The industry keeps creating new structural wood products of exceptional strength, ...

  19. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    . Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis...

  20. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  1. HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, Jim

    2012-01-01

    LBL-10090 UC-61 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING JimLBL-10090 HYDROLYZED WOOD SLURRY FLOW MODELING Jim Wrathallconversion of hydrolyzed wood slurry to fuel oil, Based on

  2. Wood energy system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook, Wood Energy System Design, was prepared with the support of the Council of Great Lakes Governors and the US Department of Energy. It contains: wood fuel properties; procurement; receiving, handling, and storage; combustion; gasification; emission control; electric power generation and cogeneration; and case studies. (JF)

  3. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  4. WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cufar, Katarina

    WOOD ANATOMY INSTRUCTIONS FOR LABORATORY WORK KATARINA CUFAR, MARTIN ZUPANCIC University of Ljubljana Biotechnical Faculty Department of Wood Science and Technology #12;Publisher Department of Wood The publishing of "Wood Anatomy - Instructions for Laboratory Work", a textbook by Katarina Cufar and Martin

  5. William B. Wood Complete Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Norman

    3/24/14 William B. Wood Complete Publications Scientific Research: 1. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P protein-ribosome system from Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48: 94-104. 2. Wood, W. B Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 23: 237-246. 3. Wood, W. B., and Berg, P. (1964) Influence of DNA secondary

  6. Generating power with waste wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkins, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Among the biomass renewables, waste wood has great potential with environmental and economic benefits highlighting its resume. The topics of this article include alternate waste wood fuel streams; combustion benefits; waste wood comparisons; waste wood ash; pilot scale tests; full-scale test data; permitting difficulties; and future needs.

  7. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  8. Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategy Woods for Health #12;Woods for Health Strategy Woods for Health Strategy | 32 | Woods for Health Strategy Foreword Like the rest of the western world, Scotland experiences growing rates a key role in helping to promote better physical and mental health for all by providing greenspace

  9. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  10. Design manual for management of solid by-products from advanced coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-10-01

    Developing coal conversion technologies face major obstacles in byproduct management. This project has developed several management strategies based on field trials of small-scale landfills in an earlier phase of the project, as well as on published/unpublished sources detailing regulatory issues, current industry practice, and reuse opportunities. Field testing, which forms the basis for several of the disposal alternatives presented in this design manual, was limited to byproducts from Ca-based dry SO{sub 2} control technologies, circulating fluidized bed combustion ash, and bubbling bed fluidized bed combustion ash. Data on byproducts from other advanced coal technologies and on reuse opportunities are drawn from other sources (citations following Chapter 3). Field results from the 5 test cases examined under this project, together with results from other ongoing research, provide a basis for predictive modeling of long-term performance of some advanced coal byproducts on exposure to ambient environment. This manual is intended to provide a reference database and development plan for designing, permitting, and operating facilities where advanced coal technology byproducts are managed.

  11. The fate of mercury in coal utilization byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Aljoe; Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett [US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-05-01

    The US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's (DOE/NETL's) research has helped to further scientific understanding of the environmental characteristics of coal-utilization by-products (CUBs) in both disposal and beneficial utilization applications. The following general observations can be drawn from results of the research that has been carried out to date: There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization applications for CUBs generated using activated carbon injection (ACI) control technologies; There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment in typical disposal and utilization applications for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The potential release of mercury from wet FGD gypsum during the manufacture of wallboard is still under evaluation; The amount of mercury leached from CUB samples tested by DOE/NETL is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life; in many cases, leachate concentrations were below the standard test method detection limits. DOE/NETL will continue to partner with industry and other key stakeholders in carrying out research to better understand the fate of mercury and other trace elements in the byproducts from coal combustion. 16 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodney Andrews; Aurora Rubel; Jack Groppo; Brock Marrs; Ari Geertsema; Frank Huggins; M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Brandie M. Markley; Zhe Lu; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-31

    With the passing of legislation designed to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities, it is more important than ever to develop and improve upon methods of controlling mercury emissions. One promising technique is carbon sorbent injection into the flue gas of the coal-fired power plant. Currently, this technology is very expensive as costly commercially activated carbons are used as sorbents. There is also a significant lack of understanding of the interaction between mercury vapor and the carbon sorbent, which adds to the difficulty of predicting the amount of sorbent needed for specific plant configurations. Due to its inherent porosity and adsorption properties as well as on-site availability, carbons derived from gasifiers are potential mercury sorbent candidates. Furthermore, because of the increasing restricted use of landfilling, the coal industry is very interested in finding uses for these materials as an alternative to the current disposal practice. The results of laboratory investigations and supporting technical assessments conducted under DOE Subcontract No. DE-FG26-03NT41795 are reported. This contract was with the University of Kentucky Research Foundation, which supports work with the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research and The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute. The worked described was part of a project entitled ''Advanced Gasification By-Product Utilization''. This work involved the development of technologies for the separation and characterization of coal gasification slags from operating gasification units, activation of these materials to increase mercury and nitrogen oxide capture efficiency, assessment of these materials as sorbents for mercury and nitrogen oxides, assessment of the potential for leaching of Hg captured by the carbons, analysis of the slags for cement applications, and characterization of these materials for use as polymer fillers. The objectives of this collaborative effort between the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER), The Pennsylvania State University Energy Institute, and industry collaborators supplying gasifier char samples were to investigate the potential use of gasifier slag carbons as a source of low cost sorbent for Hg and NOX capture from combustion flue gas, concrete applications, polymer fillers and as a source of activated carbons. Primary objectives were to determine the relationship of surface area, pore size, pore size distribution, and mineral content on Hg storage of gasifier carbons and to define the site of Hg capture. The ability of gasifier slag carbon to capture NOX and the effect of NOX on Hg adsorption were goals. Secondary goals were the determination of the potential for use of the slags for cement and filler applications. Since gasifier chars have already gone through a devolatilization process in a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier, they only required to be activated to be used as activated carbons. Therefore, the principal objective of the work at PSU was to characterize and utilize gasification slag carbons for the production of activated carbons and other carbon fillers. Tests for the Hg and NOX adsorption potential of these activated gasifier carbons were performed at the CAER. During the course of this project, gasifier slag samples chemically and physically characterized at UK were supplied to PSU who also characterized the samples for sorption characteristics and independently tested for Hg-capture. At the CAER as-received slags were tested for Hg and NOX adsorption. The most promising of these were activated chemically. The PSU group applied thermal and steam activation to a representative group of the gasifier slag samples separated by particle sizes. The activated samples were tested at UK for Hg-sorption and NOX capture and the most promising Hg adsorbers were tested for Hg capture in a simulated flue gas. Both UK and PSU tested the use of the gasifier slag samples as fillers. The CAER analyzed the slags for possible use in cement applications

  13. The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood's "Empire of Capital"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, William I.

    2007-01-01

    Boulder: Paradigm Press. Wood, Ellen Meiksins 2002, ‘Globalgroups. 13 Indeed, Wood 2003, p. 23. Wood 2003, p. 132.Ibid. Wood 2003, p. 129. Wood 2003, p. 133. Wood 2003, p.

  14. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  15. Avalanches in wood compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tero Mäkinen; Amandine Miksic; Markus Ovaska; Mikko J. Alava

    2015-06-15

    Wood is a multi-scale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power-laws. The stress- strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using Digital Image Correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free.

  16. Forest products markets badly hit by the crisis but use of wood energy on the rise -UNECE/FAO http://www.portofentry.com/site/root/resources/industry_news/8067.html[10/1/2009 8:21:58 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNECE region is the world's largest producer (60% worldwide), consumer (57%), exporter (77%) and importer (70%) of wood and paper products (imports and exports include within-region trade). From record smaller thus far but Russia's negative trade balance in paper products continued to escalate (imports

  17. Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award Call for Nominations We are delighted to announce the Inaugural 2012 Kristie Ann Wood Scholarship Award for an Outstanding Women's, Gender, and Sexualities (WGSS Wood, a feminist mother, wife, friend, daughter, and lawyer who is remembered by her loved ones

  18. Management of ancient wood pasture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guidance Management of ancient wood pasture Summary Ancient wood pasture is recognised. This guidance note provides an introduction to the restoration and management of ancient wood pastures in Scotland. It is aimed at land managers, their advisers and agency staff involved in land management

  19. Wood residuals find big uses in small pieces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J.

    1996-12-01

    With a history of finding economic uses for leftovers, the wood industry explores sustainable options for creating higher value products. Years ago, companies saw the use - any use - of residues as a sound, economic business practice. Today, many companies are looking to go beyond low value products such as mulch, animal bedding and fuel, and market to higher value end users. Additionally, with so much material from the primary industries already accounted for, consumers of wood residue are in need of additional supply from sources such as secondary mills (furniture manufacturers, etc.), as wells as the C&D and MSW streams. This paper discusses these products and markets.

  20. Rheological Model for Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

    2014-10-15

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

  1. Presentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the production chain MalaysiaResearch and development in energy alternative from biomass through briquetting and forest industries GhanaDevelopment of energy alternatives for the efficient utilization of woodPresentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme

  2. Inside the guts of wood-eating catfishes: can they digest wood?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    2009-01-01

    the cellulolytic system of the wood-boring marine mollusk2008), how diVerent are the wood-eating catWshes from otherendosymbionts and digest wood, or are these wood- eating

  3. Terahertz birefringence and attenuation properties of wood and paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Matthew

    ,4 1 #12;It has been recognized early on that there may be applications to the wood industry for pulsed power from an 80 MHz, 100 fs, Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The optical beam is split into pump and probe beams. The pump is lightly focused on the photoconductive switch, and the emitted terahertz radiation

  4. The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    3 Year Old Willow #12;14 14 Woody Biomass Feedstocks Sustainably harvested low value wood from, Sustainable Bioproducts: Fuels, Chemicals, Materials Renewable Resources to "Green" Bio-Products Woody Biomass Feedstock #12;5 5 Spindletop at Beaumont, TX Circa late 1890's Birth of the Petroleum Industry in Texas

  5. SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS T_Wood1 to T_Wood35

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Carl

    SOME POV-RAY TEXTURES AND COLORS WOODS.INC T_Wood1 to T_Wood35 STONES.INC T_Stone1 to T_Stone44Pink DarkPurple NeonBlue CoolCopper MandarinOrange LightWood MediumWood DarkWood SpicyPink Semi

  6. Causes and Control of Wood Decay,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Causes and Control of Wood Decay, Degradation & Stain #12;2 Contents Moisture .................................................................................3 Wood Degradation: Causes and Control..............................4 Weathering......................................................................................................4 Naturally Decay-resistant Species...........................................................5 Wood

  7. Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    Robert Wood, University of Washington many contributors VOCALS Education and Outreach Snider (Wyoming) · Dave Spencer (NCSU) · Cindy Twohy (OSU) · Rob Wood/Chris Bretherton/Rhea George

  8. Industrial Wastes as a Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

    1980-01-01

    available for coal since it was at one time a major industrial fuel and is still used extensively for electric power generation. However, combustion data for other fuels such as wood and solid materials typically generated as industrial wastes can only...

  9. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

  10. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  11. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1.3. Other Industry/Commercial Heat Only (using up to 1,000 odt/yr) 3.1.4. Total Wood Fuel Use 3.2. Pellet categories are used: Virgin wood fibre (chip and sawmill co-product) UK Pellet Recycled fibre Energy cropsWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

  12. China's Energy Management System Program for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hedman, B.; Yu, Y.; Friedman, Z.; Taylor, R.

    2014-01-01

    Use: 1995 – 2010 Source: NBS, 2011b 9 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 1995 2000 2005 2010 P r i m a r y E n e r g y * ( M t c e ) Wood and wood products Transport equipment Non-specified industry Paper, pulp and printing Food... Poland China India Food and tobacco Textile and leather Wood and wood products Paper, pulp and printing Petrochemicals Chemicals and chemical products Non-metallic minerals Metals Machinery Transport equipment Total ESL-IE-14...

  13. Task 1.13 - Data Collection and Database Development for Clean Coal Technology By-Product Characteristics and Management Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett

    1998-02-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center-Morgantown (DOE FETC) efforts in the areas of fossil fuels and clean coal technology (CCT) have included involvement with both conventional and advanced process coal conversion by-products. In 1993, DOE submitted a Report to Congress on "Barriers to the Increased Utilization of Coal Combustion Desulfurization Byproducts by Governmental and Commercial Sectors" that provided an outline of activities to remove the barriers identified in the report. DOE charged itself with participation in this process, and the work proposed in this document facilitates DOE's response to its own recommendations for action. The work reflects DOE's commitment to the coal combustion by-product (CCB) industry, to the advancement of clean coal technology, and to cooperation with other government agencies. Information from DOE projects and commercial endeavors in fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) and coal gasification is the focus of this task. The primary goal is to provide an easily accessible compilation of characterization information on the by-products from these processes to government agencies and industry to facilitate sound regulatory and management decisions. Additional written documentation will facilitate the preparation of an updated final version of background information collected for DOE in preparation of the Report to Congress on barriers to CCB utilization.

  14. Proactive climate protection Building with wood =

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    = CO2 Proactive climate protection Building with wood = CO 2 #12;Introduction Forests play to produce wood products is vastly lower than other materials. Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = Proactive climate protectionBuilding with wood = CO 2 products, carbon storage p. 3 Forests = Natural

  15. Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Wood River Levee Reconstruction, Madison County, IL 25 October 2006 Abstract: The recommended plan provides for flood damage reduction and restores the original degree of protection of the Wood River Levee-federal sponsor is the Wood River Drainage and Levee District. The Wood River Levee System was authorized

  16. MARCY B. WOOD Curriculum Vitae, October 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    MARCY B. WOOD Curriculum Vitae, October 2012 University of Arizona, College of Education Department 2005 #12;Marcy B. Wood October 2012 Page 2 PUBLICATIONS REFEREED JOURNAL ARTICLES Wood, M. B., Olson, A-Oriented Perspective from Elementary Children. School Science and Mathematics. Good, T. L., Wood, M. B., Sabers, D

  17. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in developing pellet production and district heating systems; the formulation of a national wood energy strategy

  18. The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woods Hole Laboratory, 1885-1985: A Century of Service Woods Hole Laboratory Northeast, Lectures, and Rededication of the Woods Hole Laboratory Contents Foreword and Acknowledgments Committees and Contributions of the Woods Hole Fisheries Laboratory Centennial Lecture II: The MBL and the Fisheries-A Century

  19. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  20. Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update -a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources International LLC to be the major destination for Latin American wood chips, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly In late 2011 wood chips from only three countries: Vietnam, Indonesia and Australia, who together shipped 1

  1. Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

  2. The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrent, James Michael

    1983-01-01

    wood. This thesis investigates the use of sucrose and how it reacts with wood's ultrastucture to prevent shrinkage and warpage of waterlogged wood. Experiments using archaeological wood from the sunken city of seventeenth century Port Royal... expensive, non-toxic, non-flammable, non-hygroscopic and is readily available in most countries. Utilization of sugar to stabilize wood is not a new concept. A United States patent, No. 755, 240, was issued 32 to William Powell of Liverpool, England...

  3. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  4. Impacts of CCA-treated wood and wood ash on arsenic concentrations in soils and plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Impacts of CCA-treated wood and wood ash on arsenic concentrations in soils and plants Lena Q. Ma.e. CCA-treated wood and wood ash. In Florida, up to 5,000,000 ft3 CCA-treated wood were used in 1996 alone and up to 50,000 tons of wood ash are produced annually. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate

  5. Housing 2020: The future of wood in U.S. dwellings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presented at the International Panel and Engineered-Wood Technology Exposition examines the effect that reduced material resources, energy conservation, manufactured dwellings, and construction techniques have had on the use of wood in the housing industry. The topics of the paper include the impact of the energy crisis, financing and affordability crisis, lumber crisis, and a forecast of what the house of the year 2020 will look like, how it will be constructed and of what material will it be constructed.

  6. Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2012-02-14

    , industrial, and agricultural). 5. Appropriate selection of feedstock and conversion technology. 6. Improved efficiency of the production technology obtained through intensive research and development. 7. More efficient use of energy, including vehicle...-1 KINETIC MODELING AND ASSESSMENT OF LIME PRETREATMENT OF POPLAR WOOD A Dissertation by ROCIO SIERRA RAMIREZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  7. Applications developed for byproduct /sup 85/Kr and tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remini, W.C.; Case, F.N.; Haff, K.W.; Tiegs, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radionuclides, krypton-85 and tritium, both of which are gases under ordinary conditions, are used in many applications in industries and by the military forces. Krypton-85 is produced during the fissioning of uranium and is released during the dissolution of spent-fuel elements. It is a chemically inert gas that emits 0.695-MeV beta rays and a small yield of 0.54-MeV gammas over a half life of 10.3 years. Much of the /sup 85/Kr currently produced is released to the atmosphere; however, large-scale reprocessing of fuel will require collection of the gas and storage as a waste product. An alternative to storage is utilization, and since the chemical and radiation characteristics of /sup 85/Kr make this radionuclide a relatively low hazard from the standpoint of contamination and biological significance, a number of uses have been developed. Tritium is produced as a byproduct of the nuclear-weapons program, and it has a half life of 12.33 years. It has a 0.01861-MeV beta emission and no gamma emission. The absence of a gamma-ray energy eliminates the need for external shielding of the devices utilizing tritium, thus making them easily transportable. Many of the applications require only small quantities of /sup 85/Kr or tritium; however, these uses are important to the technology base of the nation. A significant development that has the potential for beneficial utilization of large quantities of /sup 85/Kr and of tritium involves their use in the production of low-level lighting devices. Since these lights are free from external fuel supplies, have a long half life (> 10 years), are maintenance-free, reliable, and easily deployed, both military and civilian airfield-lighting applications are being studied.

  8. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  9. Drying and burning wood waste using pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckkowski, A.G.; Eng, P.; Kitchen, J.A. [Novadyne Ltd., Ontario (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Development of an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste has continued. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, low NOx emissions and a source of kinetic energy for providing a motive force for a drying system. In our experiments, the drying system consists of a pulse combustor and a vertical drying column. The wood waste is injected into the exhaust gases from the combustor where the turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The material is further dried in the vertical drying column, then separated from the conveying airstream using a cyclone. The paper discusses two aspects of the drying system. Firstly, the performance of the drying tests are reviewed. Tests with the 1,000,000 BTU/hr test rig have shown that a gas-fired pulse combustion dryer can dry materials such as sawdust and pulverized hog fuel from a moisture content of 50% down to a 30% in a single pass, or further with multiple passes, without scorching or burning. Preliminary figures show that the operating costs of the dryer are reduced due to the kinetic energy created by the pulse combustor which offsets the use of electricity. Secondly, it has been shown that a pulse combustor can be fired with wood waste and thereby providing the potential to displace natural gas or propane as a fuel. The development of the wood burning combustor is reviewed.

  10. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    analysis of the wood-oil product derived from the above2 g It is probable that oil products with oxygen contentscollected with the wood-oil product. The condensate contains

  11. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed, these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  12. Processes change the look of wood fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerbe, J.I.

    1980-06-01

    The various forms of wood-derived fuels are reviewed; these include briquetted and pelleted wood products. Charcoal, obtained by pyrolysis has a heating value one and a half times the equivalent weight of the dry wood from which it was made. By process modifications, more oil and gas may be produced instead of charcoal. At Albany, Oregon two barrels of oil are produced daily by hydrogenation of one ton of dry wood chips. It is stated that methanol can be synthesized from solid wood - by wood gasification - with a 38% energy efficiency while ethanol can also be made from wood. The use of wood fuels for electric power generation and cogeneration are also mentioned.

  13. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  14. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-07-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology JAPANESE. Pupation takes place in the wood and adults emerge by chewing a round exit hole. Adults feed on the tender) #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-07-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue University Cooperative

  15. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood estimated that about 5 million tons of spent preservative treated wood istons of spent preservative treated wood is disposed of annually into landfills in thedisposed of annually into landfills in the United

  16. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-08-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology OAK, these beetles feed on oak (Quercus spp). Direct damage results from galleries in the wood that are formed in the breeding season. The host trees for these beetles are important for the wood indus- try, orna

  17. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-06-W America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers Department of Entomology CAMPHOR August. Female beetles make a horizontal tunnel in the wood initiating gallery construction where/APHIS grant number 10-8100-1488-CA. #12;2Wood Borer -- WB-06-W October 2012 It is the policy of the Purdue

  18. WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared from poplar wood (P. ussuriensis Komarov) in a two-step procedure. Maleic anhydride (MAN) was first dis

  19. Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    burn wood chips or pellets, which are fed into the boilers automatically by an electronically regulatedWood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text 31st December 2010 Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Wood') supports the development of renewable energy from wood fuel. Of all the clean energy technologies, wood

  20. Wood-waste utilization. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Forests, Family Farms, and Energy of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, April 5, 1982, Mount Pleasant, Michigan; April 19, 1982, Springfield, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Hearings on the industrial potential and other uses of wood wastes were held in Mt. Pleasant, Michigan and Springfield, Oregon. Congressional reviews of forest resource planning and management to enhance wood and wood-product utilization have led to a series of hearings throughout the nation. Testimony by 32 witnesses included the views of universities, industry, forestry programs, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and state resource and agricultural agencies. The hearing record includes their testimony and additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  1. GUYANA FORESTRY COMMISSION NATIONAL WOOD TRACKING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timber Sales Agreement VPA Voluntary Partnership Agreement WCL Wood Cutting Lease WTS Wood Tracking chain is managed and controlled the Guyana Forestry Commission has developed a Wood Tracking System (WTS in the process as well as flow charts illustrating essential elements of the system. The WTS links closely

  2. Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Donald L. Wood Professional Conference Travel Grants for Engineering Undergraduates APPLICATION by a generous donation from the estate of Donald L. Wood. The student application and final report will be used to describe our accomplishments to the family of this sponsor. #12;Donald L. Wood Professional Conference

  3. How wood waters down wall insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunde, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Wood framing in walls can lower the actual insulating values, since the R-value of wood is only one per inch of thickness. A chart is presented that shows how wood in the stud space reduces insulating values. Several wall systems and the nominal R-value of insulation for each is presented.

  4. Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephen L.

    of power such as ocean wave energy, and 4) hybrid vehicles that use standard propulsion systems and glider26 Autonomous Underwater Gliders Wood, Stephen Florida Institute of Technology United States. This is still true but scientists at various institutions such as Florida Institute of Technology's Department

  5. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W. ); Haefner, R. . Water Resources Div.)

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products. In 1984, over 65% of the paper consumed worldwide was derived from wood pulp and only 25. To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has have been used for their juice in the beverage industry. As of 2009, 5-10% of the paper produced

  7. An in-depth study of forest products industries in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An in-depth study of forest products industries in the Pacific Northwest Tendayi Mhlanga, World. · Current state of the forest products industry. · Production outlook. #12;· The PNW refers to the forested% of US energy needs. · Sources of biomass are; round-wood, mill residues, logging or woods residue, urban

  8. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  9. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  10. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  11. Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    climate change, reduced GHGs, improved air quality, CO2 reduction & sequestration, and carbon offsets. #12 for the development of a technology for the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik

  12. Center for By-Products Utilization CARBONATION: AN EFFICIENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    -based materials. #12;Center for By-Products Utilization Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cement-based Materials Early age carbonation curing for the sequestration of CO2 in cement-based products is most adopted. Recently a practical and easy way of carbon dioxide sequestration in cement-based materials has been

  13. Grain Sorghum By-Product Feeds for Farm Animals. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1951-01-01

    . GRAIN SORGHUM BY-PRODUCT FEEDS FOR FARM ANIMALS 15 SORGHUJI GLUTEN FEED Sorghum gluten feed was used in three different combi- nations in experimental rations for fattening steers. In the first ration, it was fed as the only concentrate received... .................................................................................................. 18 Sorghum gluten meal .................................................................................. 18 experimental ration ............................................................................. 18...

  14. Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as sawnwood dropped to their lowest levels since 1991. · Russian export taxes on roundwood are disrupting, Timisoara, Romania II. Market drivers · US housing market · Energy prices · Russian export taxes · China · Pellet production in Europe, Canada, Russia · Competition with wood industry · Concern for sustainability

  15. Presentation 2.4: Forest biorefining and implications for future wood energy scenarios Jack N. Saddler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    separation & reconstitution Forest Products Biotechnology at UBC Pulp and paper `refinery' Impregnation SULPHITE PULPING CHEMI-MECHANICAL (BCTMP) PULPING Pulping Washing Bleaching Drying Papermaking Paper WOOD of Forestry E-mail: jack.saddler@ubc.ca Abstract The diversification of the forest products industry

  16. FITTING WEIBULL AND LOGNORMAL DISTRIBUTIONS TO MEDIUM-DENSITY FIBERBOARD FIBER AND WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dimension and morphology on cer- tain mechanical properties (e.g., bending strength and internal bonding strength) of wood fiber-based products such as paper, paper board, insulation board, medium in the pulp and paper industry. Compared with other automated techniques, im- age analyzers have high accuracy

  17. Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood adhesive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    adhesive Dagang Liu a,b,*, Huihuang Chen a , Peter R. Chang c , Qinglin Wu b , Kaifu Li a , Litao Guan 2010 Available online 21 March 2010 Keywords: Wood glue Calcium carbonate Gecko adhesion Soy protein soy protein-based adhesives still have not been widely adopted by industry, partially due

  18. European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies Eva JanssensEva Janssens (Economic Adviser)(Economic Adviser) #12;European PanelSupporting sustainable forest managementsustainable forest management ·· Continuously improving recycling rates

  19. The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berryman, Charles Wayne

    1992-01-01

    Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate (gypsum). Fuel ashes result from the burning of coal. Gypsum is a byproduct of the air...

  20. Oceanography Seminar Elisha Wood-Charlson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography Seminar Elisha Wood-Charlson Communications Project Manager Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education University of Hawaii at Mnoa "Understanding the Role of Viruses

  1. One on One- Douglas K Woods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

  2. Using Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness to Characterize the Durability of Wood and Wood Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Using Crack Propagation Fracture Toughness to Characterize the Durability of Wood and Wood, Corvallis, OR 97330, USA Abstract We measured fracture resistance curves (or R curves) for laminated veneer. The LVL and solid wood R curves were the same for initiation of fracture, but the LVL toughness rose much

  3. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  4. MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    MODE II FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF BONDED VISCOELASTIC THERMAL COMPRESSED WOOD Andreja Kutnar* Graduate Student Department of Wood Science and Technology Biotechnical Faculty University of Ljubljana 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Frederick A. Kamke Professor John A. Nairn Professor Department of Wood Science

  5. Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing clean dry sawdust, under very high pressure for more information on briquettes). Because they are made from very dry wood, pellets have a very high/TS 14961. Pellets are usually wood

  6. Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CHARACTERISTICS OF CCA-TREATED WOOD ASH II.1 Sample Preparation 10 II.2 Laboratory Methods 15 II.3 Laboratory of Total Metals Concentrations in Treated Wood and 84 Treated Wood Ash IV.2 Regulatory Implications of TCLP

  7. eBusiness in the United States Forest Products Industry in the Year 2000 Richard P. Vlosky1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    of the forest products industry in the United States. One thousand solid wood products and 300 pulp and paper in 2001. KEYWORDS: INTERNET, EBUSINESS, FOREST PRODUCTS, SOLID WOOD, PULP AND PAPER, UNITED STATES industry in the United States (Vlosky 1999). This paper discusses key findings from the most recent study

  8. Get Your Quotation Home: Global Wood Industry News & Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    & Holland 01-15th March 2010 Report from Europe, the UK and Russia EU economies under stress Economic news://www.globalwood.org/market/timber_prices_2009/aaw20100301e.htm #12;Weak export growth is a particular problem in Germany where manufacturers tend to be more heavily dependent on export markets but at least Germany has stronger domestic

  9. Ambient RFID Services Infrastructure & RFID Deployment in Wood industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a comparative study of different control systems, like Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) or Product workshop and the planning system, has been developed to answer to a mass production context, that is to say of the bottleneck and the service level. To achieve to these objectives a Product information based control project

  10. Industrial recycling of glass, plastic and wood materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caccavo, F.N.; Posusney, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The intent of this paper is to discuss in detail the development and implementation of a recycling program encompassing these three residual waste streams at a major plant site of a large United States company. The paper will review the history of the program`s development, the vendor selection and recycling processes, the initial efforts to include failures and successes, and the cost recovery and profit that can be realized through a well-managed recycling program. The facility that is the subject of this paper is located approximately 20 lies north west of Philadelphia, Pa and supports a site population of over 6,200 employees working in three divisions of the parent company. The primary business of this firm is the manufacture, distribution, and sale of pharmaceutical drugs. This plant is the company`s largest facility engaging its employees in predominantly research and manufacturing operations. The manufacturing operations being the largest division encompassing the widest range of activities from the receipt of raw material through packaging and shipping operations. This site and the company it represents enjoy an excellent relationship within the community stemming in part to the commitment to environmental stewardship demonstrated by this successful program. The site retains its own internal waste management and disposal operations for the wide variety of refuse materials generated and it is this department which is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the site`s extensive recycling effort. The paper will review the ongoing development of these elements of this company`s growing recycling operations and attempt to demonstrate that extensive recycling can be both a productive and cost effective alternative to conventional disposal through incineration`s or landfill.

  11. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubictheThe

  12. Shear deflection of composite wood beams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skaggs, Thomas David

    1992-01-01

    properties (E and G) along the length of the beam. Biblis (1965) examined the deflection of small scale solid wood beams of varying span-to- depth (L/d) ratios. Several wood species were studied for the 0. 65" x 0. 65" test specimens. An equation was used...

  13. A HUMAN RELIABILITY-CENTERED APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF JOB AIDS FOR REVIEWERS OF MEDICAL DEVICES THAT USE RADIOLOGICAL BYPRODUCT MATERIALS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOPER, S.E.; BROWN, W.S.; WREATHALL, J.

    2005-02-02

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is engaged in an initiative to risk-inform the regulation of byproduct materials. Operating experience indicates that human actions play a dominant role in most of the activities involving byproduct materials, which are radioactive materials other than those used in nuclear power plants or in weapons production, primarily for medical or industrial purposes. The overall risk of these activities is strongly influenced by human performance. Hence, an improved understanding of human error, its causes and contexts, and human reliability analysis (HRA) is important in risk-informing the regulation of these activities. The development of the human performance job aids was undertaken by stages, with frequent interaction with the prospective users. First, potentially risk significant human actions were identified based on reviews of available risk studies for byproduct material applications and of descriptions of events for byproduct materials applications that involved potentially significant human actions. Applications from the medical and the industrial domains were sampled. Next, the specific needs of the expected users of the human performance-related capabilities were determined. To do this, NRC headquarters and region staff were interviewed to identify the types of activities (e.g., license reviews, inspections, event assessments) that need HRA support and the form in which such support might best be offered. Because the range of byproduct uses regulated by NRC is so broad, it was decided that initial development of knowledge and tools would be undertaken in the context of a specific use of byproduct material, which was selected in consultation with NRC staff. Based on needs of NRC staff and the human performance related characteristics of the context chosen, knowledge resources were then compiled to support consideration of human performance issues related to the regulation of byproduct materials. Finally, with information sources and an application context identified, a set of strawman job aids was developed, which was then presented to prospective users for critique and comment. Work is currently under way to develop training materials and refine the job aids in preparation for a pilot evaluation.

  14. Mutiny on the Bounty or Bountiful Mutants? Diversity and Composition of Wood-Decaying Macrofungi on Hibiscus Tiliaceus Wood in French Polynesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheaton, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    B. G. Jonsson. 1995. Wood-inhabiting fungi and substratumand S. C. Watkinson. 1995. Wood decomposition, higher fungi,combative interaction between wood-decaying basidiomycetes.

  15. Electric co-generation units equipped with wood gasifier and Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Pelagalli, L.

    1998-07-01

    The disposal of industrial waste such as oil sludges, waste plastic, lubricant oils, paper and wood poses serious problems due to the ever increasing amount of material to be disposed of and to the difficulty in finding new dumping sites. The interest in energy recovery technologies is accordingly on the increase. In particular, large amounts of waste wood are simply burned or thrown away causing considerable environmental damage. In this context the co-generation technique represents one of the possible solutions for efficient energy conversion. The present paper proposes the employment of a Stirling engine as prime mover in a co-generation set equipped with a wood gasifier. A Stirling engine prototype previously developed in a joint project with Mase Generators, an Italian manufacturer of fixed and portable electrogenerators, is illustrated and its design is described.

  16. Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.M.

    1982-04-01

    Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

  17. FINANCIAL TRENDS IN THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that the economy ­ and demand for paper and wood -- is slowing. The recent softness in market pulp pricesFINANCIAL TRENDS IN THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY PRESENTATION TO INTERNATIONAL FOREST PRODUCTS-Technology S&P Paper & Forest Products #12;Source: National Assn. of Home Builders U.S. HOUSING STARTS Million

  18. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  19. Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · The Louisiana Forest Products Development Center · Wood-to-Energy · Wood Biomass · Energy Options · Current-based Biomass Energy #12;2/20/2014 5 Forest Landowner Opportunities and Challenges The U.S. South is the "wood2/20/2014 1 Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director Crosby Land & Resources

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD John A. Nairn1 Professor- terials is a useful tool for stress analysis and for failure modeling. Although FEA of wood as an anisotropic continuum is used, numerical modeling of realistic wood structures, including details of wood

  1. Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive be considered for planting stock in managed production forests to increase future supplies of wood having

  2. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-02-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers CHINESE under the bark and in dry dead wood and complete their development in two or more years. Adults emerge campestris (Faldermann) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an Asian wood-boring beetle recorded in North America

  3. 1Wood Borer --WB-XX-W Department of Entomology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    1Wood Borer -- WB-XX-W WB-04-W Department of Entomology America's Least Wanted Wood-Borers BLACK living trees. The wood- boring larvae cause structural damage that may make the trees susceptible). (Photo credit: Stanislaw Kinelski, Bugwood.org) #12;1-888-EXT-INFO · www.extension.purdue.edu 2Wood Borer

  4. Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Jay

    Codes of constant Lee or Euclidean weight Jay A. Wood Department of Mathematics, Computer Science & Statistics Purdue University Calumet Hammond, Indiana 46323--2094 USA wood@calumet.purdue.edu http://www.calumet.purdue.edu/public/math/wood Scholarly Research Awards. #12; JAY A. WOOD 1. Linear codes as modules Throughout this extended abstract

  5. Industrial Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Permit Industrial Permit The Industrial Permit authorizes the Laboratory to discharge point-source effluents under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System....

  6. NRRI NowSpring/Summer 2008 GrowingStrongIndustries~DevelopingNewIdeas~NurturingNaturalResources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    The afterlife of mattresses Birds in the riparian zone Pellet industry heats up Watchdogs for change Biology underlayment. The wood frames are chipped up and used as a biomass fuel source. Two other resources from engines are commonly made with a combination of cotton and wood fiber, and he knew that Mat, Inc

  7. Wood Sci. Technol (DOI 10.1007/s00226-014-0676-6) Simulation of transverse wood compression using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Wood Sci. Technol (DOI 10.1007/s00226-014-0676-6) Simulation of transverse wood compression using and Richardson Chair, Wood Science & Engineering Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis OR 97330, USA Received: 23 January 2014 Abstract Transverse compression of wood is a process that induces large

  8. Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95111 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 37(1), 2005, pp. 95­111 © 2004 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology SURFACE AND INTERFACIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE: IMAGING MORPHOLOGY AND WETTING wetting behavior of wood-PVC composites in this study. Two-dimensional and time-dependent profiles

  9. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  10. Robusta Eucalyptus Wood: Its Properties and Uses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robusta Eucalyptus Wood: Its Properties and Uses Roger G. Skolmen U. S. FOREST SERVICE RESEARCH in forestry from the University of California, Berkeley. #12;R obusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus robusta Sm

  11. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean energy can come from the sun. The energy in wind can make electricity. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use...

  12. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  13. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit... of the walls. This wood?fired gas turbine unit could provide a low cost source of power for areas where conventional methods are now prohibitive and provide a means for recovering energy from a source that now poses disposal problems. When the Tennessee...

  14. PATTERNS OF DIFFUSIBILITY OF LIGNIN AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADING SYSTEMS IN WOOD-ROTTING FUNGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    selected Delignification of wood chips by mutant white-rotTemperature relations of wood-destroying fungi. Kaneshiro.phenoloxidases of selected wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J,

  15. How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid,In: Soltes, E.J. (Ed. ), Wood and Agriculture Residues –D. , Wegener, G. , 1984. Wood: Chemistry, Ultrastructure,

  16. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action...

  17. Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing wood Products on the Internet: IHLA, 1998 Marketing Wood Products on the Internet IHLA Fall Regional Meetings - 1998 Bob Smith "When history is written, the creation of the Internet may in the past few years than the Internet. Every major newspaper, magazine, and television station have covered

  18. Wood to Energy in Washington Page 1 of 5 Wood to Energy in Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    energy or when used as transportation fuels. Woody biomass is an attractive alternative energy sourceWood to Energy in Washington Page 1 of 5 Wood to Energy in Washington: Imperatives, Opportunities Washington State lacks a cohesive strategy to reduce green house gases and for renewable energy development

  19. Clean coal technology. Coal utilisation by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The need to remove the bulk of ash contained in flue gas from coal-fired power plants coupled with increasingly strict environmental regulations in the USA result in increased generation of solid materials referred to as coal utilisation by-products, or CUBs. More than 40% of CUBs were sold or reused in the USA in 2004 compared to less than 25% in 1996. A goal of 50% utilization has been established for 2010. The American Coal Ash Association (ACCA) together with the US Department of Energy's Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPPI) and Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) sponsor a number of projects that promote CUB utilization. Several are mentioned in this report. Report sections are: Executive summary; Introduction; Where do CUBs come from?; Market analysis; DOE-sponsored CUB demonstrations; Examples of best-practice utilization of CUB materials; Factors limiting the use of CUBs; and Conclusions. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs., 14 photos.

  20. Oxidation and characterization of FGD byproduct calcium sulfite and oxidized product 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Anurag

    1993-01-01

    . . . . . Production of Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate. . . , . Utilization of FGD Byproduct Gypsum. . . . . . . . . . . 5 6 8 9 11 12 12 18 19 20 22 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES. . . . . 23 Characterization of the FGD Byproduct. . . . . . 23 Thermal Analysis.... . . . . X-ray Diffraction Results. Infrared Spectroscopy Results. . . . . Thermal Analysis Results. . . . . . . . . . . Particles Morphology Characterization and Stability of the Sulfite Phase. . . . . . Oxidation of Calcium Sulfite Slurries...

  1. Nebraska's Cattle Feeding Industry: Size, Structure and Related Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    growing production of distillers grains and other feed byproducts from bio-energy produc- tion plants

  2. An Exploratory Study of Internet Implementation in the United States Pulp & Paper Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Exploratory Study of Internet Implementation in the United States Pulp & Paper Industry Sanna, examines Internet use in the pulp/paper industries in the United States. Overall, respondents were asked Textiles $34 17%5 14 Paper $166 12% LAST Wood Products $94 6% Where is the U.S. Paper Products Industry

  3. Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA · Forest Products Society, Madison, WI · Society of Wood and Science Technology. China. RESEARCH INTERESTS Wood and natural fiber polymer composites, engineered wood products, composite in wood fiber and polymer composites. Natural fiber reinforced composites from alloyed polymers

  4. Industrial Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulman, Lloyd

    1987-01-01

    S. Tannenbaum. Madison: Industrial 1955. The Rise of the N ai a Working Paper 8733 INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS L l o y d UlmanEconomic Theory and Doctrine INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS Two great

  5. Industrial Engineering Industrial Advisory Board

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    Industrial Engineering Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) #12;PURPOSE: The Texas Tech University - Industrial Engineering Industrial Ad- visory Board (IAB) is an association of professionals with a com- mon goal - promoting and developing the Texas Tech Department of Industrial Engineering and its students

  6. Nesting Ducks of Tennessee Wood Ducks, Mallards, Hooded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    a teal and a mallard · Weight ­ about 1.5 lbs · Length ­ about 20 inches · Wings - broad, tail squared swamps · Wooded wetlands · Ponds and lakes with wooded shorelines, aquatic vegetation, woody debris

  7. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  8. A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

  9. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I parameters for the wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene blends at 60 rpm were a temperature of 180°C

  10. Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gedalof, Ze'ev

    Extraction of -cellulose from mummified wood for stable isotopic analysis Benjamin A. Hook a cellulose can provide valuable paleocli- matic information at annual and subannual resolution, from time the trees grew. In the mummified wood, polysaccharides (hemicellulose, -cellulose) are frequently

  11. SYNTHESIS Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum Jerome Chave,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chave, Jérôme

    to intercept a large proportion of solar radiation and puts itself at strong selective advantage (Falster wood functional traits, including the largest wood density database to date (8412 taxa), mechanical

  12. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  13. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc JumpWood3

  14. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  15. Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood and Fiber Science, 35(3), 2003, pp. 381­396 2003 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology 2003, V. 35(3) sults in relatively loosely packed mats. Although mat density increases during hot

  16. Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon1 Jack Ward Thomas2 Abstract Forest managers is the first rule of intelligent tinkering." Dead wood, standing and down, is one of those "cogs and wheels wood in managed forests. Much of this new information will be discussed at this conference. What

  17. Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Frank

    Deplump for Streaming Data Nicholas Bartlett Frank Wood Department of Statistics, Columbia of discrete sequences called the sequence memoizer [Wood et al., 2009]. Gasthaus et al. showed that although was reposed on a sequence memo- izer [Wood et al., 2009] whose space complexity was linear in the length

  18. Contributed Paper Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contributed Paper Wood Density as a Conservation Tool: Quantification of Disturbance to easily identify areas of old-growth forest. The average density of the wood of a tree species is closely wood density can be used to quantify forest disturbance and conservation importance. The average

  19. A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood (FINAL) Submitted June 23, 2006 Amy Omae-TREATED WOOD II.1 Applying Phosphate Stains to Arsenate Stains 7 II.2 A Potential Arsenic-Test Kit 14 II.3 Whole Wood Application of the Modified Stannous Chloride Stain 19 II.4 Other Attempted Stain

  20. Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests leaching tests. The wood preservatives included chromated copper arsenate (CCA), alkaline copper quaternary, copper boron azole, copper citrate, and copper dimeth- yldithiocarbamate. An unpreserved wood sample

  1. Strong RestrictedOrientation Convexity Eugene Fink # Derick Wood +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Eugene

    Strong Restricted­Orientation Convexity Eugene Fink # Derick Wood + Abstract Strong restricted; Widmayer et al., 1987; Rawlins and Wood, 1987 ] , restricted­orientation convexity [ Rawlins, 1987; Rawlins and Wood, 1991; Schuierer, 1991 ] , NESW convexity [ Lipski and Papadimitriou, 1981; Soisalon

  2. HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS UNIVERSITY Rtil, Kaunas, LT-3018, Lithuania, rutile_pukiene@fc.vdu.lt Abstract Historical wood has been collected at Kaunas dendrochronology laboratory since the laboratory foundation in 1968. The wood is used

  3. HOW TO IMPROVE DENDROGEOMORPHIC SAMPLING: VARIOGRAM ANALYSES OF WOOD DENSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    HOW TO IMPROVE DENDROGEOMORPHIC SAMPLING: VARIOGRAM ANALYSES OF WOOD DENSITY USING X-RAY COMPUTED de Drize, CH-1227 Carouge-Geneva, Switzerland ABSTRACT Knowledge of the spatial heterogeneity of wood understanding of 3-D wood density structure in tree stems damaged by geomorphic processes. X-ray computed

  4. Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabosky, Daniel L.

    Density-dependent diversification in North American wood warblers Daniel L. Rabosky1,2,* and Irby J Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, NY 14850, USA Evidence from both diversification, and we demonstrate this approach using a new phylogeny of North American Dendroica wood warblers

  5. Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Editorial Wood in rivers: interactions with channel morphology and processes No doubt about it, wood complicates fluvial geo- morphology. It messes up nice tidy streams, compli- cates quantitative through the study of channels lacking a substantial load of wood debris (Leopold et al., 1964

  6. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment OLIVIA SAUNDERS, Extension Field Specialist "Wood ash contains significant amounts of potassium and calcium, while providing smaller amounts.unh.edu Spring 2014 UNH EXTENSION AGRICULTURE FACT SHEET Food & Agriculture Introduction Wood ash has a long

  7. Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Technical Report 91, 2014 #12;Long-term outlook for engineered wood products in Europe Heikki Manninen Publisher: European for future oriented market research of engineered wood products (EWP) in Europe. For example, the need for CO

  8. UTILIZATION OF LOW NOx COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.Y. Hwang; X. Huang; M.G. McKimpson; R.E. Tieder; A.M. Hein; J.M. Gillis; D.C. Popko; K.L. Paxton; Z. Li; X. Liu; X. Song; R.I. Kramer

    1998-12-01

    Low NO{sub x} combustion practices are critical for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from power plants. These low NO{sub x} combustion practices, however, generate high residual carbon contents in the fly ash produced. These high carbon contents threaten utilization of this combustion by-product. This research has successfully developed a separation technology to render fly ash into useful, quality-controlled materials. This technology offers great flexibility and has been shown to be applicable to all of the fly ashes tested (more than 10). The separated materials can be utilized in traditional fly ash applications, such as cement and concrete, as well as in nontraditional applications such as plastic fillers, metal matrix composites, refractories, and carbon adsorbents. Technologies to use beneficiated fly ash in these applications are being successfully developed. In the future, we will continue to refine the separation and utilization technologies to expand the utilization of fly ash. The disposal of more than 31 million tons of fly ash per year is an important environmental issue. With continued development, it will be possible to increase economic, energy and environmental benefits by re-directing more of this fly ash into useful materials.

  9. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Applications for Industry, Biomass Energy Systems DivisionApplications for Industry, Biomass Energy Systems DivisionU.S. Department of Energy, Biomass Energy Systems Division

  10. ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste ERDC TR-14-3 May 2014 Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste Victor F. Medina-1000 Under Work Unit 33143 #12;ERDC TR-14-3 ii Abstract A study was conducted to evaluate anaerobic digestion

  11. Wood Futures Conference 8 November 2007, London

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    markets III. Certified forest products IV. Wood energy V. Conclusions VI. Recommendations VII. Questions, demand, and effects of renewable energy policies, Oct. 2007 · UNECE/FAO Forest resources assessment sustainably meet rising demand? Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber Section, Geneva

  12. Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an attorney with the Department of the Navy's Office of the General Counsel (OGC). Initially appointed as ONR Counsel in 2007, he was the first Navy OGC attorney to deploy to a combat zone in his civilian OGC Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr. Wood began his career with Navy OGC

  13. Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    .3% Wind 2% 0.5% Geothermal 0.6% 0.3% Solar 0.1% 0.02% Source: EIA 2009; IEA World Energy Outlook 2008 #121 Presentation at the PIE & Woods Energy Seminar May 5, 2010 Burton Richter Freeman Spogli to the least effective technologies. 2 #12;3 Total Primary Energy Supply by Fuel Energy Source Percentage

  14. Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09 #12;Working alone #12;Poison Plants Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) Poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens) #12;Commonly Mistaken Plants Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Three leaflets let it be! #12;Poison Ivy/Oak Prevention: · Wear long

  15. Global Markets for Verified Legal Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood products (FSC, PEFC) Retailers interested in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and protecting reputation, starting in 1990s. FSC and PEFC certification standards developed, which include independent 3rd, PEFC) Major international companies, such as WalMart or IKEA, now require suppliers to be able

  16. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  17. Journal of Materials Education Vol. 32 (3-4): 125 -138 (2010) WOOD AND WOOD DERIVED MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    2010-01-01

    Witold Brostow, Tea Datashvili and Harrison Miller Laboratory of Advanced Polymers and Optimized point out the role of wood in the development of 'green' technologies. To provide a perspective, we. Keywords: wood, green materials, cellulosics, paper, polymer composites, art material 1. INTRODUCTION Wood

  18. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  19. The Spinless Relativistic Woods-Saxon Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Lucha; Franz F. Schoberl

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the observation of a recent renewal of rather strong interest in the description of bound states by (semi-) relativistic equations of motion, we revisit, for the example of the Woods-Saxon interactions, the eigenvalue problem posed by the spinless Salpeter equation and recall various elementary knowledge, considerations, and techniques that practitioners seeking solutions to this specific reduction of the Bethe-Salpeter equation may find helpful.

  20. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

    2008-06-30

    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

  1. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J.

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into 30% Post-Consumer Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Wheat Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into Canada's pulp and paper industry was investigated by determining the availability of wheat straw along pulp and paper processes were explored. The ecological footprint of each resource was found along in the farming sector along with the social impact wheat paper would have on the current wood pulp and paper

  4. e-Business W@tch European Commission, DG Enterprise & Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The company operates 36 pulp, paper and packaging mills, 132 converting and packaging plants, 35 wood products1 e-Business W@tch European Commission, DG Enterprise & Industry E-mail: entr publications and resources prepared by e-Business W@tch. The European Commission, Enterprise & Industry

  5. Syst. Biol. 50(2):215242, 2001 Analysis of Character Correlations Among Wood Decay Mechanisms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    Syst. Biol. 50(2):215­242, 2001 Analysis of Character Correlations Among Wood Decay Mechanisms of wood-decaying fungi. Two basic forms of wood decay are known in homobasidiomycetes: white rot, in which analyses; wood decay.] The vast majority of terrestrial biomass takes the form of wood and other plant tis

  6. Formation of wood grain: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Gaans, Onno

    Formation of wood grain: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells II Roeland Merks-like textures of wood (see Figure 1). These textures, called wood grain, form as new, elongated cells that are deposited on top of the existing wood in the vascular cambium, and align with the existing wood grain

  7. Where Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by wood pellet stoves, to large multi- building campuses heated by commercial wood chip boilers. SoonWhere Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado #12;Sun Wood Boiler Energy Energy CO2 CO2 Wood Fuel Nutrients AshNutrients Woody biomass is stored solar energy that is available 24

  8. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  9. Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    and process cost reductions led to investment in gas process development. The use of nitrogen in industrial processes went from by-product to primary gas produced in less than ten years. The nature of the cryogenic liquefaction process is such that a... ratio of three volumes of nitrogen to one of oxygen is optimal for merchant plan loading and costs. The specific power requirement for the liquefaction of nitrogen gas has gone from 2.0 kwh/ccf to 1.4 kwh/ccf. This represents a thirty percent...

  10. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Eiergy ; Washington, DC 20585 -, (, > - .' c ' . FEB 1 7 1995 .; , -, The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,'...

  11. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17

    This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table...

  12. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Existing Homes Building America Case Study Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls Lawrence, Massachusetts PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: The...

  13. Technical support for the Ohio Coal Technology Program. Volume 1, Baseline of knowledge concerning by-product characteristics: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L.

    1989-08-28

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LRl and comprises two volumes. Volume I presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume II consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  14. OTHER INDUSTRIES

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    AMO funded research results in novel technologies in diverse industries beyond the most energy intensive ones within the U.S. Manufacturing sector. These technologies offer quantifiable energy...

  15. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  16. Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors Todd F. Shupe Associate are a thousand times less than a lethal dose." Chromated Copper Arsenate-Treated Wood (Pressure Treated Wood

  17. Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

    2012-01-01

    The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

  18. Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appl Polym Sci 118: 3594­3601, 2010 Key words: coextrusion; mechanical properties; recycling recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot to use recycled, low quality plastic-fiber blends in the core layer. VC 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J

  19. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products exporters competing in the global market. This study was commissioned by the American Forest of illegally produced and traded wood products on the ability of U.S. producers to export into key overseas · Indonesia · Japan · Malaysia · Europe (EU-15) · West/Central Africa · Russia Collectively, these countries

  20. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to:Texas: EnergyWood, Wisconsin:

  1. Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura| National2.11DESERTWater SavingsBetterBeverly Woods

  2. Duffield Wood Pellets | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the National ClimateDongyingOpen Energy3)Duffield Wood

  3. Arbuthnott Wood Pellets Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAandAmminex A S Jump to:AngolaEnergyAquaAratua CentralArbuthnott Wood

  4. Keeler-Pennwalt Wood Pole Removal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand Cubic Feet) Sold toKeeler-Pennwalt-Wood-Pole-Removal Sign

  5. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  6. The use of a permanent magnet for water content measurements of wood chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01

    of a Permanent Magnet for Water Content Measurements of Wooda device that measures the water content of wood chips, pulpsystem. The results of water content measurements in wood

  7. UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES REQUIREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UGA DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL GENERAL REQUIREMENTS & STANDARDS GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES REQUIREMENTS JANUARY 16, 2015 06 00 00-1 06 00 00 GENERAL WOOD, PLASTICS, & COMPOSITES

  8. Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tension wood holds clues to higher fuel yields from biomass crops October 25, 2011 Poplar stems (left) respond to bending stress by producing tension wood, which has...

  9. Forest Products Industry Profile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wood and paper products meet the everyday needs of consumers and businesses. They provide materials essential for communication, education, packaging, construction, shelter, sanitation, and protection.

  10. Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the United States has been increasing. Using wood to feed a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) station produces has a range of applica- tions, and these vary among the technologies. For instance, wind power generates electricity rather than heat or transportation fuel. Similarly, wood-based technologies have

  11. Wood Engineering Education Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Wood Engineering Education ­ Trends and Challenges Rakesh Gupta1 and Vijaya Gopu2 1 Member ASCE, Associate Professor, Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Professor and Chair, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA

  12. Fibre Based Modeling of Wood Dynamics and Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridson, Robert

    Fibre Based Modeling of Wood Dynamics and Fracture by Sean Meiji Sutherland B.Sc., The University for the simulation of the dynamics and fracturing char- acteristics of wood, specifically its anisotropic behaviour bundles of fibres. Additionally, we describe the conditions under which fracture occurs in the material

  13. Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's woodfuel boiler provides a renewable, and a woodfuel boiler provides space heating and hot water. Wood for the boiler comes from Bedgebury Forest and chipped to provide fuel for a 40 kilowatt Austrian-made boiler, which has been installed to provide

  14. "Matrix/Modular" - An Approach to Analyzing Cogeneration Opportunities in Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canty, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    /MODULAR" AN APPROACH TO ANALYZING COGENERATION OPPORTUNITIES IN INDUSTRY W. R. Canty Shell Oil Company Houston, Texas The petrochemical industry has long recognized that electrical and mechanical energy can be generated as a by-product of its process steam... units. In addition, economic incentives for the construction of cogeneration plants have been enacted in an effort to promote energy conservation. These government actions have led to renewed interest in the use of cogeneration plants which combine...

  15. 64 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY SPRING 2008 F E AT U R E C O M M E N TA RY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    64 INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY SPRING 2008 F E AT U R E C O M M E N TA RY G U E S T E D I TO R I A L for energy to be produced from renewable resources, the contribution of Indiana's corn and soybean industry. Reports show that the wood products industry is the largest, by paid wages, of any agricultural industry

  16. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  17. Optimization of Jatropha Oil Extraction and Its By-Product Utilization by Pyrolysis Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kongkasawan, Jinjuta 1987-

    2012-08-20

    crisis. The purpose of this research is to investigate the optimum condition of Jatropha seed extraction via a screw press and its by-product utilization by a pyrolysis method for achieving the maximum mass conversion and energy recovery. In this study...

  18. LOW-COST, HIGH-PERFORMANCE MATERIALS USING ILLINOIS COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    conventional and clean coal technologies. This project was primarily directed toward developing concrete technologies. Based on these properties, two sources of both conventional and clean coal ashes were selected technology for high-volume applications of Illinois coal combustion by-products generated by using both

  19. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  20. Industry Economist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will report to the Manager of Load Forecasting and Analysis of the Customer Services Organization. He/she serves as an industry economist engaged in load...

  1. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  2. Solar Grade Silicon from Agricultural By-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard M. Laine

    2012-08-20

    In this project, Mayaterials developed a low cost, low energy and low temperature method of purifying rice hull ash to high purity (5-6Ns) and converting it by carbothermal reduction to solar grade quality silicon (Sipv) using a self-designed and built electric arc furnace (EAF). Outside evaluation of our process by an independent engineering firm confirms that our technology greatly lowers estimated operating expenses (OPEX) to $5/kg and capital expenses (CAPEX) to $24/kg for Sipv production, which is well below best-in-class plants using a Siemens process approach (OPEX of 14/kg and CAPEX of $87/kg, respectively). The primary limiting factor in the widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) cells is the high cost of manufacturing, compared to more traditional sources to reach 6 g Sipv/watt (with averages closer to 8+g/watt). In 2008, the spot price of Sipv rose to $450/kg. While prices have since dropped to a more reasonable $25/kg; this low price level is not sustainable, meaning the longer-term price will likely return to $35/kg. The 6-8 g Si/watt implies that the Sipv used in a module will cost $0.21-0.28/watt for the best producers (45% of the cost of a traditional solar panel), a major improvement from the cost/wafer driven by the $50/kg Si costs of early 2011, but still a major hindrance in fulfilling DOE goal of lowering the cost of solar energy below $1/watt. The solar cell industry has grown by 40% yearly for the past eight years, increasing the demand for Sipv. As such, future solar silicon price spikes are expected in the next few years. Although industry has invested billions of dollars to meet this ever-increasing demand, the technology to produce Sipv remains largely unchanged requiring the energy intensive, and chlorine dependent Siemens process or variations thereof. While huge improvements have been made, current state-of-the-art industrial plant still use 65 kWh/kg of silicon purified. Our technology offers a key distinction to other technologies as it starts one step upstream from all other Sipv production efforts. Our process starts by producing high purity SiO2/C feedstocks from which Sipv can be produced in a single, chlorine free, final EAF step. Specifically, our unique technology, and the resultant SiO2/C product can serve as high purity feedstocks to existing metallurgical silicon (Simet) producers, allowing them to generate Sipv with existing US manufacturing infrastructure, reducing the overall capital and commissioning schedule. Our low energy, low CAPEX and OPEX process purifies the silica and carbon present in rice hull ash (RHA) at low temperatures (< 200C) to produce high purity (5-6 Ns) feedstock for production of Sipv using furnaces similar to those used to produce Simet. During the course of this project we partnered with Wadham Energy LP (Wadham), who burns 220k ton of rice hulls (RH)/yr generating 200 GWh of electricity/yr and >30k ton/yr RHA. The power generation step produces much more energy (42 kWh/kg of final silicon produced) than required to purify the RHA (5 kWh/kg of Sipv, compared to 65 kWh/kg noted above. Biogenic silica offers three very important foundations for producing high purity silicon. First, wastes from silica accumulating plants, such as rice, corn, many grasses, algae and grains, contain very reactive, amorphous silica from which impurities are easily removed. Second, plants take up only a limited set of, and minimal quantities of the heavy metals present in nature, meaning fewer minerals must be removed. Third, biomass combustion generates a product with intrinsic residual carbon, mixed at nanometer length scales with the SiO2. RHA is 80-90 wt% high surface area (20 m2/g), amorphous SiO2 with some simple mineral content mixed intimately with 5-15 wt% carbon. The mineral content is easily removed by low cost, acid washes using Mayaterials IP, leading to purified rice hull ash (RHAclean) at up to 6N purity. This highly reactive silica is partially extracted from RHAclean at 200 C in an environmentally benign process to adjust SiO2:C ratios to those needed in EA

  3. Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a, *, Clifford E of Ecosystem Studies, Box AB, Millbrook, NY 12545, United States 1. Introduction Large wood and accumulations of large wood (wood jams) are widely recognized as important features in forested stream ecosystems. Large

  4. The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of Large Wood on Stream Channel Morphology on Three Low- Gradient Stream Reaches that large wood has a prominent role in habitat quality, however there is little research on the role of wood large wood loadings (759 vs. 329 vs. 39 m3 /ha). This study devises a new classification methodology

  5. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in Western Forests November .................................................ix Importance of Dead and Downed Wood....................................1 Dead Wood: From Forester's Bane to Environmental Boon...................3 Jack Ward Thomas Decaying Wood: An Overview of Its

  6. Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citation & Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood properties, maleation, thermal analysis, wood veneer, wood-PVC composites ABSTRACT The influence of maleation on thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-PVC composites was investigated in this study

  7. Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood Gary Jacobi a , Helena September 2006 Available online 2 January 2007 Abstract Construction and demolition (C&D) wood frequently contains treated wood including wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Many recycling options

  8. Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review CHEMICAL COUPLING IN WOOD FIBER) ABSTRACT Coupling agents in wood fiber and polymer composites (WFPC) play a very important role in improving the compatibility and adhesion between polar wood fibers and non-polar polymeric matri- ces

  9. The Warm Local ISM: Structure, Properties, and Theory Jeffrey L. Linsky, Seth Redfield, & Brian Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    Wood JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309­0440 USA Abstract. Ultraviolet spectra), and the second by Wood, Linsky, & Zank (2000) and by Wood, M¨uller, & Zank (2000). In this talk, we al (1995) and Wood et al (1996). Early­type stars and hot white dwarfs also prove background

  10. The Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    extent, residential housing has always been one of the major drivers of wood demand in JapanThe Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is available will consider the potential impact on Chinese demand for wood products.) Japanese Market for Wood Products Japan

  11. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Wood Ash Samples Used in This Study. Regulatory Levels Provided for Comparison. Table II.1 Alternative

  12. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  13. The role of water in the behavior of wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominique Derome; Ahmad Rafsanjani; Stefan Hering; Martin Dressler; Alessandra Patera; Christian Lanvermann; Marjan Sedighi-Gilani; Falk K. Wittel; Peter Niemz; Jan Carmeliet

    2015-09-17

    Wood, due to its biological origin, has the capacity to interact with water. Sorption/desorption of moisture is accompanied with swelling/shrinkage and softening/hardening of its stiffness. The correct prediction of the behavior of wood components undergoing environmental loading requires that the moisture behavior and mechanical behavior of wood are considered in a coupled manner. We propose a comprehensive framework using a fully coupled poromechanical approach, where its multiscale implementation provides the capacity to take into account, directly, the exact geometry of the wood cellular structure, using computational homogenization. A hierarchical model is used to take into account the subcellular composite-like organization of the material. Such advanced modeling requires high resolution experimental data for the appropriate determination of inputs and for its validation. High-resolution x-ray tomography, digital image correlation, and neutron imaging are presented as valuable methods to provide the required information.

  14. In-Depth Temperature Profiles in Pyrolyzing Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro

    The move towards performance-based design of the fire resistance of structures requires more accurate design methods. An important variable in the fire performance of timber structures is the in-depth temperature distribution, as wood is weakened...

  15. Modelling Traceability in the Forestry Wood Supply Chain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelling Traceability in the Forestry Wood Supply Chain Antti Sirkka University of Tampere TietoEnator Forest & Energy Oy Kalevantie 4, 33014 Tampere, Finland Häkiläpolku 3 A, 33101 Tampere, Finland antti

  16. Test evaluation of a laminated wood wind turbine blade concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faddoul, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    Because of the high stiffness and fatigue strength of wood (as compared to density) along with the low cost manufacturing techniques available, a laminated wood wind turbine blade application has been studied. This report presents the results of the testing performed on elements of the wood blade-to-hub transition section which uses steel studs cast into a laminated wood spar with a filled epoxy. Individual stud samples were tested for both ultimate load carrying capability and fatigue strength. A one-time pull-out load of 78,000 lb was achieved for a 15 in. long stud with a diameter of 1 in. Tension-tension fatigue indicated that peak loads on the order of 40% of ultimate could be maintained as an endurance limit (mean load = 20,000 lb, cyclic load = +-15,000 lb). Following the individual stud testing, a full-scale inboard blade section (20 ft in length) was tested.

  17. Photo by Helvetas Moambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Photo by Helvetas Moçambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering #12;IWRM in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without CAS consists of the following units: - Basic knowledge in order to follow the class

  18. Disentangling Biodiversity and Climatic Determinants of Wood Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an important role in carbon sequestration. Methodology/Principal Findings: We tested whether tree wood incorporating the role of biodiversity in management and policy plans for forest carbon sequestration. Citation

  19. Stephen E. Wood Department of Earth & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    .S. Physics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS for Phase A study; designed solar-powered thermal ice drill RESEARCH GRANTS-I's: Stephen Wood, Collab: Eric R. Parteli (FAU, Germany), Wind regime, sediment

  20. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01

    In many world regions like North America and Scandinavia wood framing is dominant technology for residential buildings. During last two decades several companies around the world started to promote a low-gage steel framing for residential...

  1. Continuing Education and Training Needs of the Southern Forest Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, John K.; Albrecht, Don E.; Lee, J. Charles; Klinoff, Roger

    1985-01-01

    , decisionmak ing and communication skills, and an understanding of wood procurement and production for upper and middle management, and supervisors. Only a few of the topics included in the survey were perceived by executives as necessary information... Continuing Education and Training Needs ????,.ofthe '. ", , ; Southern Forest .?? Industry ft LIBRARY DEC 20 1985 . ~xas A&M UniversaL . 8-1508 The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Neville P. Clarke, Director/The Texas A&M University System...

  2. Utilizing the heat content of gas-to-liquids by-product streams for commercial power generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adegoke, Adesola Ayodeji

    2006-10-30

    provides middle distillates to an unsaturated global market and offers opportunities to generate power for commercial purposes from waste by-product streams, which normally are associated with increased expenses incurred from additional...

  3. INDUSTRY REVIEW B Y P E T E R J . I N C E , U S D A F O R E S T S E R V I C E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products. The pulp and paper industry is also about twice as large as the lumber and other wood products industries, the for- tunes of the U.S. pulp and pa- per industry are now closely tied to the global economy. The U.S. pulp and paper sector exhibits fairly steady production and growth trends, but its economic

  4. MIT and Automotive Industries MIT Industry Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    MIT and Automotive Industries MIT Industry Brief MIT's Industrial Liaison Program (ILP) can bring@ilp.mit.edu, or visit http://ilp.mit.edu. MIT and Automotive Industries The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a leading center of research and education on topics important to the automotive industry and its suppliers

  5. Industry @ ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you notHeat Pumps Heat Pumpsfacility doe logoInIndustry @ ALS

  6. Industrial Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientific andIndividualEvent Sign InIndustrial

  7. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation CurrentHenry Bellamy,ImpactScientific andIndividualEvent SignIndustrial Users -

  8. Industry Economists

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural GasNatural GasEIA lowerslong4,Guide toHighHowIndustry

  9. Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: Holistic Worldviews and the Transformation of American Culture after World War II.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Promnitz, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    23 No. 1 Linda Sargent Wood. A More Perfect Union: HolisticCold War era, Linda Sargent Wood argues that the equallyWorld War II period. For Wood, this cultural perspective

  10. Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    and D. R. Montgomery. 2003. Wood in river rehabilitation andPatterns and process of wood debris accumulation in theand S. V. Gregory. 2002. Large wood and fluvial processes.

  11. Drought effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground carbon cycling in an Amazon forest: Results of a throughfall reduction experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    effects on litterfall, wood production and belowground136, 68005-080 Santare´m, Para´, Brazil Woods Hole ResearchCenter, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02543, USA

  12. Polar Shear Lag Analysis of a Composite of Concentric Cylinders with Longitudinal Cracks: Application to Internal Checking in Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    : Application to Internal Checking in Wood J.A.Nairn Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University the existence of internal checks lowers the value of the wood when it is milled into lumber (due to detrimental

  13. Introduction Actual Industrial Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigam, Nilima

    Introduction Actual Industrial Problems What's needed? Is there really interesting mathematics in Industry? Can mathematicians contribute to society, and do we want to...? Nilima Nigam Department Mathematics in Industry #12;Introduction Actual Industrial Problems What's needed? Some controversial

  14. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board October 15, 2010 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 MIE Dorothy Adams Undergraduate/Graduate Secretary David Schmidt Associate Professor & Graduate Program Director #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 3 MIE James Rinderle

  15. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  16. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  17. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  18. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced Clean Coal Technology by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini; Wiles Elder

    1999-04-05

    This eleventh quarterly report describes work done during the eleventh three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ``Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing and giving presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  19. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sid

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers. The by-product FGD materials also showed good potential as a granular substrate for turning volatile liquid herbicides into a dry, spreadable form. It was also shown that a significant amount of other fertilizer compounds, such as elemental sulfur, could be successfully incorporated into the pelleted products, if desired.

  20. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-06-01

    This sixteenth quarterly report describes work done during the sixteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, giving a presentation, and making and responding to several outside contacts.

  1. Engineering Industrial & Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Industrial Engineering Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering Leslie Monplaisir, Ph powerful tool sets used in industry today. -Brent Gillett, BSIE 2007 Advanced Planning Engineer at BMW I is available at: http://ise.wayne.edu/bs-industrial/index What is Industrial Engineering? The industrial

  2. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Industrial engineering is concerned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Industrial engineering is concerned with looking at the "big picture" of systems that allow organizations and individuals to perform at their best. Industrial engineers bridge should be used and how they should be used. Industrial engineers design and run the factories and systems

  3. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Industrial engineering is concerned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING Industrial engineering is concerned with looking at the "big picture" of systems that allow organizations and individuals to perform at their best. Industrial engineers bridge should be used and how they should be used. The focus of industrial engineering is on process improvement

  4. Selected tools Table 9. Summary list of tools for both wood and paper-based products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3.4 Selected tools Table 9. Summary list of tools for both wood and paper-based products Focus Europe WOOD & PAPER- BASED PRODUCTS #12;3.5 Selected tools Forest conversion Social issues Pollution

  5. The morphological development of a wood burl shader 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert Simms

    2004-09-30

    THE MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A WOOD BURL SHADER A Thesis by ROBERT SIMMS MOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject...: Visualization Sciences THE MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF A WOOD BURL SHADER A Thesis by ROBERT SIMMS MOYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved...

  6. Wood County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to:Wood

  7. The Role of Allelopathy, Heat, and Charred Wood in the Germination of Chaparral Herbs1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the effect of heating, at temperatures similar to those found in fire, and tests with wood ash alone failed

  8. Kinetics of Ion Removal from an Iron-Rich Industrial Coproduct: I. Chloride Yigal Salingar, Donald L. Sparks,* Masoud Ghodrati, and Gerald J. Hendricks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    and water quality aspects. Therefore, determining the mechanism and rate of Cl removal by water from the IRM the chamber, and that no chemical kinetics were involved. THE DISPOSAL of industrial byproducts and coproducts and as fertilizer sources. Their disposal, however, is often pre- cluded by a lack of information on the accompanied

  9. Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    /environmental concerns c. Special handling 4. Management options for treated wood a. Is treated wood a solid waste? b for homeowners, contractors, waste management professionals, and other parties needing information on managementManagement of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators Prepared by

  10. Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Dynamics of wood in stream networks of the western Cascades Range, Oregon Nicole M. Czarnomski a conceptual model of wood dynamics in stream networks that considers legacies of forest management practices, floods, and debris flows. We combine an observational study of wood in 25 km of 2nd- through 5th

  11. A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Method Countries Can Use to Estimate Changes in Carbon Stored in Harvested Wood Products to carbon stored in harvested wood products (HWP) and for evaluating uncertainty. The method uses data suggest that uncertainty is most sensitive to uncertainty in production data for solid- wood products

  12. Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    META ANALYSIS Global relationship of wood and leaf litter decomposability: the role of functional and their phylogenetic history influence decay rates of dead wood and leaf litter, but it remains unknown if decay rates of wood and litter covary over a wide range of tree species and across ecosystems. We evaluated

  13. The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Nathan

    The relationship between wood density and mortality in a global tropical forest data set Nathan J-offs, long-term ecological research, phylogenetic independent contrasts, trait conservatism. Summary · Wood in mortality rates with wood density, drawing on data for 765 500 trees from 1639 species at 10 sites located

  14. Current Research on Wood Decay in the USDA Forest Service1 Harold H. Burdsall, Jr.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Current Research on Wood Decay in the USDA Forest Service1 Harold H. Burdsall, Jr.2 Abstract, Biodeterioration Research, concentrates on studying the basic mechanism of wood decay. Most of the Forest Service's work on wood decay is being done in two work units in Forest Insect and Disease Research (FIDR) housed

  15. Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability and habitat selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Fish use of turbulence around wood in winter: physical experiments on hydraulic variability-introduction of large wood for expanding hydraulic variability is an increasingly common prac- tice, yet it is not yet on flow strength, depth, distance to wood, or based on temporal or spatial variability of the flow field

  16. Lauric Acid/Wood Fiber Blends for Shape Stable Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Lauric Acid/Wood Fiber Blends for Shape Stable Phase Change Material Krista Stancombe, Fang Chen in preparing wood fiber (WF) composites. The goal in developing this material is to produce a shape stabilized (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM). References Conclusion LA crystals LA crystals Wood Fiber

  17. World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. 2001-2002 Forest Products e-Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. © 2001-2002 Forest Products e-Commerce An Oxymoron or Wave of the Future Presented by: Thomas J. Westbrook, JD President & CEO World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. http Collapsing time and space Communication World Wide Wood Network, Ltd. © 2001-2002 The Promise of the Internet

  18. Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    Pristine Early Eocene Wood Buried Deeply in Kimberlite from Northern Canada Alexander P. Wolfe1 preservation of fossil wood buried deeply in a kimberlite pipe that intruded northwestern Canada's Slave Province 53.360.6 million years ago (Ma), revealed during excavation of diamond source rock. The wood

  19. Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    Nanoindentation of wood cell walls: Continuous stiffness and hardness measurements q W.T.Y. Tze a 37831-6116, USA d Department of Wood and Paper Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC The objective of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of individual, native wood fibers using

  20. AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN BREEDING PAIR HABITATS IN SOUTH Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences #12;AN ASSESSMENT OF WOOD DUCK DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND RIPARIAN

  1. WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD-BORERS ON Acacia: A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE Prepared by Drs. Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas Acacia community diversity and composition. Wood-boring insects in particular can cause considerable damage. In an effort to better understand the wood-boring community on Acacia, Drs Brett Hurley and Jeff Garnas (from

  2. Wood Transportation Systems-A Spin-Off of a Computerized Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Transportation Systems-A Spin-Off of a Computerized Information and Mapping Technique William of the system to determine the allocation and association of wood sources and markets. INTRODUCTION In December strategies of wood origins and potential markets to be correlated very accurately and rapidly. Transportation

  3. On The Ten Point Wood-Desargues' Configuration Christopher J Bradley and Geoff C Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Geoff

    1 Article 6 On The Ten Point Wood-Desargues' Configuration Christopher J Bradley and Geoff C Smith Abstract The ten pairs of directly similar triangles in perspective in the Wood-Desargues' configuration are similar to the five cyclic quadrangles of the initial Wood-Desargues' configuration and that these five

  4. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post February 2005) ABSTRACT Dimensional stability is an important property of wood composites. Both resin and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood

  5. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING VALUE-ADDED WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    OPPORTUNITIES FOR HORIZONTAL DIVERSIFICATION IN MANUFACTURING VALUE-ADDED WOOD PRODUCTS Working Post Doctoral Researcher Wood Products Processing Richard Vlosky Assistant Professor Forest Products Marketing February 7, 1996 #12;2 ABSTRACT A study of equipment usage in the Louisiana secondary wood

  6. EFFECT OF COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF WOOD BASEBALL BATS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    EFFECT OF COMPOSITE REINFORCEMENT ON THE DURABILITY OF WOOD BASEBALL BATS John T. Axtell, Lloyd V Pullman, WA 99164-2920 ABSTRACT This study examines the durability of a laminated wood baseball bat. The measured and predicted results are in good agreement. Wood lamination was observed to decrease the scatter

  7. Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Patterns and processes of wood debris accumulation in the Queets river basin, Washington Tim B Mountains in NW Washington reveal basin-wide patterns of distinctive wood debris (WD) accumulations development. The classification of wood debris accumulations in the Queets river basin is based on physical

  8. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, David R. - Department of Geography, Texas State University

    Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event ESTELLE. More- over, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response

  9. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood within preservative-treated wood. Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments

  10. Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global Trade of Wood and Paper Products By Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects

  11. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    -treated wood Xinde Cao*, Lena Q. Ma Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk

  12. PROJECT SUMMARY Wood-decaying Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) include diverse polypores, gilled mushrooms,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbett, David S.

    PROJECT SUMMARY Wood-decaying Agaricomycetes (Basidiomycota) include diverse polypores, gilled production. Understanding of the higher-level relationships of wood-decaying Agaricomycetes has advanced. This project will perform monographic research and training in two major groups of wood-decaying Agaricomycetes

  13. Illegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the production and use of wood energy, in the context of broader policy frameworks, for renewable energiesIllegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP PRESS RELEASE [Index] Illegal logging and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy

  14. Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    85 Modeling Sediment and Wood Storage and Dynamics in Small Mountainous Watersheds Stephen T controls on supply and transport of sediment and wood in a small (approximately two square kilometers) basin in the Oregon Coast Range, typical of streams at the interface between episodic sediment and wood

  15. Wood stove use in the end-use load and consumer assessment program residential base sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LeBaron, B.A.

    1988-11-01

    This report examines wood heating in the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) Residential Base Sample during the 1985/1986 heating season. The goals of this study were to assess the frequency of wood burning in homes having wood burning equipment and to estimate the quantity of electrical space heat displaced by it use. 15 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Peter

    Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng Representation.12.007 * Corresponding author. E-mail address: S.Wood@sussex.ac.uk (S. Wood). Computers in Human Behavior 22 (2006) 588 an incremental extension of existing technologies. From stud- ies of other design oriented disciplines

  17. Field Document No.50 REGIONAL WOOD ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood energy data, leading to best estimates of future consumption. It also tries to estimate. The work continues, particularly in much- needed efforts to strengthen the available wood energy data-use Conversion 22 3.7 Quotes 23 4. Selected Wood Energy Data 27 4.1 Energy Balances in RWEDP Member-countries 27

  18. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Background and Purpose The purpose of the Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Price Wood River LRR and the overall scope of the project, the final panel members were selectedFinal Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Limited

  19. Identifying Employment Structure and Training Needs In the Louisiana Value-Added Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Manufacturing Today ___________________________ 62 Most Pressing Issues in Manufacturing in 5 Years ................................................................................70 VI. References and Additional Literature..........................................................................71 References _____________________________________________________ 71 Additional Literature

  20. Building Profits and Goodwill in the Wood Product Industry with Time-Of-Use Rates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    .S. are searching for alternatives to building generating plants. One of the alternatives used by Carolina Power & Light Company is Time-of-Use Rates. These rates give monetary incentives to customers who change their electrical usage patterns to coincide... manufacturer with a 235-employee plywood plant located in Moncure, North Carolina. The plant receives electric ser vice from Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L), an investor-owned electric utility serving over 825,000 customers in North and South...

  1. TIMBER INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT DIVISION REPORT ON EXPORT OF WOOD PRODUCTS, MAY 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghana. The ECOWAS market (mainly Nigeria, Senegal, Niger, Gambia, Mali, Benin, Burkina Faso and Togo,115 14,315,949 310 Niger 17,555 1,944,223 111 Niger 10,581 1,290,526 122 Mali 817 105,438 129 Mali 607

  2. 1 Savcor Indufor Oy 2006 Value-added Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © Savcor Indufor Oy 2006 Role of China Furniture industry success: low production costs, especially labour ­ and efficiently managed factories with high technology and productivity (proper industrialization) Risk factor

  3. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    those found in municipal solid waste (MSW) (e.g., food waste). However, research has shown that C liners (11). When CCA-treated wood is managed in the C&D debris waste stream and is disposed in unlined C&D debris can impact leachate quality which, in turn could affect leachate management practices or aquifers

  4. Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings Final Report Prepared by: Robert Gerard and David Barber Arup North America Ltd San Francisco, CA Armin Wolski San Francisco, CA © December 2013 Fire Protection Research Foundation THE FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION ONE BATTERYMARCH PARK QUINCY

  5. Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE1 ; and Pranueng to evaluate "system effects" in light-frame roof truss assemblies. The goal of this study was to develop an improved and practical design method for 3D roof truss assemblies used in residential construction. A truss

  6. Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

    1996-01-01

    In the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge Earthquake, extensive field investigations revealed damage in wood frame construction in the form of splitting the 2x4 or 2x6 dimension lumber sill plates along the line of anchor bolts which typically connect...

  7. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  8. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1984-01-01

    A new and improved stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel including a vertical feed combustion chamber for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack, a major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprising a water jacket for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid and for convection circulation of the fluid for confining the locus of wood fuel combustion to the bottom of the vertical gravity feed combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel extending from the laterally directed draft outlet affords delayed travel time in a high temperature environment to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air as an actively induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion and high temperature zone. Active sources of forced air and induced draft are included, multiple use and circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  9. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1984-07-31

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  10. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  11. MIGHTY BACTERIA IN A CIVILISED WORLD Prepared by Amy Wooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MIGHTY BACTERIA IN A CIVILISED WORLD Prepared by Amy Wooding The 2013 FABI/ CTHB UPwith of antibacterial products being advertised. The aim was to explore the idea created by these products that bacteria this by testing whether all bacteria can survive in every environment; will bacteria isolated from the UP

  12. TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE WOOD PRESERVATION FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;TECHNICAL POLLUTION PREVENTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE WOOD PRESERVATION FACILITIES IN THE LOWER FRASER BASIN DOE FRAP 1997-14 Prepared for: Environment Canada Environmental Protection Fraser Pollution Action Plan through its Fraser Pollution Abatement Office. Environment Canada is not responsible

  13. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  14. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  15. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  16. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  17. Taxonomic Lattice Structures for Situation Recognition William A. Woods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taxonomic Lattice Structures for Situation Recognition William A. Woods Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc there any special thing I should do about it?", etc. To support this kind of activity, a substantial part something. TO support the above uses of knowledge, an important characteristic required of an efficient

  18. RUTGERS ROBERT WOOD JOHNSON MEDICAL SCHOOL NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    from experimental animals infected with HIV or HBV. (Bloodborne pathogens as they relate to the use of animal blood may also be covered by the policies of the University's research animal care facilities for University staff, students, faculty, and house staff. 1. Each RUTGERS Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

  19. Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Material Properties of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic/Wood Interfaces M.J. Benjamin, K Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are man made inorganic solids that lie in between hydraulic cements and ceramics . Normally, ceramics are sintered at temperatures ranging from 700-2000C

  20. Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina John W. van de Lindt, M.ASCE1 ; and Kenneth J. Fridley, M.ASCE6 Abstract: The costliest natural disaster in U.S. history was Hurricane Katrina; Hurricanes; Damage; Gulf of Mexico. Introduction The data reconnaissance consisted of 3 days of data

  1. Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Illinois Design Deficiency Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    to the design criterion of a safety factor of 1.6, as well as a lower factor of safety for the temporary USACE criteria require a minimum factor of safety of 1.6. b. Parametric study to understand#12;1 Wood River Drainage and Levee District, Illinois Design Deficiency Study Limited Reevaluation

  2. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 1, [Annual report], December 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. Presently FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. However, landfill sites are becoming more scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. It is, therefore, highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. In summary Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD byproduct materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  3. Provenance study and environments of deposition of the Pennslyvanian-Permian Wood River Formation, south-central Idaho, and the paleotectonic character of the Wood River basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Christopher William

    1982-01-01

    PROVENANCE STUDY AND ENVIRONMENTS OF DEPOSITION OF THE PENNSYLVANIAN-PERMIAN WOOD RIVER FORMATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, AND THE PALEOTECTONIC CHARACTER OF THE WOOD RIVER BASIN A 'Ihesis by CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM DEAN Submitted to the Graduate..., SOUTH-CENTRAL IDAHO, AND THE PALEOTECTONIC CHARACTER OF THE WOOD RIVER BASIN A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM DEAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) (Member) (H of Dep tment) December, 1982 ABSTRACT Provenance...

  4. Improved stud configurations for attaching laminated wood wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faddoul, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    In order to improve joint strength for bonded studs in laminated wood structures (wind turbine blades) a series of designs was developed and tested. Each design systematically varied a parameter which was expected to have a significant effect on performance. The structural capability of each design was established based on tension-tension fatigue tests, and it was found that a stud with a concave tapered carrot design, bonded in place with an epoxy thickened with chopped carbon fiber, was the most effective design. Further improvements in joint performance could be made by augmenting the laminated wood with thin plies of carbon cloth (10 percent thickness buildup) in the area of the stud. Two designs were selected for further testing, which demonstrated that joint strengths approaching the membrane wood strength could be achieved. For a 3- by 3-inch wood block, an ultimate load exceeding 100,000 lbs could be introduced through a single bonded stud. For the same type of specimen in cyclic tension at an R-ratio of 0.1, the bonded studs were projected to have a fatigue life of 4 x 10/sup 8/ cycles at maximum loads of 30,000 lbs. For reversed axial fatigue, a reduction of 25 percent from these numbers was shown to be appropriate. These values represent an improvement of 100 percent over the stud designs used previously for laminated wood wind turbine blades. However, temperatures of 100/sup 0/F with humidity at 100 percent in certain cases caused a loss of ultimate load capability approaching 35 percent and a loss of fatigue capacity approaching 50 percent. While this result may have been specimen-related, additional testing or a change in the epoxy resin system should be considered before using the bonded stud designs in hot, humid environments.

  5. Clean-coal technology by-products used in a highway embankment stabilization demonstration project. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nodjomian, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Clean-coal technology by-products are used in a highway embankment demonstration project. This research chronicles the procedures used in the process and analyzes the stability of a repaired highway embankment. The reconstructed slope is analyzed using an Intelligent Discussion Support System that was developed from a slope stability program. Water quality studies are performed and an instrumentation plan is suggested. The calculated factors of safety and the observed embankment performance give indications that the field demonstration project was a success. Long-term monitoring will be the best barometer for determining embankment gross movement and the future of FGD by-products as a stabilizing material.

  6. New Developments in Wood-Destroying Organisms from the International Research Group on Wood Preservation (IRG)1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , decay mechanisms and product problems, new techniques, insect problems and control, and developments associated with new methods of termite control Insects in dry wood (excluding termites) 1Presented Disease Work Conference and Western Forest Insect Work Conference meeting. For more details and data on

  7. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Jebediah Wilson for the Master of Science in Civil Engineering and Wood Science presented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    and Wood Science presented on September 26, 2008. Title: Behavior of a 1/6th Scale, Two-Story, Wood Framed was to develop an understanding of the nature of surge wave loading on wood framed residential structures forces on a 1/6th scale wood framed residential structure, (2) to evaluate qualitatively the structural

  8. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 527 DecAID: A Decaying Wood Advisory Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 527 DecAID: A Decaying Wood Advisory Model and decaying wood (dead and partially dead trees and down wood) necessary to maintain wildlife habitat in Washington and Oregon. Whereas the relationship of dead and decaying wood to wildlife habitat is a major

  9. IAWA Journal, Vol. 24 (4), 2003: 345353 THE AGE AND DENSITY OF ANCIENT AND MODERN OAK WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    IAWA Journal, Vol. 24 (4), 2003: 345­353 THE AGE AND DENSITY OF ANCIENT AND MODERN OAK WOOD of Missouri, 203 ABNR Building, Columbia, MO 65211, USA [E-mail: guyetter@missouri.edu] SUMMARY Large wood thousands of years. This wood affords the opportunity to compare a chronosequence of differ- ences in wood

  10. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by 2012 and beyond. The use of recycled fibre is forecast to increase to 40% in 2012. 8. Four wood pellet in forecast demand for wood to be used for pellet production of 140k odt/yr in 2011. 9. The total of woodWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011

  11. Mechanical, Industrial & Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramanian, Ravi

    Mechanical, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering (MIME) COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FY2013 Oregon graduate degrees (MS, MEng, PhD) in mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, and materials science. We offer bachelor's degrees in mechanical, industrial, manufacturing, and energy systems engineering

  12. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  13. Industrial and Systems engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Industrial and Systems engineering COLLEGE of ENGINEERING DepartmentofIndustrialandSystemsEngineering EDGE Engineering Entrepreneur Certificate Program is a great addition to an industrial and systems to expert clinical recommendations. engineering.wayne.edu/isefaculty Industrial and systems engineering

  14. Current regulatory and licensing status for byproduct sources, facilities and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, G.L.; Jensen, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Public use of nuclear byproducts, especially radioactive isotopes, will require approval by various regulatory agencies. Use of cesium-137 as an irradiation source for sterilizing medical products will require US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval. Two applications have been filed with NRC, and approval is expected soon. Widespread use of irradiation for food products depends on a favorable ruling by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A ruling is pending that would permit irradiation of fruits and vegetables up to 100 krad. NRC also controls the use of isotopes in remote power generators, but little regulatory action has been required in recent years. Recent development of radioluminescent (RL) lighting for runway lights has led to interest by commercial manufacturers. At the present time, a license has been issued to at least one manufacturer for sale of tritium-powered runway lights. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  16. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  17. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  18. Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

  19. Proinflammatory adipokine leptin mediates disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane-induced early steatohepatitic injury in obesity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Suvarthi; Kumar, Ashutosh; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Tokar, Erik J.; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Mason, Ronald P.; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2013-06-15

    Today's developed world faces a major public health challenge in the rise in the obese population and the increased incidence in fatty liver disease. There is a strong association among diet induced obesity, fatty liver disease and development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis but the environmental link to disease progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that in obesity, early steatohepatitic lesions induced by the water disinfection byproduct bromodichloromethane are mediated by increased oxidative stress and leptin which act in synchrony to potentiate disease progression. Low acute exposure to bromodichloromethane (BDCM), in diet-induced obesity produced oxidative stress as shown by increased lipid peroxidation, protein free radical and nitrotyrosine formation and elevated leptin levels. Exposed obese mice showed histopathological signs of early steatohepatitic injury and necrosis. Spontaneous knockout mice for leptin or systemic leptin receptor knockout mice had significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-? levels. Co-incubation of leptin and BDCM caused Kupffer cell activation as shown by increased MCP-1 release and NADPH oxidase membrane assembly, a phenomenon that was decreased in Kupffer cells isolated from leptin receptor knockout mice. In obese mice that were BDCM-exposed, livers showed a significant increase in Kupffer cell activation marker CD68 and, increased necrosis as assessed by levels of isocitrate dehydrogenase, events that were decreased in the absence of leptin or its receptor. In conclusion, our results show that exposure to the disinfection byproduct BDCM in diet-induced obesity augments steatohepatitic injury by potentiating the effects of leptin on oxidative stress, Kupffer cell activation and cell death in the liver. - Highlights: ? BDCM acute exposure sensitizes liver to increased free radical stress in obesity. ? BDCM-induced higher leptin contributes to early steatohepatitic lesions. ? Increased leptin mediates protein radical and 3-nitrotyrosine formation. ? BDCM exposure in obesity activates Kupffer cells and NADPH oxidase. ? BDCM/leptin synergy promotes necrotic cell-death and augments steatohepatitis.

  20. Electric Utility Industry Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers significant electric industry trends and industry priorities with federal customers.

  1. Uranium industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    This report provides statistical data on the U.S. uranium industry`s activities relating to uranium raw materials and uranium marketing.

  2. Industry Analysis February 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    -Industries · Biodiesel ­ Biofuel ­ Alternate fuels ­ Green fuels ­ Renewable fuels/energy ­ Green energy ­ Green) · Business Source Complete - Company, market, industry news and articles · CBCA and Canadian Newsstand

  3. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  4. Evaluation of fisheries by-catch and by-product meals in diets for red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteman, Kasey

    2006-04-12

    , are increasingly in short supply for the manufacture of animal feeds, including feeds for farmed fish. Therefore, in this study, various by-catch and by-product meals of marine origin were evaluated with red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), a carnivorous fish species...

  5. Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into wood substrate and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rector, Kirk D; Lucas, Marcel

    2015-11-04

    Metal nanoparticles were incorporated into wood. Ionic liquids were used to expand the wood cell wall structure for nanoparticle incorporation into the cell wall structure. Nanoparticles of elemental gold or silver were found to be effective surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) imaging contrast or sensing agents. Nanoparticles of elemental iron were found to be efficient microwave absorbers and caused localized heating for disrupting the integrity of the lignocellulosic matrix. Controls suggest that the localized heating around the iron nanoparticles reduces losses of cellulose in the form of water, volatiles and CO.sub.2. The ionic liquid is needed during the incorporation process at room temperature. The use of small amounts of ionic liquid combined with the absence of an ionic liquid purification step and a lower energy and water use are expected to reduce costs in an up-scaled pretreatment process.

  6. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  7. Genotoxicity profiles during KPEG dehalogenation of wood preserving waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Marjorie S

    1994-01-01

    treatment for hazardous wastes. However, as opposed to landfilling aud other nsethods. incineration provides an insmerliate and pernaanent solutiou. Hydroc&arbons in soils, sludges, liqu&ds, and fumes are mineralized to svater aud carbou dioxide (Long... time, PCP concentration, and waste water content were stud- ied to deterinine approximate optimal conditions for KPEG dehalogenation. KPEG was added to wood preserving waste sludge at temperatures ranging from 30-120 C. The mixture was then treated...

  8. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: EnergyKulpsville,LEDSGP/activitiesPlata ElectricLackawanna,Oregon:Beach,Woods,

  9. Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Utah:Information Woods

  10. Wood-Burning Heating System Deduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematics And Statistics » USAJobs SearchAMERICA'S FUTURE.ProjectsLeaders |3RadjaWendeWood and

  11. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 1 Welcome MIE Industrial Advisory Board May 5th, 2011 #12;Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 2 IAB 2010-2011 · David K. Anderson ­ Alden Research Laboratory, Inc went on for three weeks Mechanical & Industrial Engineering 6 #12;Reza Shahbazian Yassar Mechanical

  12. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelfond, Michael

    INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING GRADUATE PROGRAMS The Master of Science in Industrial Engineering (M Systems and Engineering (M.S.M.S.E.), the Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial Engineering, and the Doctor of Philosophy in Systems and Engineering Management programs prepare competent industrial engineers

  13. Industry Analysis October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    Industry and Company research ­ they build on each other #12;Industry Studies Standard & Poor's Net of competitors Standard & Poor's NetAdvantage - See 'Industry Surveys' under the "Quick Links" #12;Where Common technologies are there industry standards, platforms manufacturing processes, outsourcing? #12

  14. Development of a Low NOx Medium-Sized Industrial Gas Turbine Operating on Hydrogen-Rich Renewable and Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    Solar Turbines Inc., in collaboration with Pennsylvania State University and the University of Southern California, will develop injector technologies for gas turbine use of high-hydrogen content renewable and opportunity fuels derived from coal, biomass, industrial process waste, or byproducts. This project will develop low-emission technology for alternate fuels with high-hydrogen content, thereby reducing natural gas requirements and lowering carbon intensity.

  15. RESIDUES FROM COAL CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION: ADVANCED MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DISPOSED BYPRODUCT DIAGENESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory J. McCarthy; Dean G. Grier

    2001-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of this study, understanding of the long-term behavior of environmentally-exposed Coal Combustion By-Products (CCBs) was lacking in (among others) two primary areas addressed in this work. First, no method had been successfully applied to achieve full quantitative analysis of the partitioning of chemical constituents into reactive or passive crystalline or noncrystalline compounds. Rather, only semi-quantitative methods were available, with large associated errors. Second, our understanding of the long-term behavior of various CCBs in contact with the natural environment was based on a relatively limited set of study materials. This study addressed these areas with two objectives, producing (1) a set of protocols for fully quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld Quantitative X-ray Diffraction (RQXRD) method and (2) greater understanding of the hydrologic and geochemical nature of the long-term behavior of disposed and utilized CCBs. The RQXRD technique was initially tested using (1) mixtures of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) crystalline standards, and (2) mixtures of synthetic reagents simulating various CCBs, to determine accuracy and precision of the method, and to determine the most favorable protocols to follow in order to efficiently quantify multi-phase mixtures. Four sets of borehole samples of disposed or utilized CCBs were retrieved and analyzed by RQXRD according to the protocols developed under the first objective. The first set of samples, from a Class F ash settling pond in Kentucky disposed for up to 20 years, showed little mineralogical alteration, as expected. The second set of samples, from an embankment in Indiana containing a mixture of chain-grate (stoker) furnace ash and fluidized bed combustion (FBC) residues, showed formation of the mineral thaumasite, as observed in previously studied exposed FBC materials. Two high-calcium CCBs studied, including a dry-process flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product disposed in the Midwest, and a mixture of Class C fly ash and wet process FGD by-product codisposed in North Dakota, appeared relatively unchanged mineralogically over the up to 5 and 17 years of emplacement, respectively. Each of these two materials contained mineralogies consistent with short-term hydration products of their respective starting (dry) materials. The hydration product ettringite persisted throughout the duration of emplacement at each site, and the diagenetic ash alteration product thaumasite did not form at either site. Explanations for the absence of thaumasite in these two sites include a lack of significant carbonate, sulfate, and alkalinity sources in the case of the North Dakota site, and a lack of sulfate, alkalinity, and sufficient moisture in the Midwest site. Potential for future thaumasite formation in these materials may exist if placed in contact with cold, wet materials containing the missing components listed above. In the presence of the sulfite scrubber mineral hannebachite, the ettringites formed had crystallographic unit cell dimensions smaller than those of pure sulfate ettringite, suggesting either incorporation of sulfite ions into the ettringite structure, or incorporation of silicon and carbonate ions, forming a solid solution towards thaumasite.

  16. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  17. Montana Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sewage sludge or municipal solid waste composts, pulpmill sludge and other wood processing byproducts

  18. caused by the wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This pathogen gains entry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    caused by the wood-rotting basidiomycete fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This pathogen gains entry viability and discourages germination while preventing the growth of other microorganisms. The concentrated

  19. Ross Woods and Dr. Shane A. Brown Department of Civil Engineering Washington State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Ross Woods and Dr. Shane A. Brown Department of Civil Engineering · Washington State University al. 2007). Other Findings: · Increased Interest in careers in Science, Technology, Engineering

  20. Case-Based Support for Forestry Decisions: How to See the Wood from the Trees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridge, Derek

    is to estimate what products can be produced from a tree, e.g. size and quality of planks, amount of wood-chip

  1. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. Genomics of wood-degrading fungi (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 1, 2015 Title: Genomics of wood-degrading fungi Authors: Ohm, Robin A. ; Riley, Robert ;...

  3. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  4. Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenewerk, William Ernest

    2009-09-01

    Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

  5. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1989-01-01

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic Digester Gas Boiler fuel * Wood and Wood Waste Pulp and paper mills produce Black Liquor Gasification Biomass Gas Fermentation Ethanol Figure 2-2....

  7. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty Ltd Jump to:Texas: EnergyWood,

  8. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEtGeorgia:Illinois:Wizard Power Pty LtdWoodlawn Park,Woodridge,County,Woods

  9. Pore space analysis of beech wood: the vessel network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp Hass; Falk K. Wittel; S. A. McDonald; F. Marone; M. Stampanoni; Hans J. Herrmann; Peter Niemz

    2015-09-10

    Water transport in wood is vital for the survival of trees. With synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM), it becomes possible to characterize and quantify the 3D network formed by vessels that are responsible for longitudinal transport. In the present paper, the spatial size dependence of vessels and the organization inside single growth rings in terms of vessel induced porosity was studied by SRXTM. Network characteristics, such as connectivity, were deduced by digital image analysis from the processed tomographic data and related to known complex network topologies.

  10. Environmental characterization studies of a high-throughput wood gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, H.; Niemann, R.C.; Wilzbach, K.E.; Paisley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Potential environmental effects associated with thermochemical biomass gasification have been studied by Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with Battelle Columbus Laboratories (BCL). A series of samples from the process research unit of an indirectly heated, high-throughput wood gasifier operated by BCL has been analyzed for potentially toxic organic compounds and trace elements. The results indicate that, under the test-run conditions, the gasification of both pine and hardwood is accompanied by the formation of some oil, the heavier fraction of which gives a positive response in the Ames assay for mutagenicity and contains numerous phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, including some carcinogens. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  11. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    the proven combustion system. With other applications such as the firing of lime kilns in the pul p and pape r indus try where the opti ons, other than fossil fuel s and gasification, are non existent and the economics for gasification are very similar... in biomass gasifi cation. As early as 1839, processes were in operation on coal, wood or other residues in which a combustible off-gas, or producer gas as it was aptly dubbed, was generated by the incomplete fuel oxidatior, \

  12. Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy Resources Jump to:Electric Coop, IncSouth Dakota: Energy ResourcesWoods,

  13. Mission Woods, Kansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005Minnehaha County,EnergyIIMotors Jump to:Woods, Kansas:

  14. International WoodFuels LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder at 8, 13Renewable Power JumpForestWoodFuels LLC Jump to:

  15. Wood County Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump to:

  16. Wood County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, Inc Jump

  17. Woods Hole Research Center Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand Dalton Jump to: navigation,Wood County Electric Coop, IncCoopHole

  18. Lake of the Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds Jump to: navigation, search Name Lake WindsWoods,

  19. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.Energy Wind PowerRegina Rameika WomenWood and Pellet

  20. The Industrial Electrification Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harry, I. L.

    1982-01-01

    EPRI's role as the research organization of the electric power industry, in coordination with potential user industries, is to 1) define the viability of candidate electrification technologies by monitoring the state-of-the-art and continuously...

  1. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER APPRENTICE OPPORTUNITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Karsten

    INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER APPRENTICE OPPORTUNITY SUMMER 2013 Industrial Engineering COOP Student needed-Fri, for summer 2013. Student must be enrolled in BS Engineering program. (Preferably completed 2-3 yrs

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Topical report, April 1, 1996--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Brackebusch, F.; Carpenter, J.

    1998-12-31

    This report represents the Final Technical Progress Report for Phase II of the overall program for a cooperative research agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy - MORGANTOWN Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). Under the agreement, SIUC will develop and demonstrate technologies for the handling, transport, and placement in abandoned underground coal mines of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products, such as fly ash, scrubber sludge, fluidized bed combustion by-products, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground placement. The overall program is divided into three (3) phases. Phase II of the program is primarily concerned with developing and testing the hardware for the actual underground placement demonstrations. Two technologies have been identified and hardware procured for full-scale demonstrations: (1) hydraulic placement, where coal combustion by-products (CCBs) will be placed underground as a past-like mixture containing about 70 to 75 percent solids; and (2) pneumatic placement, where CCBs will be placed underground as a relatively dry material using compressed air. 42 refs., 36 figs., 36 tabs.

  3. Geothermal Industry Partnership Opportunities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here you'll find links to information about partnership opportunities and programs for the geothermal industry.

  4. Industry Analysis January 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    ;8 Conference Board E-Library ­ Canadian industries, economic trends & forecasts ­ national, provincial1 CHEE 906 Industry Analysis January 2012 Constance Adamson, Stauffer Library adamsonc for both Industry and Company research ­ they build on each other #12;3 Where are they? · Library website

  5. Industrial Optimization Compact Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirches, Christian

    Industrial Optimization Compact Course and Challenge Workshop Optimization plays a crucial role in designing and conducting industrial processes. The potential gains range from saving valuable resources over makers from industry and academia to initiate new projects and to foster new structured collaborations

  6. Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Mario A. Rotea Professor and Department Head #12;2Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Outline · Undergraduate Degree Programs · Graduate Degree Programs · The Faculty · The Research · Summary #12;3Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Programs ­ BSME & BSIE 0 20 40 60

  7. Photovoltaics industry profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  8. Strontium Isotope Study of Coal Untilization By-products Interacting with Environmental Waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spivak-Birndorf, Lev J; Stewart, Brian W; Capo, Rosemary C; Chapman, Elizabeth C; Schroeder, Karl T; Brubaker, Tonya M

    2011-09-01

    Sequential leaching experiments on coal utilization by-products (CUB) were coupled with chemical and strontium (Sr) isotopic analyses to better understand the influence of coal type and combustion processes on CUB properties and the release of elements during interaction with environmental waters during disposal. Class C fly ash tended to release the highest quantity of minor and trace elements—including alkaline earth elements, sodium, chromium, copper, manganese, lead, titanium, and zinc—during sequential extraction, with bottom ash yielding the lowest. Strontium isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) in bulk-CUB samples (total dissolution of CUB) are generally higher in class F ash than in class C ash. Bulk-CUB ratios appear to be controlled by the geologic source of the mineral matter in the feed coal, and by Sr added during desulfurization treatments. Leachates of the CUB generally have Sr isotope ratios that are different than the bulk value, demonstrating that Sr was not isotopically homogenized during combustion. Variations in the Sr isotopic composition of CUB leachates were correlated with mobility of several major and trace elements; the data suggest that arsenic and lead are held in phases that contain the more radiogenic (high-{sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) component. A changing Sr isotope ratio of CUB-interacting waters in a disposal environment could forecast the release of certain strongly bound elements of environmental concern. This study lays the groundwork for the application of Sr isotopes as an environmental tracer for CUB–water interaction.

  9. INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 1. Agreements with Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the New Hampshire Industrial Research Center (NHIRC), a cooperative project of the New Hampshire Department of Resources and Economic Development (DRED), the University of New Hampshire (UNH), and Dartmouth

  10. Industrial policy and the Indian electronics industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, Robert (Robert Eric)

    2008-01-01

    Recently, production within India's Electronics sector amounted to a low $12 billion when compared to the global output of $1400 billion. The slow growth in the local industry is often judged to be the result of late ...

  11. Industrial Dojo Program Fosters Industrial Internet Development...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dojo,' Contributes to Open Source to Foster Continued Development of the Industrial Internet Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new...

  12. Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200702 Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood Energy.hughes@dal.ca 26 March 2007 #12;Hughes and Wood: Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings 1 Summary This report considers the limitations on solar energy in new, multi-storey residential buildings. In a time

  13. Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    AND HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT 2207 NW 13 Street, Suite D Gainesville, FL 32609 Report #98-1 #12;i TABLE Waste 20 CHAPTER III, MANAGEMENT OPTIONS III.1 Waste Minimization 34 III.2 Reuse 38 III.3 Recycling 39 of Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood 43 Waste Table A-1 Wood Treatment Plants Located in Florida A-2 to A

  14. SECTION 45 Table of Contents 45 Lake Rufus Woods Subbasin Overview.......................................................2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and tributaries from Chief Joseph Dam to Grand Coulee Dam in north central Washington state. 45.2 Lake Rufus Woods impoundment located in north central Washington. Lake Rufus Woods is bounded by Chief Joseph Dam at river mile (RM) 545.1 at its lower end, and Grand Coulee Dam at RM 596.6 at its upper end. The Colville Indian

  15. INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Len

    INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of woodland ecosystems by virtue the ecological impor- tance of red wood ants (Gösswald, 1989) and the conser- vation concern for some species.borkin@clear.net.nz 2 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness, IV2 3BW, UK; e

  16. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  17. European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland, Geneva #12;European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland Main sources of information W W W W W W W W W W W W · UNECE/FAO Forest

  18. Research Summary The `Faith Woodland' project in Maulden Woods: an evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Summary The `Faith Woodland' project in Maulden Woods: an evaluation A pioneering `Faith Woodland' project at Maulden Wood in Bedfordshire was evaluated in 2007, nearly two years after woodlands in future. The Faith Woodlands leaflet produced through the project has the strapline `Different

  19. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR:1 Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR:1 Diurnal variations of ambient particulate wood burning2 emissions 616263646566 67686970717273747576 7778798081828384858687888990 919293949596979899100 BBOA wood burning 1² = 0.77 C3H5O2 + vs BBOA r² = 0.93 5 4 3 2 1 0 HOA(µgm -3 ) 706050403020100 NOx (ppb) HOA vs NOx r² = 0

  20. Optical response of grating-coupler-induced intersubband resonances: The role of Wood's anomalies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    Optical response of grating-coupler-induced intersubband resonances: The role of Wood's anomalies L of Wood's anomalies. S0163-1829 97 05403-9 I. INTRODUCTION The optical and electronic properties at, e.g., a modulation- doped semiconductor heterojunction have been widely stud- ied in the recent

  1. Research Article Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Ian

    with hydraulic strategies. Denser woods tend to operate at more negative water potentials (Ackerly 2004; Bucci et et al. 2011). Wood density has been studied in relation to hydraulic conductivity but the results.s.zieminska@gmail.com Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. This is an Open Access

  2. Wood products trade and foreign markets: Asian market profile issue, November 1993. Foreign agriculture circular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Contents: trade summary; significant developments; status of usda/ccc export credit guarantees for wood products; US global export status; trends in US exports to the pacific rim; market profiles for wood products; pacific rim; europe; commodity/country trade tables; US exports, 1988 - 1st half 1993; US imports, 1988 - 1st half 1993.

  3. Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana exporting raw materials such lumber to exporting processed or value-added wood products. In the mid-1990s on increasing value-added exports. These actions are: 1) the imposition of a levy on air-dried lumber exports, 2

  4. US, EU Consumption Driving Chinese Imports of Illegal Wood from Around the World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US, EU Consumption Driving Chinese Imports of Illegal Wood from Around the World Chinese Government the world's leading importer of wood from tropical, developing countries. China has captured one, and environmental destruction and poverty in forest areas around the world. It also presents a number

  5. ORIGINAL PAPER Wood ash effects on nutrient dynamics and soil properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL PAPER Wood ash effects on nutrient dynamics and soil properties under Mediterranean aims to evaluate the effects of wood ash application on nutrient dynamics and soil properties of an acidic forest soil (Arenosol). & Methods Treatments were loose and pelleted ash application (11 Mg ha-1

  6. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overviews 1 SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet. The DemoEast programme objective in Estonia was to promote the pellets firing technology, equipment and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier

  7. RETENTION OF Cd, Cu, Pb AND Zn BY WOOD ASH, LIME AND FUME DUST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    RETENTION OF Cd, Cu, Pb AND Zn BY WOOD ASH, LIME AND FUME DUST TAIT CHIRENJE1 , LENA Q. MA2 and ecosystem health. This study investigated the effectiveness of wood ash in immobilizing the heavy metals Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn from aqueous solutions. The effects of initial metal concentrations, solution pH, ash

  8. Use of Wood Waste in Rehabilitation of Landings Constructed on Fine-Textured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanborn, Paul

    Use of Wood Waste in Rehabilitation of Landings Constructed on Fine-Textured Soils, Central landings and roads constructed on fine-textured Alfisols must ameliorate poor soil structure, high bulk rehabilitated with three operationally feasible treatments: (1) incorpora- tion of waste wood chips (140 t

  9. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    Abstract—Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  10. Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures Preston Baxter, M.ASCE1 ; Thomas H. Miller, M.ASCE2 ; and Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 Abstract: Seismic Database subject headings: Seismic analysis; Seismic design; Wood structures; Shear walls; Diaphragms

  11. Material Point Method Simulations of Transverse Fracture in Wood with Realistic Morphologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    Material Point Method Simulations of Transverse Fracture in Wood with Realistic Morphologies By J Material point method Numerical modeling RT fracture TR fracture; Transverse fracture Summary A new used to simulate transverse fracture in solid wood. The simulations were run on the scale of growth

  12. U.S. Pellet Industry Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corrie I. Nichol; Jacob J. Jacobsen; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-06-01

    This report is a survey of the U.S. Pellet Industry, its current capacity, economic drivers, and projected demand for biomass pellets to meet future energy consumption needs. Energy consumption in the US is projected to require an ever increasing portion of renewable energy sources including biofuels, among which are wood, and agrictulrual biomass. Goals set by federal agencies will drive an ever increasing demand for biomass. The EIA projections estimate that renewable energy produced by 2035 will be roughly 10% of all US energy consumption. Further analysis of the biofuels consumption in the US shows that of the renewable energy sources excluding biofuels, nearly 30% are wood or biomass waste. This equates to roughly 2% of the total energy consumption in the US coming from biomass in 2009, and the projections for 2035 show a strong increase in this amount. As of 2009, biomass energy production equates to roughly 2-2.5 quadrillion Btu. The EIA projections also show coal as providing 21% of energy consumed. If biomass is blended at 20% to co-fire coal plants, this will result in an additional 4 quadrillion Btu of biomass consumption. The EISA goals aim to produce 16 billion gal/year of cellulosic biofuels, and the US military has set goals for biofuels production. The Air Force has proposed to replace 50% of its domestic fuel requirements with alternative fuels from renewable sources by 2016. The Navy has likewise set a goal to provide 50% of its energy requirements from alternative sources. The Department of Energy has set similarly ambitious goals. The DOE goal is to replace 40% of 2004 gasoline use with biofuels. This equates to roughly 60 billion gal/year, of which, 45 billion gal/year would be produced from lignocellulosic resources. This would require 530 million dry tons of herbaceous and woody lignocellulosic biomass per year.

  13. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  14. Industry`s turnaround looks real

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the industry outlook for North American gas and oil industries. In a robust Canada, land sales are setting records, drilling is up, and output is rising beyond last year`s 21% growth. A perception among US operators that wellhead prices will remain stable is translating to increased spending. The USA, Canada, Mexico, Cuba are evaluated separately, with brief evaluations of Greenland, Guatemala, Belize, and Costa Rico. Data are presented on drilling activities.

  15. Kent and Riegel's Handbook of industrial chemistry and biotechnology. 11th ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, James A. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    This handbook provides extensive information on plastics, rubber, adhesives, textile fibers, pharmaceutical chemistry, synthetic organic chemicals, soaps and detergents, as well as various other major classes of industrial chemistry. There is detailed coverage of coal utilization technology, dyes and dye intermediates, chlor-alkali and heavy chemicals, paints and pigments, chemical explosives, propellants, petroleum and petrochemicals, natural gas, industrial gases, synthetic nitrogen products, fats and oils, sulfur and sulfuric acid, phosphorous and phosphates, wood products, and sweeteners. The chapter on coal is entitled: coal technology for power, liquid fuels and chemicals. 100 ills.

  16. INDUSTRIAL&SYSTEMS Industrial and Systems engineers use engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohs, Remo

    78 INDUSTRIAL&SYSTEMS Industrial and Systems engineers use engineering and business principles companies compete in today's global marketplace. The Industrial and Systems engineer's task is to take of industries including consulting, technology development, software, supply chain manufacturing, engineering

  17. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2012 I Hudson Consulting I November 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in progress 3.3. Wood fuel usage by fuel category 3.4. Pellet plants 3.5. Greenhouse gas emissions 4 to 1.073 million odt in 2014. 8. Four wood pellet manufacturing plants in Scotland used in total some 80k odt of wood in 2011. There is a major increase in forecast demand for wood to be used as pellet

  18. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III; Thomas Stickle; Jun Wang; Hongming Li; William P. Barry

    2002-06-13

    During the third quarter, the experimental portion of the project was carried out. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NIOSH Boiler Plant (NBP). Blends using hammer-milled wood were operationally successful and can form the basis of Phase II. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and the mathematical modeling of mercury speciation reactions continued, yielding many interesting results. Material and energy balances for the test periods at the NBP, as well as at the Bellefield Boiler Plant, were prepared. Steps were taken to remove severe constraints from the Pennsylvania Switchgrass Energy and Conservation Project and to organize the supplying of landfill gas to the Bruceton federal complex. Two presentations were made to meetings of the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  19. Sources of large wood in the main stem of a fourth-order watershed in coastal Oregon1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sources of large wood in the main stem of a fourth-order watershed in coastal Oregon1 Gordon H. Reeves, Kelly M. Burnett, and Edward V. McGarry Abstract: We compared the contribution of large wood from different sources and wood distributions among channel zones of influence in a relatively pristine fourth

  20. Dynamics of large wood in an eastern U.S. mountain stream Dana R. Warren *, Clifford E. Kraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Dynamics of large wood in an eastern U.S. mountain stream Dana R. Warren *, Clifford E. Kraft recent studies have documented the importance of large woody debris (large wood) in streams of northeastern North America. Large wood retains sediment and organic matter (Thompson, 1995), promotes habitat

  1. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Pranueng Limkatanyoo for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Pranueng Limkatanyoo for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science presented on December 15, 2003. Title: System Behavior of Three-Dimensional Wood Truss Assemblies Limkatanyoo December 15, 2003 All Rights Reserved #12;System Behavior of Three-Dimensional Wood Truss

  2. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 71 Modeling the Delivery of Large Wood to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 71 Modeling the Delivery of Large Wood forest structure and predict the delivery of wood to over 55 stream kilometers in a 28-square kilometer = 0.45). The model predicted that 83 percent of wood delivered to streams originated within 20 meters

  3. On the origin of long secondary periods in semiregular variables E.A. Olivier and P.R. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Peter

    On the origin of long secondary periods in semi­regular variables E.A. Olivier and P.R. Wood examples of light #12; -- 2 -- curves. Recently, Wood et al. (1999), henceforth W99, studied a group of red companions and episodic dust ejection (see W99 and Wood 2000a). There is some evidence in favour of each

  4. Effects of wood on debris flow runout in small mountain Stephen T. Lancaster and Shannon K. Hayes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of wood on debris flow runout in small mountain watersheds Stephen T. Lancaster and Shannon typically been viewed as two-phase mixtures of sediment and water, but in forested mountain landscapes, wood behavior are poorly understood. To evaluate whether wood can have a significant effect on debris flow

  5. Performance assessment of wood, metal and composite baseball bats Mahesh M. Shenoy, Lloyd V. Smith *, John T. Axtell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Lloyd V.

    Performance assessment of wood, metal and composite baseball bats Mahesh M. Shenoy, Lloyd V. Smith the durability of wood bats and is shown to have a minimal eect on its hitting performance. The utility of using is real, as rookie players often require numerous seasons to adjust to wood bats. This adjust- ment has

  6. Title: Wood decomposition rates and functional types in a shifting climate. Principal Investigator: Jonathan Schilling, University of Minnesota, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Wood decomposition rates and functional types in a shifting climate. Principal Investigator, focused on decomposition of black spruce wood, would complement the SPRUCE decomposition trial (Kolka PI and an approach that can be mirrored in a small-diameter wood decay study and can allow us to leverage sampling

  7. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 535 Regional Patterns of Dead Wood in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 535 Regional Patterns of Dead Wood regional patterns of variation in dead wood across 20 million ha of upland forests of all ownerships in Oregon and Washington, based on an analysis of data on snags and down wood collected on over 16,000 field

  8. AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Michael C. Lewis for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    #12;AN ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS OF Michael C. Lewis for the degree of Master of Science in Wood Science and Civil Engineering presented on June 12, 2008. Title: Performance of Wood Frame Wall with Thin Thomas H. Miller The overall goal of this study was to evaluate an alternative to traditional wood framed

  9. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction Regina Lok Yun So James Wilkie Thai Nguyen Szymon Brykajlo Investigation Into The Use of Glue Laminated Wood in Construction by Regina Lok Yun So James Wilkie Thai Nguyen is a triple bottom line assessment off use of glued laminated wood (glulam) in construction. Its purpose

  10. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 649 Snags and Down Wood in the Interior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 649 Snags and Down Wood in the Interior and Rebecca A. Gravenmier5 Abstract Snags and down wood are major ecosystem and wildlife habitat components Advisory Group of the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project modeled snag and down wood

  11. Metal Bioavailability and Speciation in a Wetland Tailings Repository Amended with Biosolids Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate Pam S. DeVolder, Sally L. Brown,* Dean Hesterberg, and Kumi Pandya ABSTRACT tundra swans surface amendments: (i) biosolids compost plus wood ash, (ii) and other animals found in the area have tested positive compost wood ash a low SO2 4 addition as K2SO4, and (iii) for Pb poisoning

  12. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan L. Szymanski; R. Glickert

    2007-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  13. Midwest Industrial Energy Efficiency Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This Industrial Technologies Program handbook connects industry with the various energy efficiency resources available in the midwest.

  14. ADVANCED BYPRODUCT RECOVERY: DIRECT CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF SO2 TO ELEMENTAL SULFUR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Weber

    1999-05-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., together with its commercialization partner, Engelhard Corporation, and its university partner Tufts, investigated a single-step process for direct, catalytic reduction of sulfur dioxide from regenerable flue gas desulfurization processes to the more valuable elemental sulfur by-product. This development built on recently demonstrated SO{sub 2}-reduction catalyst performance at Tufts University on a DOE-sponsored program and is, in principle, applicable to processing of regenerator off-gases from all regenerable SO{sub 2}-control processes. In this program, laboratory-scale catalyst optimization work at Tufts was combined with supported catalyst formulation work at Engelhard, bench-scale supported catalyst testing at Arthur D. Little and market assessments, also by Arthur D. Little. Objectives included identification and performance evaluation of a catalyst which is robust and flexible with regard to choice of reducing gas. The catalyst formulation was improved significantly over the course of this work owing to the identification of a number of underlying phenomena that tended to reduce catalyst selectivity. The most promising catalysts discovered in the bench-scale tests at Tufts were transformed into monolith-supported catalysts at Engelhard. These catalyst samples were tested at larger scale at Arthur D. Little, where the laboratory-scale results were confirmed, namely that the catalysts do effectively reduce sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur when operated under appropriate levels of conversion and in conditions that do not contain too much water or hydrogen. Ways to overcome those limitations were suggested by the laboratory results. Nonetheless, at the end of Phase I, the catalysts did not exhibit the very stringent levels of activity or selectivity that would have permitted ready scale-up to pilot or commercial operation. Therefore, we chose not to pursue Phase II of this work which would have included further bench-scale testing, scale-up, pilot-scale (0.5 MW{sub e}) testing at conditions representative of various regenerable SO{sub 2}-control systems, preparation of a commercial process design, and development of a utility-scale demonstration plan.

  15. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

  16. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  17. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Marland, Gregg; Miner, Reid A.

    2015-08-01

    Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produced a second draft of its Framework for Assessing Biogenic CO2 Emissions fromStationary Sources (http://1.usa.gov/1dikgHq), which considers the latest scientific information and input from stakeholders. In addition, the EPA is expected to make decisions soon about the use of woody biomass under the Clean Power Plan, which sets targets for carbonmore »pollution from power plants.« less

  19. Fusion-fission reactions with modified Woods-Saxon potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wang; Kai Zhao; Werner Scheid; Xizhen Wu

    2007-12-15

    A modified Woods-Saxon potential model is proposed for a unified description of the entrance channel fusion barrier and the fission barrier of fusion-fission reactions based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach. The fusion excitation functions of 120 reactions have been systematically studied. The fusion (capture) cross sections are well described with the calculated potential and an empirical barrier distribution. Incorporating a statistical model (HIVAP code) for describing the decay of the compound nucleus, the evaporation residue (and fission) cross sections of 51 fusion-fission reactions have been systematically investigated. Optimal values of some key parameters of the HIVAP code are obtained based on the experimental data of these reactions. The experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the calculated results. The upper and lower confidence limits of the systematic errors of the calculated results are given.

  20. Land application uses of dry FGD by-products. [Quarterly] report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, W.A.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    Reclamation of mine-sites with acid overburden requires the use of alkaline amendments and represents a potential high-volume use of alkaline dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by products. In a greenhouse study, 25-cm columns of acid mine spoil were amended with two FGD by-products; lime injection multistage burners (LIMB) fly ash or pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) fly ash at rates of 0, 4, 8, 16, and 32% by weight (0, 40, 80, 160, and 320 tons/acre). Amended spoil was covered with 20 cm of acid topsoil amended with the corresponding FGD by-product to pH 7. Column leachate pH increased with FGD amendment rate while leachate Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased, Leachate Ca, S, and Mg decreased with LIMB amendment rate and increased with PFBC amendment. Leachate concentrations of regulated metals were decreased or unaffected by FGD amendment except for Se which was increased by PFBC. Spoil pH was increased up to 8.9 by PFBC, and up to 9.2 by LIMB amendment. Spoil pH also increased with depth with FGD amendments of 16 and 32%, Yield of fescue was increased by FGD amendment of 4 to 8%. Plant tissue content of most elements was unaffected by FGD amendment rate, and no toxicity symptoms were observed. Plant Ca and Mg were increased by LIMB and PFBC respectively, while plant S, Mn and Sr were decreased. Plant Ca and B was increased by LIMB, and plant Mg and S by PFBC amendment. These results indicate dry FGD by-products are effective in ameliorating acid, spoils and have a low potential for creating adverse environmental impacts.