National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for industrial steam coking

  1. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  2. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  3. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  4. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  5. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  6. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate ...

  7. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mentzer, W.P. (USX Corp., Clairton, PA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  8. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  9. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STEAM TIP SHEET 18 PDF icon Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems (January 2012) More ... Second Edition Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook

  10. Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes (July 2003) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems CIBO ...

  11. Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

  12. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  13. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-07-01

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief was developed to provide a basic understanding of the different process-control schemes used in a typical steam system.

  14. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer SolutionsL: A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Technical Brief Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions U.S. Department of ... performance Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions 1 Introduction This ...

  15. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer solution for various applications.

  16. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-10-01

    A sourcebook designed to provide steam system users with a reference outlining opportunities to improve system performance and optimize energy efficiency in industrial energy systems.

  17. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J.; Sirgado, M.

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  18. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer equipment for various steam systems and applications.

  19. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This brief introduces heat-pump technology and its application in industrial processes as part of steam systems. The focus is on the most common applications, with guidelines for ...

  20. Mechanistic insights of ethanol steam reforming over Ni-CeOx(111): The importance of hydroxyl groups for suppressing coke formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Duchon, Tomas; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolin, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; et al

    2015-07-10

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over NiCeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on NiCeO2-x(111) at varying Ce? concentrations (CeO1.82.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is themoreactive phase leading to both the CC and CH cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metalsupport interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.less

  1. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; et al

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³⁺ concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni⁰ is themore » active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni₃C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  2. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Duchoň, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³⁺ concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni⁰ is the active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni₃C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.

  3. Achieve Steam System Excellence: Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Pressure Reducing Valve Process Heater Process Heater Combustion ... for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries (1) defines the volume and ...

  4. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energys Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspens best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XTs commercial success has been driven by its 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  5. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  6. Managing steam: An engineering guide to industrial, commercial, and utility systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a guide to steam production, utilization, handling, transport, system optimization, and condensation and recovery. This book incudes a description of how steam, condensate, and hot water are used in various industrial, commercial, institutional, and utility sectors and explains how steam is generated and distributed. Waste-heat recovery, fluidized-bed boilers, and cogeneration systems and boiler control theory are discussed. The book also describes different types of valves, valve components, regulators, steam traps, and metering devices available for managing steam and condensate and discusses maintaining steam systems for optimum service and longer life.

  7. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  8. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  9. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... a comprehensive technical guide on improving steam systems, ... a refresher, a brief discussion of the terms, ... The book is a learning tool to teach engineers how to design ...

  10. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  11. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  12. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L.

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  13. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  14. Improved global efficiency in industrial applications with cogeneration steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, A.; Alsthom, G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper focuses on medium steam turbine in the range of 10--80 MW and their application in cogeneration plants. The author summarizes the different steps which have led to the TM concept: good efficiency; competitive price; short delivery time; operation flexibility; ease of integration in a cogeneration process. The second part of the document shows two examples of integration of these turbines in cogeneration processes; one for acrilonitril (ACN) and polypropylene plant in Spain and the second for a textile plant in Taiwan.

  15. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  16. Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the energy needed for process heating, pressure control, ... towers, strippers, and chemical reaction vessels. ... energy-intensive industries improve their competitiveness. ...

  17. Application and energy saving potential of superheated steam drying in the food industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzpatrick, J. [Univ. College Cork (United Kingdom); Robinson, A. [Stork Engineering, Uxbridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The possibilities of using superheated steam in heat and mass transfer processes such as drying have lately been investigated and tested by several industries. The mode of operation, energy saving potential, advantages of and problems with this media in contact with foodstuffs and food waste sludge are discussed in this article.

  18. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  19. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

  20. Achieve Steam System Excellence - Steam Overview | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently. PDF ...

  1. Steam Technical Brief: Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  2. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash collection efficiency.

  3. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  4. Improvement of coke quality by utilization of hydrogenation residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meckel, J.F. ); Wairegi, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogenation residue is the product left over when petroleum residue feedstocks (or coal) are treated by, e.g. the Veba Combi Cracking (VCC) process. Many tests in semitechnical and full-sized coke ovens were carried out with hydrogenation residue (HR) as an additive in coking coal blends for the production of blast furnace coke or foundry coke. The results of the investigations reported in this paper demonstrate that HR is a very promising alternative for enlarging the coking coal basis compared to other processes or the use of other additives. The application of HR on an industrial scale did not indicate any negative impact on the handling of the hydrogenation residue or on the operation of the coke oven battery.

  5. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  6. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  7. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  8. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  9. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  10. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M.

    1996-12-31

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  11. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  12. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The purpose of this Steam Technical Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its ... A heat pump is a device that can increase the temperature of a waste-heat source to a ...

  13. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  14. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam ... A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control

  15. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  16. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  17. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-15

    The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

  18. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  19. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  20. Steam Systems, Retrofit Measure Packages, Hydronic Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steam System Survey Guide Steam System Survey Guide This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam

  1. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  2. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,..."Natural Gas ... " " "," "," ",,,,,"Bituminous",,,,,,"Electricity","Diesel Fuel",,,,,,"Motor",,,..."Natu...

  3. New additive retards coke formation in ethylene furnace tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-09

    Adding relatively small amounts of a new additive to the feed stream of a steam cracker can inhibit coke formation on the metal surfaces of processing equipment and increase furnace run time. The additive comprises a variable mixture of four to six inorganic salts in aqueous solution. The components of the additive mixture can be varied, as needed, for processing heavy feed materials such as heavy naphtha and gas oil. The process was first tested at a Korean petrochemical plant and is now operating successfully at a commercial facility in Russia. The results of the Korean trial are presented here.

  4. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps - Steam Tip Sheet #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Solar production of industrial process steam. Phase III. Operation and evaluation of the Johnson and Johnson solar facility. Final report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brink, D.F.; Kendall, J.M.; Youngblood, S.B.

    1981-03-01

    A solar facility that generates 177/sup 0/C (350/sup 0/F) process steam has been designed and constructed by Acurex Corporation and has operated for 1 yr supplying steam to the Johnson and Johnson manufacturing plant in Sherman, Texas. The facility consists of 1068 m/sup 2/ (11,520 ft/sup 2/) of parabolic trough concentrating collectors, a 18,900 1 (5000 gal) flash boiler, and an 18.6 kW (25 hp) circulating pump. In the first year of operation the system was available 97 percent of the days, and with sufficient solar radiation available it operated 70 percent of the days during this period. The measured data showed that the collector field operated at an efficiency of 25.4 percent for the year, and that at least 75 percent of the energy reaching the flash boiler was delivered to the plant as steam. A total of 309,510 kg (682,400 lb) of steam was produced by the solar facility for the first year. An analysis of the data showed that the delivered energy was within 90 to 100 percent of the predicted value. The successful completion of the first year of operation has demonstrated the technical feasibility of generating industrial process steam with solar energy.

  7. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. On the utilization of coking plant surface runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evzel'man, I.B.; Kagasov, V.M.; Maiskii, S.V.; Pimenov, I.V.; Rod'kin, S.P.; Ushakov, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Surface runoff from the industrial sites of coking plants in the East and Center of the USSR is usually diverted into a storm sewer in a mixture with the conditionally pure water. General data on the contamination of this mixture (industrial stormwater) and the snow cover at a number of coking plants in this region are tabulated. Our data on the quality of industrial stormwater show that schemes for utilization of surface runoff must include pretreatment to remove suspended matter and oils. For example, the oil concentration in melt water is 2-10 times greater than the concentration in industrial phenol-containing effluent (2). When the biochemical facilities receive surface runoff containing up to 40 g/l suspended solids, which occurs in periods of snowmelt, without treatment to remove these solids, there are difficulties with the discharge of tar from the secondary sedimenters of the biochemical treatment plant. An analysis of the literature materials (3-9) showed that the maximum allowable concentration of suspended solids in make-up water for the closed-cycle heat exchange water cooling system should apparently not exceed 25 mg/l. The level of this parameter in the make-up water of these systems at coke plants requires correction.

  9. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  10. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  11. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  12. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E.

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  13. Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Subtype B. Places in Coke County, Texas Blackwell, Texas Bronte, Texas Robert Lee, Texas Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCokeCounty,Texas&oldid...

  14. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  15. Rheology of petroleum coke-water slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Mall, B.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Basu, S.K.; Verma, S.K.; Narasimhan, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the studies carried out on the optimization of particle size distribution, the rheological characteristics and stability of highly loaded petroleum coke-water slurry using three additives. The solids loading achieved in the slurries were in the range of 65% to 75.6% depending on the additives used. Slurry viscosity varied between 267 to 424 mPas at 128 s{sup {minus}} shear rate. The petroleum coke-water slurries exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics with yield tending towards Bingham plastic as the solids loading progressively increased. The effect of addition of petroleum coke to the extent of 25% in coal-water slurry prepared from low ash Ledo coal of Makum field in Assam was also examined. The slurry containing coal-petroleum coke blend showed better stability, having shelf life of 7 days as compared to 5 days in the case of petroleum coke-water slurry.

  16. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips No.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures more than 100 F to 150 F higher than the temperature of the generated steam. Generally, boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for every 40 F reduction in flue gas temperature. By recovering waste heat, an economizer can often reduce fuel requirements by 5% to 10% and pay for itself in less than 2 years. The table provides examples of the potential for heat recovery.

  17. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure ...

  18. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Irwin Charles (Strongsville, OH); Greinke, Ronald Alfred (Medina, OH)

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  19. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

    1997-06-17

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

  20. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  1. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N.

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  2. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  3. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  4. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermoscompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam - Steam Tip Sheet #29

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET #21 PDF icon Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency Benchmark the Fuel Cost of

  6. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act industrial site environmental restoration site characterization report - area 6 steam cleaning effluent ponds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The Area 6 North and South Steam Cleaning Effluent Ponds (SCEPs) are historic disposal units located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) which has been required by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) to characterize the site under the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit for the NTS and Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 265.

  7. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B.

    1995-12-01

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  8. Relational contracting and the law and economics of vertical integration: a study of the economics of petroleum coking, processing, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The basis for this study was an antitrust suit brought by the Federal Trade Commission against the Great Lakes Carbon Corp., a processor and reseller of green petroleum coke, and eight petroleum refiners. The respondents in this case were accused of using long-term contracts to foreclose the markets for both green and processed petroleum coke. Chapter 1 develops a theory of exchange and the contracts governing exchange. Chapter 2 describes the petroleum-coke industry and the nature of green coke exchange. It explains the reasons for the highly concentrated structure of the green-coke market in terms of the technology of petroleum-coke production and consumption and the physical and byproduct nature of petroleum coke. Chapter 3 takes a large number of green-coke contracts and breaks them down into their various relevant provisions. These provisions are then grouped according to their purpose and the characteristics of the firms employing them and shows that differences between the contracts can be explained by differences in the risks to firms of engaging in green coke exchange. Chapter 4 discusses the implications of vertical restrictions from the point of view of relational contracting using the data adduced in Chapter 3.

  9. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  10. Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of industrial mitigation for sustainable development is discussed in Section 7.7. Section 7.8 discusses the sector's vulnerability to climate change and options for adaptation. A number of policies have been designed either to encourage voluntary GHG emission reductions from the industrial sector or to mandate such reductions. Section 7.9 describes these policies and the experience gained to date. Co-benefits of reducing GHG emissions from the industrial sector are discussed in Section 7.10. Development of new technology is key to the cost-effective control of industrial GHG emissions. Section 7.11 discusses research, development, deployment and diffusion in the industrial sector and Section 7.12, the long-term (post-2030) technologies for GHG emissions reduction from the industrial sector. Section 7.13 summarizes gaps in knowledge.

  11. The correlation between reactivity and ash mineralogy of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerkkonen, O.; Mattila, E.; Heiniemi, R.

    1996-12-31

    Rautaruukki is a modern integrated Finnish steel works having a production of 2.4 mil. t/year of flat products. The total fuel consumption of the two blast furnaces in 1994 was 435 kg/t HM. Coke used was 345 kg/t HM and oil injection was 90 kg/t HM. The coking plant was taken in to operation in 1987 and is the only one in Finland, which means that the coking tradition is very short. Coke production is 0.9 mil. t/year. The coking blends include 70--80% medium volatile coals having a wide range of total dilatation. From time to time disturbances in the operation of the blast furnaces have occurred in spite of the fact that the reactivity of the coke used has remained constant or even decreased. It was thought necessary to investigate the factors affecting coke reactivity, in order to better understand the results of the reactivity test. This paper deals with carbonization tests done in a 7 kg test oven using nine individual coals having volatile-matter contents of 17--36% (dry) and seven blends made from these coals. Coke reactivity with CO{sub 2} at 1100 C (CRI) and coke strength after reaction (CSR) were determined using the test developed by the Nippon Steel Corporation. The influence of coke carbon form, porosity and especially ash mineralogy on the coke reactivity were examined. The effects of some additives; petroleum coke (pet coke), the spillage material from the coke ovens and oxidized coal, on coke quality were also studied. Typical inorganic minerals found in coals were added to one of the high volatile coals, which was then coked to determine the affect of the minerals on the properties of the coke produced.

  12. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation - Steam Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division (thousand short tons) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Quarterly Coal Report, April - June 2014 Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke ...

  14. Rheology of petroleum coke-water slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, M.; Mall, B.K.; Mukherjee, A.

    1998-04-01

    This paper reports the results of the studies carried out on the optimization of particle size distribution, the theological characteristics and stability of highly loaded petroleum coke-water slurry using three additives. The solids loading achieved in the slurries were in the range of 65% to 75.6% depending on the additives used. Slurry viscosity varied between 267 to 424 mPas at 128 s{sup -1} shear rate. The petroleum coke-water slurries exhibited pseudoplastic characteristics with yield tending towards Bingham plastic as the solids loading progressively increased.

  15. Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, G.J.

    1981-06-23

    A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

  16. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #15 PDF icon Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer How to Calculate the True

  18. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  19. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  20. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deaerators are mechanical devices that remove dissolved gases from boiler feedwater. ... This in turn depends upon the ratio of boiler feedwater makeup to returned condensate and ...

  1. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners - Steam Tip Sheet #24

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on upgrading boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  2. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CHP Applications, April 2005 Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

  3. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  4. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  5. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  6. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. )

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  7. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There are four basic ways to test steam traps: temperature, sound, visual, and electronic. Recommended Steam Trap Testing Intervals * High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to ...

  8. Trends in packaged steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  9. Petroleum-derived additive reduces coke on hydrotreating catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-27

    Upgrading heavy oils is becoming increasingly important as the world crude slate gets heavier and demand for light products increases. But most upgrading processes must contend with problems related to coke formation during hydrotreating. Three researchers have found that materials having high radical-scavenging ability can reduce coke formation when applied to hydrotreating heavy oils. And these materials can be produced from heavy petroleum fractions. The paper discusses coke formation, the research program, and the pilot plant.

  10. Nippon Coke and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Nippon Coke and Engineering & Sumitomo Corp JV Place: Tokyo, Japan Zip: 135-6007 Product: Japan-based natural graphite base anode materials joint...

  11. Lime addition to heavy crude oils prior to coking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessick, M. A.; George, Z. M.; Schneider, L. G.

    1985-06-04

    The sulphur emissive capability, on combustion, of coke which is formed during upgrading of sulphur-containing heavy crude oils, including oil sands bitumen, or residua is decreased by the addition of slaked lime or calcium oxide to the heavy crude oil prior to coking. The presence of the slaked lime or calcium oxide leads to an increased yield of liquid distillates at coking temperatures of about 450/sup 0/ to about 500/sup 0/ C. Ash remaining after combustion of the coke may be leached to recover nickel and vanadium values therefrom.

  12. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  13. Petroleum coke supply: present problems and future prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, H.H.

    1982-08-01

    Since the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, the coke market's strength has gradually shifted, for the most part, from the buyer to the seller. This general assessment is subject to localized exceptions and temporary reversals (such as the present market weakness due to the low level of primary aluminum production). However, there are two major factors which will influence the trend toward higher coke prices for anode use by aluminum producers: decreasing supplies of high-quality coke, and revised marketing strategies of coke producers.

  14. Install and Automatic Blowdown Control System - Steam Tip Sheet #23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  15. Cover Heated, Open Vessels - Steam Tip Sheet #19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  17. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  19. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical ...

  20. Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer - Steam Tip Sheet #26A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet is part of a series of tip sheets on how to optimize an industrial steam system.

  1. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  2. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  3. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The most appropriate analysis of the economic benefits of operating the steam turbine uses ... Noncondensable gases traveling with the steam will pass through the turbine and enter the ...

  4. System to acquire and monitor operating machinery positions for horizontal coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierbaum, D.; Teschner, W.

    1980-02-26

    In a horizontal coke oven battery with at least one coke receiving device movable along one longitudinal side of the battery and at least one coke driving device movable along an opposite longitudinal side of the battery, an apparatus is disclosed for determining the relative position of the coke receiving device with respect to the coke driving device and for activating the coke driving device when its position corresponds with that of the coke receiving device. A first wheel is mounted on the coke receiving device for rotation with the movement of the coke receiving device, a first angle encoder is connected to the first wheel for producing a first signal corresponding to the location of the first wheel and the position of the coke receiving device along the coke oven, and an input storage in the form of a magnetic disc is connected to the first angle encoder for recording and storing the signal. A second wheel is mounted on the coke driving device for rotation with the movement of the coke driving device and a second angle encoder is connected thereto for producing a second signal which corresponds to the rotation of the second wheel and the position of the coke driving device along the coke oven. A comparator is connected to the second signal encoder for receiving the second signal and a data link is provided between the comparator and the input storage of the coke receiving device so that the first signal from the coke receiving device can be impressed on the comparator. An activator is connected to the comparator for activating the coke driving device when the first signal corresponds to the second signal indicating a corresponding positional relationship between the coke receiving device and the coke driving device.

  5. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  6. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  7. Methods for retarding coke formation during pyrolytic hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    A method is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of pyrolytic coke on the heated metal surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon feedstock which is undergoing pyrolytic processing to produce lower hydrocarbon fractions and said metal surfaces having a temperature of about 1,400 F or higher, consisting essentially of adding to said hydrocarbon feedstock being pyrolytically processed a coke inhibiting amount of hydroquinone.

  8. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries | Department of Energy Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from

  9. Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Systems Steam Systems Many manufacturing facilities can recapture energy by installing more efficient steam equipment and processes and applying energy management practices. ...

  10. Steam Field | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steam Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been...

  11. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650C to 800C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650C to 760C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  12. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  13. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  14. Problems of organizing zero-effluent production in coking plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiskii, S.V.; Kagasov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    The basic method of protecting the environment against pollution by coking plants in the future must be the organization of zero-waste production cycles. Problems associated with the elimination of effluent are considered. In the majority of plants at present, the phenolic effluent formed during coal carbonization and chemical product processing is completely utilized within the plant as a coke quenching medium (the average rate of phenolic effluent formation is 0.4 m/sup 3//ton of dry charge, which equals the irrecoverable water losses in coke quenching operations). However, the increasing adoption of dry coke cooling is inevitably associated with increasing volumes of surplus effluent which cannot be disposed of in coke quenching towers. As a result of experiments it was concluded that: 1. The utilization of phenolic effluent in closed-cycle watercooling systems does not entirely solve the effluent disposal problem. The volume of surplus effluent depends on the volume originally formed, the rate of consuming water in circulation and the time of year. In order to dispose of surplus effluent, wet quenching must be retained for a proportion of the coke produced. 2. The greatest hazards in utilizing phenolic effluent in closed-cycle watercooling systems are corrosion and the build-up of suspended solids. The water must be filtered and biochemically purified before it is fed into the closed-cycle watercooling systems. The total ammonia content after purification should not exceed 100 to 150 mg/l. 3. Stormwater and thawed snow can be used in closed-cycle water supply systems after purification. 4. The realization of zero-effluent conditions in existing plants will require modifications to the existing water supply systems.

  15. The evaluation of the Nippon Steel Corporation reactivity and post-reaction-strength test for coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    A systematic investigation was made of the factors influencing the reactivity of coke, including test temperature, coke structural properties, mineral inclusions and additives, and the inert content of the charge.

  16. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  17. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators - Steam Tip Sheet #20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam (Revised0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste - Steam Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  1. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  2. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  3. The potential for reducing energy utilization in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrick, M.; Pellegrino, J.

    1999-10-08

    The paper first discusses energy use in petroleum refineries and CO{sub 2} emissions because of the fuels used. Then the paper looks at near-, mid-, and long-term opportunities for energy reduction. Some of the options are catalysts, cooling water recycling, steam system efficiency, and the use of coke and petroleum residues.

  4. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  5. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  6. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  7. Formation of coke from heavy crude oils in the presence of calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessick, M. A.; George, Z. M.; Schneider, L. G.

    1985-06-04

    The sulphur emissive capability, on combustion, of coke which is formed during upgrading of sulphur-containing heavy crude oils, including oil sands bitumen, and residua, is decreased by the addition of calcium carbonate, preferably in the form of limestone, to the heavy crude oil prior to coking. The presence of the limestone leads to an increased yield of liquid distillates from the coking process under preferred coking conditions. Ash remaining after combustion of the coke may be leached to recover nickel and vanadium values therefrom.

  8. A coke/soot formation model for multiphase reacting flow simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.; Zhou, C.Q. |

    1997-03-01

    Coke is a by-product in petroleum fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) processes. The concentration of coke in an FCC riser reactor is a critical parameter used to evaluate the riser performance. A coke formation and transport model was developed. It was incorporated into a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) computer code, ICRKFLO, to simulate the coke formation processes in an FCC riser reactor. Based on a similar process, a soot formation model can be derived from the coke formation model and used for diesel combustion processes, where soot is emitted as one of the primary pollutants.

  9. Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants...

  10. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  11. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  13. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  14. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  15. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  16. Considerations When Selecting a Condensing Economizer - Steam Tip Sheet #26B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet is part of a series of tip sheets on how to optimize an industrial steam system.

  17. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low

  18. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  2. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  3. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  4. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  5. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  6. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  7. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  8. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  9. Steam System Modeler

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Steam System Modeler allows you to create up to a 3-pressure-header basic model of your current steam system. A second model can then be created by adjusting a series of characteristics simulating technical or input changes. This allows you to see how each component and adjustment impacts the others and what changes may be most beneficial to increasing the overall efficiency and stability of the system. An interactive diagram is provided for each model and includes comprehensive steam properties and operational details for clarity and ease of use.

  10. Using Coke Oven Gas in a Blast Furnace Saves Over $6 Million Annually at a Steel Mill (U.S. Steel Edgar Thompson Plant)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-12-01

    Like most steel companies, U.S. Steel (USS) had been using coke oven gas (COG), a by-product of coke manufacturing, as a fuel in their coke ovens, boilers, and reheat furnaces.

  11. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Use of selective oxidation of petroleum residue for production of low-sulfur coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairudinov, I.R.; Kul`chitskaya, O.V.; Imashev, U.B.

    1995-12-10

    The chemical nature of liquid-phase oxidation of sulfurous petroleum residues by cumene hydroperoxide was studied by a tracer technique. Sulfur compounds are selectively oxidized in the presence of catalytic additives of molybdenum salts. Desulfurization of distillate products and coke during coking of preoxidized raw materials was revealed.

  13. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  14. Heavy oil. upgrading integrated with steam drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Driesen, R.; Viens, C.H.; Fornoff, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the upgrading of heavy oil from a representative Venezuelan Jobo crude (9.2/sup 0/API, 4.1% sulfur, and 500 ppm total metals) from the Orinoco area involved 110 computer simulations based on a modified C-E Lummus Refinery Linear Program model on the assumptions of a 125,000 bbl/day refinery built, starting at 1979 prices, for completion by 1986 near the producing field to supply the fuel oil needed to provide oil field steam. All of the upgrading systems were economically attractive; the per cent return-on-investment (ROI) before taxes for the methods studied were: for Lummus LC-Fining, 135.9%; for Exxon's FLEXICOKING, 132.4%; for delayed coking, 119.2%; and for deasphalting, 106.5%. LC-Fining provided the best over-all combination of flexibility, product yield, product quality, and return on investment. The economics favored upgrading to the maximum extent possible; there was a reduction in the ROI for all the upgrading systems when product specifications were lowered from the premium base case (1.2% SO/sub 2/ emitted per million Btu fired). The premium upgraded heavy crude oils should be worth $3.00-$3.50/bbl more than comparable conventional crude oils, could be of up to 27/sup 0/API, and could be substituted, at up to 50%, for conventional crude oils in a typical U.S. refinery.

  15. Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  16. DOE/EIA-M060(2007) Coal Market Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  17. Coal Market Module of the Energy Modeling System Model Documentation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  18. Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System Model...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    power generation, industrial steam generation, coal-to-liquids production, coal coke manufacturing, residentialcommercial consumption, and coal exports) within the CMM. By...

  19. Industrial Green | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant

  20. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube is produced by direct powder co-extrusion. This technology has potential for domestic energy savings of up to 4.1 trillion BTU/year (4.3 x 1015J/year) and a reduction of 370,000 tons (340,000 tonnes) of CO2 emissions in short-residence-time ethylene furnaces. This represents an energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of about 3.3%. If the technology is also applied to other types of ethylene pyrolysis furnaces, total energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions could increase by up to five times. The work involved: Developing powder and consolidation processing protocols to produce an oxide-dispersion strengthened variant of Alloy 803 exhibiting creep strength comparable to Incoloy? Alloy MA956, Developing a direct powder co-extrusion protocol for fabricating co-extruded bimetallic Incoloy? Alloy MA956 / ODS Alloy 803 tubes, Characterizing the properties of the ODS Alloy 803 material, the welding characteristics of the bimetallic tubes, and the coking characteristics of the Incoloy? MA956 alloy, and Documenting the potential energy savings and user requirements for these bimetallic pyrolysis furnace tubes. The project demonstrated that oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 803 can be produced successfully using conventional mechanical alloying technology. The oxide dispersion strengthened bimetallic radiant coil technology explored under this program has significant potential for energy savings and productivity improvements for domestic ethylene producers. In today's competitive market, however, domestic furnace manufacturers and ethylene producers appear reluctant to pay any cost premium for higher-performance coil materials offering either higher temperature capabilities or longer service life. Interest in oxide dispersion strengthened radiant coils is likely to increase if furnace and ethylene producers begin to focus more on increasing tube wall temperatures to improve productivity.

  1. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  2. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  3. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  4. Simplifying steam trap selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debat, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In the current economic world order, there is an obligation to eliminate waste and conserve economic and natural resources. One trap blowing 100-lb of steam through a 1/4-in. orifice can cost more than $12,000 a year in wasted energy. Richard J. Debat of Armstrong International, Inc. explains the operating principles of the four basic types of steam traps as the first step in simplifying the selection process so the right trap can be specified for a given application.

  5. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  6. Organophosphorus compounds as coke inhibitors during naphtha pyrolysis. Effect of benzyl diethyl phosphite and triphenylphosphine sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, P.; Prasad, S.; Kunztu, D.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that significant reduction in the rate of coke formation during naphtha pyrolysis was achieved by adding benzyl diethyl phosphite or triphenylphosphine sulfide to the feed. Although the yield of carbon oxides was reduced, there was no effect of these additives on the hydrocarbon yields. Addition of these organophosphorus compounds significantly reduced the concentration of metals, such as iron, nickel, and chromium, incorporated in the coke. A previously proposed model for coke inhibition due to the formation of a passivating metal-phosphorus complex could satisfactorily correlate the data.

  7. Task 1Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC) steam turbine is high enough (760C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre . A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  8. Industry Partnerships

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Partnerships

  9. An investigation of the properties of pitch coke modified by chemically active additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulakov, V.V.; Fedeneva, E.N.; Neproshin, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an investigation are presented of the influence of chemically active additives on the yield and properties of coke from hard-coal pitch. A comparison has been made of the efficacy of the influence of these additives.

  10. Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

    1999-07-01

    Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

  11. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  12. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  13. C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

    2014-02-01

    For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

  14. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on γ-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  15. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  16. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  17. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  18. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  19. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines This tip sheet on insulating steam ... STEAM TIP SHEET 2 PDF icon Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines ...

  20. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler effciency, feedwater ... steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. ...

  1. Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. ... Return Condensate to the Boiler When steam transfers its heat in a manufacturing process, ...

  2. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  3. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  4. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process.

  5. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery - Steam Tip Sheet #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on feedwater economizers for waste heat recovery provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  8. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M.; Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  9. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  10. Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upgrades Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSteam-systemupgrades&old...

  11. Steam System Survey Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for ...

  12. Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Standard Steam Trust) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Standard Steam Trust LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Subsidiary of...

  13. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  14. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  15. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  16. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using traditional sand foundry practices, and a techno-economic study of an A-USC plant including cost estimates for an A-USC turbine which showed A-USC to be economically attractive for partial carbon and capture compared to today’s USC technology. Based on this successful materials research and a review with U.S. utility stakeholders, a new project to develop a component test facility (ComTest) including the world’s first A-USC turbine has been proposed to continue the technology development.

  17. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  18. Waste Heat Management Options: Industrial Process Heating Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Management Options Industrial Process Heating Systems By Dr. Arvind C. Thekdi E-mail: athekdi@e3minc.com E3M, Inc. August 20, 2009 2 Source of Waste Heat in Industries * Steam ...

  19. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  20. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  2. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  3. Application of solar energy for the generation and supply of industrial-process low-to intermediate-pressure steam ranging from 300/sup 0/F-550/sup 0/F (high-temperature steam). Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteo, M.; Kull, J.; Luddy, W.; Youngblood, S.

    1980-12-01

    A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heat exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.

  4. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  5. Thermostatic steam trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.H.; Mac Nicol, A.E.

    1987-03-03

    A thermostatic trap is described for a heating system having a feed pipe connected to a source of steam and a discharge pipe for discharge of condensate and comprising: housing means defining a volume and comprising a bowl shaped body, a removable cover therefor, a housing inlet pipe portion projecting from a side wall portion of the body and adapted for connection to the discharge pipe. A housing outlet pipe portion projects from a bottom wall portion of the body, and an outlet orifice defined by the bottom wall portion and extends between the volume and the outlet pipe portion; a valve body means retained within the volume and comprising an end wall, a side wall and a retaining ring portion that together define a valve chamber. The end wall defines a valve inlet opening communicating with the chamber and an annular valve seat within the chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening. The valve body means comprises a valve outlet pipe that defines a valve outlet opening axially aligned with the valve inlet opening and communicating with the chamber, the outlet pipe being fixed in the outlet orifice; a resilient, annular seal means disposed within the valve chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening; and a bi-metallic disc disposed within the valve chamber between the annular seal means and the outlet opening and having an outer peripheral portion retained by the retaining ring portion of the valve body means.

  6. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Inspect and Repair Steam Traps (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: ...

  7. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  8. Save Energy Now Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study details how a DOE energy assessment helped Shaw Industries identify significant energy savings opportunities in their Dalton, Georgia, plant's steam system.

  9. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Process Heaters, February 2013 Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Recover Heat from Boiler ...

  10. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Immediate Deployment of Waste Energy Technologies at Multiple Sites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing Verso Paper Corp. project that will deploy industrial technologies to recover and reuse water and steam at pulp and paper facilities.

  11. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  12. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  13. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  14. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  15. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam This tip sheet ...

  17. Recycling of rubber tires in electric arc furnace steelmaking: simultaneous combustion of metallurgical coke and rubber tyres blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magdalena Zaharia; Veena Sahajwalla; Byong-Chul Kim; Rita Khanna; N. Saha-Chaudhury; Paul O'Kane; Jonathan Dicker; Catherine Skidmore; David Knights

    2009-05-15

    The present study investigates the effect of addition of waste rubber tires on the combustion behavior of its blends with coke for carbon injection in electric arc furnace steelmaking. Waste rubber tires were mixed in different proportions with metallurgical coke (MC) (10:90, 20:80, 30:70) for combustion and pyrolysis at 1473 K in a drop tube furnace (DTF) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), respectively. Under experimental conditions most of the rubber blends indicated higher combustion efficiencies compared to those of the constituent coke. In the early stage of combustion the weight loss rate of the blends is much faster compared to that of the raw coke due to the higher volatile yield of rubber. The presence of rubber in the blends may have had an impact upon the structure during the release and combustion of their high volatile matter (VM) and hence increased char burnout. Measurements of micropore surface area and bulk density of the chars collected after combustion support the higher combustion efficiency of the blends in comparison to coke alone. The surface morphology of the 30% rubber blend revealed pores in the residual char that might be attributed to volatile evolution during high temperature reaction in oxygen atmosphere. Physical properties and VM appear to have a major effect upon the measured combustion efficiency of rubber blends. The study demonstrates that waste rubber tires can be successfully co-injected with metallurgical coke in electric arc furnace steelmaking process to provide additional energy from combustion. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Incorporation of deuterium in coke formed on an acetylene hydrogenation catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, M.; Jansson, J.; Asplund, S.

    1996-09-01

    In selective hydrogenation of acetylene in excess ethylene, considerable amounts of coke or {open_quotes}green oils{close_quotes} are formed and accumulate on the catalyst. A fraction of the acetylene undergoes oligomerization reactions producing C{sub 4}`s and larger hydrocarbons. Compounds larger than C{sub 8} are retained on the catalysts surface or as a condensed phase in the pore system. The reaction mechanism is largely unknown but several authors have postulated that oligomerization occurs through dissociatively adsorbed acetylene (2), i.e., C{sub 2}H(ads) and C{sub 2}(ads). In this paper a novel method of studying the coke formation on a catalyst is introduced. Deuterium is incorporated in the coke during hydrogenation of acetylene, and during temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments the deuterium content is analyzed. The objective is to shed some light on the mechanism for oligomer formation in this system. The catalyst, Pd/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was prepared by the impregnation of {alpha}-alumina (Sued-Chemie) with a solution of Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in 30% HNO{sub 3}. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  20. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  1. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  2. Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics Industrial Energy Efficiency Basics The industrial sector is vital to the U.S. economy, but at the same time consumes the most energy in the country to manufacture products we use every day. Among the most energy-intensive industries are aluminum, chemicals, forest product, glass, metal casting, mining, petroleum refining, and steel. The energy supply chain begins with electricity, steam, natural gas, coal, and other fuels supplied to a manufacturing plant

  3. Industrial energy management and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, L.C.; Schmidt, P.S.; Brown, D.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the principles of industrial energy conservation and energy conservation applications, with emphasis on the energy-intensive industries. Topics covered include energy consumption, alternative energy sources, elements of energy audits, economic investment analysis, management of energy conservation programs, boilers and fired heaters, steam and condensate systems, classification and fouling of heat exchangers, heat transfer augmentation, waste heat sources, heat recovery equipment, properties and characteristics of insulation, energy conservation in industrial buildings, cogeneration, power circuit components and energy conversion devices, electrical energy conservation. A review of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics, as well as examples, problems, and case studies from specific industries are included.

  4. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; et al

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (moreThe Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.less

  5. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  6. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  7. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  8. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  9. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Kit | Department of Energy Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and flows to the trap drain beneath the sterilizer. Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and flows to the trap drain beneath the sterilizer. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified steam sterilizer condensate retrofit kits as a water-saving technology

  10. Significant Silica Solubility in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Russell

    1986-01-21

    Although it is widely believed that silica solubility in low pressure (5 to 10 bar) geothermal steam is negligible, when one takes into account steam flows exceeding 10 million tonnes a year--at Wairakei, for instance--it is found that the amount transmitted in the vapor has the potential to give significant deposits on turbine nozzles and blades. A 150 MWe power station, when based on flows from a hot water reservoir at (a) 250 C or (b) 315 C, and with separator pressures of 6 bar, is found to carry about 100 and 200 kg/year respectively in the steam phase. In the case of a similar sized station exploiting a dry steam reservoir such as The Geysers, equivalent silica flows are obtained, dissolved in steam and carried as dust--the latter as solid particles precipitating from the vapor en route from source to turbine, and not preexisting in the formations as is commonly considered. Choking or coating of subterranean rock near such dry steam wells due to exsolving silica, may be the principal cause of declining steam discharge under production. Silica from completely dry or superheated steam can also seal the cap and sides of steam reservoirs when expanding below the criticus temperature (236 C) in a way previously thought possible only by hot water or wet steam.

  11. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  12. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  13. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  14. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Efficient Insulation for Pipes Allows for the Use of Less Material with High-Temperature Durability

  15. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to improve the high-temperature performance, durability, and life expectancy of aerogel insulation materials.

  16. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  17. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  18. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  19. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles...

  20. Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGreenvilleSteamBiomassFacility&oldid397532" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  1. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion ...

  2. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... or the steam system will not function prop- erly. A backup of condensate, known as waterlogging or flooding, can adversely affect heat transfer, promote corrosion of carbon ...

  3. Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Standard Steam Trust LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra...

  4. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Petroleum Coke

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Shale Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 96 88 3,790 2010's 10,708 23,581 32,681 44,325 56,210 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Shale Natural Gas Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Pennsylvania Shale Gas

  6. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  7. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  8. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E.

    2009-07-15

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Performance evaluation of steam traps and orifice plates. Final report, 1 October 1979-1 October 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, P.B.

    1980-10-01

    Steam traps and orifice plates have been examined to assess their utility as condensate control devices in typical Army steam systems. Specific types of devices have been recommended for the various major users in Army facilities. Selection of the size of each device should be made in accordance with manufacturers recommendations. Inspection and maintenance of steam devices is critical to their proper operation and to energy conservation. Industrial maintenance firms may perform this function in cases where there are insufficient facilities engineering personnel to provide periodic inspections.

  10. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  11. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides ...

  12. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight

  13. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  14. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  15. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam ... sterilizer condensate retrofit kits as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the ...

  16. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a ...

  17. Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 Jump to: navigation, search To encourage the development of geothermal energy, the United States government passed the Geothermal Steam Act in 1970...

  18. Fossil superheating in geothermal steam power plants (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fossil superheating in geothermal steam power plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fossil superheating in geothermal steam power plants You are accessing a document ...

  19. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  20. Table 7.8 Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Coke Overview, 1949-2011 (Thousand Short Tons) Year Production Trade Stock Change 2 Consumption 3 Imports Exports Net Imports 1 1949 63,637 279 548 -269 176 63,192 1950 72,718 438 398 40 -659 73,417 1951 79,331 162 1,027 -865 372 78,094 1952 68,254 313 792 -479 419 67,356 1953 78,837 157 520 -363 778 77,696 1954 59,662 116 388 -272 269 59,121 1955 75,302 126 531 -405 -1,248 76,145 1956 74,483 131 656 -525 634 73,324 1957 75,951 118 822 -704 814 74,433 1958 53,604 122 393 -271 675 52,658 1959

  1. Customizing pays off in steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1995-01-01

    Packaged steam generators are the workhorses of chemical process plants, power plants and cogeneration systems. They are available as oil- or gas-fired models, and are used to generate either high-pressure superheated steam (400 to 1,200 psig, at 500 to 900 F) or saturated steam at low pressures (100 to 300 psig). In today's emission- and efficiency- conscious environment, steam generators have to be custom designed. Gone are the days when a boiler supplier--or for that matter an end user--could look up a model number from a list of standard sizes and select one for a particular need. Thus, before selecting a system, it is desirable to know the features of oil- and gas-fired steam generators, and the important variables that influence their selection, design and performance. It is imperative that all of these data are supplied to the boiler supplier so that the engineers may come up with the right design. Some of the parameters which are discussed in this paper are: duty, steam temperature, steam purity, emissions, and furnace design. Superheaters, economizers, and overall performance are also discussed.

  2. Internal combustion engine injection superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, F.G.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a method for introducing water vapor to the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing a metered amount of liquid water into a heat exchanger; contacting the heat exchanger directly with hot exhaust gases emanating from the exhaust manifold; maintaining the water in the heat exchanger for a period sufficient to vaporize the water into steam and superheat same; reducing pressure and increasing temperature to create superheated steam; introducing the superheated steam into the air supply proximate to the air induction system, upstream of any carburetion, of the internal combustion engine.

  3. Assessing the impact of energy losses in steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.W.

    1995-07-10

    This article examines the impact of steam leaks on the efficiency of the process steam system. The topics include steam losses under various operating conditions and orifice sizes, failed drip traps, the significance of small leaks, energy losses and pollutants generated by trap failure, steps to take to conserve steam and energy through repair and maintenance.

  4. Industrial Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Industrial Industrial Manufacturing Buildings Industrialmanufacturing buildings are not considered commercial, but are covered by the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey...

  5. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  7. Hartford Steam Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hartford Steam Co Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 860-725-7005 Website: www.hartfordsteam.com Outage Hotline: 860-725-7005 References: EIA...

  8. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  9. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  10. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  11. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  13. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  15. Promotion effect of cobalt-based catalyst with rare earth for the ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiou, Josh Y. Z.; Chen, Ya-Ping; Yu, Shen-Wei; Wang, Chen-Bin

    2013-12-16

    Catalytic performance of ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was investigated on praseodymium (Pr) modified ceria-supported cobalt oxide catalyst. The ceria-supported cobalt oxide (Ce-Co) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation-oxidation (CPO) method, and the doped Pr (5 and 10 wt% loading) catalysts (Pr{sub 5}−Ce−Co and Pr{sub 10}−Ce−Co) were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The reduction pretreatment under 250 and 400 °C (H250 and H400) was also studied. All samples were characterized by XRD, TPR and TEM. Catalytic performance of ESR was tested from 250 to 500 °C in a fixed-bed reactor. The doping of Pr into the ceria lattice has significantly promoted the activity and reduced the coke formation. The products distribution also can be influenced by the different reduction pretreatment. The Pr{sub 10}−Ce−Co−H400 sample is a preferential ESR catalyst, where the hydrogen distribution approaches 73% at 475 °C with less amounts (< 2%) of CO and CH{sub 4}.

  16. Table 11.2c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide )

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Carbon Dioxide Emissions From Energy Consumption: Industrial Sector, 1949-2011 (Million Metric Tons of Carbon Dioxide 1) Year Coal Coal Coke Net Imports Natural Gas 3 Petroleum Retail Elec- tricity 8 Total 2 Biomass 2 Distillate Fuel Oil 4 Kero- sene LPG 5 Lubri- cants Motor Gasoline 6 Petroleum Coke Residual Fuel Oil Other 7 Total Wood 9 Waste 10 Fuel Ethanol 11 Total 1949 500 -1 166 41 18 3 3 16 8 95 25 209 120 995 44 NA NA 44 1950 531 (s) 184 51 20 4 3 18 8 110 26 239 140 1,095 50 NA NA 50

  17. Coke oven air and water pollution. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning coke oven pollution. Monitoring, sampling, analyzing, transport properties, and control of emissions and effluents are cited in this compilation from worldwide journals. Pollutants described are sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phenols, benzopyrene, particulates, and other trace elements and compounds. Process and equipment modifications, such as pipeline charging, wet and dry quenching, retrofitting, and oven leakage preventives are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today’s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  19. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population- Final Report, May 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. industrial and commercial sectors consume large quantities of energy. Much of this energy is used in boilers to generate steam and hot water. This 2005 report characterizes the boilers in...

  20. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  1. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  2. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  3. How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam at the point of generation? From which boiler? At what header pressure or at what ... If the plant has only one steam generator (boiler), uses a single fuel, and has a single ...

  4. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the ...

  5. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... This also allows for the production of low pressure steam, which can be returned to the steam system or used in the de-aeration of boiler feed water. Replacement Options The ...

  6. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits October 29, 2015 - 12:10pm Addthis An aerial view of the package boilers installed into the site’s existing steam system. An aerial view of the package boilers installed into the site's existing steam system. Pipefitters Mike Askren, left, and Ron Parrot install the water inlet on one of the package boilers. Pipefitters

  7. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  8. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  9. Y-12 Steam Plant Project Received National Recognition for Project

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Management Excellence | National Nuclear Security Administration Steam Plant Project Received National Recognition for Project Management Excellence March 23, 2011 Y-12 steam plant project receives national recognition for project management excellence. Y-12's Steam Plant Life Extension Project (SPLE) has received the Secretary of Energy's Project Management Improvement Award. Microsoft Office document icon NR-03-28.doc

  10. Steam atmosphere dryer project: System development and field test. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the use of a superheated steam atmosphere dryer as a highly improved alternative to conventional hot air-drying systems, the present industrial standard method for drying various wet feedstocks. The development program plan consisted of three major activities. The first was engineering analysis and testing of a small-scale laboratory superheated steam dryer. This dryer provided the basic engineering heat transfer data necessary to design a large-scale system. The second major activity consisted of the design, fabrication, and laboratory checkout testing of the field-site prototype superheated steam dryer system. The third major activity consisted of the installation and testing of the complete 250-lb/hr evaporation rate dryer and a 30-kW cogeneration system in conjunction with an anaerobic digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester facility at the Village of Bergen, NY. Feedstock for the digester was waste residue from a nearby commercial food processing plant. The superheated steam dryer system was placed into operation in August 1996 and operated successfully through March 1997. During this period, the dryer processed all the material from the digester to a powdered consistency usable as a high-nitrogen-based fertilizer.

  11. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment - Steam Tip Sheet #21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers - Steam Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  14. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  15. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  16. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  17. New developments in aircooled steam condensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonger, R.; Chandron, R.

    1995-02-01

    The Single Row Condenser (SRC) tube, developed in cooperation with Modine of Racine will prevent many common problems experienced with the operation of aircooled steam condensers, particularly in cold climates. Application of the SRC tube will also bring the Natural Draft Condenser (NDC) in the realm of economic viability.

  18. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  19. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  20. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  1. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., ``Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  2. Addendum to industrial market assessment of the products of mild gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this report is to review and update the 1988 report by J. E. Sinor Consultants Inc., Industrial Market Assessment of the Products of Mild Gasification, and to more fully present market opportunities for two char-based products from the mild gasification process (MGP): Formcoke for the iron and steel industry, and activated carbon for wastewater cleanup and flue gas scrubbing. Please refer to the original report for additional details. In the past, coal conversion projects have and liquids produced, and the value of the residual char was limited to its fuel value. Some projects had limited success until gas and oil competition overwhelmed them. The strategy adopted for this assessment is to seek first a premium value for the char in a market that has advantages over gas and oil, and then to find the highest values possible for gases, liquids, and tars, either on-site or sold into existing markets. During the intervening years since the 1988 report, there have been many changes in the national economy, industrial production, international competition, and environmental regulations. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) will have a large impact on industry. There is considerable uncertainty about how the Act will be implemented, but it specifically addresses coke-oven batteries. This may encourage industry to consider formcoke produced via mild gasification as a low-pollution substitute for conventional coke. The chemistry and technology of coke making steel were reviewed in the 1988 market assessment and will not be repeated here. The CAAA require additional pollution control measures for most industrial facilities, but this creates new opportunities for the mild gasification process.

  3. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  4. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  5. Deliberate ignition of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures in condensing steam environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Stamps, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    Large scale experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of thermal glow plug igniters to burn hydrogen in a condensing steam environment due to the presence of water sprays. The experiments were designed to determine if a detonation or accelerated flame could occur in a hydrogen-air-steam mixture which was initially nonflammable due to steam dilution but was rendered flammable by rapid steam condensation due to water sprays. Eleven Hydrogen Igniter Tests were conducted in the test vessel. The vessel was instrumented with pressure transducers, thermocouple rakes, gas grab sample bottles, hydrogen microsensors, and cameras. The vessel contained two prototypic engineered systems: (1) a deliberate hydrogen ignition system and (2) a water spray system. Experiments were conducted under conditions scaled to be nearly prototypic of those expected in Advanced Light Water Reactors (such as the Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80+), with prototypic spray drop diameter, spray mass flux, steam condensation rates, hydrogen injection flow rates, and using the actual proposed plant igniters. The lack of any significant pressure increase during the majority of the burn and condensation events signified that localized, benign hydrogen deflagration(s) occurred with no significant pressure load on the containment vessel. Igniter location did not appear to be a factor in the open geometry. Initially stratified tests with a stoichiometric mixture in the top showed that the water spray effectively mixes the initially stratified atmosphere prior to the deflagration event. All tests demonstrated that thermal glow plugs ignite hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under conditions with water sprays near the flammability limits previously determined for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under quiescent conditions. This report describes these experiments, gives experimental results, and provides interpretation of the results. 12 refs., 127 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  7. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; et al

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Nimore » under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  8. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  9. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Rodriguez, José A.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  10. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  11. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  12. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehrke, Alan C.; Knepp, John B.; Skoda, George I.

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  13. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  14. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT-DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase 2 is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase 3 updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase 2, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002.

  15. Industrial Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Permit Industrial Permit The Industrial Permit authorizes the Laboratory to discharge point-source effluents under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. October 15, 2012 Outfall from the Laboratory's Data Communications Center cooling towers Intermittent flow of discharged water from the Laboratory's Data Communications Center eventually reaches perennial segment of Sandia Canyon during storm events (Outfall 03A199). Contact Environmental Communication & Public

  16. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by cosmic-ray-induced neutrons upon miniature electronic devices, such as chips that help control aircraft or complex integrated circuits in automobiles. Industrial User...

  17. OTHER INDUSTRIES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AMO funded research results in novel technologies in diverse industries beyond the most energy intensive ones within the U.S. Manufacturing sector. These technologies offer quantifiable energy...

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Coal coke oven gas production is dependant on the use of coal as an energy source, particularly in manufacturing iron and steel. Coke oven gas from petroleum production is more ...

  19. Consumption trend analysis in the industrial sector: Regional historical trends. Draft report (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Data on the use of natural gas, electricity, distillate and residual fuel oil, coal, and purchased coke were collected from the United States Bureau of the Census and aggregated nationally and by Census Region. Trend profiles for each fuel and industry were developed and economic, regulatory, and regional factors contributing to these trends were examined. The recession that followed the OPEC embargo in 1973 affected the industrial sector and the heavily industrialized regions of the country most severely. Both industrial production and fuel consumption fell significantly in 1975. As production recovered, spiraling fuel prices promoted conservation efforts, and overall fuel consumption remained at pre-recession levels. From 1975 to 1977 natural gas consumption decreased in almost all the industries examined with curtailments of gas supplies contributing to this trend.

  20. Building America Expert Meeting: Multifamily Hydronic and Steam Heating

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls and Distribution Retrofits | Department of Energy Multifamily Hydronic and Steam Heating Controls and Distribution Retrofits Building America Expert Meeting: Multifamily Hydronic and Steam Heating Controls and Distribution Retrofits This expert meeting was conducted on July 13, 2011 by the ARIES Collaborative in New York City. The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family

  1. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  2. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Steam Cookers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Cookers Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Steam Cookers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. FEMP's

  3. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  4. Industrial Users

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Users - Media Publications and Information The Invisible Neutron Threat Neutron-Induced Failures in Semiconductor Devices Nuclear Science Research at the LANSCE-WNR Facility Links About WNR Industrial Users 4FP30L-A/ICE House 4FP30R/ICE II Media

  5. Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools Qualified Specialists in Industrial Assessment Tools Locate a DOE-trained Qualified Specialist in your area to identify ways to improve energy system efficiency and help optimize process heating, steam, pumps, fan, and compressed air systems. They conduct three-day assessments using AMO's software tools. Immediate opportunities for energy and cost savings can be quantified with their help. Contact information for the Qualified Specialists is

  6. Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    icon Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems (January 2006) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System

  7. Dongfang Steam Turbine Works DFSTW | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Turbine Works DFSTW Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dongfang Steam Turbine Works (DFSTW) Place: Deyang, Sichuan Province, China Zip: 618000 Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  8. Y-12 Steam Plant Project Received National Recognition for Project...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Steam Plant Project Received National Recognition for Project Management Excellence | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission ...

  9. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Once the data collection was complete, the assessment team evaluated the steam ... is a national campaign started in 2005 in response to a rapid rise in energy prices. ...

  10. ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,"Establishments" ,,,"with Any"," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed ...

  11. Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Suggested Actions Determine your boiler capacity, average steam production, ... in-plant uses for heated water, such as boiler makeup water heating, preheating, or ...

  12. Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    dissolved solids in a boiler, water is periodically discharged or blown down. High dissolved solids concentrations can lead to foaming and carryover of boiler water into the steam. ...

  13. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Combustion Efficiency Operating your boiler ... due to the increased fue gas fow-thus lowering the overall boiler fuel-to-steam effciency. ...

  14. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment ...

  15. TRANSPORT AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA PROPERITIES FOR STEAM FLOODING...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are indispensable to design and improve oil recovery processes such as steam, hot ... and equilibrium properties of selected oilCOsub 2water mixtures at pressures up to ...

  16. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.

    2005-11-01

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  17. Sales lag sparks steam trap diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, E.

    1980-03-03

    Competing manufacturers have broadened their product range and customer services in an effort to survive a tightened market and the introduction of unconventional devices. Users and vendors agree that rising energy costs now give inspection and maintenance of steam traps top priority. New products on the market are described. Competition has led to some questionable advertising and legal action. Fixed orifice and temperature-actuated valves are among the alternative products offered. Models of the major manufacturers are compared by type, pressure and condensate load range, primary use, and price.

  18. Nonresidential buildings energy consumption survey: 1979 consumption and expenditures. Part 2. Steam, fuel oil, LPG, and all fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patinkin, L.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents data on square footage and on total energy consumption and expenditures for commercial buildings in the contiguous United States. Also included are detailed consumption and expenditures tables for fuel oil or kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and purchased steam. Commercial buildings include all nonresidential buildings with the exception of those where industrial activities occupy more of the total square footage than any other type of activity. 7 figures, 23 tables.

  19. Blading designs to improve thermal performance of HP and IP steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.; Martin, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    Improved blade designs are available for high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines for increased thermal efficiency. These designs and the technology used to develop and verify them are discussed in this paper. The blading designs include twisted blade designs and full three dimensional designs. Appropriate strategies are discussed for the application of these different types of blading for new and retrofit applications. The market place in the electric energy industry in the United States is changing. The impact of this change on the need for improved blade designs and application strategies for the use of this blading is also discussed.

  20. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  1. Industry Economist

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A successful candidate in this position will report to the Manager of Load Forecasting and Analysis of the Customer Services Organization. He/she serves as an industry economist engaged in load...

  2. Industry Perspective

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cell and biogas industries perspectives. Presented by Mike Hicks, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  3. Industry @ ALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry @ ALS Industry @ ALS Hewlett Packard Labs Gains Insights with Innovative ALS Research Tools Print Thursday, 05 May 2016 11:21 For the past eight years, Hewlett Packard Labs, the central research organization of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, has been using cutting-edge ALS techniques to advance some of their most promising technological research, including vanadium dioxide phase transitions and atomic movement during memristor operation. Read more... ALS, Molecular Foundry, and aBeam

  4. Development of Optical Technologies for Monitoring Moisture and Particulate in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Partin

    2006-08-01

    The results of an investigation directed at evaluating the feasibility of using optical measurements for the real-time monitoring moisture and particulate in geothermal steam is described. The measurements exploit new technologies that have been developed for the telecommunications industry and includes new solid state laser devices, large-bandwidth, high-sensitivity detectors and low loss optical fiber compo-nents. In particular, the design, fabrication, and in-plant testing of an optical steam monitor for the detection of moisture is presented. The measurement principle is based upon the selective absorption of infrared energy in response to the presence of moisture. Typically, two wavelengths are used in the measurements: a wavelength that is strongly absorbed by water and a reference wavelength that is minimally influenced by water and steam which serves as a reference to correct for particulate or droplet scattering. The two wavelengths are chosen to be as close as possible in order to more effectively correct for scattering effects. The basic instrumentation platform developed for the in-situ monitoring of steam moisture can be modified and used to perform other measurements of interest to plant operators. An upgrade that will allow the instrument to be used for the sensitive detection of particulate in process streams has been investigated. The new monitor design involves the use of laser diodes that are much less sensitive to water and water vapor and more sensitive to scattering phenomena, as well as new processing techniques to recover these signals. The design reduces the averaging time and sampling volume, while increasing the laser probe power, enhancing particulate detection sensitivity. The design concept and initial laboratory experiments with this system are also reported.

  5. How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brief details how to calculate the true cost of steam, which is important for monitoring and managing energy use in a plant, evaluating proposed design changes to the generation or distribution infrastructure and the process itself, and for continuing to identify competitive advantages through steam system and plant efficiency improvements.

  6. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Djouadi, Seddik M; Lake, Joe E

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  7. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  8. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines optimal conditions for flashing high-pressure condensate to regenerate low-pressure steam in steam systems.

  9. Steam trap maintenance management saves $180,000 annually

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franks, F.C.; Wickersham, C.

    1985-12-01

    The Reichhold Chemical plant is located in Elizabeth, NJ. At this location, the cost of steam had skyrocketed to $5.30 per million Btu. The plant has 600 steam traps manufactured by ten different companies. Some 17 different models of traps are used with 33 piping configurations. There are five different operating pressures throughout the plant ranging from 15-175 psig, including 30, 65, and 120 psig. Five different applications of steam usage can be broken down as follows: steam tracing (56%); drip (21%); comfort heating (18%); tank coil (4%); and process (1%). In the fall of 1983, the annual yearly inspection of steam traps was supplanted with an independent trap survey service, specializing in detecting the malfunctioning of various types of steam traps. The basic program included location and tagging of all steam traps; survey and inspection of steam trap population; development of a trap map; and full computer analysis of collected data. It was determined that approximately 3919 lb/hr of steam could be saved by repairing the failed open traps and implementing the report's recommendations. There were also benefits from fixing the failed closed traps which were out of service at the time of the survey. These traps do not allow the flow of steam or condensate to pass through the orifice. This condition causes condensate to back up and reduce efficiency. The maintenance management has been pleased with the results and recommendations of the program. It has provided them with a complete inventory and status report of the 600 traps plantwide. It saved $180,000 over the previous year in energy expenditures. This was the most important contribution in lowering the plant energy costs.

  10. An Overview of Nuclear vs. Non-Nuclear Design Code Requirements for a Candidate Steam Supply System for Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jetter

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to identify (mostly for industrial end-users) the difference between a Section III nuclear steam generator (classified as Structures, Systems and Components (SSC)) and a Section VIII steam generator in the same general conditions, but used in a conventional application. Specifically, applicable temperature and pressure ranges and a more quantitative description of how materials change, design margins change and required design rigor changes are of interest. This overview focuses on the steam generator pressure boundary but the downstream piping will also be considered. Within the designations of Section III and Section VIII there are subcategories with their specific regions of applicability. Each of these subcategories has evolved their own unique features with respect to design rules and their implementation. A general overview of the various design codes will be provided in sufficient detail to illustrate the major differences; however, a detailed discussion of the various design requirements and their implementation is beyond the scope of this discussion. References (1) and (2) are sources of more detailed information. Also, example wall sizing calculations will be provided to illustrate the application of the relevant design codes under the candidate design conditions. The candidate steam supply Design Conditions are 600C (1112F) and 24MPa (3,480psi). The Operating Conditions or Service Levels will be somewhat lower and the difference shows up in some of the various design methodologies employed.

  11. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  12. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  13. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  14. Commercial / Industrial Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Commercial & Industrial Lighting Efficiency Program The Commercial & Industrial...

  15. SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CYCLE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Talbert, Robert J.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Filippov, Gennady A.; Bogojavlensky, Roald G.; Grishanin, Evgeny I.

    2005-07-01

    Revolutionary improvement of the nuclear plant safety and economy with light water reactors can be reached with the application of micro-fuel elements (MFE) directly cooled by a supercritical pressure light-water coolant-moderator. There are considerable advantages of the MFE as compared with the traditional fuel rods, such as: Using supercritical and superheated steam considerably increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle up to 44-45%. Strong negative coolant and void reactivity coefficients with a very short thermal delay time allow the reactor to shutdown quickly in the event of a reactivity or power excursion. Core melting and the creation of corium during severe accidents are impossible. The heat transfer surface area is larger by several orders of magnitude due to the small spherical dimensions of the MFE. The larger heat exchange surface significantly simplifies residual heat removal by natural convection and radiation from the core to a subsequent passive system of heat removal.

  16. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  17. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Burritt, James

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  18. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  20. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  1. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  2. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  3. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  4. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  5. Process safety management (OSHA) and process risk management (CAA) application. Application to a coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeser, W.C.; Mentzer, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention is the name of the proposed rule for the RMP Risk Management Program. The RMP was written in response to several catastrophic releases of hazardous substances. The rule is applicable to facilities that store, process or use greater than threshold quantities of 62 listed flammable chemicals and another 100 listed toxic substances. Additionally, a Risk Management Plan is registered with the EPA, Chemical Safety and Hazardous Investigation Board, state governments and the local emergency planning commission. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (specifically Section 112r) required the EPA to develop a three phase Risk Management Plan for industry: prevention program; hazard assessment; and emergency response program. The Prevention Program closely follows the OSHA`s Process Safety Management Standard. The Hazard Assessment section requires facilities to develop plans for a worst case scenario. The Emergency Response section defines the steps the facility and each employee will take if a release occurs. This section also needs to be coordinated with the Local Emergency Planning Commission. These regulations are described using Clairton Works as an example of compliance.

  6. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Rich

    2003-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. The DOE/WMPI Cooperative Agreement was modified on May 2003 to expand the project team to include Shell Global Solutions, U.S. and Uhde GmbH as the engineering contractor. The addition of Shell and Uhde strengthen both the technical capability and financing ability of the project. Uhde, as the prime EPC contractor, has the responsibility to develop a LSTK (lump sum turnkey) engineering design package for the EECP leading to the eventual detailed engineering, construction and operation of the proposed concept. Major technical activities during the reporting period include: (1) finalizing contractual agreements between DOE, Uhde and other technology providers, focusing on intellectual-property-right issues, (2) Uhde's preparation of a LSTK project execution plan and other project engineering procedural documents, and (3) Uhde's preliminary project technical concept assessment and trade-off evaluations.

  7. Steady state model of an industrial FCC unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Isunza, F.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J.

    1996-12-31

    A reactor model has been developed to simulate the steady-state of an industrial fluid catalytic cracking unit using a three-lump kinetic expression with parameters estimated from experiments in a microactivity test reactor. The model considers a transported bed reactor (riser) where gas-oil and catalyst are in contact to perform the endothermic cracking reactions, interacting with a two-phase moving bed regenerator with recirculation where the combustion of the coke deposited on the catalyst takes place. The model is used to find best operating conditions for maximizing gasoline yield in terms of gas-oil feed temperature (To) and recycled catalyst to gas-oil ratio (C/O). 12 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  9. Water-Using Equipment: Commercial and Industrial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water is an important aspect of many facets in energy engineering. While the previous article detailed domestic related water-using equipment such as toilets and showerheads, this article focuses on various types of water-using equipment in commercial and industrial facilities, including commercial dishwashers and laundry, single-pass cooling equipment, boilers and steam generators, cooling towers, and landscape irrigation. Opportunities for water and energy conservation are explained, including both technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes. Water management planning and leak detection are also included as they are essential to a successful water management program.

  10. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  11. Building America Expert Meeting: Multifamily Hydronic and Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The topic of this expert meeting was cost-effective controls and distribution retrofit options for hot water and steam space heating systems in multi-family buildings with the ...

  12. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  14. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery of the latent heat content of low-pressure steam reduces the boiler load, ... For natural gas fuel priced at 8.00 per MMBtu (8.00MMBtu) with a boiler effciency of ...

  15. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J.R. Simplot Don plant in Pocatello, Idaho, repaired boiler feed water pumps such as the one pictured above, and revised boiler operating practices to reduce steam venting by 17 ...

  16. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in a boiler. Example Consider a petrochemical plant that vents 15-psig steam to the atmosphere. At the same time, a process imposes a continuous requirement on the boiler for ...

  17. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced ... Given a natural gas cost of 8.00MMBtu and a boiler effciency of 80%, the fuel-related ...

  18. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Any surface over 120F should be insulated, including boiler surfaces, steam and ... Total Heat Loss 5,069 MMBtuyr Given a boiler effciency of 80%, the annual cost savings ...

  19. Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Page 1 of 2 Savannah River Site South Carolina Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy Challenge In order to meet the federal energy and ...

  20. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Steam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) | Department of Energy Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet) The Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), a U.S. Department of Energy Building

  1. Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy | Department of Energy River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy Savannah River's Biomass Steam Plant Success with Clean and Renewable Energy In order to meet the federal energy and environmental management requirements in Presidential Executive Order 13423, DOE Order 430.2B, and the Transformational Energy Action Management (TEAM) Initiative, DOE Secretary Samuel Bodman encouraged the DOE federal complex to utilize third party financing options like the

  2. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  3. Firm turns trash to steam, saves $60,500

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohn, L.

    1982-05-17

    An incinerator/boiler system that the Ingersoll-Rand Co. uses to burn trash and produce steam for heating and parts cleaning saved the company $60,500 in avoided fuel and trash-disposal costs last year. Replacing a natural gas-fired boiler, the new system reduces the demand for gas by 14%. Heat recovered from the trash burning is transferred to the boiler to make steam. No smoke is emitted. (DCK)

  4. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  5. Automated Diagnosis and Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gabe V. Garcia

    2004-10-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is tube degradation. Tube defects are divided into seven categories, one of which is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). Defects of this type usually begin on the outer surface of the tubes and propagate both inward and laterally. In many cases these defects occur at or near the tube support plates. Several different methods exist for the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear steam generator tubes for defect characterization.

  6. Table A39. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Total Expenditures for Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Million Dollars)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  7. Table A44. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Average Prices of Purchased Electricity and Steam" " by Type of Supplier, Census Region, Census Division, and" " Economic Characteristics of the Establishment, 1994" " (Estimates in Dollars per Physical Units)" ," Electricity",," Steam" ," (kWh)",," (million Btu)" ,,,,,"RSE" ,"Utility","Nonutility","Utility","Nonutility","Row" "Economic

  8. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  9. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  10. Evaluation of some transport and thermodynamic properties of superheated steam: Effects of steam temperature and pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devahastin, S.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-05-01

    For machine computation of drying, humidification and dehumidification processes it is necessary to have reliable correlations to predict transport and thermodynamic properties of the drying medium as functions of temperature and pressure. In this paper empirical correlations for specific volume, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity as well as specific isobaric heat capacity of superheated steam over the temperature range of 160--500 C and the pressure range of 100--500 kPa are presented. The Prandtl numbers at various temperatures and pressures are also presented. Comments on the properties and the use of these correlations are given.

  11. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Sexton, Brendan Francis; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  12. Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zervos, N.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

  13. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  14. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  15. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  16. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  17. Bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts with low amounts of Rh for the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane for fuel-cell applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrandon, M.; Kropf, A. J.; Krause, T.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-05-15

    Mono-metallic nickel and rhodium catalysts and bimetallic Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeZrO{sub 2} and CeMgOx were prepared and evaluated for catalyzing the steam and autothermal reforming of n-butane. The binary Ni-Rh supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with low weight loading of rhodium exhibited higher H{sub 2} yields than Ni or Rh alone. The Ni-Rh/CeZrO{sub 2} catalyst exhibited higher performance and no coke formation, compared to the same metals on other supports. A NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase was obtained on all Ni and Ni-Rh catalysts supported on La-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The presence of rhodium stabilized the spinel phase as well as NiOx species upon reforming while Ni alone was mostly reduced into metallic species. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis showed evidence of Ni-Rh alloy during preparation and even further after an accelerated aging at 900C in a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O atmosphere.

  18. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  19. Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foody, P.

    1980-04-01

    Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

  20. Potential failure of steam generator tubes following a station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, L.W.; Palmrose, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering changes to pressurized water reactor (PWR) requirements relating to steam generator tube plugging and repair criteria, including leakage monitoring. The proposed changes are known as the alternate tube plugging criteria (APC) and are intended to permit PWRs to operate with through-wall cracks in steam generator tubes subject to meeting a specified limit on predicted primary to secondary leakage under accident conditions. To assess the consequences of the alternate plugging criteria, analyses were performed for a station blackout sequence in which the reactor core melts while the reactor coolant system (RCS) remains at high pressure. Evaluations were conducted to investigate the potential for tube failure with and without secondary system depressurization. The excessive heat coupled with the high-pressure differentials across the steam generator tubes could result in creep rupture failure of the tubes during a severe accident, which could lead to a radiological release directly to the environment. In order to assess the safety significance of the APC, it is important to identify the level of steam generator tube leakage that can occur without challenging the previous study conclusions that steam generator creep failure will not occur prior to a surge line or hot-leg failure. To assess the effect of leakage on steam generator tube integrity during a core melt sequence with the RCS at high pressure and the secondary side of the steam generators pressurized and depressurized, an analysis was performed for a core melt event resulting from an unmitigated station blackout to identify the total steamenerator and tube leakage flow rates that could induce tube ruptures prior to other RCS boudary faliures that could depressurize the RCS.

  1. Sustainable Nanomaterials Industry Perspective

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry Perspective U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office Sustainable ... the forest products industry through innovation 2 The U.S. Forest Products Industry's ...

  2. High-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy in hydrogen-steam mixtures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

    1982-09-01

    Oxidation rates of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes have been measured in hydrogen-steam mixtures at 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C. For a given isothermal oxidation temperature, the oxide layer thicknesses have been measured as a function of time, steam supply rate, and hydrogen overpressure. The oxidation rates in the mixtures were compared with similar data obtained in pure steam and helium-steam environments under otherwise identical conditions. The rates in pure steam and helium-steam mixtures were equivalent and comparable to the parabolic rates obtained under steam-saturated conditions and reported in the literature. However, when the helium was replaced with hydrogen of equivalent partial pressure, a significantly smaller oxidation rate was observed. For high steam-supply rates, the oxidation kinetics in a hydrogen-steam mixture were parabolic, but the rate was smaller than for pure steam or helium-steam mixtures. Under otherwise identical conditions, the ratio of the parabolic rate for hydrogen-steam to that for pure steam decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing steam-supply rate.

  3. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storey, James Michael; Tesh, Stephen William

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  4. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  5. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  6. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  7. Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S. , Santa Clara, CA )

    1992-07-01

    Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

  8. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  9. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Fourth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Effective Gravel-packing of horizontal wells is difficult to achieve, using conventional pre-slotted liners, yet it is generally required in the soft Heavy Oil reservoir rocks of California, where cyclic steam injection has been proven to be the most cost-effective oil recovery method. The proposed method of gravel placement behind a non-perforated liner, which is later perforated {open_quotes}in situ{close_quotes} with a new tool operated by coiled-tubing, is expected to greatly reduce costs resulting from sand production in horizontal wells operated under cyclic steam injection. The detailed configuration of the prototype tool is described. It includes two pairs of cutting wheels at the ends of spring-loaded pivoting arms, which are periodically pressed through the liner wall and shortly thereafter retracted, while the coiled tubing is being pulled-out. For each operating cycle of the hydraulically-operated tool, this results in a set of four narrow slots parallel to the liner axis, in two perpendicular diametral planes. The shape of the edges of each slot facilitates bridging by the gravel particles, for a more effective and compacted gravel-packing. The tool includes a few easily-assembled parts machined from surface-hardened alloy steel presenting great toughness, selected from those used in die making. The operation of the system and potential future improvements are outlined. The method of fabrication, detailed drawings and specifications are given. They will serve as a basis for negotiating subcontracts with qualified machine shops.

  10. Highly Active and Stable MgAl2O4 Supported Rh and Ir Catalysts for Methane Steam Reforming: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Donghai; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Kovarik, Libor; Wan, Haiying; Albrecht, Karl O.; Gerber, Mark A.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dagle, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    In this work we present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of stable MgAl2O4 spinel-supported Rh and Ir catalysts for the steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction. Firstly, catalytic performance for a series of noble metal catalysts supported on MgAl2O4 spinel was evaluated for SMR at 600-850C. Turnover rate at 850C follows the order: Pd > Pt > Ir > Rh > Ru > Ni. However, Rh and Ir were found to have the best combination of activity and stability for methane steam reforming in the presence of simulated biomass-derived syngas. It was found that highly dispersed ~2 nm Rh and ~1 nm Ir clusters were formed on the MgAl2O4 spinel support. Scanning Transition Electron Microscopy (STEM) images show that excellent dispersion was maintained even under challenging high temperature conditions (e.g. at 850C in the presence of steam) while Ir and Rh catalysts supported on Al2O3 were observed to sinter at increased rates under the same conditions. These observations were further confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations which find that ~1 nm Rh and Ir particles (50-atom cluster) bind strongly to the MgAl2O4 surfaces via a redox process leading to a strong metal-support interaction, thus helping anchor the metal clusters and reduce the tendency to sinter. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that these supported smaller Rh and Ir particles have a lower work function than larger more bulk-like ones, which enables them to activate both water and methane more effectively than larger particles, yet have a minimal influence on the relative stability of coke precursors. In addition, theoretical mechanistic studies were used to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. Consistent with the experimental observations, our theoretical modeling results also suggest that the small spinel-supported Ir particle catalyst is more active than the counterpart of Rh catalyst for SMR. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time was granted by a user proposal at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) located at PNNL. Part of the computational time was provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  11. Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Nelson

    2009-10-01

    This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

  12. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  13. Steam turbine development for advanced combined cycle power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oeynhausen, H.; Bergmann, D.; Balling, L.; Termuehlen, H.

    1996-12-31

    For advanced combined cycle power plants, the proper selection of steam turbine models is required to achieve optimal performance. The advancements in gas turbine technology must be followed by advances in the combined cycle steam turbine design. On the other hand, building low-cost gas turbines and steam turbines is desired which, however, can only be justified if no compromise is made in regard to their performance. The standard design concept of two-casing single-flow turbines seems to be the right choice for most of the present and future applications worldwide. Only for very specific applications it might be justified to select another design concept as a more suitable option.

  14. Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes: A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Ratio control is a duplex form of feedback control that has two sets of variables, for which the controller calculates a setpoint from the two variables for the control scheme ...

  15. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  16. Overview of steam generator tube degradation and integrity issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-10-01

    The degradation of steam generator tubes in pressurized water nuclear reactors continues to be a serious problem. Primary water stress corrosion cracking is commonly observed at the roll transition zone at U-bends, at tube denting locations, and occasionally in plugs and sleeves. Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack commonly occur near the tube support plate crevice, near the tube sheet in crevices or under sludge piles, and occasionally in the free span. A particularly troubling recent trend has been the increasing occurrence of circumferential cracking at the RTZ on both the primary and secondary sides. Segmented axial cracking at the tubes support plate crevices is also becoming more common. Despite recent advances in in-service inspection technology, a clear need still exists for quantifying and improving the reliability of in- service inspection methods with respect to the probability of detection of the various types of flaws and their accurate sizing. Improved inspection technology and the increasing occurrence of such degradation modes as circumferential cracking, intergranular attack, and discontinuous axial cracking have led to the formulation of a new performance-based steam generator rule. This new rule would require the development and implementation of a steam generator management program that monitors tube condition against accepted performance criteria to ensure that the tubes perform the required safety function over the next operating cycle. The new steam generator rule will also be applied to severe accident conditions to determine the continued serviceability of a steam generator with degraded tubes in the event of a severe accident. Preliminary analyses are being performed for a hypothetical severe accident scenario to determine whether failure will occur first in the steam generator tubes, which would lead to containment bypass, or instead in the hot leg nozzle or surge line, which would not.

  17. A simplified model of decontamination by BWR steam suppression pools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, D.A.

    1997-05-01

    Phenomena that can decontaminate aerosol-laden gases sparging through steam suppression pools of boiling water reactors during reactor accidents are described. Uncertainties in aerosol properties, aerosol behavior within gas bubbles, and bubble behavior in plumes affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools. Uncertainties in the boundary and initial conditions that are dictated by the progression of severe reactor accidents and that will affect predictions of decontamination by steam suppression pools are discussed. Ten parameters that characterize boundary and initial condition uncertainties, nine parameters that characterize aerosol property and behavior uncertainties, and eleven parameters that characterize uncertainties in the behavior of bubbles in steam suppression pools are identified. Ranges for the values of these parameters and subjective probability distributions for parametric values within the ranges are defined. These uncertain parameters are used in Monte Carlo uncertainty analyses to develop uncertainty distributions for the decontamination that can be achieved by steam suppression pools and the size distribution of aerosols that do emerge from such pools. A simplified model of decontamination by steam suppression pools is developed by correlating features of the uncertainty distributions for total decontamination factor, DF(total), mean size of emerging aerosol particles, d{sub p}, and the standard deviation of the emerging aerosol size distribution, {sigma}, with pool depth, H. Correlations of the median values of the uncertainty distributions are suggested as the best estimate of decontamination by suppression pools. Correlations of the 10 percentile and 90 percentile values of the uncertainty distributions characterize the uncertainty in the best estimates. 295 refs., 121 figs., 113 tabs.

  18. Okeelanta Cogeneration Project: Electricity and steam from sugar cane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaberg, D.

    1994-12-31

    The Okeelanta Cogeneration Project is a Bagasse- and wood chip-fired cogeneration project with a net electrical output of approximately 70MW, located at the Okeelanta Corporation`s sugar mill in South Bay, Florida. The Project is comprised of three stoker type boilers each capable of producing 440,000 lbs/hr of steam at 1455 psia, 955F, and a single extraction/condensing steam turbine with a gross output of 75 MW. The electrical output will be sold to Florida Power and Light under the terms of an executed power purchase agreement and delivered at 138kV.

  19. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  20. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  1. Bucket-type steam traps removed in $82K retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poplett, J.

    1985-08-19

    A retrofit of 481 mostly failed steam traps at Martin Marietta's Aerospace Division should reduce steam costs by $70,000 and require little or no maintenance. Payback should occur within 14 months. The new traps include orifice, bellow-type thermostatic, and float-type traps that have few or no moving parts. Lack of maintenance was responsible for the poor performance of the bucket traps that were replaced, although manufacturers of the bucket traps disagree that replacement of certain parts is necessary every six months. The author describes the design and operation of each type of trap.

  2. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  3. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  4. New Y-12 Steam Plant On Line | National Nuclear Security Administratio...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Blog Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases New Y-12 Steam Plant On Line New Y-12 Steam Plant On Line applicationmsword icon R-6-15...

  5. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  6. File:03UTDGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahNonTrustLands.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3UTDGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahNonTrustLands.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03UTDGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahNonTrustLands.pdf Size of this...

  7. File:03UTEGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahTrustLands.pdf | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3UTEGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahTrustLands.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:03UTEGeothermalSteamLeaseUtahTrustLands.pdf Size of this preview:...

  8. Partnerships For Industry - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    115.jpg Partnerships For Industry Connect With JCAP Contact Us Partnerships For Researchers Partnerships For Industry Visit JCAP Connect with JCAP Contact Us Partnerships For Researchers Partnerships For Industry Visit JCAP partnerships for industry JCAP has established an Industrial Partnership Program. For more information on Industrial Partnership Program or to learn more about other modes of industrial interactions with JCAP, please contact: California Institute of Technology Office of

  9. Steam engines. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning steam engines. The patents detail water spray injecter system, internal combustion, reaction chamber, valveless bi-chamber, multicylinder, steam recovery and recompression, sound simulator, oscillating, and rotary steam engines. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Dept. of Process Equipment

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  11. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  12. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  13. STEAM FORMING NEUTRONIC REACTOR AND METHOD OF OPERATING IT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Untermyer, S.

    1960-05-10

    The heterogeneous reactor is liquid moderated and cooled by a steam forming coolant and is designed to produce steam from the coolant directly within the active portion of the reactor while avoiding the formation of bubbles in the liquid moderator. This reactor achieves inherent stability as a result of increased neutron leakage and increased neutron resonance absorption in the U/sup 238/ fuel with the formation of bubbles. The invention produces certain conditions under which the formation of vapor bubbles as a result of a neutron flux excursion from the injection of a reactivity increment into the reactor will operate to nullify the reactivity increment within a sufficiently short period of time to prevent unsafe reactor operating conditions from developing. This is obtained by disposing a plurality of fuel elements within a mass of steam forming coolant in the core with the ratio of the volume of steam forming coolant to the volume of fissionable isotopes being within the range yielding a multiplication factor greater than unity and a negative reactivity to core void coefficient at the boiling temperature of the coolant.

  14. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  15. Status of the CRBRP steam-generator design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Martinez, R.S.; Murdock, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    Fabrication of the Prototype Unit is near completion and will be delivered to the test site in August, 1981. The Plant Unit design is presently at an advanced stage and will result in steam generator units fully capable of meeting all the requiments of the CRBRP Power Plant.

  16. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W. [Sterling Chemicals, Texas City, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  17. Pebble Bed Boiling Water Reactor Concept With Superheated Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Newman, D.; Meriwether, G.; Korolev, V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    An Advanced Nuclear Reactor concept is presented which extends Boiling Water Reactor technology with micro-fuel elements (MFE) and produces superheated steam. A nuclear plant with MFE is highly efficient and safe, due to ceramic-clad nuclear fuel. Water is used as both moderator and coolant. The fuel consists of spheres of about 1.5 mm diameter of UO{sub 2} with several external coatings of different carbonaceous materials. The outer coating of the particles is SiC, manufactured with chemical vapor disposition (CVD) technology. Endurance of the integrity of the SiC coating in water, air and steam has been demonstrated experimentally in Germany, Russia and Japan. This paper describes a result of a preliminary design and analysis of 3750 MWt (1500 MWe) plant with standard pressure of 16 MPa, which is widely achieved in the vessel of pressurized-water type reactors. The superheated steam outlet temperature of 550 deg. C elevates the steam cycle to high thermal efficiency of 42%. (authors)

  18. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  19. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  20. Experimental fretting-wear studies of steam generator materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, N.J.; Chow, A.B.; Weckwerth, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator tubes results in fretting-wear damage due to impacting and rubbing of the tubes against their supports. This damage can be predicted by computing tube response to flow-induced excitation forces using analytical techniques, and then relating this response to resultant wear damage using experimentally derived wear coefficients. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied experimentally at Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. Different tube and support materials, tube-to-support clearances, and tube support geometries have been studied. The effect of environmental conditions, such as temperature, oxygen content, pH and chemistry control additive, have been investigated as well. Early studies showed that damage was related to contact force as long as other parameters, such as geometry and motion, were held constant. Later studies have shown that damage is related to a parameter called work-rate, which combines both contact force and sliding distance. Results of short and long-term fretting-wear tests for CANDU steam generator materials at realistic environmental conditions are presented. These results demonstrate that work-rate is an appropriate correlating parameter for impact-sliding interaction.

  1. Optimization of some parameters of atomic steam-gas powerplant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratnikov, Y.F.

    1985-10-21

    Determination of optimum parameters of binary-type atomic steam-gas powerplant is a difficult analytical problem in view of the complicated interdependence of parameters, which characterize the reactor, gas-turbine, and steam-turbine parts of the installation. Conclusions include: 1) Determination of optimum parameters of atomic steam-gas installation is recommended to produce with gas consumption = const and heat output of the reactor = var. since best technical-economic indices of installation correspond to this case. 2) With increase in power of atomic steam-gas installation, together with improvement in economic indices, the optimum pressure ratio descends and optimum temperature of feed water increases. 3) Increase in the fuel component leads to a decrease of optimum pressure ratio and to increase in temperature of feed water. 4) Change of cost of reactor plant over wide limits virtually does not have effect on numerical values of optimum parameters being investigated. 5) In all cases optimum pressure ratio is more, and temperature of feed water is less than outer limits, obtained by thermodynamic calculations.

  2. Combined heat and power systems that consist of biomass fired fluidised bed combustors and modern steam engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph, S.D.; Errey, S.; Thomas, M.; Kruger, P.

    1996-12-31

    Biomass energy is widely used in many processing industries in the ASEAN region. The residue produced by agricultural and wood processing plant is either inefficiently combusted in simple furnaces or in the open, or disposed of in land fill sites or in rivers. Many of these industries are paying high prices for electricity in rural areas and/or supply is unreliable. An ASEAN/Australian cooperation program has been under way for the last ten years to introduce clean burning biomass fired heat and/or combined heat and power equipment. It aims to transfer Australian know how in the design and manufacture of fluidised bed CHP technology to the ASEAN region. The main participants involved in the program include SIRIM and UKM in Malaysia, PCIERD, FPRI and Asia Ratan in the Philippines, King Monkutt Institute of Technology (KMITT) in Thailand, LIPI and ITB in Indonesia, and the University of Singapore. In this paper an outline of the program will be given including results of market research and development undertaken into fluidised bed combustion, the proposed plant design and costings, and research and development undertaken into modem steam engine technology. It will be shown that all of the projects to be undertaken are financially viable. In particular the use of simple low cost high efficient steam engines ensures that the smaller CHP plant (50-100 kWe) can be viable.

  3. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  4. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Analysis of 108 Industrial Processes, Drexel University Project Team; Brown, H.; Hamel, B.; Fairmont Press, 1985. 5 Analysis of the Industrial Boiler Population, Final Report No. ...

  5. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  6. Chemicals Industry Vision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  7. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  8. Industrial | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trends Despite a 54-percent increase in industrial shipments, industrial energy consumption increases by only 19 percent from 2009 to 2035 in the AEO2011 Reference case....

  9. Electric Utility Industry Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the April 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers significant electric industry trends and industry priorities with federal customers.

  10. Methods for disassembling, replacing and assembling parts of a steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian D.; Wesorick, Ronald R.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows. The bore tube assembly, radial tubes, elbows, manifold segments and crossover tubes are removable from the turbine rotor and replaceable.

  11. LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd formerly LG Industrial Systems ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd formerly LG Industrial Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name: LS Industrial Systems Co Ltd (formerly LG Industrial Systems) Place: Anyang,...

  12. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT--DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John W. Rich

    2003-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from January 1, 2003 through March 31, 2003. Phase I Task 6 activities of Preliminary Site Analysis were documented and reported as a separate Topical Report on February 2003. Most of the other technical activities were on hold pending on DOE's announcement of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) awards. WMPI was awarded one of the CCPI projects in late January 2003 to engineer, construct and operate a first-of-kind gasification/liquefaction facility in the U.S. as a continued effort for the current WMPI EECP engineering feasibility study. Since then, project technical activities were focused on: (1) planning/revising the existing EECP work scope for transition into CCPI, and (2) ''jump starting'' all environmentally related work in pursue of NEPA and PA DEP permitting approval.

  13. Plant Wide Assessment for SIFCO Industries, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly Kissock, Arvind Thekdi et. al.

    2005-07-06

    Sifco Industries carreid out a plant wide energy assessment under a collaborative program with the U.S. Department of Energy during October 2004 to September 2005. During the year, personnel from EIS, E3M, DPS, BuyCastings.Com, and Sifco plant facilities and maintenance personnel, as a team collected energy use, construction, process, equipment and operational information about the plant. Based on this information, the team identified 13 energy savings opportunities. Near term savings opportunities have a total potential savings of about $1,329,000 per year and a combined simple payback of about 11 months. Implementation of these recommendations would reduce CO2 emissions by about 16,000,000 pounds per year, which would reduce overall plant CO2 emissions by about 45%. These totals do not include another $830,000 per year in potential savings with an estimated 9-month payback, from converting the forging hammers from steam to compressed air.

  14. Industrial Advanced Turbine Systems Program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esbeck, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    DOE`s ATS Program will lead to the development of an optimized, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly gas turbine power systems in the 3 to 20 MW class. Market studies were conducted for application of ATS to the dispersed/distributed electric power generation market. The technology studies have led to the design of a gas-fired, recuperated, industrial size gas turbine. The Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program continues. In the High Performance Steam Systems program, a 100 hour development test to prove the advanced 1500 F, 1500 psig system has been successfully completed. A market transformation will take place: the customer will be offered a choice of energy conversion technologies to meet heat and power generation needs into the next century.

  15. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  16. Physical Characterization and Steam Chemical Reactivity of Carbon Fiber Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderl, Robert Andrew; Pawelko, Robert James; Smolik, Galen Richard

    2001-05-01

    This report documents experiments and analyses that have been done at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to measure the steam chemical reactivity of two types of carbon fiber composites, NS31 and NB31, proposed for use at the divertor strike points in an ITER-like tokamak. These materials are 3D CFCs constituted by a NOVOLTEX preform and densified by pyrocarbon infiltration and heat treatment. NS31 differs from NB31 in that the final infiltration was done with liquid silicon to reduce the porosity and enhance the thermal conductivity of the CFC. Our approach in this work was twofold: (1) physical characterization measurements of the specimens and (2) measurements of the chemical reactivity of specimens exposed to steam.

  17. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01

    Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

  18. Career Map: Industrial Engineer

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Wind Program's Career Map provides job description information for Industrial Engineer positions.

  19. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  20. Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

  1. Oxidation of alloys targeted for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-03-12

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

  2. Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

  3. Steam Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam; system balancing.

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory Steam Plant Project | National Nuclear

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Security Administration Los Alamos National Laboratory Steam Plant Project Welcome to the National Nuclear Security Administration's website for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Site (LANL) M&O Energy Performance Saving Contract Competition. LANL is a premier national security research institution, located 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe New Mexico, on 36 square miles of DOE-owned property. The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security,

  5. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O.; Dalle, F.; Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  6. Screening reactor steam/water piping systems for water hammer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, P.

    1997-09-01

    A steam/water system possessing a certain combination of thermal, hydraulic and operational states, can, in certain geometries, lead to a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer. These states, operations, and geometries are identified. A procedure that can be used for identifying whether an unbuilt reactor system is prone to water hammer is proposed. For the most common water hammer, steam bubble collapse induced water hammer, six conditions must be met in order for one to occur. These are: (1) the pipe must be almost horizontal; (2) the subcooling must be greater than 20 C; (3) the L/D must be greater than 24; (4) the velocity must be low enough so that the pipe does not run full, i.e., the Froude number must be less than one; (5) there should be void nearby; (6) the pressure must be high enough so that significant damage occurs, that is the pressure should be above 10 atmospheres. Recommendations on how to avoid this kind of water hammer in both the design and the operation of the reactor system are made.

  7. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  8. Users from Industry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Users from Industry Users from Industry Print The Advanced Light Source (ALS) welcomes industrial users from large and small companies whose projects advance scientific knowledge, investigate the development of new products and manufacturing methods, and/or provide economic benefits and jobs to the economy. The nature of industrial research can be different from traditional university and government sponsored projects, so the ALS has created unique opportunities for new and existing industrial

  9. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",6233 2014,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Truck",328873 ...

  10. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2013,3,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Railroad",19784 2013,3,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",3083 ...

  11. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014,4,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",8955 2014,4,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Truck",283651 ...

  12. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2013,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Railroad",26409 2013,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",1588 ...

  13. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2013,1,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Railroad",14493 ... 2013,1,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Truck",267108 ...

  14. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",6233 ... 2014,2,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Truck",328873 ...

  15. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014,3,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Railroad",26143 2014,3,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",3118 ...

  16. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2013,1,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Railroad",14493 2013,1,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Truck",267108 ...

  17. File

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014,4,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",8955 ... 2014,4,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Truck",283651 ...

  18. Worksheet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2014,1,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","Railroad",1675 2014,1,"Alabama","Alabama","Industrial Plants Excluding Coke","River",3107 ...

  19. VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01

    The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

  20. The impact of energy prices on technology choice in the United States steel industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlson, S.H. . Dept. of Economics); Boyd, G. )

    1991-01-01

    In the last thirty years US steel producers have replaced their aging open hearth steel furnaces with basic oxygen or large electric arc furnaces. This choice of technology leads to the opportunity to substitute electricity for fossil fuels as a heat source. We extend earlier research to investigate whether or not energy prices affect this type of technology adoption as predicted by economic theory. The econometric model uses the seemingly unrelated Tobit'' method to capture the effects of the industry's experience with both technologies, technical change, and potential cost reductions, as well as energy prices, on adoption. When we include the prices of electricity and coking coal as explanatory variables, the four energy price coefficients have the signs predicted by the law of demand. The two price coefficients have a statistically significant effect on adoption of basic oxygen furnaces. The inclusion of energy prices leads to significantly more efficient estimates of other coefficients in the model. 19 refs., 3 tabs.